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Sample records for buckwheat fagopyrum esculentum

  1. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  2. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BUCKWHEAT PLANT (Fagopyrum esculentum AND SELECTED BUCKWHEAT PRODUCTS

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    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum and products made from its seeds. From the products, peels, groats, flour and wholemeal flour were chosen. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses, except rutin concentration, were determined according to the Commission Regulation no.152/2009. Rutin concentration was performed by the modified method. Almost in all studied samples, the moisture content was about 6 to 8%. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots, 4.3% and the highest was discovered in both flours, about 12%. From buckwheat products, the lowest amount of crude protein was found in peels, 3.5%. On the other hand, the highest crude protein amount of the buckwheat plant was determined in leaves, 22.7%, and in blossoms, 19.1%. The starch content differs from one sample to another. In buckwheat products, its content was about 60 to 70% in dry matter. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in peels, 0.6%. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves, 83.6 and 69.9 mg per g, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentration of rutin was found in buckwheat products, less than 1 mg per g in dry matter. All obtained values, when compared with literature, can differ. Experiments are influenced by the laboratory temperature, method of analysis, reagents and also by the variety of the buckwheat plant.

  4. Floral visitors and the importance of honey bee on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in central Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Gillet, Claire; Cawoy, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flowers were studied in central Belgium during 2 months (July and September) over 2 years (2001-2002). Forty-nine different insect species, belonging to 18 families, were recorded. Over both years, species from the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera were the principal visitors. Hymenoptera were mainly represented by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.; 18.5 - 51.8% of total visitors), while Diptera were represented by syrphid flies and several other f...

  5. Genes Outside the S Supergene Suppress S Functions in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, K; Nishio, T; Tetsuka, T

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a dimorphic self-incompatible plant with either pin or thrum flowers. The S supergene is thought to govern self-incompatibility, flower morphology and pollen size in buckwheat. Two major types of self-fertile lines have been reported. One is a type with long-homostyle flowers, Kyukei SC2 (KSC2), and the other is a type with short-homostyle flowers, Pennline 10. To clarify whether the locus controlling flower morphology and self-...

  6. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum.

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    Kwang-Soo Cho

    Full Text Available We report the chloroplast (cp genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats and F. esculentum (one repeat, and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. PMID:25966355

  8. Ukrainian Market of Varieties: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Motnch.).

    OpenAIRE

    Безручко, О. І.

    2011-01-01

    Directions of use for valuable groat crop, buckwheat, its genesis and history in Ukraine, regions of cultivation, requirements to development of new varieties and economical expediency of their growth are highlighted. Description is also provided for the. Buckwheat verities with Official Description, which are listed in the StateRegister of Varieties Suitable for Dissemi nation in Ukraine in 2010.

  9. In planta transformation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

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    Bratić Ana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a reliable and rapid transgenic system for functional study of specific buckwheat gene constructs, two different in planta transformation methods were analyzed: vacuum infiltration and infiltration by syringe. The results indicated that the vacuum infiltration method was much more efficient and can therefore be considered the method of choice for buckwheat transformation. .

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Defatted Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Flour in Water or Ethanol Heated using Microwave Irradiation at Varying Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) has potential to be a nutritionally beneficial crop due to its high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. We explored new technologies to enhance buckwheat phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Buckwheat achenes were ground and flour was extracted for 15 ...

  11. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Jing; Hua-Qiang Li; Chang-Ling Hu; Yi-Ping Jiang; Lu-Ping Qin; Cheng-Jian Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of t...

  12. Efficiency of Different Nitrogen Forms in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Burhan Kara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with aim to determination the efficient of nitrogen forms (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea on nitrogen use efficient for buckwheat in Isparta during 2014 and 2015 years. All the examined characteristics were determined higher values in applied nitrogen forms according to non-nitrogen parcel. In compared to nitrogen forms, the highest grain yield (1456 and 1325 kg ha-1, biological yield (4873 and 4512 kg ha-1, 1000 grain weight (24.9 and 24.8 g, agronomic efficient (24.96% and 24.25%, recycling efficient (0.24% and 0.22% and utilization efficient (0.25% and 0.18% were obtained from ammonium sulfate, the highest protein content (11.37% and 12.44% and agro-physiological efficient (0.27% and 0.24% from ammonium nitrate in both years. Among the nitrogen forms weren’t significant differently in physiological efficient in both years, recycling and utilization efficient in the first year. The mineral nutrient content varied according to nitrogen forms. Generally, ammonium sulfate was positive effect to yield and some quality parameters.

  13. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum) as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Gatta; Marco Bagliacca; Maria Novella Benvenuti; Lorella Giuliotti

    2012-01-01

    The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20%) and soybean meal (-10%) with buckwheat bran (+30%) (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tes...

  14. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during Its Growth Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Judita Bystricka; Janette Musilova; Jan Tomas; Alena Vollmannova; Jaromir Lachman; Petra Kavalcova

    2014-01-01

    In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds), phase II (at the beginning of flowering), phase III (full blossoming) and phase IV (full ripeness). In all growth phases (GP) the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences ...

  15. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, F.H. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec) H9X 3V9 (Canada); Barrington, S. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue (Quebec) H9X 3V9 (Canada)]. E-mail: suzelle.barrington@sympatico.ca

    2005-12-15

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25363871

  17. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L. AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD

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    Martina Vršková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS. As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU had minimal differences.

  18. Combined effects of elevated UV-B radiation and the addition of selenium on common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.] buckwheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum grown outdoors under three levels of UV-B radiation were studied for 9 weeks, from sowing to ripening. At week 7 they were sprayed with Se solution (1 g/cubic m). Morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of the plants were monitored. Elevated UV-B radiation, corresponding to a 17% reduction of the ozone layer, induced synthesis of UV absorbing compounds. In both species it caused a reduction in amounts of chlorophyll a during the time of intensive growth. This effect was increased in tartary buckwheat in the presence of Se. The respiratory potential was lower in plants subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation during the time of intensive growth. The effective quantum yield of photosystem 2 was also reduced in both species and was mitigated by the addition of Se. Se also mitigated the stunting effect of UV-B radiation and the lowering of biomass in common buckwheat

  19. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

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    Dhingra Amit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic

  20. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Based on Transcriptome Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Demidenko, Natalia V.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Aleksey A Penin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used a...

  1. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

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    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; Pvs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; Pvs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  2. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hua; YUAN Ya; YANG Xiao-lan; TAO Shu-ying; MING Jian

    2013-01-01

    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.

  3. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  4. Effects of rutin from leaves and flowers of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and proliferation of fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Shu-ying; Chu, Jin-Xiu; Li, Guang-min; Zhu, Li-Sha; Shi, Rui-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Rutin was isolated from dried leaves and flowers of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.). The effects of rutin on angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cultured cardiac myocytes and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts of neonatal rats were evaluated by analyzing the cell surface area, measuring the protein synthesis rate through 3H-leucine incorporation, and the MTT method. Rutin (0.8 to 8.0 mg/l) exhibited a strong inhibition on the hypertrophy and proliferation. The results...

  5. Changes of Polyphenolic Substances in the Anatomical Parts of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. during Its Growth Phases

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    Judita Bystricka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the changes of total polyphenolics in different anatomical parts (stems, leaves, flowers and seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. during vegetation period were analysed. The content of total polyphenolics was evaluated in growth phase I (formation of buds, phase II (at the beginning of flowering, phase III (full blossoming and phase IV (full ripeness. In all growth phases (GP the stems and leaves were evaluated and statistically significant differences in polyphenolics content between the two parts were confirmed. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 in polyphenolics content (in GP II and III between stems and leaves; and between stems and flowers were found. In flowers an average of 13.8 times higher and in leaves 6 times higher concentration of polyphenolics in comparison with stems was measured. In GP III the content of polyphenolics in common buckwheat was following: flowers > leaves > achene > stems. In flowers an average of 11.9 times higher, in leaves 8.3 times higher and in achenes 5.9 times higher contents of polyphenolics compared with stems were found. In GP III and IV (leaves, achenes, stems the leaves contained in average 20 times higher and achenes 5.6 times higher polyphenolics than stems.

  6. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases. PMID:25142187

  7. Effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid on the level of polyamines, anthocyanins and photosynthetic pigments in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA on contents of polyamines, anthocyanins, photosynthetic pigments and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. AOA clearly decreased light-induced formation of anthocyanins and inhibited PAL activity in buckwheat hypocotyls, although a slight stimulatory effect on anthocyanins content in buckwheat cotyledons was observed. AOA declined the contents of chlorophylls a and b and total carotenoids in buckwheat cotyledons. The results show that AOA inhibits phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls, and suppress photosynthesis in cotyledons. Moreover, the experiments show that AOA enhances the level of free putrescine in hypocotyls and the level of spermidine in buckwheat cotyledons. AOA also diminished the content of putrescine in cotyledons, but did not affect its level in buckwheat hypocotyls. AOA also substantially declined the level of cadaverine in buckwheat cotyledons, and did not affect its content in hypocotyls. Differences in effect of AOA on anthocyanins and polyamines accumulation indicate various physiological roles of the compounds in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons.

  8. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (<2-fold) A few STOP1/ART1 (SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIZOTOXICITY1/AL RESISTANCE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1)-regulated gene homologs including FeSTAR1, FeALS3 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE3), FeALS1 (ALUMINUM SENSITIVE1), FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 (MULTIDRUG AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION1 and 2) were also up-regulated in buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat. PMID:25273892

  9. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  10. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:27104519

  11. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

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    Rui Jing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae, currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum Moench. (common buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum (L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys (D. Don Hara. (perennial buckwheat, which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  12. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:27104519

  13. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DIVERSITY OF SAMPLES AND CULTIVARS IN COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) BY THE ISSR-METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    G.D. Kadyrova; F.Z. Kadyrova; E.V. Martirosyan; N.N. Ryzhova

    2010-01-01

    For an assessment of a genetic polymorphism of common buckwheat (F. esculentum, 27 samples of different ecologo-geographic origin, including 14 domestic cultivars) the authors determined the ISSR-primers of revealing intraspecific polymorphism and obtained the genomspecific polymorphic ISSRspectra of DNA fragments. Genomic variability and genomic linkage groups cultivars of common buckwheat were determined for the first time. Obtained data can be used in buckwheat breeding program and further...

  14. The effect of cis-jasmone, jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate on accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various jasmonates (methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, cis-jasmone on anthocyanins and procyanidins content of, as well as on growth of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings were studied. The studied jasmonates were applied as solutions or vapors on four days seedlings, and the seedlings were grown during the next four days in day/night conditions (16/8 h. Afterwards anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins content, as well as elongation of primary roots and hypocotyls were measured. When applied as solutions cis-jasmone (JAS stimulated the anthocyanins accumulation, but when used as vapors had tendency to decrease its accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls. Jasmonic acid (JA solutions slightly stimulated or had no effect on biosynthesis of anthocyanins in buckwheat hypocotyls, but used as vapors caused a decline of anthocyanins in buckwheat hypocotyls. Methyl jasmonate (MJ clearly inhibited biosynthesis of anthocyanins in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. The studied jasmonates had no influence on anthocyanins level in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings, except cis-jasmone, which at the lowest solution concentration slightly enhanced biosynthesis of the pigments. Treatment of buckwheat seedlings with solutions of all jasmonates (10-8 M, 10-6 M and 10-4 M had no influence on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls. Contrary to that observation vapors of the growth regulators in concentrations 10-4 M, had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. Solutions of JA and MJ, as well as vapors of JA, MJ and JAS strongly inhibited the primary root growth of buckwheat seedlings, while JAS applied as solution had no such influence. MJ and JA caused much higher stimulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls than JAS.

  15. The effect of methyl jasmonate and phenolic acids on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and phenolic acids: trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, salicylic acid (SA as well as naringenine (NAR on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were studied. JA-Me and phenolics were applied to growth medium of 4-days etiolated buckwheat seedlings before their exposition to day/night (16h/8h conditions. The increase of primary roots and hypocotyls length were measured after 3 days of seedling growth in such conditions. At the end of experiment the total anthocyanins contents were measured as well. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA inhibited growth of the primary root in young buckwheat seedlings, while naringenine (NAR had a stimulatory influence, and p-coumaric acid had no effect at all. None of investigated phenolics or JA-Me had an effect on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls, except the mixture of JA-Me and p-coumarcic acid. JA-Me significantly decreased the anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocototyls, but not in cotyledons. trans-Cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and naringenine had no significant influence on the anthocyanin level in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous treatment of buckwheat seedlings with JA-Me and t-CA or p-CA did not change the inhibition of anthocyanins accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls by JA-Me. In the hypocotyls of buckwheat treated with a mixture of JA-Me and NAR, or SA, a synergistic reduction of anthocyanins was observed.

  16. Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench to complete submergence

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    Stanisavljević N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system activity were studied in buckwheat leaves after complete submergence and re-aeration. The levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were found to be significantly higher in stressed than in untreated buckwheat leaves. Enzymes catalyzing the degradation of H2O2 and peroxides were shown to participate actively, whereas superoxide dismutase did not take part in the buckwheat leaf response to flooding stress. The most prominent increase in antioxidative enzyme activities was noticed upon return to air, when the strongest oxidative stress occurred and the need for antioxidative defense was the greatest.

  17. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra Amit; Samigullin Tahir H; Logacheva Maria D; Penin Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chlor...

  18. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  19. The influence of meteorological conditions on major quantitative and qualitative traits of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Maletić Radojka O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year investigations of buckwheat raised in agroecological conditions of South Banat (Pančevo and West Serbia (Gorobilje are presented in the paper. Based on the obtained investigation data, we confirm the hypothesis that buckwheat is a plant suited to more humid regions, since we have determined higher yield of the plant on locations with higher precipitation amount. During 1999, the yield of buckwheat was higher at the location in Pančevo and the next year at the location in Gorobilje. Also, in the year 2000, values of average plant height, number of seeds per plant and seed mass per plant were higher at the location in Gorobilje, whereas in the year 1999 (first year of investigation, which from the aspect of climatic conditions could be considered as optimal, plant yield and all other investigated parameters were better in case of buckwheat originating from the location in Pančevo. In the year 2000, in regard to the seed proportionally medium fractions were more present, which is, among other things, the result of the influence of higher precipitation amount. In regard to the exploitation value of the seed, better germination was registered for seed produced in 2000 (at both locations, although it had lower mass compared to the seed produced in 1999. Blossoming (blooming in the first study year at both locations started 5 to 7 days earlier compared to the second year of investigations and lasted 5 to 8 days longer. On the other hand, in the second year of investigations at both locations harvesting started 10 to 12 days earlier compared to the previous year.

  20. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  1. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  2. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum based on transcriptome sequence data.

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    Natalia V Demidenko

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits. These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1, AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  3. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento Antonio = Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits

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    Antonio Claudio Furlan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhosmachos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a raçãoreferência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95%, 76,64%, 75,04% e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63%, 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (pTwo experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and toevaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of

  4. Phenological phases of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. in the primary and secondary crop depending on seeding rate

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    Dariusz Juszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the growth stages of buckwheat grown as a primary or secondary crop as well as using three seeding rates. A field experiment was conducted in the years 2003-2004 and in 2006 on podzolic soil derived from slightly loamy sand. Phenological observations were made at 5-day intervals, from the time of buckwheat emergence (in the primary crop around 28 May, in the secondary crop 7 June, on selected and properly marked plants. The buckwheat plants were harvested when more than 80% of buckwheat seeds on them were brown. The duration of particular growth stages of buckwheat are presented in phenological diagrams. It was found that crop rotation treatment and weather conditions affected significantly the time of occurrence of the phenological phases of buckwheat, but these phases were less dependent on seeding density. A rainfall deficit in 2006 caused a delay in particular growth stages compared to the previous years.

  5. ELEMENTS OF GENETIC TESTING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM AND F. HOMOTROPICUM AND SOME RESULTS OF INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION IN SELECTION OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Fesenko, А.; Fesenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied the inheritance of the differences between Fagopyrum esculentum and F. homotropicum for a number of features which important for breeding (weight of 1000 seeds, the number of nodes in a zone of ramification of the stem, seed dormancy). New approaches to accelerate the improvement of the interspecific hybrids were tested.

  6. Occurence of eugenol, coniferyl alcohol and 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenol in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2011), s. 1679-1685. ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Fagopyrum esculentum * Phenolic compound * Weed * GC-MS analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  7. Identification and quantification of aroma compounds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn.) and some of its milling fractions

    OpenAIRE

    KREFT, SAMO; Prosen, Helena; JANEŠ, DAMJAN

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) seeds have a strong aroma that characteristically differs from the aroma of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Its phytochemical background has only been recently investigated.The aim of this study was to identify and quantify individual compounds responsible for tartary buckwheat aroma. Volatiles from different samples (whole seed, flour, and husks) were extracted with simultaneous extraction and distillation by Likens-Nickerson apparatus and ana...

  8. VARIETAL DEPENDENCE OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT ANATOMICAL PARTS OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH IN DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES

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    Iveta Čičová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The pseudocereals such as buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth have attracted interest in recent years. One of the reasons for this renewed interest is their excellent nutrient profile. In addition to being one of the important energy sources due to their starch content, these pseudocereals provide good quality protein, dietary fibre and lipids rich in unsaturated fats. The aim of our work was to study antioxidant activity in 4 chosen cultivars of common buckwheat during vegetation period. Four cultivars were analysed: Špačinska, Bambi, Jana C1, Aiva. Samples of plant material were obtained from Plant Producion Research Centre in Piešťany. Antioxidant activity (AOA of stem, leaves, flowers and seeds of buckwheat was assessed with using of DPPH radical (2.2 – diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at wavelength 515.6 nm. The antioxidant activity of buckwheat was evaluated in growth phases I. (formations of buds, in phase II. (at the beginning of flowering, in phase III. (full flowering, in phase IV. (full ripeness. The antioxidant activity in stems of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 49.109 % (Špačinska, phase I. to 73.705 % (Špačinska, phase IV.. The antioxidant activity in leaves of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 77.937 % (Bambi, phase IV. to 99.655 % (Bambi, phase II.. The antioxidant activity in flowers of all tested varieties of common buckwheat was in range from 88.75 % (Bambi, phase III. to 92.665 % (Špačinska, phase I.. The antioxidant activity in seeds of all tested cultivars of common buckwheat was in range from 39.787 % (Špačinska, phase III. to 88.241 % (Bambi, phase III.. From the standpoint of antioxidant activity in individual plant parts the cultivars Špačinska, Bambi were the most suitable ones for food productions.

  9. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA, but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and cotyledons, but CA synthesis was promoted in cotyledons, whereas in hypocotyls no significant effect was found. Highest concentration of MJ (10-4 M caused small decline of CA in hypocotyls, but large stimulation of the acid production in cotyledons was noted. MJ had stimulatory effect on caffeic acid forming, but inhibited synthesis of vanillic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons. Lowest concentration of MJ (10-8 M elicited accumulation of quercetin glycosides in both studied tissues of buckwheat seedlings, however at higher doses (10-8 and 10-4 M did not affect the flavonol level. The obtained results suggest that nonequivalent influence of methyl jasmonate on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of MJ uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons. Decline of anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocotyls caused by MJ cannot be explained by enhanced accumulation of quercetin glycosides or free phenolic acids, but probably by synthesis of other unknown phenolic compounds.

  10. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

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    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  11. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Grzegorz Chrzanowski; Danuta Koczkodaj; Joanna Mitrus

    2011-01-01

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M) had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA), but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M) did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and coty...

  12. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  13. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  14. The effect of growing regions, microbiological fertilizers and soil additives on productivity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Dolijanović Željko K.; Oljača Snežana I.; Kovačević Dušan Đ.; Šeremešić Srđan I.; Jovović Zoran M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the productivity of buckwheat taking into account growing regions, especially altitude, since this species does not have demanding soil requirements. The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 in two localities: Valjevo (the village of Jasenica at 300 m altitude - 2009 and the village of Jovanja at 160 m altitude - 2010), and Nova Varos (the village of Radijevići at 1,065 m altitude). Soil of the experimental p...

  15. Influence of lactic acid bacteria on redox status and on proteolytic activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-07-15

    Redox potential and proteolysis determine protein networks in doughs and thus dough rheology as well as the structure of baked goods. Namely, gluten-free bakery products needs structural improvements but little is known about these parameters in gluten free dough systems. In this work the influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on redox status and proteolysis of buckwheat sourdoughs was investigated. An increase of free thiol groups was detected as redox potential was decreasing during fermentation. Thiol content at 8 h was higher in doughs fermented with strains with high reductive activity, such as Weissella (W.) cibaria in comparison to Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus, which exhibited a lower reducing activity. At 24 h each fermentation showed a similar content of free thiol groups. Endogenous buckwheat proteases were characterized using various protease inhibitors in buckwheat doughs. Until pH3.1 a proteolysis increase was monitored in doughs. Employed LAB didn't show any detectable extracellular proteolytic activity. Flour proteases are thus responsible for protein breakdown, and this was demonstrated comparing free amino nitrogen (FAN) values and protein electrophoretic patterns of sourdough fermentations with chemical acidified (CA) doughs. FAN content at 24 h using P. pentosaceus, proteolytic comparative strain of Enterococcus faecalis, W. cibaria, mixed culture (containing P. pentosaceus and W. cibaria), CA and CA doughs containing glutathione (GSH) reached 45.9±1.3, 42.4±1.3, 40±1, 31±2, 29±2 and 17.8±3.9 mmol kg(-1) flour, respectively. Proteolysis was mainly influenced by pH and incubation time. The addition of GSH showed a decrease of proteolysis and of free amino acids. CA doughs showed a higher total free amino acids content than sourdough fermented with LAB indicating their metabolization. Fermentations with high FAN values exhibited lower band intensity (analyzed under reducing condition) in electrophoretic patterns. These results show that

  16. THE PHENOLS ACCUMULATION IN TRANSFORMED ROOT CULTURES OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS SOURCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters of transformed root cultures, total phenolic content and phenolic acids composition has been studied in root cultures, which were obtained from various explants of buckwheat by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4. The methods of obtaining of the transformed root cultures, total phenol estimation, gas-liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction has been used. Elevated levels of total phenols in transformed roots of buckwheat from different sources of explants have been found. The high content of chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-anisic and caffeic acids has been discovered in the root cultures, which can be used for their industrial production. Maximal root growth was equal 21.2 g/l of dry weight in the roots as source for root culture, 17.7 g/l with leaves and 14.6 g/l with stems at 3 week after placement. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification was confirmed that the rol B gene (652 bp which transferred info hairy roots from Ri-plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for induction of root from plant species.

  17. The effect of growing regions, microbiological fertilizers and soil additives on productivity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the productivity of buckwheat taking into account growing regions, especially altitude, since this species does not have demanding soil requirements. The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 in two localities: Valjevo (the village of Jasenica at 300 m altitude - 2009 and the village of Jovanja at 160 m altitude - 2010, and Nova Varos (the village of Radijevići at 1,065 m altitude. Soil of the experimental plots at both localities was characterized by acidic chemical reactions, with 3-5% of humus. In addition, the soil was rich in potassium, but poor in phosphorus. Within the objective test, with four replications, microbiological fertilizers Bactofil and Slavol were applied just before planting, alone or in combination with soil additives (hydrogel and zeolite. Half of each plot was fertilized foliarly, by the application of microbiological fertilizer Slavol using the concentrations of 50 ml per 10 liters of water. As compared with the control (no fertilizer application, in all variants of fertilization with a top dressing, increased grain yields were obtained. Significantly higher grain yields of buckwheat were obtained in the first locality, especially in the variant of fertilization with the combined use of Slavol and soil conditioner hydrogel. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  18. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-01-01

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering. PMID:26214481

  19. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on donor-acceptor connections of plant organs.

  20. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov; Anatoliy M. Kosyan; Oksana I. Kosyk; Natalia Yu. Taran

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on don...

  1. Morph differences and honeybee morph preference in the distylous species Fagopyrum esculentum moench

    OpenAIRE

    Cawoy, Valérie; Deblauwe, Vincent; Halbrecq, Bertrand; LEDENT, Jean-François; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    The relatively low reproductive success of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) is poorly understood. The question arises as to whether this distylous species is pollen or resource limited. We investigated the reproductive biology of buckwheat under controlled conditions in growth rooms and in the field in central Belgium in order to determine whether floral morph and pollination events may affect its reproductive success. In controlled conditions, flowering phenology and fl...

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Rutin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, M; Kitabayashi, H; Ujihara, A

    1998-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of rutin in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum), the operating condition of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methods of sample preparation and extraction were investigated. Reliable analysis method with less than 5 g of sample was established as follows; ① drying samples for 24 hours at 70℃ by using forced air flow oven,② grinding 5 g of seed and 2 g of leaf samples into powder for 30 seconds,③ extracting ...

  3. Karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum Esculentum Moench) Bileşimi ve Gıda Sanayiinde Kullanım Olanakları

    OpenAIRE

    Dizlek, Halef; ÖZER, Mehmet Sertaç; İnanç, Erhan; Gül, Hülya

    2009-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) contains high amounts of proteins, dietary fiber, vitamins, mineral matters, fundamental polyunsaturated fatty acids, and antioxidants such as rutin and quercetin. Buckwheat is an important food raw material due to its high nutritional quality. It has also a significant potential for the functional food industry. Buckwheat has a versatile field of use: It has been used successfully in production of various local products belonging to different culture...

  4. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  5. Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

  6. Level of Catechin, Myricetin, Quercetin and Isoquercitrin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), Changes of Their Levels during Vegetation and Their Effect on The Growth of Selected Weeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 2719-2725. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * buckwheat * catechin * quercetin * myricetin * weed Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  7. Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of European Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprovski, Biljana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Malencic, Djordje; Latkovic, Dragana

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate composition and content of phenolic compounds in seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cultivars from Western, Central and Southeastern Europe grown in the Balkan area, and to compare them with cultivars from the Balkan. Mostly detected hydroxycinnamic acids in seeds of the investigated cultivars were caffeic and chlorogenic acid derivatives. More than ten different flavanols were detected in the investigated seeds, based on which all tested buckwheat cultivars were divided into two groups: those with high propelargonidins (epiafzelechin-epicatechin) and those with high procyanidins contents. 'Novosadska' had the highest level of phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, flavones and most of the flavonols. However, 'Bosna 1' and 'Bosna 2' were highlighted with the greatest rutin content (up to 46 times higher than in other cultivars). All buckwheat cultivars had quite high antioxidant capacity (more than 80% of neutralized radicals), yet, 'Novosadska', 'Godijevo', 'Spacinska 1' and 'Bamby' excelled. PMID:25952839

  8. Isolation and structural analysis of a gene coding for a novel type of aspartic proteinase from buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira Đ.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of aspartic proteinase gene was isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. This cDNA, FeAPL1, encoded an AP-like protein lacking the plant-specific insert (PSI domain characteristic of typical plant aspartic proteinases. In addition the corresponding genomic fragment was isolated. It is demonstrated that this gene does not contain introns. Since bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed that most potential AP genes are intronless and PSI-less, it appears that "atypical" is an inappropriate word for that class of AP. Isolation of this specific buckwheat gene among the small group of those isolated from other plant species provides a new perspective on the diversity of AP family members in plants. .

  9. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected. PMID:25747247

  10. Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

  11. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  12. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM. PMID:26468909

  13. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. PMID:24679794

  14. De novo sequencing and characterization of floral transcriptome in two species of buckwheat (Fagopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samigullin Tagir H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptome sequencing data has become an integral component of modern genetics, genomics and evolutionary biology. However, despite advances in the technologies of DNA sequencing, such data are lacking for many groups of living organisms, in particular, many plant taxa. We present here the results of transcriptome sequencing for two closely related plant species. These species, Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum, belong to the order Caryophyllales - a large group of flowering plants with uncertain evolutionary relationships. F. esculentum (common buckwheat is also an important food crop. Despite these practical and evolutionary considerations Fagopyrum species have not been the subject of large-scale sequencing projects. Results Normalized cDNA corresponding to genes expressed in flowers and inflorescences of F. esculentum and F. tataricum was sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing technology. This resulted in 267 (for F. esculentum and 229 (F. tataricum thousands of reads with average length of 341-349 nucleotides. De novo assembly of the reads produced about 25 thousands of contigs for each species, with 7.5-8.2× coverage. Comparative analysis of two transcriptomes demonstrated their overall similarity but also revealed genes that are presumably differentially expressed. Among them are retrotransposon genes and genes involved in sugar biosynthesis and metabolism. Thirteen single-copy genes were used for phylogenetic analysis; the resulting trees are largely consistent with those inferred from multigenic plastid datasets. The sister relationships of the Caryophyllales and asterids now gained high support from nuclear gene sequences. Conclusions 454 transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly was performed for two congeneric flowering plant species, F. esculentum and F. tataricum. As a result, a large set of cDNA sequences that represent orthologs of known plant genes as well as potential new genes was generated.

  15. Influence of Ultraviolet B Radiation on the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)%日光紫外线B辐射对甜荞苯丙烷代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚银安; 杨爱华; 徐刚

    2009-01-01

    对甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)苯丙烷次生代谢受紫外线B辐射的响应进行了研究.结果表明:不仅卢丁、槲皮素等黄酮类化合物含量在紫外线B辐射下显著升高,而且叶片苯丙烷单环酚类化合物,如阿魏酸含量等也大幅度升高,两类化合物的应激提高对甜荞的UV-B胁迫提供了重要的保护作用.

  16. GENETIC ANALYZES OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIVERGENCE BETWEEN WILD SELFER FAGOPYRUM HOMOTROPICUM OHNISHI AND CULTIVATED OUTCROSSER F. ESCULENTUM MOENCH

    OpenAIRE

    Fesenko, I.; Fesenko, A

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of interspecific differences between outcrosser Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selfer F. homotropicum Ohnishi was conducted in both flower size and number of partial inflorescences. Both the characters are under polygenic control. Plus-alleles are dominant in loci influencing flower size, but are recessive in loci affecting the number of partial inflorescences: the «wild type» of floral display in buckwheat is large showy flowers combined with a small number of partial inflo...

  17. Extraction, Purification and Functional Properties of main Protein from Buckwheat(Fagopyrum Esculentum Moench)Seeds%甜荞主要贮藏蛋白的分离纯化及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海霞; 赵丽芹; 付媛; 侯文娟; 张美莉

    2009-01-01

    为弄清甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)蛋白质的结构和生理功能特性,通过对甜荞清蛋白和球蛋白进行分级提取、盐析以及DEAE-纤维素柱离子交换层析纯化,测定其功能特性,如溶解性、乳化性和乳化稳定性、起泡性和起泡稳定性等.结果表明,甜荞清蛋白主要由分布在分子质量43、31 kDa和15 kDa的组分.球蛋白在分子质量33 kDa和31 kDa处有条带分布.球蛋白较清蛋白有较好的溶解、乳化及起泡能力.

  18. Is growing buckwheat allelopathic?

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Judith; Gfeller, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The growth repressive effect of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) was studied by separating resource competition from root interactions between the two plant species in a pot trial in the phytotron. In order to verify this result in situ field trials were performed. A strong repression of redroot pigweed growth by buckwheat could be observed independently of shading. However, soil both from the field and phytotron trials in which buckwheat had...

  19. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660 Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Scapinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a ração referência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95, 76,64, 75,04 e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63 e 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (p Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and to evaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry

  20. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Ho Lim; Kee-Jai Park; Bo-Ra Yoon; Kui-Jin Kim; Young-Jun Lee; Ok-Hwan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitr...

  1. Factors influencing susceptibility of plants to sulfur dioxide injury. I. [Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setterstrom, C.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1939-01-01

    For more than ninety years the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation have received the attention of various agricultural and industrial interests, and considerable data have accumulated on many phases of this subject. An attempt is made to provide some basis for evaluating these many data and to afford a broader view of the mechanism of sulfur dioxide injury. The influence of a number of environmental factors on susceptibility of plants to sulfur dioxide injury is reviewed, and considerable new data are added to those phases of the problem which are treated less extensively in the literature. The new data have been obtained from factorial experiments designed to study a number of variables simultaneously, and all the data have been subjected to statistical analysis by the method of the analyses of variance. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) was selected as the test plant in most of the experiments because of its sensitivity and because its large leaves permit a rapid and accurate rating of the degree of injury. The environmental factors considered include temperature, humidity, soil moisture, soil fertility, nutrient supply, pretreatment with sulfur dioxide, light intensity, age of plants, and moist surfaces. 30 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Vliv genotypu na obsah rutinu v rostlinách rodu \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor work is focused on evaluation of the influence of buckwheat species and variety on rutin containt in particular plant parts, on the total rutin yield per hectare production and on comparison varietal differences between both species, common buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}esculentum)} Moench) and tartary buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum tataricum)}. Rutin is a flavonol (quercetin-3-O- rutinosid) which is also called P vitamin. As well as it is known as the permeability factor or factor allow...

  3. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M. Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  4. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lian-Xin Peng; Liang Zou; Jiang-Lin Zhao; Da-Bing Xiang; Peng Zhu; Gang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae) is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn). From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaemp...

  5. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  6. Forming and maintaining a collection of plant genetic resources of the Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill.) genus

    OpenAIRE

    Тригуб, О. В.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Providing information on the formation, composition, maintenance of the collection of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill.) genus at Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Poltava region), and areas of its use: introduction, preservation and study of the material, for the set of index, formation of special collections and providing research and education institutions of Ukraine with a valuable original material. Methods. Methodical developments dealing with formation and maintenan...

  7. De novo sequencing and characterization of floral transcriptome in two species of buckwheat (Fagopyrum)

    OpenAIRE

    Samigullin Tagir H; Vinogradov Dmitriy V.; Kasianov Artem S; Logacheva Maria D; Gelfand Mikhail S; Makeev Vsevolod J; Penin Aleksey A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Transcriptome sequencing data has become an integral component of modern genetics, genomics and evolutionary biology. However, despite advances in the technologies of DNA sequencing, such data are lacking for many groups of living organisms, in particular, many plant taxa. We present here the results of transcriptome sequencing for two closely related plant species. These species, Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum, belong to the order Caryophyllales - a large group of ...

  8. Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zheng-wu; Qi, Rui; Li, Xiao-fang; Liu, Zhi-xiong

    2014-10-25

    Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum. PMID:25149019

  9. EFFICACY OF HONEY BEE AND FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH OINTMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF SUB CHRONIC WOUND IN RABBITS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djerrou Zouhir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an ointment of honey bee and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the management of large dermal wound in a male rabbit wounded accidently. The wound was covered entirely by honey and then the fine powder of buckwheat grains was added. The treatment was applied once a day until complete epithelization has taken place. The results showed a complete resorption of inflammatory exsudate of wound at 4th day. The percentage of wound contraction has shown a rate of 5.55% at the 4th, it has risen to 32.22 and 71.48% at days 7 and 11 respectively to register 99.53% at the 26th days. The epithelization period was 27 days with a mean healing rate of 200 mm2 day-1. The study concludes that the ointment of honey and buckwheat stimulate the healing process in dermal wounds particularly in term of wound contraction. Other studies are underway to understand the possible implication of some amino acids as lysine, proline and glycine presented in buckwheat in the collagen synthesis process.

  10. Buckwheat as a potential source of high-quality protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populations of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and of tartar buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) in Slovenia (North-Western Yugoslavia) were studied and compared with several diploid and tetraploid cultivars of buckwheat. The endosperm ultrastructure was studied. In buckwheat starch grains are spherical, 3-5μm in diameter, and are covered with a protein-rich matrix. Buckwheat is quite resistant to plant diseases. Some populations and varieties are very early maturing and therefore suitable for sowing as a second crop in the year on the same field. The plant height, lodging resistance, 1000-grain weight, hull percentage and yielding ability vary considerably. Changes in the incompatibility system, crossing with tartar buckwheat, and induction of mutations are discussed as possibilities for improving buckwheat yields. (author)

  11. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  12. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Xin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn. From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and response surface methodology (RSM was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion : The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat.

  13. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Nidhi; Naik Pradeep; Chauhan Rajinder

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher ...

  14. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles using Fagopyrum esculentum leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Sharma, Pragya; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Bora, Utpal

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the use of ethnolic extract of Fagopyrum esculentum leaves for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy analysis indicated the successful formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and were found to be spherical, hexagonal and triangular in shape with an average size of 8.3 nm. The crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) suggested the presence of organic biomolecules on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity tests against human HeLa, MCF-7 and IMR-32 cancer cell lines revealed that the gold nanoparticles were non-toxic and thus have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  15. Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Rong Fu; Iwashita, Takashi; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionic aluminum (Al) is toxic for plant growth, but some plant species are able to accumulate Al at high concentrations without showing toxicity symptoms. In order to determine whether other species in the genus Fagopyrum are able to accumulate Al like common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), we investigated the external and internal detoxification mechanisms of Al in two self-compatible species: tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and wild buckwheat (Fagopyrum homotropicum). Both tartary and wild buckwheat showed high Al tolerance comparable to common buckwheat. Furthermore, these two species also secreted oxalate rapidly from the roots in response to Al in a time-dependent manner. Both tartary and wild buckwheat accumulated > 1 mg g(-1) Al in the leaves after short-term exposure to Al. Analysis with (27) Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that Al was present in the form of Al-oxalate (1 : 3 ratio) in the roots and leaves, but in the form of Al-citrate (1 : 1 ratio) in the xylem sap in both species. These results indicate that similar to common buckwheat, both tartary and wild buckwheat detoxify Al externally and internally, respectively, by secreting oxalate from the roots and by forming the Al-oxalate complex, which is a nonphytotoxic form. These features of Al response and accumulation may be conserved in genus Fagopyrum. PMID:25195800

  16. [Silencing of Dominant Genes in Heterozygous Genotypes of Interspecific Hybrids Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. x C2026 F. homotropicum Ohnishi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, N N; Fesenko, I N

    2016-04-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a very polymorphic self-pollinating species with homostylous flowers, which morphologically different lineages are differ also in ability to hybridize with F. esculentum Moench. (closely related outcrosser with heterostyly). A lineage C2026 F. homotropicum diverged from F. esculentum with forming noticeable pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers: the most successful interspecific crossing F esculentum x C2026 resulted wrinkled hybrid seeds germinated in Petri dishes. These interspecific hybrids and backcrosses F. esculentum x F₁, being heterozygous at loci DET/det, SHT/sht and homostyly gene of F. homotropicum, in our experiments often formed phenotype like a recessive homozygote for at least one of these genes, i.e. dominant alleles were silenced. Apparently, these effects can be caused by disorders of epigenetic regulation associated with the divergence of hybridized species. Such disorders, especially those that occur at the stage of seed development, represent one of the main experimentally confirmed mechanisms of pre-zygotic isolation between species. Apparently, F. esculentum and the lineage C2026 of F. homotropicum represent an example of intermediate stage of post-zygotic isolation development process which based on epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in the hybrids. Sometimes it may be revealed not only at the stage of seed development, but also at later stages of ontogenesis. PMID:27529977

  17. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health. PMID:26948610

  18. Is growing buckwheat allelopathic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirth, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth repressive effect of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus was studied by separating resource competition from root interactions between the two plant species in a pot trial in the phytotron. In order to verify this result in situ field trials were performed. A strong repression of redroot pigweed growth by buckwheat could be observed independently of shading. However, soil both from the field and phytotron trials in which buckwheat had been growing didn’t have an effect on redroot pigweed and lettuce (Lactuca sativa growth. Assuming that allelopathic compounds are present in the soil solution supplementary experiments were conducted. Lettuce root length was measured after exposing seeds to different “buckwheat soil” extracts. Moreover, buckwheat and lettuce developed at the same time next to each other in petri dishes. In none of the experiments an influence on lettuce and redroot pigweed development could be observed. We conclude that there are either no allelopathic molecules in the soil solution (not soluble in water or that they are rapidly degraded. The observed growth inhibiting effect seems to be due to a long term and constant exposure of small quantities of allelopathic molecules. However, it is also possible that growth repression of redroot pigweed by buckwheat is not due to allelopathy.

  19. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-01-01

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour. PMID:26782554

  20. Initial density affects biomass – density and allometric relationships in self-thinning populations of Fagopyrum esculentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Weiner, Jacob; Zhou, Daowei;

    2013-01-01

    and the biomass–density trajectory, we grew Fagopyrum esculentum populations at three high densities and measured shoot biomass, density and the height and diameter of individual plants at six harvests. * Initial density did not affect the slope of the log biomass–log density relationship, but there...

  1. Inheritance of seed shattering in interspecific hybrids between Fagopyrum esculentum and F. Homotropicum%落粒性在荞麦远缘杂种(Fagopyrum esculentum×F.homotropicum)中的遗传研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-jie; Rachael Scarth; G.Clayton Campbell

    2005-01-01

    普通荞麦或甜荞[Fagopyrum esculentum(2n=2x=16)],具有异型花、孢子体型自交不亲和性.在远缘杂交中,甜荞的非落粒性常会丧失.本研究的目的是用由落粒野生种(F.homotropicum)组配的杂种来探讨荞麦落粒的遗传性.借助胚珠培养,获得了来自4个远缘杂交组合(F.esculentum×F.homotropicum)的杂种.8个F2群体,28个来自F2落粒植株的F3系用于遗传分析.落粒的F1说明落粒是显性的.F2群体的3:1,9:7,和27:37的分离类型支持这里首次提出的遗传模式,落粒是由3对显性基因控制的.造成不同分离类型的原因归结于F.esculentum的由异交引起的群体异质性.Fagopyrum homotropicum的基因型应是纯合显性才能确保群体的落粒性,而F.esculentum应在至少1个基因位点上固定为纯合隐性,才能保持群体的非落粒性.此研究解释了为什么1个没有落粒亲本的组合或非落粒的植株自交会产生落粒的后代.

  2. Plantlet Regeneration of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) in Vitro Tissue Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Dong, Xue-Ni; Ding, Meng-Qi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wu, Yan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is an ancient annual dicotyledonous herb, which is widely distributed around the world, specifically in the high altitude area of southwestern China and in the hill region of Himalayan. The plantlet regeneration of tartary buckwheat via somatic embryogenesis or multiple shoot induction was investigated in two different tartary buckwheats, Yuanzi and Xichang. The regeneration ability of Yuanzi was better than Xichang tartary buckwheat, and the hypocotyls were better than cotyledons as tartary buckwheat plantlet regeneration explants via somatic embryogenesis. The most suitable medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog basal medium added 2 mg/L 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L Kinetin, which could reach up to 98.96% callus induction percentage. The plantlet regeneration percentage from callus of tartary buckwheat could reach up to 55.77%, which induced on 2.0 mg/L Benzyladenine and 1.0 mg/L KT in MS basal medium. In addition, maximum of multiple shoot induction percentage was 69.05%, which was observed in case of Yuanzi tartary buckwheat in MS basal medium with added 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 1.0 mg/L Thidiazuron. Roots induction of regenerated plants were achieved on 1/2 MS basal medium with added 1mg/L Indole-3-Butytric acid, which has 75% survival after transferred regenerated plants to soil under field conditions. PMID:26972974

  3. Phenolic acids in the inflorescences of different varieties of buckwheat and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of total phenolics and phenolic acid composition together with parameters of antioxidant activities was studied in the inflorescences of three varieties of buckwheat (F. esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum rotundatum and Fagopyrum esculentum, forma green-flowers. Antioxidant activity of extracts of these buckwheat varieties has been found high and at the same time extracts of inflorescences of green flower buckwheat have been characterized by the highest total phenolic content. Eight phenolic acids (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, p-anisic acid, salicylic acid and methoxycinnamic acid were found in the investigated buckwheat inflorescences with HPLC analysis. Inflorescences of F. esculentum, forma green-flowers have a high content of chlorogenic acid (16 mg 100 g−1 DW and p-anisic acid (872 mg 100 g−1 DW. The highest content among the investigated buckwheat inflorescences of vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and p-anisic acid was found in the F. tataricum, F. esculentum inflorescences have been characterized by the highest content of salicylic acid (115 mg 100 g−1 DW and methoxycinnamic acid (74 mg 100 g−1 DW.

  4. Buckwheat phenolic metabolites in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Marko

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, F. tataricum Gaertner) groats and flour have been established globally as nutritional foods because of their high levels of proteins, polyphenols and minerals. In some regions, buckwheat herb is used as a functional food. In the present study, reports of in vitro studies, preclinical and clinical trials dealing with the effect of buckwheat and its metabolites were reviewed. There are numerous reports of potential health benefits of consuming buckwheat, which may be in the form of food, dietary supplements, home remedies or possibly pharmaceutical drugs; however, adverse effects, including those resulting from contamination, must be considered. There are reports of antioxidative activity of buckwheat, which contains high levels of rutin and quercetin. On the other hand, both cytotoxic and antigenotoxic effects have been shown. Reduction of hyperlipidaemia, reduction of blood pressure and improved weight regulation have been suggested. Consuming buckwheat may have a beneficial effect on diabetes, since lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin response have been reported. In addition, buckwheat metabolites, such as rutin, may have intrinsic protective effects in preserving insulin signalling. Rutin has also been suggested to have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The literature indicates that buckwheat is safe to consume and may have various beneficial effects on human health. PMID:27046048

  5. Research of Optimizing Callus Induction from Fagopyrum esculentum Moench%优化甜荞的愈伤组织诱导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钢; 杨小萍; 袁畅; 王跃华; 孙雁霞; 王强

    2012-01-01

    为了探究3种激素不同配比对甜荞愈伤组织诱导的影响,筛选出高效诱导甜荞愈伤组织的最佳激素配方,以甜荞幼嫩茎段为外植体,运用正交试验研究2,4-D,6-BA和KT 3种激素对其茎段愈伤组织诱导的影响.结果表明,3种激素均能促进甜养愈伤组织的产生,其中以生长素2,4-D对甜荞茎段愈伤组织的诱导影响最为显著,诱导甜荞茎段愈伤组织的最佳培养基配方为MS+2,4-D2.0 mg/L+6-BA1.0 mg/L+ KT0.5 mg/L.%To study the effect of three auxins on callus induction of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and screen out the optium auxins formula for callus induction in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench,taken stem of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench as explants, the orthogonal experiment was used to study the effect of 2,4-D,6-BA and KT 3 on callus induction. The results showed that 3 auxins could all promote the callus growth,but 2,4-D had more obvious effect than that of 6-BA and KT 3. The optium formula of callus induction of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was MS + 2,4-D2.0 mg/L + 6-BA1.0 mg/L + KTO. 5 mg/L.

  6. Charakterisierung des Phenolstoffwechsels von Buchweizensamen (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) als Grundlage für die Züchtung von flavonoidreichen Genotypen

    OpenAIRE

    Ölschläger, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Die ernährungsphysiologische Bedeutung von Buchweizen (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) beruht hauptsächlich auf den bioaktiven Inhaltsstoffen. In einem Züchtungsprogramm wurden Linien mit hohen Flavonoidgehalten sowie Informationen über deren Vererbung gewonnen. Neben den bereits bekannten Inhaltsstoffen wurden folgende Flavanole erstmals in Buchweizen beschrieben: Epiafzelechin-[4-->8]-Epiafzelechin-[4-->8]-Epicatechin, Epiafzelechin-[4-->6]-Epicatechin, Epicatechin-[4-->8]-Epicatechin-3-O-Dime...

  7. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects. PMID:27396192

  8. Screening and Selection of Hypoallergenic Buckwheat Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Nair

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Both common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour and meal cause an allergy in sensitive patients, and if unnoticed, it can be fatal. It has become a potential occupational hazard for some mill workers. The development of hypoallergenic buckwheat would be more efficient if natural mutants for allergenic protein are detected. A screening and selection method was developed using SDS-PAGE coupled with PCR techniques. SDS-PAGE analysis of 14 different species of buckwheat revealed that F. lineare and F. urophyllum lack the 22-kDa major allergenic protein. PCR-based screening with specific primers for sequences encoding the allergenic protein was also effective in distinguishing the allergen-deficient species.

  9. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  10. Influence of Pulse Pressure on Seed Quality and Yield of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nefed'eva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of pre-sowing treatment of seeds by pulse pressure which is characterized by high intensity and accuracy of dosage has been proposed. Pulse pressures in the range of 11-29 MPa did not lead to acute lethality determined by phosphorescence at room temperature. So there was no elimination of unproductive individuals but pulse pressure stimulated physiological processes in seeds and plants, leading to increased yield. Changes of germination, growth, and distribution of substances as well as plant productivity were observed. Generalization and analysis of experimental results demonstrated zones in dose-dependent area, such as the zone of hormesis (11-17 MPa, transitional zone (20-26 MPa and stress zone (29 MPa and more.

  11. Distribution of Vitamin E, Squalen, Epicatechin, and Rutin in Common Buckwheat Plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 15 (2006), s. 5330-5335. ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/03/D076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : α-Tocopherol * developmental changes * epicatechin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2006

  12. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat) Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Chen Lee; Wei-Hsuan Hsu; Siou-Ru Shen; Yu-Hsiang Cheng; She-Ching Wu

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100  μ g/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6  μ g/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23  μ g/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to tr...

  13. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana M.; Demin Mirjana A.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.; Žarković Branka M.; Stikić Radmila I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was d...

  14. Treatment of isolated pistils with protease inhibitors overcomes the self-incompatibility response in buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljuš-Đukić Jovanka D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated pistils of distylous buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were treated with protease inhibitors (PMSF, pepstatin A, and antipain. Pistils were cross- or self- pollinated, and growth of pollen tubes was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Treatments with all inhibitors suppressed inhibition of self-pollen tube growth, suggesting that activity of proteases is involved in rejection of self-pollen during the SI response.

  15. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  16. Effect of different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains on hairy root induction and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye eThwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as FtPAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3,H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 µg/mg DW, respectively, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 µg /g DW, respectively, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 µg /g DW, respectively. A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  17. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3′H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat. PMID:27014239

  18. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  19. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains. PMID:25976805

  20. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xiaoli; Huang Lin; Tang Wen; Zhou Yiming; Wang Qing; Li Zongjie

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activit...

  1. Bioactivity comparison of extracts from various parts of common and tartary buckwheats: evaluation of the antioxidant- and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hweiyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat flour and buckwheat sprouts possess antioxidant properties, and previous studies have reported on buckwheat flour displaying an inhibitory activity for angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE. Information is lacking on the bioactivity of other parts of the buckwheat, such as the seed hulls and plant stalks. This study investigates the ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of various parts of 2 types of buckwheat, namely, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Results The extract of common hulls extracted using 50% (v/v-ethanol solvent presented a remarkable inhibitory activity. The value of IC50 is 30 μg ml-1. The extracts of both common and tartary hulls extracted using 50% (v/v-ethanol solvent demonstrated an antioxidant activity that is superior to that of other extracts. Conclusion This study determined that the ethanolic extract of the hulls of common buckwheat presented more favorable antioxidant and ACE inhibitory abilities. However, the correlation of antioxidant activity and ACE inhibitory activity for all 18 types of extracts is low. The ACE inhibitory activity could have been caused by a synergistic effect of flavonoids or from other unidentified components in the extracts. The ethanolic extract of common hulls demonstrated remarkable ACE inhibitory activity and is worthy of further animal study.

  2. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 Is Exclusively Present in the Genomes of Short-Styled Buckwheat Plants that Exhibit Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Yasui; Masashi Mori; Jotaro Aii; Tomoko Abe; Daiki Matsumoto; Shingo Sato; Yoriko Hayashi; Ohmi Ohnishi; Tatsuya Ota

    2012-01-01

    The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat), the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI) called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are het...

  3. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 Is Exclusively Present in the Genomes of Short-Styled Buckwheat Plants that Exhibit Heteromorphic Self-Incompatibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Aii, Jotaro; Abe, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Daiki; Sato, Shingo; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Ota, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat), the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI) called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are het...

  4. Development of SSR Molecular Markers Based on Expressed Sequence Tags from Seeds of Fagopyrum esculentum%基于微卫星标记普通荞麦种子序列表达标签的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石桃雄; 黎瑞源; 郭菊卉; 李月; 李光; 陈庆富

    2014-01-01

    为丰富普通荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)的序列信息,挖掘有效的 SSR 标记,基于Hiseq 2000测序平台对普通荞麦的种子转录谱进行测序、分析,利用 Misa 软件进行 SSR 位点扫描,采用Primer 5.0引物设计程序对其中的300个 SSR 位点设计引物,随机挑选40对引物对19个普通荞麦品系进行遗传多样性分析。结果表明:测序共产生20508824条高质量的短序列(read),总长度为1889111004 bp,通过拼接最终获得54947条转录本(transcript)和36133个独立基因(unigene)。在2226个独立基因中发现了2666个 SSR 位点。有20对引物(占50%)能扩增出目标产物,其中,12对有多态性,多态性信息量(PIC)范围为0.10~0.93,平均为0.57,多态性程度高。%To enrich sequences information and develop mass SSR marker,the authors used Hiseq2000 to sequence and de novo assemble the seed transcriptome of F.esculentum.SSR motifs were identified using MISA 1.0 software and 300 primer pairs flanking EST-SSR loci were designed using Primer 5.0 software.A total of 20 508 824 high quality reads (total length 1,889,111,004 bp)were obtained comprising 54 947 transcripts and 36 133 unigenes.In total,2 666 SSRs were identified from 2 226 unigenes.Twenty (50%)out of 40 primer pairs selected at random yielded amplification products,of which 12 primer pairs showed polymorphism among 19 different common buckwheat varieties,and the PIC ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with the mean value of 0.57.

  5. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. PMID:26213009

  6. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  7. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  8. Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lian-xin; HUANG Yan-fei; LIU Yuan; ZHANG Zhi-feng; LU Lu-yang; ZHAO Gang

    2014-01-01

    The essential and toxic element concentrations in buckwheat were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentration data were subjected to common chemometrics analyses, including correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), to gain better understanding of the differences among the tested samples. Our results indicated that the essential and toxic element concentrations were not different between Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn and F. esculentum Moench. The element concentrations varied among buckwheat samples from different sources. Commercial tartary buckwheat tea contained several essential elements, thus, could be used as the source of essential elements. The detection of toxic heavy metals in commercial tartary buckwheat tea suggested that safety issue of such buckwheat products should be seriously concerned. Our results also revealed that the place of origin and the processing protocol of tartary buckwheat affected the element concentrations of the commercial form. The implications to the quality control and safety evaluation of buckwheat were extensively discussed.

  9. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  10. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 157, 15 Aug (2014), s. 380-384. ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11016 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Common buckwheat * Exudates * Seeds * Germination * Phenolic compounds inhibition * Rutin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2014

  11. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, 'f3g-162', and the 'Hokkai T8'. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, 'f3g-162', is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety. PMID:25914588

  12. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods. PMID:25914589

  13. 糯米、甜荞混合甜酒酿发酵工艺的研究%Fermentation Process of Fermented Glutinous Rice Mixed with Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素斌; 肖嘉伟

    2015-01-01

    以糯米和甜荞为原料,采用安琪甜酒曲作为发酵酒曲制作甜酒酿。通过单因素试验对糯米与甜荞质量比、甜酒曲添加量、发酵时间以及发酵温度进行研究,在单因素试验的基础上进行正交实验,以感官指标作为评价标准以确定酒酿的最佳工艺条件,实验结果表明,糯米与甜荞质量比为4∶1,酒曲添加量1.0%,发酵时间72h,发酵温度25℃,按此最佳条件制作的甜酒酿风味独特。%Fermented glutinous rice mixed with Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied by using Angel rice wine starters. The product quality was assessed by sensory index. The mass ratio of glutinous rice to Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, the amount of rice wine starters, the fermentation time and temperature were investigated by means of single factor experiment, based on which, orthogonal experimental design was applied to optimize the fermentation technology. The results showed that the mass ratio of glutinous rice to Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was 4∶1, the dosage of rice wine starters was 1.0%, fermented at 25℃for 72 h, the resulted product had specific flavor and character.

  14. Phytometer of buckwheat as an indicator of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Y.; Sato, T.; Kiyasu, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is well known that the growth of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is resistant to inferior environmental conditions, but very sensitive to a polluted atmosphere. It is possible that buckwheat has favorable characteristics as phytometer for measuring air pollution. Young plants of buckwheat were grown in small cups in a water culture. Plants having three leaves were transferred to different places, both in an air polluted area and in an un-polluted area, for a period of 7 days, in order to compare the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) at their setting places. The buckwheat phytometer for measuring air pollution, utilized the following samples for statistical significance: 20 plants with 4 cups per one place according to their coefficient of variance of dry matter weight per pot. It was observed that the RGR showed the values of 20-27% per day in an un-polluted place and of 12-18% per day in a polluted place. The results of growth analysis based on dry matter increment after placement showed that the RGR depression was mainly owing to a decrease in the Net Assimilation Rate and the Leaf Area Ratio was not sensitive for a polluted atmosphere. The Net Assimilation rate depends on photosynthetic activity of leaves, therefore, the NAR depression may be due to an inhibition of photosynthesis by polluted air. 5 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  15. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling. PMID:25856561

  16. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound. PMID:25108759

  17. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  18. Assembly of the draft genome of buckwheat and its applications in identifying agronomically useful genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ueno, Mariko; Matsui, Katsuhiro; Katsube-Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Yang, Soo Jung; Aii, Jotaro; Sato, Shingo; Mori, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; 2n = 2x = 16) is a nutritionally dense annual crop widely grown in temperate zones. To accelerate molecular breeding programmes of this important crop, we generated a draft assembly of the buckwheat genome using short reads obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and constructed the Buckwheat Genome DataBase. After assembling short reads, we determined 387,594 scaffolds as the draft genome sequence (FES_r1.0). The total length of FES_r1.0 was 1,177,687,305 bp, and the N50 of the scaffolds was 25,109 bp. Gene prediction analysis revealed 286,768 coding sequences (CDSs; FES_r1.0_cds) including those related to transposable elements. The total length of FES_r1.0_cds was 212,917,911 bp, and the N50 was 1,101 bp. Of these, the functions of 35,816 CDSs excluding those for transposable elements were annotated by BLAST analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we conducted several test analyses using BLAST and keyword searches. Furthermore, we used the draft genome as a reference sequence for NGS-based markers, and successfully identified novel candidate genes controlling heteromorphic self-incompatibility of buckwheat. The database and draft genome sequence provide a valuable resource that can be used in efforts to develop buckwheat cultivars with superior agronomic traits. PMID:27037832

  19. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  20. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  1. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Karthikeyan; Vitali, Fabio; Tolaini, Valentina; Galeffi, Patrizia; Cantale, Cristina; Vikram, Prashant; Singh, Sukhwinder; De Rossi, Patrizia; Nobili, Chiara; Procacci, Silvia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Antonini, Alessandro; Presenti, Ombretta; Brunori, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys) and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C) with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum) has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum). The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn’t result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value. PMID:26990297

  2. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  3. Response of Fagopy rum esculentum Moench to drought and aluminum toxicity%荞麦对干旱及酸铝胁迫的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 张宝林; 邓妍; 王峰

    2016-01-01

    Fagopyrum esculentum Moench is a kind of crop with well‐adaptability and well‐resistance ,but it still suf‐fered severe loss under different adverse environment inevitably .This essay focused on the morphology and physiology changes of buckwheat under drought and aluminum adverse situation ,separately ,and elaborated the main anti‐adverse measures from mechanism , which could enrich the anti‐adversity production principle of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and promote the development and utilization of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench resource .%荞麦是一种适应性强,耐瘠性好的作物,但是在生产中依然不可避免地遭受各种非生物逆境带来的损失。本文分别对在干旱及铝胁迫条件下,荞麦形态及生理上的变化进行了论述,并从机理上阐述了主要的抗逆措施,对于丰富我国荞麦抗逆生产理论,加快我国荞麦资源开发利用有重要意义。

  4. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  5. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase(PAL)Gene from Fagopyrum esculentum%甜荞苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因PAL的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成磊; 蒙华; 张晓伟; 陈惠; 邵继荣; 吴琦

    2011-01-01

    利用RT-PCR技术,首次从甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum)中克隆得到苯丙氨酸解氨酶基因(PAL)的cDNA ORF序列,命名为FePAL.该序列长2169bp,编码722个氨基酸,与其他植物PAL基因同源性较高,为80%~97%,其推导的氨基酸序列含有PAL酶活性中心特征序列GTITASGDLVPLSYIA和多个脱氨基、催化活性位点.系统发育树表明,甜养PAL基因与苦荞PAL基因聚类关系最近.

  6. 苦荞花期植株中总黄酮浸提条件的研究%Extraction Conditions of Flavonoids in the Florescence of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦钰

    2014-01-01

    以常规粉碎和超微粉碎的苦荞(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)花期植株粉末作为原料,研究不同浸提溶剂和辅助提取方法对总黄酮浸提得率的影响.结果表明,超微粉碎、超声波提取和甲醇浸提能显著提高苦荞花期植株中总黄酮的浸提得率.提取的最佳条件为浸提温度50℃,提取时间3 min,固液比1∶30(m∶V),总黄酮浸提得率为5.91%.

  7. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nidhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher what genetic factors in addition to flavonoid structural genes contribute to high rutin content of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. Results Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP in seed maturing stages (inflorescence to seed maturation with 32 primer combinations generated total of 509 transcript fragments (TDFs. 167 TDFs were then eluted, cloned and sequenced from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. Categorization of TDFs on the basis of their presence/absence (qualitative variation or differences in the amount of expression (quantitative variation between both the Fagopyrum species showed that majority of variants are quantitative (64%. The TDFs represented genes controlling different biological processes such as basic and secondary metabolism (33%, regulation (18%, signal transduction (14%, transportation (13%, cellular organization (10%, and photosynthesis & energy (4%. Most of the TDFs except belonging to cellular metabolism showed relatively higher transcript abundance in F. tataricum over F. esculentum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine TDFs representing genes involved in regulation, metabolism, signaling and transport of secondary metabolites showed that all the tested nine TDFs (Ubiquitin protein ligase, ABC transporter, sugar transporter except MYB 118 showed significantly higher expression in early seed formation stage (S7 of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. qRT-PCR results were found to be consistent with the c

  8. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties. PMID:23253429

  9. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  10. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  11. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Cysteine Protease FaRDL Gene of Fagopyrum esculentum%甜荞半胱氨酸蛋白酶FaRDL基因的克隆和序列结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方正武; 景雄; 刘志雄

    2013-01-01

    同源克隆结合RACE(Ropid amplification of cDNA ends)技术,从甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum)花芽中克隆到了半胱氨酸蛋白酶FaRDL基因cDNA序列(GenBank登录号为JN605352).结果表明,其cDNA全长1 298 bp,包括1个编码362个氨基酸共1 089 bp的开放阅读框(Open reading frame,ORF).其蛋白与拟南芥中木瓜蛋白酶GCP1的同源性最高,属半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族中的木瓜蛋白酶亚家族,有1个由22个氨基酸残基组成的信号肽、1个由100个氨基酸残基组成的前体肽和1个由Cys149-His285-Asn305木瓜蛋白酶家族保守的催化三联体活性位点.

  12. Temporal changes in fungal communities from buckwheat seeds and their effects on seed germination and seedling secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačec, Eva; Likar, Matevž; Regvar, Marjana

    2016-05-01

    Seed-associated fungal communities affect multiple parameters of seed quality at all stages of production, from seed development to post-harvest storage and germination. We therefore investigated the diversity and dynamics of fungal communities in the seeds of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) from harvest to 1 y of storage. Fungal populations in seeds were relatively stable, comprised mainly of field fungi. Incidence of fungi was most likely determined by fungal interspecies direct interactions, as well as by their synthesis of volatile organic compounds. Most prominent antagonistic interactions were seen for two plant pathogens, Alternaria alternata on Botrytis cinerea. Detrimental effects of the fungi on seed germination and seedling development were related to fungal extracellular enzyme activity, and in particular to amylase, cellulase and, polyphenol oxidase. Polyphenol and tannin concentrations in buckwheat seedlings were related to fungal growth rate and intensity of fungal cellulase activity, respectively, which suggests that physical penetration of the fungi through the host tissues is probably the stimulus for the activation of plant defence reactions in these seedlings. PMID:27109364

  13. Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying genotypes with greatly differing Al accumulation capacity. The genotypes were grown in Al-enriched peat-based substrate for 21 days. Based on the Al concentration of the xylem sap, which varied by a factor of five, only quantitative but not qualitative genotypic differences in Al accumulation could be identified. Aluminium and citrate and Al and Fe concentrations in the xylem sap were positively correlated suggesting that Fe and Al are loaded into and transported in the xylem through related mechanisms. In a nutrient solution experiment using six selected F. esculentum genotypes differing in Al and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap the significant correlation between Al and iron transport in the xylem could be confirmed. Inhibition of root elongation by Al was highly significantly correlated with root oxalate-exudation and leaf Al accumulation. This suggests that Al-activated oxalate exudation and rapid transport of Al to the shoot are prerequisites for the protection of the root apoplast from Al injury and thus overall Al resistance and Al accumulation in buckwheat.

  14. Study on High-yield Cultivation Techniques of Tartary Buckwheat(Fagopyrum tataricum)%苦荞高产栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱体超; 孙学映; 陈光蓉; 张莉

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)高产栽培技术措施.[方法]采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计试验,研究种植密度(43.2万、52.5万、75.0万、97.5万、106.8万株/hm2)、复合肥施用量(281.8、375.0、600.0、825.0、918.2 kg/hm2)对苦荞产量的影响.[结果]种植密度和施肥对苦荞产量影响显著,都表现为低水平下呈正效应,高水平下呈负效应,并且互作效应显著.获得产量高于2 100 kg/hm2的合理取值区间为:种植密度84.50万~102.97万株/hm2,施肥320.33 ~ 505.05 kg/hm2.建立的数学模型y=2 208.63+ 122.53X1-114.33X2-200.91X2-205.58X2-184.85X1X2的拟合程度较好,对苦荞生产具有实际指导作用.[结论]该研究可为苦荞高产优质生产提供技术参考.

  15. 甜荞麦花叶化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Constituents from Flower and Leaves of Fagopyrum esculentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊利; 李春钢; 张博男; 韩淑英

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究甜荞麦Fagopyrum esculentum花叶的化学成分.方法:采用反复硅胶柱色谱法、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱法等进行分离纯化,并通过理化常数测定和光谱分析鉴定其化学结构.结果:从荞麦花叶中分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为槲皮素(1),山奈酚(2),山柰酚-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(3),槲皮苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-葡萄糖苷(5),芦丁(6)胡萝卜苷(7),β-谷甾醇(8).结论:化合物3,5为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物1,2,4,6为首次从甜荞麦花叶中分离得到.

  16. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  17. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  18. The Feasibility of Using Tartary Buckwheat as a Se-Containing Food Material

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Golob; Vekoslava Stibilj; Ivan Kreft; Mateja Germ

    2015-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a semiwild plant grown in the Himalaya region. Due to its high concentration of flavonoids and trace elements it is of interest for cultivation in other countries as well. The feasibility of increasing the concentration of Se in grain and in green parts of Tartary buckwheat has not yet been investigated. The aim of this investigation was thus to determine the concentration of Se in different edible parts of Tartary buckwheat treated with different co...

  19. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradish, Angela E; Cutler, G Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  20. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  1. An Aluminum-Inducible IREG Gene is Required for Internal Detoxification of Aluminum in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is able to detoxify aluminum (Al) both externally and internally, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its high Al tolerance are not understood. We functionally characterized a gene (FeIREG1) belonging to IRON REGULATED/ferroportin in buckwheat, which showed high expression in our previous genome-wide transcriptome analysis. FeIREG1 was mainly expressed in the roots, and its expression was up-regulated by Al, but not by other metals and low pH. Furthermore, in contrast to AtIREG1 and AtIREG2 in Arabidopsis, the expression of FeIREG1 was not induced by Fe deficiency. Spatial expression analysis showed that the Al-induced expression of FeIREG1 was found in the root tips and higher expression was detected in the outer layers of this part. Immunostaining also showed that FeIREG1 was localized at the outer cell layers in the root tip. A FeIREG1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was localized to the tonoplast when transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of FeIREG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased Al tolerance, but did not alter the tolerance to Cd, Co and Fe. The tolerance to Ni was slightly enhanced in the overexpression lines. Mineral analysis showed that the accumulation of total root Al and other essential mineral elements was hardly altered in the overexpression lines. Taken together, our results suggest that FeIREG1 localized at the tonoplast plays an important role in internal Al detoxification by sequestering Al into the root vacuoles in buckwheat. PMID:27053033

  2. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 is exclusively present in the genomes of short-styled buckwheat plants that exhibit heteromorphic self-incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yasui

    Full Text Available The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat, the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are heterozygous (S/s and plants with long-styled flowers are homozygous recessive (s/s at the S-locus. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of flower development and plant SI systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying heteromorphic SI remain unresolved. By examining differentially expressed genes from the styles of the two floral morphs, we identified a gene that is expressed only in short-styled plants. The novel gene identified was completely linked to the S-locus in a linkage analysis of 1,373 plants and had homology to EARLY FLOWERING 3. We named this gene S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 (S-ELF3. In an ion-beam-induced mutant that harbored a deletion in the genomic region spanning S-ELF3, a phenotype shift from short-styled flowers to long-styled flowers was observed. Furthermore, S-ELF3 was present in the genome of short-styled plants and absent from that of long-styled plants both in world-wide landraces of buckwheat and in two distantly related Fagopyrum species that exhibit heteromorphic SI. Moreover, independent disruptions of S-ELF3 were detected in a recently emerged self-compatible Fagopyrum species and a self-compatible line of buckwheat. The nonessential role of S-ELF3 in the survival of individuals and the prolonged evolutionary presence only in the genomes of short-styled plants exhibiting heteromorphic SI suggests that S-ELF3 is a suitable candidate gene for the control of the short-styled phenotype of buckwheat plants.

  3. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  4. Changes of selected secondary metabolites in potatoes and buckwheat caused by UV, gamma- and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of total polyphenols, phenolcarboxylic acids and ascorbic acid in potato tubers cv. Kordoba and Rosella and three buckwheat samples (seeds, seedlings and plants: F. esculentum, cv. Pyra and Emka and tartarian buckwheat F. tataricum) induced by UV-C irradiation, gamma-irradiation and microwave irradiation were investigated

  5. Successful production of recombinant buckwheat cysteine-rich aspartic protease in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRA D. MILISAVLJEVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the expression of recombinant cysteine-rich atypical buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum aspartic protease (FeAPL1 in five Escherichia coli strains differing in their expression capabilities is presented. It was shown that the expression success depended highly on the choice of FeAPL1 fusion partner. His6-FeAPL1 was produced in large quantities as an insoluble protein localized in inclusion bodies. On the other hand, MBP-FeAPL1 was localized in both the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies in BL21 and Rosetta-gami strains. Only purified soluble MBP-FeAPL1 from Rosetta-gami cells showed proteolytic activity at pH 3.0 with BSA as the substrate. The results also indicated that FeAPL1 contained a PRO segment that had to be removed for the enzyme activity to appear. The activity of FeAPL1 produced in the Rosetta-gami strain, which enables disulfide bond formation indicated the importance of the twelve cysteine residues for correct folding and functionality.

  6. Efficient production of flavonoids in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with yeast polysaccharide elicitation and medium renewal process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Zou, Liang; Zhang, Cai-Qiong; Li, Yuan-yuan; Peng, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), an excellent edible and medicinal crop, has been widely used as a daily diet and traditional medicine for a long time. The major functional components of Fagopyrum tataricum have been demonstrated to be flavonoids (i.e. rutin and quercetin), which had notable andioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and antitumor activities. Hairy root culture is a convenient and efficient plant tissue culture system for large scale production of bioa...

  7. 荞麦属2个野生荞麦种的染色体核型研究%Karyotypic Studies of Two Wild Buckwheat Species in the Fagopyrum Mill.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 邵继荣; 罗强; 孙俊秀

    2009-01-01

    对荞麦属皱叶野荞麦(Fagopyrum crispatifolium J.L.Liu)及其近缘种细柄野荞麦[F.gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dam.et Diels]的染色体核型进行了分析.结果表明,2个野生荞麦的染色体数目均为2n=4x=32,但二者在随体数目、染色体长度等方面差异明显,染色体核型不同,皱叶野荞麦的核型公式为:30m(4SAT)+2sm,细柄野荞麦的核型公式为:32m,属首次报道.

  8. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Zhao; Jianglin Zhao; Lianxin Peng; Liang Zou; Jingbo Wang; Lingyun Zhong; Dabing Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS) on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat). Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures ...

  9. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  10. Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Klug; Thomas W. Kirchner; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying ge...

  11. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  12. The Feasibility of Using Tartary Buckwheat as a Se-Containing Food Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Golob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum is a semiwild plant grown in the Himalaya region. Due to its high concentration of flavonoids and trace elements it is of interest for cultivation in other countries as well. The feasibility of increasing the concentration of Se in grain and in green parts of Tartary buckwheat has not yet been investigated. The aim of this investigation was thus to determine the concentration of Se in different edible parts of Tartary buckwheat treated with different concentrations of Na selenate using different techniques. In plants grown in soil fertilized once with 0.5 and 10 mg Se L−1, Se was efficiently translocated from the roots to the leaves and seeds. Foliar spraying with 0.5 mg Se L−1 increased Se content in leaves and seeds. Among the edible parts of Tartary buckwheat plants the highest content of Se in control and in treated groups was found in leaves, followed by seeds and stems. Regarding recommended Se concentration, edible parts of Tartary buckwheat were safe for human consumption. Soil fertilization with 0.5 and 10 mg Se L−1 and foliar fertilization with 0.5 mg Se L−1 are applicable for cultivation of Tartary buckwheat as a functional food enriched with Se.

  13. Karabuğdayın (Buckwheat) Kimyasal, Besinsel ve Teknolojik Özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Neslihan; Yalçın, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    İnsanların sağlıklı gıda talepleri ile birlikte karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertner, Fagopyrum emarginatum) önemi giderek artmaktadır. Karabuğday dünyanın birçok ülkesinde üretilen, önemi gün geçtikçe artan, uluslararası ticaretteki yeri giderek gelişen tahıl benzeri (pseudocereal) tek yıllık bir bitkidir. Karabuğday yüksek besleyici değerlere sahiptir. Ayrıca, beslenmemiz için çok önemli protein kaynağı olmasının yanında, nişasta, besinsel lif, vitamin, te...

  14. The influence of organic and conventional crop management, variety and year on the yield and flavonoid level in common buckwheat groats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2011), s. 602-608. ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Fagopyrum esculentum * Rutin * Epicatechin * Catechin * Epicatechin gallate * Yield * TGW * Organic farming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.655, year : 2011

  15. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril;

    2013-01-01

    increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...

  16. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  17. Radiation sterilization of buckwheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 105-107 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 103 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)

  18. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75 % ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40 μg/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200 μg/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients. PMID:25694726

  19. Phenolic compound production by different morphological phenotypes in hairy root cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy roots were obtained after inoculating sterile young stems of Fagopyrum tataricum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000. The established roots displayed two morphological phenotypes when cultured on hormone-free medium containing Murashige-Skoog salts and vitamins. The thin phenotype had a higher growth rate than the thick phenotype. Further, the phenolic compound content of the thin phenotype was higher than that of the thick phenotype. In terms of their total dry weight, the thin phenotype produced an almost double amount of (--epigallocatechin as well as more than 51.5% caffeic acid, 65% chlorogenic acid, and 40% rutin compared to the thick phenotype after 21 days of culture. Therefore, selection of the optimal morphological phenotype of hairy roots of tartary buckwheat is an important factor for improved phenolic compound production.

  20. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  1. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  2. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.2∼0.4 Mrad and condition for processing of buckwheat noodles on sensory quality and physical properties were investigated. The results were as follows: (1) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles, prepared with the 70 % ratio of buckwheat flour, was decreased according to an increase of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour. Hardness and adhesiveness of buckwheat noodles caused by irradiation should be given large effect to the texture. Elasticity of buckwheat noodles was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and elasticity of buckwheat noodles was decreased about 15 % by an increase of irradiation dose at 0.3 Mrad. (2) Maximum torque in Farinograph test was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and maximum torque was decreased about 3 % by increasing of irradiation dose with 0.1 Mrad. (3) Sensory evaluation was also decreased by increasing content of irradiated buck wheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in noodles. Elasticity was increased and deflection was decreased with increasing of the ratio of irradiated buckwheat flour. (4) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles was changed by water contents in buckwheat noodles. The best evaluation was obtained in the ratio of water added at 32 % and 30 % irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in processing of buckwheat noodles. Maximum stress and elasticity at the bending test of a circular plate were decreased 20 or 10 % by increase with 2 % contents of water added. (author)

  3. ВЛИЯНИЕ 1,3;1,6-β-D-ГЛЮКАНА И ПРОДУКТОВ ЕГО ФЕРМЕНТАТИВНОЙ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ НА ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПРОРОСТКОВ ГРЕЧИХИ FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MÖNCH

    OpenAIRE

    Федорова, Вера; Чайкина, Елена; Бакунина, Ирина; Анастюк, Станислав; Исаков, Владимир; Анисимов, Михаил; Звягинцева, Татьяна

    2009-01-01

    Исследовано влияние ламинарана и ряда 1,3,1,6-β-D-глюкоолигосахаридов разной молекулярной массы и разветвленности на прорастание семян и формирование проростков гречихи Fagopyrum esculentum Monch, сорта «Изумруд». Показано, что все глюканы в различной мере усиливали энергию прорастания семян, стимулировали рост основного корня проростков гречихи на самой ранней стадии (1-2 сут). Лучшим стимулирующим действием обладали 1,3,1,6-β-D-глюкоолигосахариды с молекулярной массой 1661,5 Да, отличительн...

  4. 五个中国荞麦(Fagopyrum)种的核型分析%Karyotype analysis of five Fagopyrum species native to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆富

    2001-01-01

    The karyotypes of F. esculentum,F. tataricum,F. megaspartanium,F.pilus and F. zuogongense were studied by means of the cytological observation of stem-tips. The results indicated that the five species are similar in karyotype. They all have two pairs of satellite chromosomes and symmetric karyotypes. The karyotype formulas of F. esculentum,F. tataricum,F. megaspartanium,F. pilus and F. zuogongense are 12m+4m(SAT),12m+4sm(SAT),8m+4sm+4m(SAT),12m+2m(SAT)+2sm(SAT) and 24m+4sm+4m(SAT),respectively.%用去壁低渗法对甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum)、苦荞(F. tataricum)、左贡野荞(F. zuogongense Q. F. Chen),大野荞(F. megaspartanium Q. F. Chen)及毛野荞(F. pilus Q. F. Chen)等大粒组荞麦种的根尖和茎尖有丝分裂染色体进行了观察,并对其茎尖有丝分裂染色体的核型进行了比较分析。结果表明:这5种荞麦在核型上类似,都有2对随体染色体,而且都为对称核型。但它们彼此有一定的差异。甜荞、苦荞、大野荞、毛野荞及左贡野荞的核型公式分别为12m+4m(SAT)、12m+4sm(SAT)、8m+4sm+4m(SAT)、12m+2m(SAT)+2sm(SAT)及24m+4sm+4m(SAT)。

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the extension of shelf-life of buckwheat noodles were investigated by enumeration of microorganisms prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad. The results were as follows: (1) The number of microorganisms in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was 103 (cells/g). Microorganisms as in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad showed almost the same level. (2) The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles was extended by the combination of low storage temperature and lower water activity. The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles (water activity 1.0) prepared from non-irradiated buckwheat flour was about 2 days at 5degC, and about 7 days at 0degC. When buckwheat noodles were prepared from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad, its shelf-life was extended about 7 days at 5degC, and 30 days at 0degC. At a water activity of 0.95, the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was extended to about 14 days at 5degC. At a water activity of 0.9 the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad were extended to about 30 days at 5degC. (author)

  6. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. PMID:25976817

  7. Expression and purification of the trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat in Pichia pastoris and its novel toxic effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingjun; Yan, Jun; Hou, Shengqi; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qi; Han, Xueyi

    2015-01-01

    The gene of the trypsin inhibitor of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) was successfully cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and tested for regulatory effects on insect growth. The three significant factors were optimized by single-factor experiments and central composite design in response surface methodology. Proteins were efficiently expressed at levels of 489.6-527.4 U/mg in shaken flasks. The trypsin inhibitor from tartary buckwheat (FtTI) was purified by affinity chromatography and centrifugal ultrafiltration. The purified FtTI efficiently inhibited trypsin protease activity by competitive inhibition with a Ki value 1.5 nM. The molecular mass of the purified protein was approximately 13.8 kDa. FtTI had a higher toxic killing effect on Mamestra brassicae larvae. The median lethal concentration for the larvae was 15 μg/mL. PMID:25258121

  8. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Fagopyrum urophyllum Populations in Southwest China%西南地区硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum)居群的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定泽; 侯鑫; 赵佐成

    2001-01-01

    Based on allozyme electrophoresis, the genetic diversity and differe-ntiation among 6 wild populations of Fagopyrum urophyllum from the counties Kunming, Fumin and Binchuan in the north-central part of Yunnan Province, the county Butuo in the southweast part of Sichuan Province, China, were studied in this paper. The results showed that the genetic diversity within wild population was high. The percentage of loci polymorphism (P) was 50.0%, the means of expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.251 and 0.471, respectively. The genetic variation between cultivated buckwheat and wild population was compared.%采用等位酶电泳技术研究了云南省中北部昆明、富民、宾川3县(市)及四川省西南布拖县的硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum)6个天然居群的遗传多样性和分化。硬枝野荞麦居群内维持有较高的遗传多样性,多态位点比率为50.0%,预期杂合度和观察杂合度分别为0.251和0.471。并对硬枝野荞麦(F. urophyllum)与栽培荞麦之间遗传变异作了比较。

  10. A Primary Study on Selective Abortion of Buckwheat Seed%荞麦子粒选择性败育的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈风雷; 廖海民; 李淑久

    2014-01-01

    对不同品种、不同播种期和授粉方式等影响荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)子粒败育的原因进行了探讨.结果表明,不同荞麦品种间子粒败育差异较小,播种期和授粉方式对荞麦子粒败育影响明显,人工辅助授粉可明显提高结实花数占总花数的比例.

  11. Comparative study of the action of hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide on buckwheat Polygonum Fagopyrum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, C.; Chouard, P.

    1967-01-01

    The study of the action of two atmospheric polluting agents, HF and SO/sub 2/ has been carried out by the application of toxic solutions of these substances and their salts on isolated leaves and on entire plants, and by fumigation of leaves remaining attached to the plant. After the necroses characteristic of each of these substances had been reproduced experimentally, it was observed that only the F-ion (whether from the acid or its salts) is responsible for the lesions induced at the areas where it has accumulated, whereas SO/sub 2/ acts in either the sulfite or sulfuric acid form which explains the different types of necrosis produced by these two polluting agents. HF only affects respiration and photosynthesis when its concentration in the leaf is sufficient to provoke a necrosis, whereas SO/sub 2/ strongly inhibits respiration and photosynthesis at concentrations much weaker than those producing lesions. An enzymatic blocking is involved.

  12. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 6; The influence of blending ratio and contents of water on irradiated buckwheat flour in processing of buckwheat noodles to sensory evalution and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Ohhinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohike, Terutake (Nagano State Lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi

    1989-11-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.2{approx}0.4 Mrad and condition for processing of buckwheat noodles on sensory quality and physical properties were investigated. The results were as follows: (1) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles, prepared with the 70 % ratio of buckwheat flour, was decreased according to an increase of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour. Hardness and adhesiveness of buckwheat noodles caused by irradiation should be given large effect to the texture. Elasticity of buckwheat noodles was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and elasticity of buckwheat noodles was decreased about 15 % by an increase of irradiation dose at 0.3 Mrad. (2) Maximum torque in Farinograph test was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and maximum torque was decreased about 3 % by increasing of irradiation dose with 0.1 Mrad. (3) Sensory evaluation was also decreased by increasing content of irradiated buck wheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in noodles. Elasticity was increased and deflection was decreased with increasing of the ratio of irradiated buckwheat flour. (4) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles was changed by water contents in buckwheat noodles. The best evaluation was obtained in the ratio of water added at 32 % and 30 % irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in processing of buckwheat noodles. Maximum stress and elasticity at the bending test of a circular plate were decreased 20 or 10 % by increase with 2 % contents of water added. (author).

  13. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  14. CCC effect on the 14CO2 assimilation and the growth of some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments with white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch.) and spring wheat (Triticum vulgare L.) of the Ostka Popularna variety were carried out. The aim of the experiments was to determine the effect of foliar and root application of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in the photosynthetic fixation of 14CO2 and on the growth of the above crops. (author)

  15. A Study on the Flavone Content of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYu; ZhaoGang

    1999-01-01

    The highest flavone content of buckwheat is in its flowers,the mean value is as high as 7.4%.After flowering,the value will decrease gradually.The flavone content of buckwheat leaves is lower,its mean value is 5.3%,its highest peak appears at the stage of flowering,then decreasing slowly.The flavone content of buckwheat stems is the lowest, its mean value is 1.0%,no obvious change in the whole growth of the plant.Among the buckwheat grains,tatary buckwheat grains contain the highest flavone content,the mean value is 2.02%.The mean flavone content value of common buckwheat is only 0.23%.Radiative treatment-s can increase the flavone content of buckwheat.The formation of flavonid compounds of buckwheat is mainly controlled by PAL activity.

  16. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Danihelová; Soňa Jantová; Ernest Šturdík

    2013-01-01

    Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using...

  17. Biochemical, immunological, and immunocytochemical evidence for the association of chalcone synthase with endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrazdina, G; Zobel, A M; Hoch, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Chalcone synthase [naringenin-chalcone synthase; malonyl-CoA:4-coumaroyl-CoA malonyltransferase (cyclizing), E.C. 2.3.1.74], the key enzyme of flavonoid pathways that was believed to be soluble, has been localized on ribosome-bearing endoplasmic reticulum membranes in the epidermis of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) hypocotyls. Enzyme activity measurement and immunoblots of buckwheat hypocotyl homogenates that were fractionated on linear sucrose density gradients and developed with a spec...

  18. 盐胁迫对两个荞麦品种种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Seeds Germination and Seedlings Growth of Two Fagopyrum tataricum Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 杨世平

    2014-01-01

    Two Fagopyrum tataricum cultivars including Chuanqiao No.3 and Chuanqiao No.4 were used to study the effects of different concentrations of salt stress on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat. The results showed that the low concentration (50 mmol / L) of salt stress had no significant effect on seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat. High concentrations(100 and 150 mmol / L) of salt stress significantly decreased the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, seedlings roots length and fresh weight, the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of leaves of two Fagopyrum tataricum cultivars. The decrease of Chuanqiao No.3 was obviously bigger than that of Chuanqiao No.4. It is indicated that the salt tolerance of Chuanqiao No.4 was obviously higher than that of Chuanqiao No.3.%以两个荞麦(Fagopyrum tataricum)品种川荞3号和川荞4号为试验材料,研究不同浓度盐胁迫对荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响。结果表明,低浓度(50 mmol / L)盐胁迫对荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生长无显著影响,高浓度(100和150 mmol / L)盐胁迫显著降低两个荞麦品种的发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数及幼苗根长和鲜重,显著降低叶片叶绿素含量和净光合速率,且川荞3号降低的幅度明显大于川荞4号,说明川荞4号的耐盐性明显大于川荞3号。

  19. Characterization of two tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB transcription factors and their regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yue-Chen; Li, Cheng-Lei; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Shuang-Jiang; Luo, Xiao-Peng; Yao, Hui-Peng; Chen, Hui; Zhao, Hai-Xia; Park, Sang-Un; Wu, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) contains high concentrations of flavonoids. The flavonoids are mainly represented by rutin, anthocyanins and proanthocyanins in tartary buckwheat. R2R3-type MYB transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, two TF genes, FtMYB1 and FtMYB2, were isolated from F. tataricum and characterized. The results of bioinformatic analysis indicated that the putative FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 proteins belonged to the R2R3-MYB family and displayed a high degree of similarity with TaMYB14 and AtMYB123/TT2. In vitro and in vivo evidence both showed the two proteins were located in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activation activities. During florescence, both FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 were more highly expressed in the flowers than any other organ. The overexpression of FtMYB1 and FtMYB2 significantly enhanced the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and showed a strong effect on the target genes' expression in Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) was upregulated to 5.6-fold higher than that of control, and the expression level was lower for flavonol synthase (FLS). To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of two MYB TFs from F. tataricum that control the PA pathway. PMID:24730512

  20. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  1. Buckwheat honeys: screening of composition and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Federica; Gardini, Silvia; Marcazzan, Gian Luigi; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-12-01

    The quality of 10 buckwheat honeys, collected from Italian and est European beekeepers declaring to produce monofloral honey, were evaluated by means of their pollen, physicochemical, phenolic and volatile composition data. The results of the traditional analyses and in particular electrical conductivity, optical rotation, pH and sugar composition revealed some poorly pure samples that could not fit in the buckwheat tipology. Honey volatiles, analysed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC/MS), showed more than 100 volatile compounds, most of them present in all honey samples but with quantitative variation. Besides many furfural derivates, 3-methylbutanoic acid was the main volatile compound found in most of honeys. Also the presence of 2- and 3-methylbutanal and pheynalcetaldehyde confirmed the typical buckwheat aroma of some studied samples, corroborating physicochemical data. The HPLC phenolic profile was similar across the samples and p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the main components. PMID:23871027

  2. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  3. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  4. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few selected varieties of buckwheat flours of the food use grade were irradiated at the dose level between 0.05 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Some fundamental properties of the buckwheat flours in 'soba'-noodle processing were evaluated to get the results as follows: 1) The viscosity of Brabender's viscograph of the buckwheat flour (aq. suspension at 9 % concn. level) decreased with the increased dose of gamma irradiation (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). It was also considered, however, that the reduced Viscograph-viscosity did not necessarily mean the poor taste score of the processed 'soba'-noodles. 2) The water soluble proteins (WSP) contents of buckwheat flour were little affected by irradiation. On the contrary, the contents of water soluble sugars (WSS) increased with the increased dose (Fig. 4). This analytical finding suggested the negligible disadverage by gamma irradiation in the practical 'soba'-noodle processing. 3) A kind of so-called irradiated-food-flavor, though not so much rejecting one, was organoleptically detected with the increased intense for the irradiated buckwheat flour of higher dosage. The phenomena coincided with the gas chromatograms (Fig. 5 - 1 to Fig. 5 - 3), analized 'headspace volatiles' collected from the respective buckwheat flours (Fig. 1). 4) The other kind of buckwheat flour, the original Canadian grains (with hull) of which were irradiated at 0.5 Mrad dose level, and then milled with roller-mill, was not organoleptically detected irradiated-food-flavor. Figure 6 showed the gas chromatogram for that sample, for comparison. These basic experimental knowledges presented the possible practical use of gamma-irradiation in food industries related with 'soba'-noodle processing, the further investigations would be required, though. The irradiation experiments were supported by courtesy of The Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. (author)

  6. Antioxidant properties of extracts from buckwheat by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Marzanna Hęś; Danuta Górecka; Krzysztof Dziedzic

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the course of production of buckwheat groats by-products are produced, such as bran and hull, which apart from high content of dietary fi ber, may also constitute valuable sources of antioxidants. The aim of these investigations was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from by-products produced during processing of buckwheat for groats. Material and method. Analyses were conducted on bran and hull of buckwheat cv. Kora. Extraction was run using acetone, methanol an...

  7. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties and texture of fresh-style 'soba' noodle after irradiation were investigated with disk bending tests and sensory evaluation. Physical properties of 'soba' noodle irradiated at lower than 0.2 Mrad does level were nearly equal to non-irradiated 'soba' noodle. But the texture of coodked 'soba' noodle was changed to be more soft, fragile and sticky with increase of irradiation dose. Then, the processing properties of 'soba' noodle used of irradiated buckwheat flour was investigated, changed with mixture rate of buckwheat and wheat flour and water content in the noodle. Irradiation of buckwheat flour less than 0.5 Mrad dose level had little influence on physical properties of 'soba' noodle. However, the texture of cooked 'soba' noodle used of irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was slightly inferior than non-irradiated 'soba' noodle. As the result of this study, it was concluded that the acceptable range of irradiation dose for extention of shelf-life was 0.2 to 0.4 Mrad dose level for direct irradiation to 'soba' noodle and 0.3 to 0.5 Mrad dose level for buckwheat flour, which caused little missing a characteristic flavor and texture of 'soba' noodle. (author)

  8. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation for extension of shelf-life on buckwheat noodles was investigated from the number of microorganisms point of view by using noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour or irradiated directly to fresh noodles in nylon pouch. The shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was extended 2∼2.5 times of compared with non-irradiated buckweat flour under the same condition of processing and storage temperature. Low temperature extended the shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad for 7 to 8 days at 10deg C, which was extended 3∼5 times of shelf-life compared with storage at 25deg C. The shelf-life of direct-irradiated buckweat noodles at 1.0 Mrad was extended about 30 days at 25deg C. In the case of direct-irradiation to fresh buckwheat noodles at 0.5 Mrad, their shelf-life was extended about 30 days at 15deg C. (author)

  9. Vorkommen, Stabilität und enzymatische Derivatisierung von Flavonolen in Echtem und Tatarischem Buchweizen (Fagopyrum esculentum M. und Fagopyrum tataricum G.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawiani, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Die Arbeit liefert einen Beitrag zur Formulierung von funktionellen Lebensmitteln aus Buchweizen. Hierfür wurde die Beeinflussung der Rutin- und Quercetingehalte in Sorten des Echten und Tatarischen Buchweizens durch Anbau- und Ernteparameter sowie durch Prozessierung von Buchweizenmehl untersucht. Weiterhin wurden enzymatische Behandlungen zur Steigerung der Bioverfügbarkeit der Flavonole getestet. Anteigen des Mehls der probatesten Sorte Lifago führte zum nahezu vollständigen Abbau von Ruti...

  10. A phenolic glycoside from Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) Hara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhong Bai; Xiao Hui Zhang; Li Jiang Xuan; Feng Kui Mo

    2007-01-01

    A new phenolic constituent along with five known compounds were isolated from Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) Hara. The new compound was characterized as 1,3-dimethoxy-2-O-β-xylo-pyranosyl-5-O-β-glucopyranosyl-benzene, by spectroscopic analysis and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  11. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  12. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 4. Preservation of buckwheat noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour and direct-irradiated buckwheat noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi.

    1988-11-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation for extension of shelf-life on buckwheat noodles was investigated from the number of microorganisms point of view by using noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour or irradiated directly to fresh noodles in nylon pouch. The shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was extended 2/similar to/2.5 times of compared with non-irradiated buckweat flour under the same condition of processing and storage temperature. Low temperature extended the shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad for 7 to 8 days at 10deg C, which was extended 3/similar to/5 times of shelf-life compared with storage at 25deg C. The shelf-life of direct-irradiated buckweat noodles at 1.0 Mrad was extended about 30 days at 25deg C. In the case of direct-irradiation to fresh buckwheat noodles at 0.5 Mrad, their shelf-life was extended about 30 days at 15deg C.

  13. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 7; Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohhinata, Hirosi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake (Nagano State lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitosi; Isigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the extension of shelf-life of buckwheat noodles were investigated by enumeration of microorganisms prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad. The results were as follows: (1) The number of microorganisms in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was 10{sup 3} (cells/g). Microorganisms as in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad showed almost the same level. (2) The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles was extended by the combination of low storage temperature and lower water activity. The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles (water activity 1.0) prepared from non-irradiated buckwheat flour was about 2 days at 5degC, and about 7 days at 0degC. When buckwheat noodles were prepared from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad, its shelf-life was extended about 7 days at 5degC, and 30 days at 0degC. At a water activity of 0.95, the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was extended to about 14 days at 5degC. At a water activity of 0.9 the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad were extended to about 30 days at 5degC. (author).

  14. 高温胁迫对荞麦下胚轴生理的影响%Physiological Effect of High Temperature Stress on Buckwheat Hypocotyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田学军; 敖田凤; 邓陈琳

    2009-01-01

    以芥麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)幼苗下胚轴为材料,探讨热驯和高温胁迫对其下胚轴生长量、抗坏血酸(AsA)、丙二醛(MDA)、相对含水量(RWC)和细胞膜热稳定性的影响.结果表明:荞麦幼苗下胚轴的生长量、RWC和AsA含量随胁迫温度的升高而降低,相对电导率和MDA含量随胁迫温度的升高而增加;热驯能适当提高下胚轴的耐热性.

  15. ISOLATION OF EPICATECHIN FROM OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pandya* and I.S. Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxystelma esculentum is used traditionally as diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective and anti-ulcer.Objectives: The present work deals with the isolation and structure elucidation of Epicatechin from O. esculentum. Methods: Methanolic extract of the entire plant of O. esculentum was subjected to pilot TLC experiments and column chromatography. Results: This yielded a pure, white compound which resolved at Rf 0.3 on TLC plate using the mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate (5:4 when developed in iodine chamber. This compound was subjected to UV, IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis and its structure elucidation revealed it to be Epicatechin.Conclusion: This compound has been reported for the first time in this plant and can serve as a useful tool in its standardization.

  16. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  17. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fagopyrum cymosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Chaolong; Shen, Qi; Yan, Yuying; Xu, Changjiang; Song, Chi

    2016-07-01

    Fagopyrum cymosum is a traditional medicinal plant. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of Fagopyrum cymosum is presented. The total genome size is 160,546 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 32,598 bp, separated by large single copy (LSC) and small single copy (SSC) of 84,237 bp and 11,014 bp, respectively. Overall GC contents of the genome were 36.9%. The chloroplast genome harbors 126 annotated genes, including 91 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and six rRNA genes. Eighteen genes contain one or two introns. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a clear evolutionary relationship among species of Caryophyllales. PMID:26119127

  19. Lightweight Concrete with an Agricultural Waste – Buckwheat Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Giedrius VAICKELIONIS; Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of buckwheat husk wastes (as an aggregate in concrete) and opoka combination for producing a lightweight composite. The study was carried out to investigate the influence of the buckwheat husk extract on the setting and hardening of pastes in which cement was partially replaced by 0, 33, or 50 % of natural pozzolana. The kinetics of hydration up to 48 h was studied using isothermal conduction calorimetry....

  20. Lightweight Concrete with an Agricultural Waste – Buckwheat Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius VAICKELIONIS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric experimental study which investigates the potential use of buckwheat husk wastes (as an aggregate in concrete and opoka combination for producing a lightweight composite. The study was carried out to investigate the influence of the buckwheat husk extract on the setting and hardening of pastes in which cement was partially replaced by 0, 33, or 50 % of natural pozzolana. The kinetics of hydration up to 48 h was studied using isothermal conduction calorimetry. Some of the physical and mechanical properties of buckwheat husk concrete with various levels of cement replacement of opoka without and with sand (part of buckwheat husk was replaced in the same volume of sand were investigated. Experimental data on the compressive strength of concrete utilizing buckwheat husk with and without sand and cement at varying proportions are presented. The results suggest that buckwheat husk may be used as an aggregate, particularly in lightweight concrete, panel and blocks for walls at a relatively cheaper price. 

  1. Optimalizace podmínek a postupů při získávání bylinných extraktů.

    OpenAIRE

    SMUTNÍKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the content of selected phenolic compounds in some species of the genus Amaranthus, in black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.). Phenolic compounds are a group of natural compounds exclusively vegetable character. Flavonoids represent only one group of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids show many positive biological effects, in particular act as antioxidants. Natural flavonoids may cause to prevent from coronary- heard diseases and other d...

  2. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Cheng; Liming Wu; Jianbin Zheng; Wei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antiox...

  3. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of buckwheat protein on antigenicity and allergenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jeongok; Han, Youngshin; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Ahn, Kangmo; Oh, Sangsuk; Do, Jeong-Ryong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then p...

  4. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129. ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  5. Contents of selected bioactive components in buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Górecka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritive value of food is determined by its content of basic nutrients essential for the proper functioning of the human organism. Buckwheat grain is one of the most valuable raw materials for production of groats as well as functional food. It is characterized by high contents of starch, protein as well as dietary fibre. Apart from the above mentioned nutrients, buckwheat groats contain flavonoid compounds, playing the role of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine contents of dietary fibre and its fraction composition, thiamine and phenolic compounds in roasted buckwheat groats, as well as antioxidant properties of ethanol buckwheat groats extracts. Material and methods. Experimental material comprised roasted buckwheat groats purchased at a grocery shop. Contents of neutral detergent dietary fibre (NDF and its fractions were determined by the detergent method according to Van Soest. Thermostable a-amylase (Termamyl 120 L was used in the digestion of starch. Contents of total dietary fibre (TDF, soluble dietary fibre (SDF and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF were determined according to Asp et al. The content of thiamine was determined by the thiochrome method. Total polyphenol content was determined by colorimetry according to the Folina-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant properties of extracts were estimated based on the capacity of extracts to scavenge the DPPH• radical (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and towards linolic acid. The capacity to inhibit self-oxidation of linolic acid was determined according to Lingnert et al. Results. The NDF and TDF contents in buckwheat groats, amounting to 5.63 and 8.4%, respectively. The fraction found in biggest amounts was the hemicellulose fraction (3.42%. The level of the IDF fraction was much higher (5.94% than that of SDF (2.46%. Thiamine content was 0.519 mg/100 g product, while the total content of phenolic compounds extracted from buckwheat groats was 30

  6. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to develop a feasible method for improving shelf-life extension of fresh 'soba' noodles, the usefulness of gamma irradiation was preliminarily investigated. Microorganism counts decreased to less than 102 per gram by irradiating gamma rays of 0.5 Mrad to buckwheat grains with hulls (Material I), industrially processed buckwheat flours (Material II), and uncooked 'soba' noodles packed in a plastic film bag (Material III). For Material II, the effective dose to decrease 90 % of the microorganism counts was 0.1 Mrad, and heat-resistant microorganism counts decreased to 10 or less per gram with gamma rays of 0.2 - 0.5 Mrad. Flavor in either Material II or Material III was not changed by irradiation; by contraries, enhanced 'soba'-like flavor was rarely observed. Although gamma-irradiation decreased the viscosity of Material II, it hardly exerted an effect on the process of making noodles. The texture of Material III became degraded by irradiation. The results suggest the feasibility of gamma irradiation in the use of inactivation of microorganisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. 盐胁迫下五个苦荞麦品种的耐盐性比较%Comparison of Salt Tolerance among Five Fagopyrum tataricum Varieties under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪华; 张艳萍; 张英昊; 杨洪兵; 董春海

    2015-01-01

    Five Fagopyrum tataricum varieties were used as experimental materials to compare salt tolerance in seeds germina-tion and seedling stage of buckwheat through determining the indexes of seed germination rate, seedling root vigor, leaf plas-malemma permeability and Na+ content under NaCl stress of 100 mmol/L. The results showed that the seed germination rate and seedling root vigor of Chuanqiao No.1 were the highest, and the leaf plasmalemma permeability and Na+ content of Chuanqiao No.1 were the lowest under NaCl stress; while that of Chuanqiao No.2 were on the contrary. It indicated that the salt tolerance of Chuanqiao No.1 was the strongest in seeds germination and seedling stage, while Chuanqiao No.2 was most sensitive to salt.%以5个不同苦荞麦[Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.]品种为试验材料,在100 mmol/L NaCl胁迫下测定荞麦种子发芽率、幼苗根系活力、叶片质膜透性和Na+含量等指标,对5个苦荞麦品种种子萌发期和幼苗期的耐盐性进行了比较。结果表明,NaCl胁迫下川荞1号种子发芽率和幼苗根系活力最高,幼苗叶片质膜透性和Na+含量最低;而川荞2号正好相反。说明在种子萌发期和幼苗期川荞1号的耐盐性最强,川荞2号对盐胁迫最敏感。

  8. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  9. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  10. 抗癌新药金荞麦中微量元素的光谱测定%Spectrometric Determination of Trace Elements in Anticancer New Medicine Fagopyrum Dibotrys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继永; 王元忠; 曾燕; 李进瞳

    2011-01-01

    The golden buckwheat Fagopyrum dibotrys produced in Yunnan has a unique anti-cancer effects. It is a main raw material of "Wei Mai ning" capsules which is the national second-class anti-cancer drug. The present paper used(5 :1) mixed acid as digestive juice to process the sample, and determine the twelve elements including K, Ca, Cu, Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn,Pb, Cr, Cd and Co in the Fagopyrum dibotrys by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES). The detection limits of this method were 0. 017~0. 084 μg · mL-1, the RSDs (n=8) were all 0. 09% ~ 1.87%, and the addition standard recoveries(ASR)(n=8) were 98. 2%~107. 4% for all elements. The research results showed that there is rich K(1 477. 3μg · g-1 ) in the Fagopyrum dibotrys, there are not harmful elements Cd and Pb, and this result is mainly related to the geochemistry background where the sample lived. The contents of seven remaining kinds of elements ranked as Na(826. 1)>Ca (765.2>Mg(493. 4)>Zn(112. 7)>Fe(56.5)>Cu(ll. 4)>Mn(4. 49 μg · g-l ). This result provides some theoretical basis for the study of internal relations between trace elements in Fagopyrum dibotrys and efficacy. It' s also useful for better development and utilization of the resource.%云南产金荞麦Fagopyrum dibotrys是国家二类抗癌新药"威麦宁"胶囊的主要原料,具有独特的抗癌功效.采用HNO3-HClO4(5:1)混酸作消化液处理样品,用电感藕合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定了抗癌新药金荞麦中K,Ca,Cu,Na,Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn,Pb,Cd等10种微量元素,该方法操作简便、快速、灵敏度高和多元素同时测定,检出限为0.017~0.084μg·mL-1,相对标准偏差为0.09%~1.87%(n=8),加标回收率在98.2%~107.4%之间.结果表明,抗癌新药金荞麦中含有比较丰富的K元素(1 477.3μg·g-1),这主要与它所处的地球化学背景有关,未检出有害元素Cd和Pb,其余七种元素含量(μg·g-1)由高到低依次为Na(826

  11. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8; Effects of electron beam irradiation on sterility and quality of buckwheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatu, Nobuyuki; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Oike, Terutake (Nagano State Lab. of Food Technology (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-10-01

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author).

  12. Steady and Dynamic Shear Rheological Properties of Buckwheat Starch-galactomannan Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Dong Won; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of galacomannans (guar gum, tara gum, and locust bean gum) on the rheological properties of buckwheat starch pastes under steady and dynamic shear conditions. The power law and Casson models were applied to describe the flow behavior of the buckwheat starch and galactomannan mixtures. The values of the apparent viscosity (ηa,100), consistency index (K), and yield stress (σoc) for buckwheat starch-galactomannan mixtures were significantly greater than those ...

  13. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  14. Control of buckwheat by radiation reflected from the neighbouring plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growing on the ground covered with grass received more radiation in the range of far red (reflected by green tissues) than plants growing on bare soil. The plants from both plots reacted differently to the environmental conditions by creating different habits. Main shoots of buckwheat growing in the neighbourhood of grass after emergence were significantly taller than those of buckwheat growing on the bare soil. Later the main shoots were much taller growing on the bare soil. Significantly longer internodes (from I to II) and more narrow (I-V) were plants which grew on neighbouring grass. The plants grown on bare soil had a greater mass of 1000 grains. Also, a varied development rate of the plants was observed in the compared plots. The plants growing in grass grew faster

  15. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms. PMID:26322863

  16. Antioxidant properties of extracts from buckwheat by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Hęś

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the course of production of buckwheat groats by-products are produced, such as bran and hull, which apart from high content of dietary fi ber, may also constitute valuable sources of antioxidants. The aim of these investigations was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from by-products produced during processing of buckwheat for groats. Material and method. Analyses were conducted on bran and hull of buckwheat cv. Kora. Extraction was run using acetone, methanol and water at room temperature for 24 h. The level of phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, using (+ catechin as a standard. Antioxidant activity of extracts was analysed in relation to linoleic acid, running incubation for 19 h, by scavenging of stable radicals of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and on the basis of metal chelating ability. Recorded results were compared with the activity of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene. Results. The highest content of polyphenols was found in the methanol extract of hull (168.5 mg/g d.m., which was also characterised by the best antiradical properties. The lowest content of total phenols was found for water extracts of bran after grinding and fi nal bran, at 20.3 mg/g d.m. and 10.2 mg/g d.m. In the emulsion system the highest activity was found for methanol extracts of hull and bran after grinding (Wo = 0.89, as well as the extract of fi nal bran (Wo = 0.85. A higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II ions was observed for bran extracts (after grinding – 76.1%, fi nal bran – 62.2% than for hull extracts (26%. Conclusions. Extracts obtained from by-products of buckwheat were characterised by high antioxidant activity in the applied model systems.

  17. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author)

  18. [Sensitisation to 'poffertjes' as a result of sleeping on a pillow containing buckwheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, C J W

    2002-03-30

    A 19-year-old man suffered an anaphylactic reaction after eating 'poffertjes' (small Dutch pancakes). This reaction appeared to be the result of an IgE-mediated allergy to buckwheat, a principal ingredient of 'poffertjes'. It is highly likely that the patient was sensitised by sleeping on a pillow stuffed with buckwheat husk. PMID:11957384

  19. Appropriate mechanical sowing depth and soil-covering thickness improving seedling quality of tartary buckwheat%适宜机播深度及覆土厚度提高苦荞幼苗素质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向达兵; 邹亮; 彭镰心; 赵钢; 范昱; 韦爽; 宋超; 刘学仪; 海来吉木

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an edible and medicinal crop belonging to family Polygonaceae and it is native to southwest of China, northern India, Bhutan and Nepal. The seeds are widely consumed as daily diet and traditional medicine, such as tartary buckwheat flour, noodles, bread, tea, vinegar, sprouts, etc. Tartary buckwheat is one of the most complete and nutritional foods and rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, dietary fiber, amino acids, trace elements, and various bioactive phytochemicals. Thus, interest in the use of tartary buckwheat for health benefits is growing, and the market demand is increasing. However, the major tartary buckwheat production is in hilly and high-cold mountainous areas. Because of the inconvenience in transportation and lack of communication with outside, the mechanization of farming in these areas is still under developed, which seriously limits the development of tartary buckwheat industry. As we known, mechanization for farming is important in increase of farm productivity and improving efficiency for modern agriculture production. In order to investigate the feasibility of mechanized seeding technology and the measures of improving the mechanical sowing quality of tartary buckwheat in the hilly areas, a field experiment with three sowing depth (2, 4, 6 cm) and soil-covering (no-covering as CK) was conducted to study quality of tartary buckwheat seedlings during the growing season of 2012 at the farm of Jintang county in Sichuan Province. The results showed that sowing depth was the most important factor, and the optimum depth was 4 cm. The emergence rate, seedling number, seedling rate, root activity, stem diameter, dry matter, area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of the treatment of 2 cm sowing depth decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to 4 cm sowing depth. Besides, the 6 cm sowing depth resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower emergence rate, plant height, dry matter weight, area per plant, stem

  20. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented. PMID:27252586

  1. A search of Brassica SI-involved orthologs in buckwheat leads to novel buckwheat sequence identification: MLPK possibly involved in SI response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI systems, gamethophytic (GSI and sporophytic (SSI, prevent self-pollination in angiosperms. Buckwheat displays heteromorphic SSI, with pollination allowed only between different flower morphs - thrum and pin. The physiology of thrum and pin morph SI responses are entirely different, resembling homomorphic Brassica SSI and Prunus GSI responses, respectively. Considering angiosperm species may share ancestral SI genes, we examined the presence of Brassica and Prunus SI-involved gene orthologs in the buckwheat genome. We did not find evidence of SRK, SLG and SP11 Brassica or S-RNase and SFB Prunus orthologs in the buckwheat genome, but we found a Brassica MLPK ortholog. We report the partial nucleotide sequence of the buckwheat MLPK and discuss the possible implications of this finding.

  2. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  3. CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS INDUCED BY PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Balas; Gabriela Capraru; Mihaela Danila; Valentin Popa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the phenolic compounds extracted from spruce bark on cells from the radicular apex of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. We found that different concentrations of polyphenols and the time of treatment modified the frequency of cells division and the number of mitotic ana-telophases with aberrations.

  4. Esterase Isozymes of Young Leaves at Three-leaf Stage of Genus Fagopyrum Plants%荞麦属植物三叶期幼叶酯酶同工酶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以忠; 陈庆富

    2008-01-01

    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术对荞麦属(Fagopyrum Mill)8个种(含大粒组7个种和小粒组1个种)29份栽培及野生荞麦植株三叶期幼叶的酯酶同工酶进行了研究.结果发现:酯酶同工酶酶带共31条,不同物种的酶带数4~9条,其中甜荞有8条带,而苦荞为9条.酶带分析及聚类分析表明:大粒组荞麦种的谱带与细野荞(F.gracilipes)等小粒组荞麦种间差异极大,甜荞(F.esculentum)和苦荞(F.tataricum)酶带分别与大野荞(F.megaspartanium)和毛野荞(F.pilus)相似,并分别与大野荞和毛野荞聚类最近, 提示大野荞和毛野荞可能分别是甜荞和苦荞的祖先种.

  5. Identification of tartary buckwheat tea aroma compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peiyou; Ma, Tingjun; Wu, Li; Shan, Fang; Ren, Guixing

    2011-08-01

    Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed. PMID:22417522

  6. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  7. Biochemical and molecular changes in buckwheat leaves during exposure to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ž.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the great nutritive and pharmacological potentials of buckwheat, data about the abiotic stress tolerance of this plant species are very limited. The aim of this work was to analyze the biochemical and molecular response of buckwheat plants in the middle vegetative phase against short- and long-term salt stress. Changes in relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, content and localization of H2O2 as well as changes in antioxidative enzyme activity and expression of ubiquitin and dehydrins, were investigated. Reasons for observed buckwheat salt stress sensitivity as well as possibilities for enhancing stress tolerance are discussed.

  8. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products. 1. Gamma irradiation to buckwheat grains with hulls, buckwheat flours and uncooked 'soba' noodles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Tetsujiro; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; O-hara, Tadahiko; Itoh, Hitoshi; Saito, Makoto

    1986-09-01

    In an attempt to develop a feasible method for improving shelf-life extension of fresh 'soba' noodles, the usefulness of gamma irradiation was preliminarily investigated. Microorganism counts decreased to less than 10/sup 2/ per gram by irradiating gamma rays of 0.5 Mrad to buckwheat grains with hulls (Material I), industrially processed buckwheat flours (Material II), and uncooked 'soba' noodles packed in a plastic film bag (Material III). For Material II, the effective dose to decrease 90 % of the microorganism counts was 0.1 Mrad, and heat-resistant microorganism counts decreased to 10 or less per gram with gamma rays of 0.2 - 0.5 Mrad. Flavor in either Material II or Material III was not changed by irradiation; by contraries, enhanced 'soba'-like flavor was rarely observed. Although gamma-irradiation decreased the viscosity of Material II, it hardly exerted an effect on the process of making noodles. The texture of Material III became degraded by irradiation. The results suggest the feasibility of gamma irradiation in the use of inactivation of microorganisms. (Namekawa, K.).

  9. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  10. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  11. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Mei; Wei, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE) was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control), was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue. PMID:21954324

  12. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  13. Farklı Azot Dozlarının Karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Tane Verim ve Kalitesine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    OKUDAN, Derya; Burhan KARA

    2015-01-01

    Araştırma; karabuğday için uygun azot dozunun (gübresiz-0 ve saf olarak: 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 ve 7.5 kg/da) belirlenmesi ve azotun verim ve kaliteye etkisini araştırmak amacıyla 2014 yılında Isparta’da yürütülmüştür. Karabuğdayın en uzun bitki boyu (77.0 cm), en yüksek tane verimi (125.4 kg/da) ve biyolojik verim (431.3 kg/da) 7.5 kg/da N dozunda, en yüksek bin tane ağırlığı (24.2 g), agronomik etkinlik (11.91), geri dönüşüm etkinliği (67.74) ve yararlılık etkinliği (50.58) 6.0 kg/da N dozunda elde...

  14. Farklı Azot Dozlarının Karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Tane Verim ve Kalitesine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya OKUDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araştırma; karabuğday için uygun azot dozunun (gübresiz-0 ve saf olarak: 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 ve 7.5 kg/da belirlenmesi ve azotun verim ve kaliteye etkisini araştırmak amacıyla 2014 yılında Isparta’da yürütülmüştür. Karabuğdayın en uzun bitki boyu (77.0 cm, en yüksek tane verimi (125.4 kg/da ve biyolojik verim (431.3 kg/da 7.5 kg/da N dozunda, en yüksek bin tane ağırlığı (24.2 g, agronomik etkinlik (11.91, geri dönüşüm etkinliği (67.74 ve yararlılık etkinliği (50.58 6.0 kg/da N dozunda elde edilmiştir. En yüksek fizyolojik etkinlik (0.76 4.5 kg/da N dozunda ve en yüksek agro-fizyolojik etkinlik (0.26  ise 1.5 kg/da N dozunda belirlenmiştir. Karabuğdayın mineral besin içeriği, uygulanan N dozlarının artışına bağlı olarak yükselmiş ve en yüksek N (%1.95, P (%0.216, K (%0.243, Mg (%0.131, Cu (4.53 ppm, Zn (18.59 ppm, Fe (3.7 ppm ve Mn içeriği (3.00 ppm 7.5 kg N uygulamasında tespit edilmiştir. Karabuğdayın mineral besin içeriği bakımından Fe elementi hariç 6.0 kg/da ile 7.5 kg/da azot dozları arasında istatistiksel olarak fark ortaya çıkmamış ve diğer elementler aynı grupta yer almışlardır.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum) occur based on the description...

  16. Buckwheat for the production of biogas. Rediscover forgotten cultures; Buchweizen fuer die Biogasproduktion. Vergessene Kulturen wiederentdecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, Falko; Fritz, Maendy

    2011-07-01

    Buckwheat whole plant can be used for the production of biogas. Due to its short growing period, buckwheat can be integrated very variable in crop rotations. For example, buckwheat can be grown as a second crop in the summer. After the harvest of winter wheat, which is used as whole plant silage, the sowing date is around mid-June. The ingredients of buckwheat expect a good fermentability with corresponding biogas production. [German] Buchweizen-Ganzpflanzen koennen fuer die Erzeugung von Biogas genutzt werden. Durch seine kurze Vegetationsperiode laesst sich Buchweizen sehr variabel in Fruchtfolgen einbinden. Zum Beispiel kann Buchweizen als Zweitfrucht im Sommer angebaut werden. Nach der Ernte von Wintergetreide, das als Ganzpflanzensilage genutzt wird, liegt der Saattermin etwa Mitte Juni. Die Inhaltsstoffe von Buchweizen lassen eine gute Vergaerbarkeit mit einer entsprechenden Biogasproduktion erwarten.

  17. Final Critical Habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum) occur. The geographic extent...

  18. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte mem...

  19. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Vira Drobot; Anastasiya Semenova; Jelyzaveta Smirnova; Larisa Mykhonik

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes) on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural an...

  20. Biochemical and molecular changes in buckwheat leaves during exposure to salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Ž.S.; Maksimović Vesna R.; Radović Svetlana R.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the great nutritive and pharmacological potentials of buckwheat, data about the abiotic stress tolerance of this plant species are very limited. The aim of this work was to analyze the biochemical and molecular response of buckwheat plants in the middle vegetative phase against short- and long-term salt stress. Changes in relative water content, level of lipid peroxidation, content and localization of H2O2 as well as changes in antioxidative enzyme activity and expression of...

  1. Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two tartary buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the relative contributions of variety and growing environment to phenolic content and antioxidant properties were determined, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. The total phenolic contents varied from 5,150 to 9,660 μmol of gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of dry weight (DW of tartary buckwheat and the free phenolics accounted for 94% to 99%. Rutin content was in the range from 518.54 to 1,447.87 mg per 100 gram of DW of tartary buckwheat. p-Hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the prominent phenolic acids and other phenolics, including p-coumaric, gallic, caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids were also detected. Tartary buckwheat exhibited higher DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities and was more effective at preventing the bleaching of β-carotene in comparison with reference antioxidant and plant phenolics constituents. Additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. This study suggests that tartary buckwheat has potential health benefits because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant properties. These components could also be enhanced by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected variety.

  2. Effects of Mannitol and Sorbitol on Salt Tolerance of Buckwheat Seedlings%甘露醇和山梨醇对荞麦幼苗耐盐性的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 杨世平

    2014-01-01

    以盐敏感荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)品种为试验材料,通过对NaCl胁迫下添加不同浓度甘露醇和山梨醇研究其对荞麦耐盐性的效应.结果表明,适当浓度的甘露醇和山梨醇处理可显著增加盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗根系活力,显著降低荞麦叶片丙二醛(MDA)含量,显著增加荞麦叶片过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,且甘露醇处理的效果优于山梨醇处理.说明适当浓度的甘露醇和山梨醇处理能显著提高荞麦幼苗的耐盐性,甘露醇和山梨醇处理的最适浓度分别为0.8和0.6 mmol/L.

  3. Effects of Zn2+ on Heat Tolerance of Buckwheat Seedlings under High Temperature%Zn2+对高温胁迫下荞麦幼苗耐热性的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵; 周迎红

    2014-01-01

    以不同抗逆性荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)品种为实验材料,高温胁迫下采用不同浓度Zn2+处理,测定荞麦幼苗耐热生理指标.结果表明,适当浓度Zn2+处理可显著或极显著降低高温胁迫下荞麦叶片质膜透性,抗逆荞麦品种降低较多;显著或极显著增加高温胁迫下荞麦幼苗根系活力、叶片叶绿素含量及SOD活性,敏感荞麦品种增加较多,且使得抗逆荞麦品种叶片SOD活性恢复到对照水平,Zn2+处理的最适浓度为40μmol/L,说明适当浓度的外源Zn2+处理对荞麦耐热性具有明显促进效应.

  4. The influence of natural aromatic compounds on the development of Lycopersicon esculentum plantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin I. Popa; Anca Bălaş

    2007-01-01

    The influences of flax lignin and phenolic compounds obtained from spruce bark on the development of Lycopersicon esculentum plantlets were evaluated. Depending on the applied treatment and the concentrations used, the natural aromatic compounds had stimulatory effects on the germination capacity and the plantlets height and leaf area. The influence of lignin on Lycopersicon esculentum was lower comparing to the phenolic extract.

  5. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  6. Allelopathic potential of Asarum europaeum toward Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asarum europaeum L. contains water-soluble substances which manifest allelopathic potential. Aqueous extracts from leaves and stems of Asarum europaeum were assayed to determine their allelopathic effects on Lycopersicon esculentum and Zea mays seeds germination and early seedling growth. The germination of the investigated seeds was found to be inhibited with increasing of the Asarum europaeum L. extract concentration. Moreover, the active substances extracted from leaves were found to be more inhibitory on the seeds germination in comparison with those extracted from stems.

  7. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  8. 荞麦属(Fagopyrum Mill)植物资源的RAPD研究%Study on RAPD of Genus Fagopyrum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翠娟; 陈庆富

    2009-01-01

    以10个随机引物对荞麦属(Fagopyrum)11个种(含大粒组7个种,小粒组4个种)共50份栽培及野生荞麦资源进行RAPD研究.初步建立了养麦属不同物种的RAPD指纹图谱.系统聚类分析表明,荞麦属大粒组和小粒组组间以及不同荞麦种间在DNA水平上差异极大.在大粒组中苦荞DNA与其他种之间有较大的差异.大野荞和毛野荞分别与甜荞和苦荞在RAPD水平上较近缘,支持它们分别是甜荞和苦荞祖先种的假说.

  9. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1#, Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  10. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  11. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenlechner, Regine; Drausinger, Julian; Ottenschlaeger, Veronika; Jurackova, Katerina; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2010-12-01

    The use of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta was investigated in the present study. The aim of the work was to produce pasta of good textural quality, in particular, low cooking loss, optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The results demonstrated that pasta produced from amaranth had decreased texture firmness and cooking time, while pasta from quinoa mainly showed increased cooking loss. In buckwheat pasta the least negative effects were observed. By combination of all three raw materials to one flour blend in the ratio of 60% buckwheat, 20% amaranth and 20% quinoa, dough matrix was improved. After decreasing dough moisture to 30%, addition of an increased amount of egg white powder of 6% and addition of 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) texture firmness as well as cooking quality of gluten-free pasta produced from such a flour blend reached acceptable values comparable to wheat pasta. PMID:20972627

  12. Development Fagopyrum tataricum Production in China%发展中国的苦荞生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钢; 唐宇; 王安虎

    2002-01-01

    @@ 荞麦在许多国家都有栽培,但主要集中在北半球.我国栽培荞麦的历史悠久,荞麦栽培种有甜荞(Fagopyrum sagittatum)和苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)两个品种,甜荞主要分布在长江以北地区,苦荞主要分布在长江以南地区.我国是世界苦荞的集中产区,苦荞种植面积和产量均居世界第一,常年种植面积在100万hm2以上,在四川、云南、贵州和西藏等西部省区的一些干旱高寒山区、少数民族地区、边远山区具有明显的生产优势.

  13. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  14. Optimization of the Formula of Tartary Buckwheat Bread%苦荞面包配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    采用快速发酵法,研究了苦荞粉添加量、魔芋精粉和谷朊粉添加量对苦荞面包品质的影响.试验表明:苦荞粉添加量对苦荞面包的比容和感官评定得分起着决定作用;苦荞粉添加量占苦荞粉和面包专用粉总质量的30%时,魔芋精粉添加量为1.61%,谷朊粉添加量为1.60%,苦荞面包比容最大.%The influences of tartary buckwheat bread quality on added buckwheat powder and konjac flour and wheat gluten added by quick fermentation were tested. The experiments showed that the amount of tartary buckwheat powder played a decisive role of tartary buckwheat bread specific volume and sensory evaluation scores. The best addition amount of buckwheat powder was 30% of total counts of buckwheat powder and bread flour. The best addition amounts of konjac flour and wheat gluten werel.61%, and 1.60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the largest buckwheat bread specific volume was obtained.

  15. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses. PMID:21138066

  16. The effects of selenium on lycopersicon esculentum mill. seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was planned to contribute the views examining the physiological mechanisms of selenium-induced growth reductions with regard to selenium and plant nutrient interactions. Growth inhibition in the seedlings and the changes in nutrient compositions of epidermal cells with administration of increasing concentrations of selenium were investigated at the initial growth stage, which is the most stress-sensitive stage, of plant. The effects of selenium on Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. seedlings were investigated by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis) analysis of the regions, approximately 450 mm x 500 mm in size, with use of low-vacuum (24 Pascal) Scanning Electron Microscope, and SEM images were obtained. Increasing concentrations of selenium in the nutrient solution led to decreased cell growth particularly in the hypocotyl and roots, and to increased selenium content in the cells. The growth inhibitions were found at the selenium concentrations of 100 ppm. Development of the glandular hairs in the hypocotyl epidermal system was significantly reduced with the administration of 200 ppm of selenium. Development of the absorbing hairs in the roots was decreased in parallel with the increasing selenium concentrations in the nutrient solution; and because the development of the root is often limited to only to the development of radicula at the selenium concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm, no absorbing hairs was found in these roots. Some macro- and micronutrient contents of radicle and hypocotyl epidermal cells were changed in response to selenium toxicity. In conclusion, 200 ppm of selenium administered in the form of SeO/sub 2/ was certainly toxic for the initial growth period of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. H-2274. (author)

  17. The phytotoxic action of triazine herbicides on flax, beets and buckwheat seedlings, and some physiological changes connected with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płoszyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that triazine herbicides exerted, when applied for a longer time, an increasing inhibitory effect on dry and fresh weight yields, transpiration and growth of the seedlings of flax, beet and buckwheat. At the same time enhanced accumulation of free amino acids and decrease of simple sugar values was noted in the aboveground parts of the test plants. The results are interpreted as the secondary effects of the inhibitory action of triazines on plant photosynthesis. The toxicity of the tested chemicals to flax, beet and buckwheat decreased in the following order: atrazine, simazine, propazine, atratone, prometone and prometryne. Flax was more resistant to triazines than beets and buckwheat.

  18. Improvement of Surface Functionalities, Including Allergenicity Attenuation, of Whole Buckwheat Protein Fraction by Maillard-Type Glycation with Dextran

    OpenAIRE

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two we...

  19. RAPD-анализ геномного полиморфизма видов и сортов рода Fagopyrum

    OpenAIRE

    Кадырова, Гузель; Кадырова, Фануся; Рыжова, Наталья; Крчиева, Елена

    2008-01-01

    'Проведен молекулярный RAPD-анализ геномного разнообразия культурных видов рода Fagopyrum F. esculentum, F. tataricum, а также близкородственных F. giganteum и F. cymosum. Подтверждено родство F. cymosum, F. giganteum и F. tataricum. Установлено, что уровень внутривидового геномного разнообразия представителей F. tataricum (0,01-0,15) существенно ниже разнообразия F. esculentum (0,10-0,33). Впервые исследовано генетическое разнообразие сортов гречихи F. esculentum отечественной селекции. Пока...

  20. CONDICIONAMENTOS MECÂNICOS DE MUDAS DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. MECHANICAL CONDITIONING OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bovi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de condicionamentos mecânicos de ventilação, agitação e esfregamento em mudas de tomateiro do cultivar Angela Gigante I 5.100 Asgrow (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. O experimento foi realizado em estufa plástica tipo tunel, alto com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com doze repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: altura, diâmetro, número de folhas; massa de matéria seca da raiz, brotações e total, e as relações entre massa de matéria seca das brotações/ massa matéria seca da raíz, altura/diâmetro. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o condicionamento por esfregamento proporcionou, aos 27 dias de idade, mudas de menor altura e maior diâmetro quando comparadas às mudas dos demais tratamentos e testemunhas.The effect of fanning, shaking and brushing was evaluated in Angela Gigante I 5.100 Asgrow's tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. The experiment was carried out in a high plastic tunnel using a fully randomized design with twelve replications. The parameters evaluated were seedling height, diameter and leaf number; root, shoot and total, dry matter weights and shoot matter dry weight/ root matter dry weight, and height/diameter ratios. The results obtained show that brushing produced shorter seedlings at 27 days of age, with larger diameter in relation to the other treatments and control.

  1. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  2. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  3. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  4. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  5. Biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in spontaneously-fermented buckwheat and teff sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this study, four different laboratory scale gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs were developed from buckwheat or teff flours. The fermentations were initiated by the spontaneous biota of the flours and developed under two technological conditions (A and B). Sourdoughs were propagated by continuous back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable biota occurring in each sourdough was assessed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Overall, a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts species, belonging mainly to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Kazachstania and Candida, were identified in the stable sourdoughs. Buckwheat and teff sourdoughs were dominated mainly by obligate or facultative heterofermentative LAB, which are commonly associated with traditional wheat or rye sourdoughs. However, the spontaneous fermentation of the GF flours resulted also in the selection of species which are not consider endemic to traditional sourdoughs, i.e. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc holzapfelii, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus graminis and Weissella cibaria. In general, the composition of the stable biota was strongly affected by the fermentation conditions, whilst Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in all buckwheat sourdoughs. Lactobacillus pontis is described for the first time as dominant species in teff sourdough. Among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata dominated teff sourdoughs, whereas the solely Kazachstania barnetti was isolated in buckwheat sourdough developed under condition A. This study allowed the identification and isolation of LAB and yeasts species which are highly competitive during fermentation of buckwheat or teff flours. Representatives of these species can be selected as starters for the production of sourdough destined to GF bread production. PMID:21356457

  6. Effect of roasting time of buckwheat groats on the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Wronkowska; Konrad, Piskuła Mariusz; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat, induced by roasting at 160 °C for 30, 40 and 50 min, were evaluated in the study. Furozine, was detected after roasting, in all buckwheat samples. Increase of FIC, the presence of significant amounts of CML and enhanced browning were observed, along with increasing times of roasting. The formation of acrylamide in the obtained buckwheat products was also significantly connected with the time of roasting. A significant degradation was observed in natural antioxidants, as affected by heat treatment time. The colour parameter changed significantly with the increasing of roasting time. Overall, 30min of roasting was beneficial from a nutritional point of view for the obtained buckwheat product. PMID:26593501

  7. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Suliburska; Paweł Bogdański; Barbara Chiniewicz

    2011-01-01

    Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics) on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined w...

  8. Evaluation of Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of the Aerial Parts of Common and Tartary Buckwheat Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Zieliński; Jacek Kwiatkowski; Marcin Turemko; Danuta Zielińska

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of major and minor flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of stems, leaves, flowers, unripe seeds and ripe seeds of common and tartary buckwheat plants collected during different growth periods was addressed in this study. The highest rutin contents were observed in flowers and leaves collected from common and tartary buckwheat at early flowering as well as flowering and seed formation states. A low quercetin contents w...

  9. Detection of serum markers and pulmonary fibrosis indexes in COPD rat model intervened by Fagopyrum dibotrys extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Li Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect ofFagopyrum dibotrys extract on serum markers and pulmonary fibrosis indexes in COPD rat model.Methods: Adult male SD rats were selected, COPD models were made by smoking method andFagopyrum dibotrys extract was given for treatment. After treatment, macroeconomic indicators and molecular markers of pulmonary fibrosis as well as serum inflammation related molecules were detected.Results:(1) pulmonary fibrosis: Compared with the control group, airway resistance, intrathoracic pressure as well as Col I, Col III, TGFβ and Smad3 contents of the model group increased, and dynamic lung compliance as well as AQP1 and AQP5 contents decreased; compared with the model group, airway resistance, intrathoracic pressure as well as Col I, Col III, TGFβ and Smad3 contents of the treatment group decreased, and dynamic lung compliance as well as AQP1 and AQP5 contents increased; (2) serum indicators: Compared with the control group, serum INF-γ, CXCR3, IL-17, PCT and LTB4 contents of model group significantly increased; compared with the model group, serum INF-γ, CXCR3, IL-17, PCT and LTB4 contents of the treatment group significantly decreased.Conclusion:Fagopyrum dibotrys extract intervention can improve pulmonary fibrosis and relieve the degrees of inflammation; it is an ideal drug for the treatment of COPD.

  10. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  11. Germination of tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum L. under magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field is an inescapable factor for plants on the Earth; however its impact on plants growth is not well understood. Magnetic and electromagnetic treatments are being used in agriculture, as a non invasive technique, to improve the germination of seeds and increase crops and yields. The effects of a stationary magnetic field on the germination and initial stages of growth of tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum L. have been studied. The seeds were exposed to a magnetic field strength (125 or 250 mT for different time as different treatments (doses D1 to D12. To evaluate germination number of germinated seeds (G, mean germination time (MGT, and the time required for 1 to 90% of the seeds to germinate (T1, T10, T25, T50, T75, and T90 were determined. Parameter T10, which is closely related to the early germination and latent period of seeds, was reduced when seeds were exposed to a magnetic field. The MGT was also reduced compared to control when seeds were exposed to magnetic field The germination parameters recorded for each treatment were lower than corresponding control values, then germination rate of treated seeds is higher than the control.

  12. Tissue culture studies in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) var. moneymaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol was developed for callus induction and regeneration in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) var. Moneymaker. Hypocotyl and leaf disc explants of tomato were used as a starting material for callus induction. Explants were cultured on MS medium having different concentrations of hormones. Maximum callogenesis from hypocotyls was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (5 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 65.2% for hypocotyls. For leaf discs maximum callogenesis was achieved on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). It was 81.3% for leaf discs. Calli were cultured on MS medium having concentrations of Zeatin (1 mg/l) and IAA (1 mg/l) for regeneration. They showed maximum regeneration of 69.2% from hypocotyls. Minimum regeneration of 2.8% was obtained on MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/l), NAA (2 mg/l), BAP (2 mg/l) and Kin (4 mg/l). Tomato shoots were shifted to one half MS medium containing IBA (0.1 mg/l) and BAP (0.0025 mg/l) for rooting and all responded positively to rooting. (author)

  13. 氮磷钾及有机肥不同配施方案对荞麦种子类黄酮含量的影响%The Effect of N,P,K and Organic Fertilizer Combined Application on Buckwheat Flavonoids Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松鹤; 任琴; 曹兴明; 党学锋

    2015-01-01

    采用四因素五水平二次正交旋转组合设计,建立氮肥、磷肥、钾肥和有机肥对荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.)种子类黄酮含量的二次回归方程.分析得出,各种肥料作用效果排序为:P2O5>N>K2O>有机肥;通过方案寻优得出,N、P2O5、K2O和有机肥的最适配比为8∶1∶4:1 054.最适施肥量为:N 36.19~39.22 kg/667m2、P2O5 4.77~5.03 kg/667 m2、K2O 16.72~18.34 kg/667 m2、有机肥5 030~5 509 kg/667 m2.

  14. Study on Se Content in Different Genotypes of Fagopyrum tataricum%苦荞种子中硒含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To select the Fagopyrum tataricum with higher Se content: [ Method] Se contents in 35 Fagopyrum tataricum materials from different places of origin were detected. [ Result] Se content in the 35 Fagopyrum tataricum materials ranged from 0.009 9 to 0. 120 8 mg/kg with an average of 0.040 6 mg/kg; it varied from region to region, the Se content in the Fagopyrum tataricum materials from Gansu was the highest while lower in that from Nayong of Cuizhou and Shaanxi. [Conclusion] The research provided theoretical support for further studying the genetic variation laws of Se content in different Fagopyrum tataricum materials.%[目的]筛选出硒含量较高的苦荞资源.[方法]以不同产地的35份苦荞资源为试材,测定了其籽粒中的硒含量.[结果]35份苦荞资源的硒含量变化幅度为0.0099-0.1208 mg/kg,平均值为0.0406 mg/kg;不同产地苦荞的硒含量存在差异,以甘肃地区较高,贵州纳雍和陕西较低.[结论]为进一步研究硒含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律提供了理论依据.

  15. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  16. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  17. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  18. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, R C; Chiba, Y; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Jack, F R; Harrison, B; Pearson, S Y; Bryce, J H

    2012-10-10

    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available. PMID:22950683

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB). Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of...

  20. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  1. Physical Effects of Buckwheat Extract on Biological Membrane In Vitro and Its Protective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Strugała, Paulina; Pruchnik, Hanna; Żyłka, Romuald; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Buckwheat is a valuable source of many biologically active compounds and nutrients. It has properties that reduce blood cholesterol levels, and so reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, seals the capillaries, and lowers blood pressure. The aim of the study was to determine quantitative and qualitative characteristics of polyphenols contained in extracts from buckwheat husks and stalks, the biological activity of the extracts, and biophysical effects of their interaction with the erythrocyte membrane, treated as a model of the cell. An analysis of the extract's composition has shown that buckwheat husk and stalk extracts are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, the stalk extracts showing more compounds than the husk extract. The study allowed to determine the location which incorporated polyphenols occupy in the erythrocyte membrane and changes in the membrane properties caused by them. It was found that the extracts do not induce hemolysis of red blood cells, causing an increase in osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. They affect mainly the hydrophilic region by changing the degree of order of the polar heads of lipids, but do little to change the fluidity of the membrane and its hydration. The results showed also that polyphenolic substances included in the extracts well protect the membranes of red blood cells against oxidation and exhibit anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:26581904

  2. Study of evapotranspiration and evaporation beneath the canopy in a buckwheat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Zhang, Chuan; Oue, Hiroki; Wang, Guoqing; He, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The determination of evaporation and transpiration separately is very important in improving water use efficiency and developing exact irrigation scheduling. Hourly crop evapotranspiration ( ET c) and soil evaporation ( E g) beneath the buckwheat canopy were measured using Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The total ET c and E g in the whole growth season of buckwheat were 187.4 and 72.1 mm, respectively. Crop coefficient of buckwheat plant was simulated by days after sowing (DAS) and leaf area index (LAI), the average values for four growth stages were 0.58, 0.59, 1.10, and 0.74; and soil evaporation coefficient (the ratio of soil evaporation to reference evapotranspiration) was modeled by soil water content at 5-cm depth by dividing the LAI into two stages. The relationship between the ratio of soil evaporation to actual evapotranspiration ( E g/ ET c) and LAI was decided. It was found that E g/ ET c decreased from 1 to 0.3 with the increase in LAI.

  3. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  4. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  5. On Developing Bitter Buckwheat Dim Sums%苦荞面点的开发思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美

    2012-01-01

    苦荞被认为是食药两用的粮食作物,其营养价值、药用价值受到普遍关注,但是苦荞粉无面筋、色泽暗黄、口味微苦等缺陷限制了苦荞面点市场化程度。本文以面点工艺实施的可行性为依据,研制出苦荞生物发酵类面点、苦荞层酥类面点、苦荞单酥类面点的配方与工艺,对苦荞面点开发及与苦荞工艺性质相似杂粮面点的开发具有借鉴意义。%Bitter buckwheat is considered to be a kind of dual-purpose crops, used as both food and medicine. Its nutritional and officinal value draws wide attention. However, deficiencies of gluten-free, slightly bitter taste and yellowish color limit its marketability. Based on the feasibility of buckwheat dim sum, this paper aims to put forward design formulas and processing technology of bio-fermented pastry, multi-layer and single-layer crisp cakes made of bitter buckwheat. This can be used as reference for development of pastry made of bitter buck- wheat and other grains with similar properties.

  6. 温度和盐胁迫对金荞麦和荞麦种子萌发的影响%Effects of Temperature and Salt Stress on the Seeds Germination of Fagopyrum dibotrys and Fagopyrum emarginatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊星; 何平; 张益锋; 张春平

    2010-01-01

    比较了蓼科(Polygonaceae)荞麦属(Fagopyrum)2个种金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys(D.Don)Hara)和荞麦(Fagopyrum emarginatum(Roth)Meisner)种子在不同温度和不同NaCl浓度下的萌发率.结果表明:金荞麦和荞麦种子萌发率最高时温度是35℃,最适温度是25℃,该温度下荞麦种子的萌发率(73.67%)显著高于金荞麦种子的萌发率(54.78%),金荞麦种子25℃萌发率与35℃时萌发率(55.48%)相比没有显著差异,荞麦种子25℃时种子萌发率只比35℃时萌发率(75.67%)低2.00%;0.1%NaCl浓度与CK(NaCl浓度为0)时对金荞麦和荞麦种子萌发率没有显著差异,说明2个种种子均有抗低盐能力.通过比较不同NaCl浓度下金荞麦和荞麦种子萌发率的相对变化,得出金荞麦种子比荞麦种子具有更强的耐盐性.

  7. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral ...

  8. 西南地区金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys(D.Don) Hara)居群的等位酶变异%Allozyme Divergence Among Fagopyrum dibotrys Populations in Southweast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定泽; 侯鑫; 赵佐成

    2000-01-01

    采用等位酶电泳技术研究了云南省和四川省西南共五县境内金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys(D.Don) Hara)5个天然居群间的遗传分化.金荞麦居群间遗传分化程度较低,FST值为0.225,居群间遗传一致度和遗传距离的均值分别为0.905 3和0.100 5,并提出了保护建议.

  9. 苦荞麦根的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from roots of Fagopyrum tataricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长玲; 郑承剑; 程瑞斌; 秦路平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chemical constituents from the roots of Fagopyrum tataricum. Methods The solvent extraction together with column chromatography was used for the isolation of chemical constituents. The physicochemical characteristic and spectroscopic evidences were employed for structure identification. Results Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde (1), coumarin (2), (-)-liquiritigenin (3), bis (2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (4), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde(5), vanillin (6), 6-hydroxystigmasta-4, 22-dien-3-one (7), and 2, 5-dimethoxybenzoquinone (8). Conclusion All compounds are isolated from the plants in genus Fagopyrum Mill, for the first time.%目的 研究苦荞麦Fagopyrum tataricum根的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱技术进行分离精制,通过理化性质和波谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从苦荞麦根中分离得到8个化合物,分别鉴定为5-羟甲基-2-呋喃甲醛(1)、香豆素(2)、(一)-甘草素(3)、酞酸双(2-乙基己基)酯(4)、对羟基苯甲醛(5)、香草醛(6)、6-羟基豆甾-4,22-二烯-3-酮(7)、2,5-二甲氧基苯醌(8).结论 所有化合物均为首次从荞麦属中分离得到.

  10. Efficiency in absorption and utilization of phosphorus of four plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic dilution method was used to estimate the amounts of available soil phosphorus (L-values) in a clay loam soil by growing barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow lupin (Lupinus lutius) in pot experiments. Considerable differences in L-values were obtained, indicating that plant species differ in their ability to absorb soil P. No single factor could explain these observations. It is assumed that both the root extension and the physiological differences in the mechanism of nutrient absorption should be considered, e.g. differential uptake of Ca and pH changes in the rhizosphere soil. The most efficient species (buckwheat and lupin) did not respond to P fertilization, while a positive yield response was obtained in barley and peas. Buckwheat absorbed the greatest amount of P from unfertilized soil, but the production of biomass per unit of P absorbed was lower than in the other species. Linear extrapolation of the ''yield of phosphorus'' curves gave results similar to those obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The L-values obtained by growing rye-grass after cropping with barley, buckwheat, pea, and lupin depended on the previous crop. However, these residual effects could be accounted for by adding to the L-values the amounts of P absorbed by the previous crop. All the fertilizer P added to the previous crops apparently remained available to plants, and no mobilization or immobilization of P occurred as a result of cropping with the four plant species. (author)

  11. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. PMID:27211614

  12. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  13. Research on the Development of Fagopyrum Cymosum Cake and Toast%金荞麦清蛋糕和土司面包的开发研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 钟志惠; 孙俊秀; 贾洪锋; 冯贤贤

    2013-01-01

      以金荞麦粉与小麦面粉按不同的配比研制出组织松软,色泽和口感均优良的营养保健型清蛋糕和土司面包。采用正交试验对金荞麦清蛋糕和土司面包制作工艺及配方进行了研究。结果表明,金荞麦清蛋糕最佳配方为小麦面粉120 g,金荞麦粉30 g,鸡蛋360 g,糖120 g。金荞麦土司面包最佳配方为小麦面粉900 g,金荞麦粉100 g,水600 g,糖100 g。%Our study makes researches on the baking techniques ,procedures as well as recipes of the Fagopyrum Cymosum cake and toast by Orthogonal test. We aims to find out the best recipe with right proportion of flour and the Fagopyrum Cymosum flour for producing some new health cakes and bread in good texture ,color and taste.The results show that the best recipe for the Fagopyrum Cymosum cakes was: wheat flour 120 g , Fagopyrum Cymosum flour 30 g, egg 360 g ,sugar 120 g; while for toast: wheat flour 900 g, Fagopyrum Cymosum flour 100 g, water 600 g ,sugar 100 g.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 65 °C. UAE method is an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of FTB.

  15. Buckwheat yield and its quality as affected by laser biostimulation of its seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various doses of laser radiation applied to buckwheat seed bio stimulation on the yield, and changes of chemical composition was analysed. A 12-25 percent increase of yield was observed in bio stimulated plants. The most positive effects were achieved after seed triple radiation using a laser of 30 mW power for 0.1 s. Bio stimulation caused a slight increase of protein, fat and fiber content a large increase of soluble and reducing sugars and a decrease of starch level

  16. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Petra; Kráčmar, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fi bre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 152/2009. A modifi ed version of Holt's Method was used for phytic acid (phytate) determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The conte...

  17. Induction of volatile organic compound in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum by chitosan oligomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Peiqing; Lin Xuezheng; Shen Jihong; Huang Xiaohang; Chen Kaoshan; Li Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Induction of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum by chitosan oligomer elictor was studied. The results demonstrated that VOCs in chitosan oligomer-treated leaves showed stronger inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea than that in water-treated leaves, and the spore germination was reduced by 22.1% in 144h after elicitor treatment at a concentration of 1.0%. A total of 16 constituents were detected in water-treated leaves, and chitosan oligomer treatment increased the amount of VOCs production. Chitosan oligomer at different concentration and different time courses of induction treatment could induce different amount of VOCs. Chitosan oligomer resulted in an optimal production of VOCs in 144h after elicitation at concentration of 0.6%. Chitosan oligomer also enhanced activtity of PAL and LOX. The results showed that the enhancement of VOCs production after chitosan oligomer treatment might be an important agent for L.esculentum acquiring resistance against pathogen.

  18. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined with and without (the control sample an addition of hypotensive drugs. Four antihypertensive drugs in one dose (one tablet per sample were analysed: metocard (a β-blocker, cardilopin (a Ca-antagonist, apo-perindox (ACE-I and indapen (a diuretic. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in buckwheat groats before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results. It was found that cardilopin (amlodipine and indapen (indapamide significantly increased the release of zinc from groats. The degree of release of magnesium was higher and the release of iron was lower in samples with apo-perindox (perindopril than in the control group. The release of copper was significantly decreased by indapen (indapamid. Conclusions. Amlodipine, perindopril and indapamide affected the release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion.

  19. Peptides Derived from Rhopilema esculentum Hydrolysate Exhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Antioxidant Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Li; Qian Li; Jingyun Li; Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) was hydrolyzed using alcalase, and two peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities were purified by ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were identified as VKP (342 Da) and VKCFR (651 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The IC50 values of ACE inhibitory activities of the two peptides were 1.3 μM and 34.5 μM, respectively. Molecula...

  20. Chromatographic analyses of biomolecules in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties from Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed vegetables, being the second most important vegetable crop worldwide. lt is a key component in the so-called "Mediterranean diet", which is strongly associated with a reduced risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Local populations from Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) still prefer to consume traditional vegetables (e.g. different farmer' varieties of tomato) which they find very tasty and healthy, as they are grow...

  1. Beneficial insects attracted to native flowering buckwheats (Eriogonum Michx) in central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2014-08-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs aimed at improving conservation biological control in perennial crops such as wine grapes. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to 10 species of flowering native wild buckwheat (Eriogonum spp.) in central Washington were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, the mean number per trap ranged from 48.5 (Eriogonum umbellatum) to 167.7 (Eriogonum elatum). Three Eriogonum spp. (E. elatum, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum niveum) attracted significantly more beneficial insects than the lowest-ranked species. E. niveum attracted greatest numbers of bees and parasitic wasps, and E. elatum was highly attractive to predatory true bugs and beneficial flies. Blooming periods of Eriogonum spp. extended from mid April to the end of September. This study demonstrates the attraction of beneficial insects to native flowering buckwheats and suggests their potential as a component of habitat restoration strategies to improve and sustain conservation biological control in Washington viticulture. PMID:24960157

  2. Photosynthesis of buckwheat population under field conditions with special reference to planting density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted to characterize the canopy photosynthesis and the leaf photosynthesis at different layers in buckwheat under different planting densities. At the flowering stage, the canopy photosynthetic rate (Pn-canopy) was measured by means of a closed chamber system, and the leaf photosynthetic rate of each layer (Pn-layer) within the canopy was estimated using 13CO2. The Pn-canopy showed maximum values at around noon: 19.7 and 27.4 micro mol CO2m-2 s-1 at low (64 plants m-2) and high (136 plants m-2) planting densities, respectively, without light saturation at 1800 micro mol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation. The Pn-layer of uppermost layer showed maximum values of 21.4 and 20.4 micro mol CO2m-2 s-1 at low and high densities, respectively. The lower the layer, the lower the Pn-layer. The Pn-layer of low density was higher than that of high density at all layers. Leaves at the layer 40 - 60 cm above the ground level were assumed to contribute to Pn-canopy approximately 55% in both planting densities. The Pn-canopy of buckwheat was characterized to be promoted by having higher SLW and lower K at low and high planting density, respectively. (author)

  3. AGRO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH STIMULANTS AND MICROFERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlobaeva E. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the food value of buckwheat. It is said that the achievement of its biological potential under prevailing conditions of cultivation is impossible without the introduction of modern scientific and technical progress. The authors describe variants of integrated application of growth stimulants and microfertilizers in buckwheat production technology. Recommended technologies have been tested in conditions of the Central Chernozem region. It is revealed that the best variant of pre-sowing seed treatment is the combination of Epin-extra and Rexolin ABS. Conbination of Epin-extra and Speedfol B is the best variant of treatment of vegetating plants, providing the maximum yield increase in comparison with control variant (without treatments. Economic efficiency of all proposed technologies was studied. The system of indicators was chosen, which evaluate the efficiency of 36 variants of seed and plant treatment with growth stimulants and microfertilizers. A comparative analysis of variants demonstrated that the application of Speedfol B in combination with EPIN-extra and Rexolin ABS is most cost-effective and profitable. It is noted that the final choice of combination of growth stimulants and microfertilizers will depend on the specific conditions of cultivation. Recommendations are given

  4. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  5. The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are paying increasing attention to the health subtle bearings of the food they consume. The term nutraceutical has been adopted to point to those food preparations which areacknowledged to possess health beneficial properties. Most of these properties rely on the presence of bioactive compounds in the various food ingredients. Among bioactive food components an importantgroup is represented by the flavonoids, of which rutin is credited to exert a multiplicity of health beneficial effects. Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum, whose whole flour contains high amounts of rutin (up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, offers the opportunity to obtain a new range of functional foods capable of providing the consumers effective amounts of such bioactive compound through the daily averageconsumption of traditional wheat based staples like bread and biscuits. A preliminary attempt was made to verify the possibility to secure, through the preventive nutrition approach, the multiplicity of health beneficial properties rutin is expected to exert, thanks to the introduction of a few percent of tartary buckwheat whole flour in the original recipe of some traditional backed foods typical of Tuscany, a Region of Central Italy.

  6. Multivariate analysis of buckwheat sourdough fermentations for metabolic screening of starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Stetina, Mandy; Gstattenbauer, Anja; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-08-18

    This study investigated the metabolic activity of 35 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which were able to grow in buckwheat sourdoughs and delivers a detailed explanation of LAB metabolism in that environment. To interpret the high-dimensional dataset, descriptive statistics and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Heterofermentative LAB showed a clear different metabolism than facultative (f.) heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB, which were more similar. Heterofermentative LAB were mainly characterized by high free SH groups and acetic acid production; they were also able to consume arabinose and glucose. Homofermenters were mainly characterized by lower free amino nitrogen content and they did not show a good capacity to consume arabinose and fructose. Except for the heterofermentative Weissella cibaria strain, only homofermentative strains showed high ornithine yields. Some f. heterofermentative strains differed from homofermentative due to the high lactic acid production as well as low glucose and arginine consumption. LAB containing more genes encoding peptidase activities and genes involved in aroma production showed a high consumption of free amino acids. Strain-dependent activities could be clearly distinguished from group dependent ones (homofermentative, f. heterofermentative and heterofermentative), e.g., some Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest carbohydrate consumption. However, some microbial activities were more strain-dependent than group-dependent. Multivariate analysis of raw data delivered a detailed and clear explanation of LAB metabolism in buckwheat sourdough fermentations. PMID:24992519

  7. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour. PMID:26446284

  8. 苦荞麸皮黄酮抗氧化及抗肿瘤活性%Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Flavonoids Extracted from Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum (L.) Gaertn) Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富华; 刘冬; 明建

    2014-01-01

    以西南地区的两种苦荞麸皮为实验材料(重庆酉阳苦养麸皮(T1);四川西昌苦养麸皮(T2)),通过氧化自由基吸收能力实验(oxygen radical absorbance capacity,ORAC)测定苦荞麸皮黄酮的化学抗氧化能力,采用人肝癌细胞HepG2为细胞模型,研究苦养麸皮黄酮的细胞抗氧化活性(cellular antioxidant activity,CAA)及对HepG2细胞抗增殖活性.结果表明:T1和T2苦养麸皮黄酮的ORAC值分别为(57.0±3.5)、(73.6±6.3) μmol TE/g.T1和T2苦荞麸皮黄酮的细胞抗氧化值分别为(44.4±5.2)、(52.5±2.7) μmolQE/100g(PBS清洗); (32.9±3.2)、(30.9±2.2) μmol QE/100g(不经PBS清洗).在对HepG2细胞体外抗增殖活性研究实验中,通过与对照组细胞相比,发现当苦养麸皮黄酮的质量浓度为21.9 mg/mL时,T1和T2苦荞麸皮黄酮对HepG2细胞增殖的抑制率分别约为51%和82% (P<0.01),二者相应的EC50值分别为(23.0±0.5) mg/mL和(13.7±0.1) mg/mL.因此,苦荞麸皮黄酮具有一定的体外细胞抗氧化和抗增殖的能力,可将苦荞麸皮作为此类功能性食品开发的原料资源.

  9. Effect of boiling in water of barley and buckwheat groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hęś, Marzanna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Gujska, Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the research of polyphenols obtained from dietary sources, and their antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling buckwheat and barley groats on the antioxidant properties and dietary fiber composition. Antioxidative properties were investigated using methyl linoleate model system, by assessing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Raw barley and buckwheat groats extracts showed higher DPPH scavenging ability compared to boiled barley and buckwheat groats extracts. Raw barley groats extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity than boiled groats extract in the methyl linoleate emulsion. Higher chelating ability in relation to Fe (II) ions was observed for boiled groats extracts as compared to raw groats extracts. BHT showed small antiradical activity and metal chelating activity, while showing higher antioxidative activity in emulsion system. The analysis of groats extracts using HPLC method showed the presence of rutin, catechin, quercetin, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, vanillic, sinapic, and ferulic acids. Differences in the content of dietary fiber and its fractions were observed in the examined products. The highest total dietary fiber content was detected in boiled buckwheat groats, while the lowest - in boiled barley groats. The scientific achievements of this research could help consumers to choose those cereal products available on the market, such as barley and buckwheat groats, which are a rich source of antioxidative compounds and dietary fiber. PMID:24938316

  10. Allozyme Divergence among Fagopyrum urophyllum Populations in Southweast China%西南地区硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum(Bur.et Franch.) H. Gross)天然居群的等位酶变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定泽; 侯鑫; 赵佐成

    2002-01-01

    采用等位酶电泳技术研究了云南省中北部昆明、富民、宾川3县(市)及四川省西南布拖县境内的硬枝野荞麦(Fagopyrum urophyllum(Bur.et Franch.)H.Gross)6个天然居群的遗传分化.硬枝野荞麦居群间遗传分化程度较低,FST值为0.161.居群间遗传一致度(I)和遗传距离(D)的均值分别为0.927 4和0.077 6,并提出了保护建议.

  11. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/ cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  12. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai; Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  13. Research progress in Fagopyrum cymosum for treating cancers%金荞麦抗肿瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪生

    2004-01-01

    金荞麦(Fagopyrum cymosum Meisn.)为蓼科荞麦属植物。威麦宁胶囊是从其干燥根茎中提取的抗癌活性物质制成的用于治疗肿瘤的国家二类中药新药。其抗癌活性物质是一组缩合性单宁化合物,20世纪80年代以来,国内外学者从化学成分、药效学、作用机制及临床应用等方面对其抗癌活性展开了大量研究,现综述如下。

  14. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M2 seeds produced by M1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  15. 苦荞种子中蛋白质含量变异%Variation of Protein Content in Fagopyrum tataricum Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯丰; 时政; 韩承华; 赵祖贵; 何平贵

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to select the Fagopyrum tataritum cultivars with high protein content. [ Method] With 35 cultivars of Fagopyrum tataritum from different places as the test materials,the protein content in their seeds was detected. [ Result ] The protein content in 35 cultivarsof Fagotyrum tataritum ranges from 23.65 to 193.28 mg/g with an average of 111.85 mg/g; the protein content in the Fagopyrum tataritum from different places varied from each other,which was higher in Hezhang in Guizhou and Sichuan,and lower in Nayong of Guizhou. [ Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for studying the genetic variation rules of the protein content in different Fagopyrum tataritum cultivars.%[目的]筛选出蛋白质含量较高的苦荞资源.[方法]以不同产地的35份苦荞资源为试材,测定了其籽粒的蛋白质含量.[结果]35份苦荞资源蛋白质含量的变化幅度为23.65~193.28 mg/g,平均为111.85 mg/g;不同产地苦荞的蛋白质含量存在差异,贵州赫章和四川地区较高,贵州纳雍地区较低.[结论]为进一步研究蛋白质含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律提供了理论依据.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Accumulation in the Rhizomes of Fagopyrum dibotrys and an Irradiation-Induced Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Caixia; Li, Ailian

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Fagopyrum dibotrys is a traditional Chinese medicine that has recently gained attention due to substantial findings regarding its bioactive proanthocyanidin (PA) compounds. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys remains elusive. We previously obtained an irradiation-induced mutant (RM_R) of F. dibotrys that had a higher PA content compared to that of the wild-type (CK_R). The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying...

  17. In Vivo and In Vitro Antinociceptive Effect of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn Extracts: A Possible Action by Recovering Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Liu; Xueting Cai; Jing Yan; Yi Luo; Ming Shao; Yin Lu; Zhiguang Sun; Peng Cao

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn (Fag) is a herb rhizome which has been widely used to treat diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Fag on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in vivo neonatal pups maternal separation (NMS) combined with intracolonic infusion of acetic acid (AA) was employed to establish IBS rat models. Fag reduced their visceral hyperalgesia and the whole gut permeability, ameliorated colonic mucosa inflammation and injury, and upregulated the expression of dec...

  18. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products. PMID:26890337

  19. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  20. Responses of the Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Plant to Exposure to Different Salt Forms and Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Yokaş, İbrahim; TUNA, A. Levent; BÜRÜN, Betül; ALTUNLU, Hakan; ALTAN, Filiz; Kaya, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 on seed and pollen germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in vitro. In addition, the effects of NaCl, Na2SO4, and CaCl2 on yield and quality, plant growth, some physiological parameters, and the distribution of mineral composition in greenhouse grown tomato plants were investigated. Seed germination was affected by high salinity treatments (MS and 1/2 MS). Pollen germination and pollen tube length were significantly affecte...

  1. Efecto del uso de recubrimientos sobre la calidad del tomate (lycopersicon esculentum mill )

    OpenAIRE

    AMAYA, PAOLA; PEÑA, LORNA; MOSQUERA, ANDRÉS; VILLADA, HÉCTOR; VILLADA, DORA

    2010-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de solución de almidón nativo de yuca (Manihot esculenta crantz) y cera comercial sobre la firmeza, tasa de respiración, grados Brix y pH del tomate (Lycopersicom esculentum mill ) a temperatura ambiente, mediante un diseño experimental completamente al azar con 3 réplicas y 3 repeticiones, sometiendo los resultados a un análisis de varianza con una probabilidad del 95%; los valores medios significativamente diferentes se compararon mediant...

  2. Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is very familiar with the properties of nanomaterial and their potential uses. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to test the beneficial effects of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2: size- 12 nm) on the seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv Super Strain B). Application of nSiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination. Among the treatments, 8 g L−1 of nSiO2 improved percent seed germination, mean germination time, s...

  3. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti; Larine Kupski; Meritaine da Rocha; Melissa dos Santos Oliveira; Jaqueline Garda Buffon; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v), glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%), glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%), and a control (without coating). The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carote...

  4. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-01

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:19765690

  5. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  6. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (pPanda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics. PMID:27451232

  7. Two metallothionein gene family members in buckwheat: Expression analysis in flooding stress using Real Time RT-PCR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majić Dragana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are an extensive and diverse family of small cysteine-rich proteins with metal-binding ability that are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Two cDNA clones of the MT3 type, differing in 3’ UTRs, were isolated from the developing buckwheat seed cDNA library. Following sequence analyses, expression profiles during flooding stress were monitored by Real Time RT PCR technology.

  8. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Przygodzka; Henryk Zieliński; Zuzana Ciesarová; Kristina Kukurová; Grzegorz Lamparski

    2015-01-01

    The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR) products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves,...

  9. 苦荞麦毛状根的诱导研究%Study on Hairy-roots Induction of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁霞; 王跃华; 陈燕; 张红玉; 赵钢; 邬晓勇

    2012-01-01

    利用发根农杆菌Ri1601浸染苦养植物预培养2d的叶片外植体,经不同时间的共培养和除菌培养后获得毛状根.经硅胶薄层色谱板检测表明,发根农杆菌Ri1601和苦养叶片上未经转化产生的不定根都不含有冠瘿碱;而经发根农杆菌Ri1601遗传转化后所产生的毛状根有冠瘿碱的存在.因此,可确定苦荞叶片上产生的毛状根为发根农杆菌Ri1601转化所得.建立了用发根农杆菌Ri1601诱导苦荞植物叶片产生毛状根的有效方法.%The Hairy-roots can be obtained by inoculating two-day-precultured leaf explants of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn with Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601. The silicon thin layer chromatogra-phy (TLC) tests showed that the adventitious roots produced by leaves of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn and Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601 do not contain crown gall alkali. On the other hand, the hairy roots which were produced by Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601-mediated genetic transformation of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn leaves have crown gall alkali. Therefore, it can be determined that the hairy roots from leaves of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn were produced by Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601-mediated transformation. Due to these, the different factors were designed to examine for their effects on hairy-roots induction and growth. The effective methodology of hairy-roots induction by Agrobaterium rhizogenes was established and provided a foundation for industrial production of active components from Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

  10. Improvement of surface functionalities, including allergenicity attenuation, of whole buckwheat protein fraction by maillard-type glycation with dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigeru; Hirabayashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of the introduction of polysaccharide chains onto the molecular surface of buckwheat proteins on buckwheat protein surface functionality. The whole buckwheat protein fraction (WBP) was prepared using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 0.5 M NaCl and covalently linked with 6 kDa, 17.5 kDa, 40 kDa, 70 kDa, or 200 kDa dextran by Maillard-type glycation through controlled dry-heating at 60°C and 79% relative humidity for two weeks. Conjugation with 40 kDa dextran improved the water solubility and emulsifying properties of WBP without causing a serious loss of available lysine; 84.9% of the free amino groups were conserved. In addition, we found that the introduction of dextran chains onto the molecular surfaces of WBP attenuated the antigenicity of WBP. PMID:25580398

  11. Peptides Derived from Rhopilema esculentum Hydrolysate Exhibit Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Antioxidant Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum was hydrolyzed using alcalase, and two peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities were purified by ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were identified as VKP (342 Da and VKCFR (651 Da by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The IC50 values of ACE inhibitory activities of the two peptides were 1.3 μM and 34.5 μM, respectively. Molecular docking results suggested that VKP and VKCFR bind to ACE through coordinating with the active site Zn(II atom. Free radical scavenging activity and protection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (RCMEC injury were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the two peptides. As the results clearly showed that the peptides increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px activities in RCMEC cells, it is proposed that the R. esculentum peptides exert significant antioxidant effects.

  12. Nitrogen Requirements for Growth and Early Fruit Development of Drip-Irrigated Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of continuous application of small quantities of nitrogen (N) in irrigation water and N applied as starter on growth and development of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), from transplanting to beginning of fruit set, was studied in two experiments: a pot experiment and a f...

  13. Enhanced biosynthesis of quercetin occurs as A photoprotective measure in Lycopersicon esculentum mill. under Acute UV-B exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Shourie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lycopersicon esculentum respond to UV-B by enhanced synthesis of flavonoid quercetin, a strong antioxidant that helps the plants to well acclimatize to UV-B stress. Three weeks old plants of L. esculentum were subjected to acute UV-B irradiation for 20, 40 and 60 minutes daily until 28 days and analyzed for the morphological and biochemical changes. UV-B exposure for 40 and 60 minutes considerably affected the growth and biomass of L. esculentum. The leaves were deformed, developed chlorosis and abscised early as compared to the unexposed plants. Biomass declined by 35% and total chlorophyll decreased by 24.7% due to disintegration of chloroplasts. Enhancement was seen in the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins and total flavonoids by 15, 33.3 and 22.8%, respectively, which was attributed to the photoprotective role of these compounds as potential quenchers of excess excitation energy. Quercetin content decreased on UV-B exposure to 20 and 40 min, and thereafter increased significantly by 5.19% on 60 min of exposure. This pattern probably indicated that the over-expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR occurred only after certain threshold exposure (60 min, which could be the strategy for developing tolerance against UV-B stress in L. esculentum.

  14. 中国四川荞麦属(蓼科)一新变种——翅果密毛野荞麦%Fagopyrum densovillosum var.pterocarpum (Polygonaceae) ,A New Variety from Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓江; 唐宇; 夏明忠; 邵继荣; 刘建林

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum densovillosum J, L. Liu var. pterocarpum J. L, Liu et X. J. Li.a new variety of the Po-lygonaceae from Sichuan,China,is described and illustrated. It is different to Fagopyrum densovillosum J. L. Liu by its major achenes,2, 5~3 mm long and (2~) 2. 5 - 3 mm in diameter.winged on the angular, wings 0. 5 - 1 mm wide,stamens longer than pistils. In addition,the new variety is also different to Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl. ) Damm. et Diels var. odontopterurn (Gross) Sam by its densely pubescent or villose plants.thicker and red-brown stems and branches,dense nodes,rugulose and small pustulate leaf blade on the surf ace, stamens longer than pistils.%描述了蓼科一新变种——翅果密毛野荞麦[ Fagopyrum densovillosum J.L.Liu var.pterocarpum J.L.Liu et X.J.Li],并绘制了形态图.新变种瘦果较大,长2.5~3 mm,宽(2~)2.5~3mm,果棱上具翅,翅宽0.5~1 mm,雄蕊长于雌蕊,从而区别于原变种密毛野养麦(Fagopyrum densovillosum J.L,Liu);另外,新变种全株密被短毛或长毛,茎枝较粗壮,红褐色,节较密集,叶片在表面具细皱纹和小泡状突起,雄蕊长于雌蕊,而又不同于齿翅野荞麦[Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl.) Damm.et Diels var.odontopterum (Gross) Sam].

  15. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a utilização de películas, à base de compostos proteicos e fenólicos provenientes de farelo de arroz fermentado, em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram realizados testes com: glicerol 3% (v/v; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico do farelo de arroz (5%; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico da biomassa gerada em 96 hours (5%, e um controle (sem a película. Os tomates revestidos foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente durante 28 dias, sendo determinados, a cada 96 horas, os seguintes aspectos: a perda de massa, o pH e a acidez, os sólidos solúveis totais e os carotenoides. A película elaborada com os extratos da biomassa reduziu os níveis de carotenoides e acidez dos frutos estudados em 17 e 21,1%, respectivamente, em relação ao controle. A película também foi eficiente como barreira ao vapor de água; assim, com perda de massa 57% inferior à do controle, sugere-se que esta poderá ser utilizada como alternativa para conservação desse tecido vegetal.

  16. Discussion on the Buckwheat Culture within Traditional Agricultural Society%浅析彝族传统农耕文化中的苦荞文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马史火

    2013-01-01

    彝族传承着别具特色的农耕文化,苦荞文化是彝族传统农耕文化中的重要组成部分。苦荞麦是彝族人的日常生活中重要的粮食之一;在长期的生产实践中,彝族人总结了苦荞麦生产的习俗和经验;在彝族节日、婚丧嫁娶、祭祀鬼神等民俗活动中,苦荞麦往往也是不可或缺的物品;苦荞麦可食可药,具有很好的医疗保健功效和巨大的市场开发价值。%Among the distinctive cultures of Yi agricultural society, the buckwheat culture shares an indispensable part of them. Buckwheat is one of staple food of Yi people. Over many years of raising buckwheat, the Yi have developed many customs and experiences about producing buckwheat. On special days, weddings, engagements, funerals, giving offerings to spirits, and other customary activities, the presenting of buckwheat is a very important part of the ceremonial offerings. Buckwheat can be eaten and can be used for medical purpose. It has good medicinal properties and is useful for maintaining good health. It also has great potential for opening up a very wide market for sale.

  17. 金荞麦的抑菌活性研究%Study of Antimicrobial in vitro from Fagopyrum dibotrys Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯黎莎; 陈放; 白洁

    2006-01-01

    采用试管稀释法和管碟法分别研究了金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys)根状茎和茎叶不同溶剂提取物对6种细菌和13种真菌的体外抑菌作用.结果显示,金荞麦对细菌和真菌均有一定的抑制作用.对细菌的抑菌效果表明:各种提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、苏云芽孢杆菌、卡拉双球菌都有明显的抑菌作用,但是对5406放线菌只有根乙醇提取物和茎叶水提取物有一定的抑制效果.对真菌的抑菌效果表明:各种提取物对鞭毛菌、白色念珠菌、松赤枯病菌、玉米纹枯病菌、油菜菌核病菌、玉米弯胞杆菌、小麦赤霉病菌、绿色木霉都有明显的抑菌作用.

  18. Structural characterization and inhibition on α-d-glucosidase activity of non-starch polysaccharides from Fagopyrum tartaricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ting; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Hui-Qing; Meng, Meng; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-11-20

    In the present study, the crude polysaccharide was extracted from Fagopyrum tartaricum and purified by Sephadex G-25 and G-75 column to produce a polysaccharide fraction termed TBP-II. Its average molecular weight was 26kDa. The structural characterization of TBP-II was investigated by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, Methylation and NMR. Congo red was applied to explore its advanced structures. The results revealed that chemical composition and structural characteristic of TBP-II was mainly consisted of galactose, arabinose, xylose and glucose with a molar ratio of 0.7:1:6.3:74.2. The backbone of TBP-II was composed of (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl (Glcp), while the branches comprised of (1→3)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl (Glcp), (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl (Galp) and (1→2,4)-linked α-d-rhamnopyranosyl (Rhap). The structure of TBP-II was 1,3 and 1,6-branched-galactorhamnoglucan that had a linear backbone of (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranose (Glcp). Using Congo red assay showed that it was absent of triple helix structure. The α-d-glucosidase inhibitory activity of TBP-II was determined using acarbose as positive control. The result showed that the inhibition rate depended on the concentration of polysaccharides. PMID:27561539

  19. Research progress of analysis methods of flavonoids in buckwheat%荞麦中黄酮类化合物的分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 张雄; 张国涛

    2013-01-01

    荞麦中黄酮类化合物已被鉴定出的有40余种,定量荞麦总黄酮最好的方法是三氯化铝显色法;而高效液相色谱法是目前分离、定量荞麦黄酮类化合物最有效的方法.%The number of the flavonoid identified is more than 40.Aluminum chloride colorimetric method is the greatest method to quantify the total flavonoids concentration in buckwheat.While,HPLC is very effective to isolate and quantify flavonoids in buckwheat.

  20. 荞麦治疗糖尿病化学成分的研究进展%Advances of Buckwheat Chemicals in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小理; 李宗杰; 周一鸣

    2011-01-01

    荞麦是一种粮药兼备的粮食作物,目前世界上有多个国家传统食疗研究都发现食用荞麦可降血糖,因此荞麦可用于中药治疗糖尿病.通过现代生化与分子生物学、细胞生物学等研究手段已经逐渐确定荞麦中起降血糖作用的化学成分及其可能作用途径,降糖成分主要是植物肌醇、生物类黄酮以及荞麦蛋白.分离鉴定荞麦降糖成分可以为研究开发荞麦源糖尿病药物提供思路,亦能为加工生产荞麦功能性食品提供参考信息.本文主要综述了国内外关于荞麦降糖化合物的研究进展,并对其可能作用机制进行了初步讨论.%Buckwheat is a kind of grain that can be exploited for both food production and medicine application, and its glycemic - lowering effects have been wildly known by traditional dietetic therapy in many countries of theworld. Therefore, buckwheat can be used in traditional medical therapy of diabetes. The buckwheat compounds with serum glucose lowering function are gradually determined, and their possible signal pathway is partially clear through modem biochemistry and molecular biology and cell biological study. Main functional chemicals in buckwheat are plant inositol, bio - flavonoids and buckwheat protein. Isolation and characterization of buckwheat glycemic - lowering components can provide candidates with new diabetic drugs, and can be benefit for the production of buckwheat functional food. This paper focused on the research progress of buckwheat glycemic- lowering compounds, and their possible mechanism is also preliminarily discussed.

  1. [Influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Gapparov, M M; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Shlelenko, L A; Tiurina, O E; Rabotkin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of breads with use of barley, buckwheat and oat flours and barley flakes on postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was shown that consumption of breads with use of barley and buckwheat flours is accompanied less marked postprandial glycaemic reaction in compared with standard loading of carbohydrates (wheat bread). Also it was noted greater increase of postprandial glycaemia in consumption of bread with use of barley flakes in compared with consumption of wheat bread inclusive equivalent amount of carbohydrates. PMID:19999818

  2. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Möller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, compared to standard sweet bread, with wheat flour in its composition. The passion fruit sweet bread had the highest percentage of humidity, with significant difference among the other formulations (p≤0.05. Ash and lipids had the highest amount in the banana sample and proteins showed its highest value in the standard sweet bread (p≤0.05. A sensory analysis was conducted, with good results. It was also evaluated the purchase intention, indicating that these products are not only viable, but worth buying.

  3. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Novel Protein Obtained from Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Yao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TBWSP31 is a novel antitumor protein that was isolated from tartary buckwheat water-soluble extracts. The objective of this paper was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of TBWSP31 on breast cancer Bcap37cells and to explore its possible mechanism. After treatment of Bcap37 cells with TBWSP31, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by inverted microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, such as detachment from the culture plate, change to a round shape, cell shrinkage, the absence of obvious microvilli, plasma membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that treatment with TBWSP31 resulted in a G0/G1 arrest and prevented the cells from growing from G0/G1 phase to S phase, which was most prominent at 48 h. The expression of bcl-2 and Fas were detected quantitatively by FCM, which showed that TBWSP31 induced-apoptosis may be involved with the participation of Fas and bcl-2. These results suggest that TBWSP31 is a potential antitumor compound and that apoptosis induced by TBWSP31 is a key antitumor mechanism.

  4. Genetic control of modified genomic region in a firm ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ricken Schuelter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies involving the firm tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mutant have shown that pleiotropy or geneticlinkage are responsible for modifications in morphological and postharvest traits. The objective of this report was to evaluatethe hypothesis of pleiotropy or genetic linkage linked to morphologic traits and to verify the effect of QTL on fruit firmness.Plants of mutant firm and L. cheesmani were intercrossed; the F2 and F3 generations were analyzed for segregation ofmorphological traits and firmness, and the RAPD technique was used for the F2 population. Results showed that the recessivepleiotropic gene is responsible for the morphological traits, but environmental and/or genetic factors affect the penetranceand expressivity of the mutation. By the RAPD analysis, a QTL was detected in the group represented by the markers AS-08622,AQ-16747 and l-2 that explains 29.77% of the variation to fruit firmness.

  5. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  6. Effect of water treatment sludge on growth and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, H.A.; Singer, L.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1988-01-01

    The impact of a water treatment sludge on the fertility of a silt loam soil was assessed by monitoring the yield and elemental composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) shoots in a greenhouse study. Application of sludge at rates from 2-10% (air dry weight basis) raised the soil pH from 5.3 to 8.0 which enhanced plant growth. A substantial reduction in metal (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) uptake was observed with sludge amendments, even at the highest rates. The alkaline nature of this sludge (pH=9.3, calcium carbonate equivalence=53%) suggest its potential use as a liming material for agricultural soils. Overly alkaline conditions should be avoided however, as high application rates combined with ammonia fertilization had an antagonistic effect on plant growth, possibly from P deficiency induced by struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}) formation.

  7. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  8. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huahua; FENG Jinhua; CHEN Xiaolin; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  9. Determination of Fungi Associated with Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M. and Tomato Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many plant pathogenic fungi are the subject of intense study because they cause disease symptoms that have a severe negative effect on the yield or quality of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M. and its products. The common fungi associated with tomatoes and tomato pastes were determined and compared to get information on whether the mould content of the tomato pastes originate entirely from the tomato or from the soil. Eighteen species which belong to 7 fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma among 250 mould isolates were determined of tomatoes and home-made tomato pastes collected from Manisa Province and its surrounding (Turkey. Alternaria alternata was the most prevalent fungal species. Members of Aspergillus niger group represent 1/6th of all the identified species. Seven of the species are the types of species that may potentially produce mycotoxins.

  10. Variation in ptaquiloside content in bracken (Pteridium esculentum (Forst. f) Cockayne) in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Lauren, Denis; Smith, Barry L.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine stands of bracken fern (Pteridium esculentum) from throughout New Zealand for the presence and concentration of ptaquiloside (Pta), and to compare the presence and/or concentrations of Pta in areas where bovine enzootic haematuria (BEH) and/or acute haemorrhagic syndrome (AHS) has...... been known to occur with those where BEH/AHS has not been recorded. METHODS: Stands of bracken fern were sampled from 275 sites throughout New Zealand. Sixty-two stands were from a regional survey predominantly from the Waikato and Coromandel regions, 27 were from a farm in the King Country where BEH......% where BEH/AHS was not known to occur. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of Pta in bracken in New Zealand vary greatly, and in a high proportion of stands Pta is not found. A higher incidence of Pta, and some very high concentrations, are found in areas where BEH/AHS was known to occur....

  11. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.

  12. 陕西秦巴山区金荞麦资源调查%Investigation of Resources of Fagopyrum dibotrys from Qinling-bashan Mountains in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振海; 罗小华; 陈西; 田涛; 黄大权; 孙建钊

    2010-01-01

    通过室内查阅标本和文献并结合野外实地调查,调查了位于自然分布区最北端的陕西秦巴山区农业野生药用植物金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys)的资源和分布特征.结果表明:陕西秦巴山区金荞麦分布较广;资源相对稀少;药材达到(2005年版 一部)标准;该区是金荞麦的适生地区.

  13. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six diff...

  14. 金荞麦种质资源及其生态调查研究%Germplasm Resources and Ecology Investigation of Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don.) Hara.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌华; 刘翔; 赵纪峰; 秦松云; 余再柏

    2010-01-01

    金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys(D.Don.) Hara.)是我国民间的一种传统中草药,野生种质资源丰富,目前尚未进行大规模栽培生产.随着近年来金荞麦资源量的迅速减少,有必要对金荞麦的种质资源、地理分布、生态环境等重新进行实地调查研究,为其保护利用提供理论基础和科学依据.

  15. Study on Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.Seed Germination and Tissue Culture%米荞种子萌发和组织培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃华; 陈燕; 张红玉; 赵钢; 孙雁霞; 邬晓勇

    2012-01-01

    To improve the seed germination rate of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. and establish the culture system of callus,the different treatment methods were used to investigate the seed germination rate of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. The optimum auxin ingredient was screened far callus induction in cotyledon, hypocotyl, radicle explains of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. The results showed that,when the Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. seed with no testa was soaked for 24 and 48 h,the germination rate was up to 100 % . The optimum auxin ingredient for callus induction was MS + 2,4-D 1 mg·L-1 +6-BA 2 mg·L-1. When the hypocotyl, cotyledon and radicle were taken as explains,the callus induction rate was up to 100 %, 78.90% and 54.44 %.%为了提高米荞种子的萌发率和建立其愈伤组织培养体系,研究了不同处理方式对米荞种子萌发宰的影响以及选择不同激素配比对米荞植物的子叶、胚轴和胚根外植体进行愈伤组织诱导.结果表明,采用去种皮的米荞种子经浸种处理,其种子在24和48 h的萌发率均最高为100%;诱导米荞胚根、胚轴和子叶外植体的最佳培养基配方为MS+2,4-D1 mg·L-1 +6-BA2 mg·L-1,其中胚轴外植体的愈伤组织诱导率最高为100.00%,子叶为78.90 9%,胚根为54.44%.

  16. 冷藏条件下荞麦淀粉回生规律的研究%Study on the retrogradation law of buckwheat in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤生; 周雪; 连喜军; 吴常燕

    2013-01-01

    荞麦食品一般在冷藏条件下贮藏,研究冷藏贮藏过程荞麦淀粉的回生规律有利于确定荞麦食品适宜的贮藏条件.本实验以荞麦淀粉为原料,研究淀粉乳浓度和冷藏时间对荞麦淀粉回生的影响.实验结果表明,当荞麦淀粉浓度为1%和10%时,0℃贮藏荞麦淀粉回生率较高,达到30%以上,5%、15%和20%浓度下2℃和6℃下贮藏淀粉回生率高.荞麦淀粉浓度高于5%时冷藏容易回生.电镜图片显示,荞麦淀粉呈现不规则块状,有凸起和凹陷截面,颗粒直径为1~10μm,部分颗粒表面有针扎状小孔.荞麦回生淀粉呈粘状结构.荞麦淀粉吸附碘后的最大可见吸收波长为564nm,而回生后荞麦淀粉没有最大可见吸收波长.%Most of the buckwheat foods were kept at cold storage,and the research on cold storage process of buckwheat starch retrogradation rule was beneficial to determine suitable storage conditions for the buckwheat food.In this experiment,the buckwheat starch was used as raw materials,the effect of starch concentration and storage time on buckwheat starch retrogradation were investigated.The experimental results showed that,when the buckwheat starch concentrations were 1% and 10%,the buckwheat starch retrogradation rate was higher at 0℃ storage,reaching above 30%.For concentrations of 5%,15% and 20%,the retrogradation rates at 2℃ and 6℃ were higher.The buckwheat starch inclined to retrograde when its concentrations was in excess of 5% in cold storage.Electron microscopy images showed that buckwheat starch granule was irregular block with a rising or falling in surface,its particle diameter was of 1~10μm.Some of the granule surface had needle shaped holes.Retrograded buckwheat starch had adhesive structure.The maximum visible absorption of buckwheat starch attached with l2/Kl was 564nm and its retrograded ones had no maximum absorption.

  17. Changes in the photosynthetic activity and transport os assimilates during ontogenesis of buckwheat grown from irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that the rate of CO2 fixation decreased during the photosynthesis particularly at the initial stages of the growth and development of buckwheat plants grown from γ-irradiated (100 Gy) seeds. It was shown that the rate of the photosynthesis and, to a lesser extent, the activity of the principle enzyme of the recovery pentosephosphate cycle, RDP-carboxylase, decreased. γ-radiation affected the pathway of carbon in the photosynthesis, i.e. somewhat increased the level of mobile sugars in a free area of the leaf mesophyll and, at the same time, decreased the content of aminoacids and organic acids

  18. Development, habit and yield of buckwheat as affected by spectral composition of reflected radiation from the surface of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuts of buckwheat were sown into pots embedded in the ground in non-competitive conditions. Pots were only differentiated by the kinds of ground surface (bare soil, grass and bare soil of diameter 35, 55, 95 cm, surrounded with grass). Among the five objects, the highest value of albedo in the whole screened range (350-1100 nm) was noticed in the object with grass (max. 30 percent), and the lowest value in the object with bare soil (max. 19 percent). Similarly, in the long weave (over 700 nm) the highest ability of reflection was shown by the grass

  19. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa. PMID:24935690

  20. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers’ varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid de...

  1. Effekten av forskjellige lagringsforhold på tomatenes kvalitet (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fra høsting til konsum

    OpenAIRE

    Tjoestheim, Irene Holta

    2011-01-01

    This master thesis is part of a project at Bioforsk Vest, Særheim. The main purpose is to find the optimal growth methods and transport- and storage conditions to maintain the quality and the potentially health-promoting constituents of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) from harvest to consumption. In this part 8 different storage regimes were simulated. To evaluate the quality, firmness and color of the tomatoes were measured, and levels of soluble solids (SSC), total titrable acids (...

  2. Induction of Volatile Organic Compounds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Its Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by Burdock Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Qing He; Li Tian; Kao-Shan Chen; Lin-Hua Hao; Guang-You Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and its resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by burdock oligosaccharide. The disease severity of L. esculentum was evaluated 48 h after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide, followed by inoculation with a spore suspension of B. cinerea. The formation of O()2, the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the quantity and quality of changes in VOCs were determined a period of time after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide. The results demonstrated that the disease index in treated plants was decreased by 42.5% compared with control 96 h after inoculation. The production of O()2 reached a maximum 6 h after treatment (1.36-fold compared with control). There was an increase in LOX, POD, CAT and SOD activity in response to burdock oligosaccharide treatment and the enzymes showed different trends in the time-course of induction. At 120 h after treatment,(E)-2-hexenal was increased by 92% compared with control, whereas methyl salicylate showed a gradual increase with induction period. Previous results had demonstrated that chitosan elicitor enhanced the production VOCs of L. esculentum and decreased plant susceptibility towards B. cinerea. Together, these findings suggest that increasing the production of VOCs in response to burrdock oligosaccharide may be an important mechanism for L. esculentumin its defense against pathogens. In addition, burrdock oligosaccharide may act as a potent elicitor of resistance to disease in L. esculentum.

  3. The Preliminary Study of Fagopyrum Dibotrys Scented Tea's Manufacture Crafts%金荞麦花茶开发的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明健; 汤洪敏

    2015-01-01

    investigation of Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) Hara scented tea's exploit crafts method:designed both in single factor test and orthogonal test to optimize the manufacture crafts of Fagopyrum dibotrys scented tea,in the way of uv spectrophotometry to text the contents of total flavonoids result:Liquid to material ratio 1∶50,soak in 90℃for three times,30 mins everytime was best extraction technology.%探讨金荞麦花茶的开发工艺。以单因素试验和正交试验设计方法寻找金荞麦花茶的最优浸泡条件,以紫外分光光度法测定金荞麦中总黄酮的含量。金荞麦花茶以液料比1∶50,90℃浸泡3次,每次30 min,为最佳浸泡工艺。

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a deletion mutant of a major buckwheat allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. An immunologically active mutant of BWp16 was prepared and a three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled mutant protein. A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. A deletion mutant of BWp16 (rBWp16ΔN) was overproduced and purified and was shown to be immunologically active. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled rBWp16ΔN. The crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 28.39, b = 31.54, c = 32.20 Å, α = 111.92, β = 108.91, γ = 98.74°. One monomer was expected to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the calculated Matthews coefficient of 1.76 Å3 Da−1

  5. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry.

  6. Morphogenetic Potential of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Arka Ahuti’ to Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura K. NAMITHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly reproducible in vitro regeneration method for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar ‘Arka Ahuti’ was established by using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones 6-Benzylamino purine (2 to 4 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid (0.1 to 1 mg/L. The medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid was found to be the best for inducing direct shoot regeneration and multiple shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants. Callus induction was observed in all the explants and regeneration of shoots was also promoted by all these combinations. Shoots were transferred to the elongation medium which also induced 100% rooting. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established for ‘Arka Ahuti’ cultivar of tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon as explants.

  7. Morphological and transcriptional responses of Lycopersicon esculentum to hexavalent chromium in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Guo; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xin-Hui; Cui, Bao-Shan; Bai, Jun-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) on living organisms through the food chain raise the immediate need to assess the potential toxicological impacts of Cr(VI) on human health. Therefore, the concentration-dependent responses of 12 Cr(VI)-responsive genes selected from a high-throughput Lycopersicon esculentum complementary DNA microarray were examined at different Cr concentrations. The results indicated that most of the genes were differentially expressed from 0.1 mg Cr/kg soil, whereas the lowest-observable-adverse-effect concentrations of Cr(VI) were 1.6 mg Cr/kg soil, 6.4 mg Cr/kg soil, 3.2 mg Cr/kg soil, and 0.4 mg Cr/kg soil for seed germination, root elongation, root biomass, and root morphology, respectively, implying that the transcriptional method was more sensitive than the traditional method in detecting Cr(VI) toxicity. Dose-dependent responses were observed for the relative expression of expansin (p = 0.778), probable chalcone-flavonone isomerase 3 (p = -0.496), and 12S seed storage protein CRD (p = -0.614); therefore, the authors propose the 3 genes as putative biomarkers in Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1751-1758. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26627465

  8. Transcriptional activation by heat and cold of a thiol protease gene in tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, M.A.; Fischer, R.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We previously determined that low temperature induces the accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit of a cloned mRNA, designated C14, encoding a polypeptide related to thiol proteases. We now demonstrate that C14 mRNA accumulation is a response common to both high (40{degree}C) and low (4{degree}C) temperature stresses. Exposure of tomato fruit to 40{degree}C results in the accumulation of C14 mRNA, by 8 hours. This response is more rapid than that to 4{degree}C, but slower than the induction of many heat shock messages by 40{degree}C, and therefore unique. We have also studied the mechanism by which heat and cold exposure activate C14 gene expression. Both high and low temperature regulate protease gene expression through transcriptional induction of a single C14 gene. A hypothesis for the function of C14 thiol protease gene expression in response to heat and cold is discussed.

  9. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  10. Nitrogen management in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 15N-enriched fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted during 1991 to study nitrogen management using 15N-enriched fertilizer, to achieve economy in fertilizer N input by reduction and postponement of the basal dose in Arka Vikas tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller nom. cons). Application of 90 kg N/ha in 3 equal splits at 10, 30 and 50 days after transplanting did not show any reduction in total N uptake, dry-matter and fruit yields compared with 120 kg N/ha applied in 3 splits (60 kg N/ha basal and 30 kg top-dressed 20 and 40 days after transplanting). Band application of the basal dose and top-dressing at 20 days after transplanting resulted in higher N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), its uptake and utilization. Top-dressing of 30 or 40 kg N/ha at 10 days after transplanting resulted in better utilization than broadcasting the basal dose of 60 kg N/ha. Application at 40-50 days after transplanting showed poor uptake and utilization of applied N. The succeeding Arka Kalyan onion (Allium cepa L.) utilized 2.95-6.37% residual N, the highest being from the split application at 40 days after transplanting. Thus there was economy in fertilizer N input and higher carry-over of residual N for determinate cultivar of tomato be delaying as well as reducing the basal dose and confining the top-dressing to 30 days after transplanting. (author)

  11. Functional Characterization of Mi, a Root-knot Nematode Resistance Gene from Tomato( Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Gang Chen; Li-Ying Zhang; Jun-Hong Zhang; Wei Zhang; Xue Wang; Bo Ouyang; Han-Xia Li; Zhi-Biao Ye

    2006-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause major economic damage to numerous crop species around the world. Plant resistance is the most important attribute that is able to suppress invasion by the rootknot nematodes. In the present study, a candidate root-knot nematode resistance gene (Mi) was isolated from the resistant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) line RN-1. Expression profiling analysis revealed that this gene was expressed specifically in the roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the flowers or fruits.To verify the real function of this candidate gene, both sense and inteference RNA (RNAi) vectors were constructed. We obtained 31 transgenic plants with between one and seven copies of T-DNA inserts of sense Mi from two nematode-susceptible tomato cultivars as assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)and Southern blotting analysis. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of the Mi gene varied in different transgenic plants. Nematode assays showed that the resistance to root-knot nematodes was significantly improved in some transgenic lines compared with untransformed susceptible controls and that the resistance was heritable in selfed progeny. Loss of function via RNAi further confirmed the role of the Mi gene and the original resistant lines became susceptible to root-knot nematodes.

  12. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  13. Starch grains from dental calculus reveal ancient plant foodstuffs at Chenqimogou site, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chenqimogou site, located at the south bank of Tao River, is comprised of a large group of graves dated to ~4000 a BP. For its large scale, unique mortuary system, and abundant of typical artifacts, the site was named one of "Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2008 in China". Many intact human skeletons have been excavated from the graves. Three teeth from two adult skeletons excavated from graves M187 and M194 were examined. Forty-eight starch grains were retrieved from dental calculus of three teeth. Six of those starch grains could not be identified because of damage. The others were classified into seven groups. Most of them were from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and/or barley (Hordeum vulgare). Remains possibly from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), gingkgo (Ginkgo biloba), acorn (Quercus spp.), bean, roots or tubers were identified. Ancient starch grains from dental calculus indicate that human foodstuffs primarily sourced from wheat, buckwheat, and foxtail millet. Acorn, beans, tubers or roots were supplements. A variety of starch grains retrieved from dental calculus revealed that diverse crops were cultivated in the Chenqimogou site 4000 years ago, and both dry-land farming and gathering were engaged.

  14. TOLERANCIA DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) A APLICACIONES POST TRASPLANTE DEL HERBICIDA HALOSULFURON-METIL Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) tolerance to post transplant applications of the herbicide halosulfuron-methyl

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ormeño N; Francisco Fuentes V.; Verónica Soffia C.

    2003-01-01

    Durante la temporada 1998/99 en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) (33º34’ lat. Sur, 70º38’ long. Oeste, 625 m.s.n.m.), en un suelo franco-arcilloso, se realizaron ensayos para determinar la tolerancia de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) de los cultivares industriales H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410 y cultivares de consumo fresco Cal Ace y XPH-12221 a aplicaciones de post trasplante de halosulfurón-metil (Sempra® 75 WG) en ...

  15. In vitro digestibility and changes in physicochemical and structural properties of common buckwheat starch affected by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Wang, Lijing; Cao, Rong; Fan, Huanhuan; Wang, Min

    2016-06-25

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal processing technology, was applied at 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600MPa to assess its effect on the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of common buckwheat starch (CBS). HHP treatment resulted in CBS granules with more rough surfaces. With the increasing pressure level, amylose content, pasting temperature, and thermal stability substantially increased and relative crystallinity, hardness, swelling power, and viscosity decreased. At 120-480MPa, HHP did not affect the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of CBS. However, at 600MPa, HHP contributed to a similar 'B'-type pattern. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified CBS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced content of rapidly digestible starch, and increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results revealed that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of CBS are effectively modified by HHP. PMID:27083786

  16. [Change in the sugar content in oaten products, buckwheat and rice groats during their heat processing by cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchik, S N; Mel'nikov, E M; Shablovskaia, I S

    1976-01-01

    The sugar content in the grits and in a gruel cooked with samples of oats and buckwheat subjected to hydrothermal treatment under different conditions and also in the oat flour, a product of baby and dietetic nutrition, was quantified. Hydrothermal processing results in significant changes occurring individual sugars of the grit. During culinary treatment these changes are levelled out, but in the end the level of virtually all types of sugar is higher in the gruel cooked with hydrothermally treated grit than in that prepared with initial, untreated grit. The oats flour is distinguished by a high glucose, maltose, fructose and saccharose content. A fall of the reducing sugars level coming as a result of thermal and culinary treatment is explained by their participating in the reaction of melanoidine formation. On the other hand, a rise in their content under rigorous conditions and in the production of oat flour is due to the starting of the starch hydrolysis. PMID:1021998

  17. Scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species by the Aqueous Extraction of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn%苦荞水提液清除活性氧作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以忠; 邓琳琼

    2014-01-01

    用NBT光化还原法、Fenton反应法和钼酸铵显色分光光度法对苦荞[Fagopyrum tataricum(L.)Gaertn]叶和茎水提液清除羟基自由基(·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(,O2-)和过氧化氢(H2O2)的作用进行了研究.结果表明,苦荞叶和茎水提液具有较强的清除自由基能力,而且随水提液浓度增加其清除能力增强.其中叶的清除能力显著高于茎.

  18. 金荞麦籽粒中总黄酮提取工艺研究%Study on Extraction Technology of Flavonoids from Fagopyrum Cymosum Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 彭德川; 孙俊秀; 刘建林; 邵继荣

    2011-01-01

    对金荞麦籽粒中总黄酮的提取工艺进行了研究,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定乙醇提取最佳工艺条件是:乙醇浓度为80%,料液比为1∶40,提取温度为60℃,提取时间为2.5h.%The optimal technological requirements of extracting flavonoids from Fagopyrum cymosum grains were investigated. Single factor and orthogonal tests to determine the optimum ethanol extraction conditions was follows: ethanol concentration 80%, solid-liquid ratio 1:40, extraction temperature60℃ extraction time 2.5h .

  19. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  20. 金荞麦配方颗粒的质量标准%Study on Quality Standard of Dispensing Granules of Rhizome Fagopyrum Dibotrys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建平; 吕艳; 黄兴富; 崔秀丽; 王宏革

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the quality standard of dispensing granules of Rhizome Fagopyrum Dibotrys. Method: TLC was adopted for qualitative identification and epicatechin was detected by HPLC. The separation was carried out on an Agilent Zorbax E-clipse XDB-C18( 150 mm×4. 6 mm,5 μm ) column, the mobile phase was acetonitrile: phosphoric acid( 92: 8, pH 3.00 ), the flow rate was at 0. 8 ml ? Min-1 , the column temperature was 35℃ and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Result: The linear range was 113. 6 -340. 8 g ? Ml-1 for epicatechin. The average recoveries were all above 98% . Conclusion: The method is simple,accurate and reproducible, which can be used as the quality standard for dispensing granules of Rhizome Fagopyrum Dibotrys.%目的:建立金荞麦配方颗粒的质量标准.方法:采用TLC法进行定性鉴别;采用HPLC法测定配方颗粒中表儿茶素含量.用Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-Cl8(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)色谱柱分离,乙腈-磷酸水(92:8,pH 3.00),流速0.8 ml·min-1,柱温35℃,检测波长280 nm.结果:表儿茶素的线性范围分别为113.6~340.8 g·ml-1.平均回收率均大于98%.结论:所建立的方法简便、准确、重复性好,可作为金荞麦配方颗粒的质量控制方法.

  1. Microorganismos de la rizosfera de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) como antagonistas de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Ramírez, Jesús Damián

    2014-01-01

    El Estado de Sinaloa genera el 23% de la producción de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). La pudrición de la corona y de la raíz del tomate (PCRT), causada por Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend f. sp. radicis-lycopersici W.R. Jarvis y Shoemaker (Forl) puede llegar a disminuir hasta el 50% del rendimiento en campo. Sin embargo, las plantas pueden evitar el desarrollo de la enfermedad, a partir de un amplio rango de mecanismos de defensa que poseen o bien ser auxiliadas por microorganismos qu...

  2. Padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sila Mary Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O valor comercial do tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., é definido pelas características de identidade e qualidade presentes no fruto que podem ser avaliadas pela classificação do produto. A presente revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever o padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate de mesa, através da classificação. O tomate de mesa é classificado em grupos, subgrupos, classes e tipos. De acordo com o formato do fruto, o tomate é classificado em dois grupos: oblongo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é maior que o transversal e redondo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é menor ou igual ao transversal. Em função do estádio de maturação, o tomate é classificado em cinco subgrupos: verde maduro, pintado, rosado, vermelho e vermelho maduro. A classe é definida em função do maior diâmetro transversal do fruto em relação ao grupo a que pertença. O tomate oblongo é classificado em três classes: grande, médio e pequeno. O tomate redondo é classificado em quatro classes: gigante, grande, médio e pequeno. De acordo com os índices de ocorrência de defeitos graves e leves presentes nos frutos, o tomate é classificado também em tipo: extra, especial ou selecionado e comercial. São considerados defeitos graves: podridão, passado, queimado, dano por geada, podridão apical, e defeitos leves: dano, mancha, ocado, deformado e imaturo. A amostra de tomate que ultrapasse os índices de defeitos previstos pela legislação do Ministério da Agricultura é classificada como fora do padrão.

  3. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hongjin; LIU Xiangquan; ZHANG Xijia; JIANG Haibin; WANG Jiying; ZHANG Limin

    2013-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa,Rhizostomatidae).One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations.The polymorphic ratio,Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%,0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population,74.3%,0.313,and 0.201 for the red hatchery population,79.3%,0.349,and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population,and 74.9%,0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population,respectively.Thus,all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity.A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population.There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations.Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided.For the hatchery populations,the white and red populations clustered separately; however,for the wild populations,Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together.The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined.Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations,which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing.These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  4. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [3H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [14C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [14C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [14C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  5. INFLUENCIA DE LA ALTA TEMPERATURA EN LOS TEJIDOS RADICULARES DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Sam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios cualitativos en los tejidos radiculares, como consecuencia de la alta temperatura empleada en este trabajo (38oC durante 1.5 horas, fueron estudiados en plántulas de dos variedades de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., con diferentes grados de tolerancia a altas temperaturas. A los siete días de puestas a germinar las semillas de arroz, se aplicó el tratamiento de alta temperatura a las radículas de cada variedad, que fueron puestas en recipientes con agua, por separado, y colocadas en la estufa durante 1.5 h a 380C y el tratamiento control consistió en dejar al otro grupo de radículas en las condiciones del laboratorio durante la aplicación de la alta temperatura; a continuación se tomaron las muestras de radículas, que fueron procesadas para microscopía de luz, incluidas en resina epon y se realizaron cortes de 2 ¿m de grosor, los que fueron teñidos con azul de toluidina, observados y fotografiados en un microscopio con cámara digital acoplada. En las secciones longitudinales de las radículas, se pudo apreciar que la alta temperatura provocó aumento en el tamaño de las vacuolas y dilatación de las paredes celulares, entre otras alteraciones; estos cambios se hicieron más evidentes en la variedad considerada como tolerante a ese estrés.

  6. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  7. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugar syrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the best characteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six times repetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%, B (50%, C (60%, and D (70% group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color, flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture, and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained on A (40% group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality of water content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003 and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0% (SII 0272.90. Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets result indicated that A (40% group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.

  8. 金荞麦叶黄酮含量测定方法比较研究%Comparison of Determing Flavonoid in Leaf of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn with Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 余霜; 陈庆富

    2014-01-01

    采用超声波辅助提取金荞麦[Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev.) Meisn]叶中总黄酮,并比较了国内外3种常用比色法的测定结果.结果表明,AlCl3-KAC显色法稳定性好,操作简便,适用于金荞麦叶中的总黄酮含量测定.

  9. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    OpenAIRE

    Wronkowska Małgorzata; Honke Joanna; Piskuła Mariusz Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid)...

  10. Effects of Altitudes on the Flavonoid Contient of Fagopyrum Tataricum%不同海拔高度对苦荞品系黄酮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元射; 何绍红; 张启堂

    2012-01-01

    The seabuckthorn fruits were collected from different altitude areas and they were dwposited after juicing,then deposits were aired and grinded for the supercritical fluid extraction.Fagopyrum tataricum were collected from differerent altitude areas and they were sried,smashed,mixed uniform,took,2.000 g,then they were three repetitions and were extracted by Soxhler extractor.The total flavonoids content in Fagopyrum tataricum from 710m altitude areas was highest,beung 2.269%,followed by that from 1200mm altitude areas and from 248m altitude areas,being 2.215% and 1.879%.The total flavonoids content in Fagopyrum tataricum from different altitude areas exysted obvious difference.%文中将来源于不同海拔高度的苦荞籽粒烘干、粉碎、混匀,各称取2.0000克,三次重复,用索氏抽提法提取,紫外分光光度计测量;海拔710m处,黄酮含量最高,为2.269%,然后依次是海拔1200m处和海拔248m处,总黄酮含量分别为2.215%、1.879%、可见,不同海拔高度地区的苦荞中的总黄酮含量存在明显差异。

  11. 固态法酿造苦荞白酒工艺初探%Primary Study of Production of Tartary Buckwheat Liquor by Solid Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万萍; 胡佳丽; 朱阔; 曾建英; 易晓成

    2012-01-01

    以苦荞麦为原料,采用传统的固态发酵法酿造苦荞白酒,并对苦荞白酒的固态发酵工艺进行了优化研究.实验结果表明:苦荞麦粉100g,稻壳添加量18%,加酒曲量10%,打量水用量35%,常温培茵糖化48h,密封发酵20d,酒醅的酒精含量可达到7.8%,通过蒸馏可得到酒精度为36%(v/v)的原酒50mL.%Tartary buckwheat as raw material was made into wine by using traditional solid fermentation and its solid fermentation technology for making tartary buckwheat liquor was introduced in this paper. The re: suits show that tartary buckwheat powder is 100 grams, rice husk is 18%, yeast mash is 10%, water is 35 %, nonml temperature training for glycosylated is 48 h, with seal completely fermentation for 20 days, fermenting grains alcohol can achieve 7.8%. Alcohol can be obtained by distillation for 36% (v/v) 50 mL base liquor.

  12. 苦荞沙琪玛生产工艺研究%Study on processing technology of bitter-buckwheat Saqi Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾素贤; 王若兰; 李开南; 李梵

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology of bitter-buckwheat Saqi Ma made of bitter-buckwheat,wheat gluten,and high gluten flour was studied. The proportion of flour blends ,fermentation temperature ,fermentation period and fried temperature were determined through single factor and orthogonal experimental designs. Results indicated that the optimal conditions were as follows=the proportion 20:25:55 in bitter-buckwheat,wheat glutenand high gluten flour,fermentation temperature 35℃,fermentation period 2h+2h,and fried temperature 160℃.%以苦荞粉、谷朊粉、高筋粉等为主要原料生产苦荞沙琪玛,通过单因素实验和正交实验,确定混合粉比例、发酵温度、发酵时间、油炸温度的最佳参数。实验结果表明,苦荞沙琪玛的最佳生产工艺条件为苦荞粉∶谷朊粉∶高筋粉(质量比)为20∶25∶55,醒发温度35℃,第一次及第二次醒发时间均为2h,油炸温度为160℃。

  13. 苦荞麦营养成分和保健功能%Nutritional components and prophylactic values of tartary buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂薇; 李再贵

    2016-01-01

    苦荞麦具有卓越的保健价值和食疗功效,是一种重要的粮食替代作物和功能性食品原料。苦荞麦富含高生物价的蛋白质和丰富的膳食纤维、维生素以及多酚等营养成分,其花序中芦丁含量可高达8%以上。总结了国内外对苦荞营养保健功能成分与作用的研究成果,并针对我国苦荞加工业的现状与存在问题,提出了发展思路。%Tartary buckwheat is introduced into the diet as an alternative crop and raw material for func-tional food due to its excellent nutritive and prophylactic values.It is a rich source of high -quality pro-teins,dietary fibre,vitamins and polyphenols,and the content of rutin in flowers is over 8%.This article has reviewed overseas and domestic research status of tartary buckwheat in the aspect of its nutritional components and prophylactic values,and some rational development strategies were provided based on the current situation and existing problems in tartary buckwheat processing industry.

  14. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  15. Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, S; Kamiyama, M; Iwata, T.; Makita, N; Furukawa, H.; Ikeda, H

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated.

  16. 苦荞浸蒸处理前后的力学特性%The Pressure Properties of Tartary Buckwheat before and after Steaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 杜文亮; 刘彩霞

    2015-01-01

    The hulling of tartary buckwheat is hard, for its husk has good toughness and the groat is fragile.In the process of hulling, it has high broken rate.This test aimed to measure the force-deformation curve through the experi-ments on tartary buckwheat which has been steamed or not.The hardness, broken force, broken energy and other param-eters can be obtained from the curve.The broken force and broken energy of steamed tartary buckwheat have a little re-duction compared with the increase of the groat.This proved that the bonding strength of husk decreased.According to the observation of the fragments and the change of cross-sectional of tartary buckwheat under compression, fracture loca-tions of tartary buckwheat are mainly in both sides of embryo, grooves and compression point.%由于苦荞具有皮韧仁脆的特点,在脱壳过程中破碎率高、脱壳困难。为此,对浸蒸前、后的苦荞进行力—变形实验,通过实验测得其力—变形曲线;根据曲线数据,得出其硬度、破坏力、破坏能等常规力学参数;通过对比得出浸蒸处理后的苦荞破坏力和破坏能略有降低,苦荞仁的破坏力和破坏能显著增加,表明表皮结合强度降低,有利于减小脱壳破碎率。同时,对苦荞碎片和籽粒受压时横断面变化情况进行观察,得出苦荞籽粒的断裂位置主要位于胚两侧、籽粒沟槽处和受压接触点。

  17. Studies on the Germplasm Resources of Tartary Buckwheat in Shanxi Province%山西省苦荞品种资源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽君; 马名川; 刘龙龙; 康国帅; 周建萍; 崔林

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to lay a foundation for researchers to select excellent buckwheat germplasm resources and improved buckwheat varieties.Tartary buckwheat recorded in the books Catalogue of Gops Germplasm Resources in Shanxi Province and Catalogue of Chinese Buckwheat Germplasm Resources were analyzed by Excel 2003 and DPS 7.5 from the aspects of distribution area, main agronomic traits and nutritional ingredients.The results showed that local buckwheat varieties have diversity.Different varieties of buckwheat vary in plant height, node numbers of the main stem, grain weight per plant, grain weight per plant and 1000-grain weight.Compared with national average value, buckwheat in Shanxi is higher in protein and fat, but lower in vitamin E and same in vitamin PP.Buckwheat is rich in Ca, Mg, Cu, P, Se, Fe, Mn, Zn.Buckwheat contains 18 kinds of aminophenol with highest content of glutamic acid and lowest content of tryptophane.After analyzing and classifying tartary buckwheat germplasm resources recorded in Catalogue of Gops Germplasm Resources in Shanxi Province and Catalogue of Chinese Buckwheat Germplasm Resources, breeders can use these germplasm resources to crossbreed and then breed new varieties with high yield and quality and strong adverse resistance.%对山西省苦荞品种资源的分布区域、主要农艺性状和营养成分进行分析,开展苦荞资源研究,对筛选优异苦荞种质资源和改良苦荞品种具有重要的指导意义。利用Excell 2003和 DPS 7.5软件,从品种资源的分布区域、主要农艺性状和营养成分含量3个方面,对《山西省农作物品种资源目录》和《中国荞麦品种资源目录》记载的山西省苦荞品种资源进行了统计分析。结果表明:山西省各地均有苦荞种植,但不同苦荞品种在生育期、株高、主茎节数、主茎分枝数、单株粒重和千粒重性状上存在着明显差异,表现出苦荞地方品种资源的多样性。

  18. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  19. A New Variety of Pagopyrum Polygonaceae Discovered in Sichuan, China——Fagopyrum Polychromofolium A. H. Wang J. L. Liu et P. Yang%中国四川荞麦属(蓼科)一新种——花叶野荞麦

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏明忠; 王安虎; 蔡光泽; 杨坪; 刘建林

    2007-01-01

    描述了采自中国四川阿坝州蓼科(Polygonaceae)荞麦属(Fagopyrum)新种花叶野荞麦(Fagopyrum polychromofolium A.H.Wang J.L.Liu et P.Yang).新种叶片上面叶脉紫红色,极明显,叶面绿色,腊质层灰白色,较厚,叶片显花叶,花被片背面中下部显紫红色.果三棱形,长4~6mm,宽约3~4mm,微露出于宿存花被.

  20. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  1. Cadmium-sulfide crystallites in Cd-(. gamma. EC) sub n G peptide complexes from tomato. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, R.N.; White, C.A.; Winge, D.R. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States) Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill cv Golden Boy) exposed to 100 micromolar cadmium sulfate produced metal-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes containing acid-labile sulfur. The properties of the complexes resemble those of the cadmium-({gamma}EC){sub n}G peptide complexes from Schizo-saccharomyces pombe and Candida glabrata known to contain a cadmium sulfide crystallite core. The crystallite is stabilized by a sheath of peptides of general structure ({gamma}Glu-Cys){sub n}-Gly. The cadmium-peptide complexes of tomato contained predominantly peptides of n{sub 3}, n{sub 4}, and n{sub 5}. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the tomato cadmium-sulfide-peptide complex contained CdS crystallite core particles smaller than 2.0 nanometers in diameter.

  2. Lycopersicon esculentum lectin: an effective and versatile endothelial marker of normal and tumoral blood vessels in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mazzetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding of Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEA to the vascular endothelium was studied in the central nervous system of rat, mouse and guinea pig at different developmental ages, and in a gliosarcoma model. Our observations showed that LEA consistently stained the entire vascular tree in the spinal cord and in the brain of all animal species at all developmental ages investigated. In the tumor model, the staining of the vascular network was very reproducible, enabled an easy identification of vascular profiles and displayed a higher efficiency when compared to two other commonly used vascular marker (EHS laminin and PECAM-1. Moreover, our results showed that LEA staining was comparable in both vibratome and paraffin sections and could be easily combined with other markers in double labeling experiments. These observations indicate that LEA staining may represent an effective and versatile endothelial marker for the study of the vasculature of the central nervous system in different animal species and experimental conditions.

  3. Blood pressure-lowering peptides from neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts: a new approach to estimating ACE-inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Koyama

    Full Text Available Neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS contain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering (BPL properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive mechanisms of six BPL peptides isolated from neo-FBS (FBPs by a vasorelaxation assay and conventional in vitro, in vivo, and a new ex vivo ACE inhibitory assays. Some FBPs demonstrated moderate endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in SHR thoracic aorta and all FBPs mildly inhibited ACE in vitro. Orally administered FBPs strongly inhibited ACE in SHR tissues. To investigate detailed ACE-inhibitory mechanism of FBPs in living body tissues, we performed the ex vivo assay by using endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings isolated from SHRs, which demonstrated that FBPs at low concentration effectively inhibited ACE in thoracic aorta tissue and suppressed angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction directly associated with BPL. These results indicate that the main BPL mechanism of FBP was ACE inhibition in living body tissues, suggesting that high FBP's bioavailability including absorption, tissue affinity, and tissue accumulation was responsible for the superior ACE inhibition in vivo. We propose that our ex vivo assay is an efficient and reliable method for evaluating ACE-inhibitory mechanism responsible for BPL activity in vivo.

  4. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  5. Study on the Protection of Wild Buckwheat Germplasm Resources in Sichuan Province%四川野生荞麦种质资源的保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 夏明忠; 邵继荣; 李晓江; 赵钢; 蔡光泽; 罗强

    2012-01-01

    The wild buckwheat resources used to be abundant in Sichuan province.While in recent years,due to some natural fattors and human activities,the ecological environment and the habitats of wild buckwheat have been seriously damaged,which resulted in great reduction of its distribution areas,number of species and population even made it be on the brink of extinction.This paper puts forward some measures and countermeasures for the protection of wild buckwheat resources in Sichuan,based on the researches of their types,geographic distributions, ecological environment,current situation and the endangering reasons,after investigations on spot.%四川省有着极为丰富的野生荞麦资源。但近年来,由于自然和人为的原因,野生荞麦栖息地和生态环境遭受严重破坏,致使野生荞麦分布区域萎缩,种群和植株数量减少,面临着濒危甚至灭绝的危险。本文在对野生荞麦资源野外实地调查的基础上,研究了四川野生荞麦的资源种类、地理分布、生态环境、目前状况、濒危原因等,并提出了保护措施和对策。

  6. Key Techniques of the Production of Buckwheat Liquor%苦荞酒生产工艺关键技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周火玲; 赖登燡; 蔡雄; 李金华

    2015-01-01

    The new techiques of a buckwheat liquor product was studied and its technical characteristics were as follows: Daqu and Xiaoqu used as the fermenting agent, pit bottom covered by lotus leaf before pit entry, and fermented grains sprinkled by buckwheat yellow wine after pit entry. Besides, the relative technical parameters were optimized. After the optimization, liquor yield increased by 7.7 % (compared with buckwheat liquor fermented by only Xiaoqu), total acids and total esters content increased by above 50%(the content of ethyl lactate, ethyl ace-tate and ethyl butyrate increased evidently), and the content of fusel oil and methanol decreased evidently. (Trans. by YUE Yang)%建立了一种苦荞白酒的酿造新工艺,其工艺特点为:以大曲和小曲为糖化发酵剂,入池时以荷叶垫池底,入池后使用苦荞黄酒淋醅.从发酵时间,大曲、小曲及淋醅黄酒添加量等指标角度对苦荞酒酿造工艺进行了优化.结果表明,与只用小曲发酵相比,出酒率提高了7.7%左右,总酸、总酯提高了50%以上,其中乙酸乙酯、乳酸乙酯和丁酸乙酯均有显著的提高,杂醇油和甲醇含量均有明显的降低.

  7. In Vivo and In Vitro Antinociceptive Effect of Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev. Meisn Extracts: A Possible Action by Recovering Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum cymosum (Trev. Meisn (Fag is a herb rhizome which has been widely used to treat diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Fag on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, in vivo neonatal pups maternal separation (NMS combined with intracolonic infusion of acetic acid (AA was employed to establish IBS rat models. Fag reduced their visceral hyperalgesia and the whole gut permeability, ameliorated colonic mucosa inflammation and injury, and upregulated the expression of decreased tight junction proteins (TJs of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 (except ZO-2 in colonic epithelium. Caco-2 monolayer cells were incubated with TNF-α and IFN-γ  in vitro to establish an epithelial barrier dysfunction model whose transepithelial electrical resistance (TER depended more on dose of Fag than that of the controls, and whose TJs levels were lower than those of the controls. Fag upregulated the NP-40 insoluble and soluble components of the four TJs markedly in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that Fag alleviated the hyperalgesia of IBS rats by reducing intestinal inflammation and enhancing mucosal epithelial function after regulating the structure and function of TJs.

  8. Studies on the Active Ingredients and its Content Change of Fagopyrum cymosum%金荞麦有效成分及含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇; 贾洪锋; 孙俊秀; 钟志惠; 邵继荣

    2014-01-01

    采用HPLC法对金荞麦(Fagopyrum cymosum)的有效成分进行了分析.结果表明,金荞麦含有芦丁、槲皮素和表儿茶素等有效成分,但不同器官的含量差异较大.芦丁含量以花、叶较高,种子居中,茎和根状茎很低.槲皮素含量则以种子最高,花其次,叶、茎和根状茎较低;表儿茶素含量以根状茎最高,花和种子的含量甚微,茎和叶中未见有表儿茶素成分.金荞麦叶中的芦丁含量以及根状茎中的表儿茶素含量在开花结实期达最高峰,以后逐渐降低.

  9. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  10. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  11. An Interspecific Backcross of Lycopersicon Esculentum X L. Hirsutum: Linkage Analysis and a Qtl Study of Sexual Compatibility Factors and Floral Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bernacchi, D.; Tanksley, S D

    1997-01-01

    A BC(1) population of the self-compatible tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild self-incompatible relative L. hirsutum f. typicum was used for restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of reproductive behavior and floral traits. The self-incompatibility locus, S, on chromosome 1 harbored the only QTL for self-incompatibility indicating that the transition to self-compatibility in the lineage leading to the cultivated tomato was p...

  12. Uso de injertos y contenido de fenoles solubles totales en genotipos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) resistentes y susceptibles a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici raza 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Zavala, Luis Alberto

    2010-01-01

    En jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) germoplasmas no comerciales resistentes son usados como portainjertos para el control de enfermedades. Los compuestos fenólicos están asociados a genotipos resistentes contra especies de Fusarium. Altos contenidos de fenoles solubles totales puede estar asociado a genotipos resistentes a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici raza 3. En el presente estudio se comparo el porcentaje de severidad en plantas injertadas y no injertadas inoculadas con Fol-...

  13. The effects of hydrothermal processing and germination on Fe speciation and Fe bioaccessibility to human intestinal Caco-2 cells in Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Paula; Scheers, Nathalie; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Potisek, Mateja; Arčon, Iztok; Kreft, Ivan; Kump, Peter; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2016-05-15

    Tartary buckwheat is a gluten-free crop with great potential as a wheat substitute. Iron (Fe) is an important mineral element in staple foods which is required in sufficient bioaccessible quantities. The aim of the study was to investigate how processing of grains into groats (hydrothermal processing to remove the husk) and sprouts (7-day-old seedlings) affected Fe speciation (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+)), Fe ligand composition and Fe bioaccessibility to human Caco-2 cells. Groats contained the least Fe (23.8 ± 1.65 mg kg(-1)) and the lowest amounts of Fe(2+) (8%). Grains and sprouts had comparable Fe concentrations (78.2 ± 2.65 and 68.9 ± 2.73 mg kg(-1)) and similar proportions of Fe(2+) (15% and 18%). The main ligands for Fe in Tartary buckwheat material were phytate and citrate. Phytate was less abundant in sprouts, which did not correlate with greater Fe bioaccessibility. Iron bioaccessibility was 4.5-fold greater for grains than groats, suggesting that Fe is more bioaccessible in the husk than in the rest of the grain. PMID:26776035

  14. Diversity and pollination value of insects visiting the flowers of a rare buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum: Polygonaceae in disturbed and “natural” areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griswold, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared flower-visitors of the endangered plant Eriogonum pelinophilum, at relatively undisturbed and highly disturbed sites. We found no difference between sites in flower visitation rate or species richness of flower-visitors; species diversity of flower-visitors was higher at disturbed than at undisturbed sites but there was no difference in equitability. We found significant differences in total E. pelinophilum pollen carried on the body among 14 abundant bee species; eight abundant wasp species; and 12 abundant fly species. Both bee and wasp species carried significantly more pollen on the ventral compared to dorsal segments of the body; pollen on the body of fly species was more equally distributed across body surfaces. Total pollen carried on flower-visitor bodies was significantly related to visitor length, suggesting that larger visitors were more effective pollinators. Total Pollination Value, a measure combining both visitor abundance and body pollen was greater at the disturbed site than the undisturbed site, further suggesting that pollination in fragments of this rare species is not a major concern. We conclude that the high diversity of insect flower-visitors and the generalized nature of E. pelinophilum flowers make a special management programme to conserve pollinators unnecessary. Conservation of this buckwheat is best achieved by simple habitat preservation, together with a program to enlist private citizens to include buckwheat plants in their backyard gardens.

  15. Effect of Imbrasia belina (westwood, Tylosema esculentum (Burchell Schreiber and Vigna subterranea (L Verde as protein sources on growth and laying performance of Tswana hens raised under intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Manyeula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to determine growth and laying performance of indigenous Tswana hens fed diets formulated with four different protein sources consisting of either Tylosema esculentum (Burchell or Vigna subterranea (L Verde or Imbrasia belina (Westwood and commercial diets under an intensive system in Botswana. Sixty 25 weeks old normal feathered Tswana hens were bought from a local farmer and reared up to 38 weeks on diets containing T. esculentum (Burchell or V. subterranea (L Verde or I. belina (Westwood and a commercial diet (control. The hens were then randomly allocated to four treatment groups of 15 hens, with each treatment having three replicates of five hens each. Tylosema esculentum, V. subterranea and I. belina diets were formulated to meet the nutritional composition of commercial layers diet using T. esculentum (Burchell Schreiber beans, V. subterranea (L Verde beans and I. belina (Westwood, respectively as sources of protein before the start of egg production. Data were analyzed using PROC GLM of SAS (2002-2008 as a completely randomized design with initial body weight as a covariate. Hens fed control diet had high (PT. esculentum diet had lowest feed intake (54.6±7.9 g. Hens fed I. belina, control and V. subterranea diets had the highest (PT. esculentum diet had the lowest (P. The FCR was highest (PI. belina diet with 1.10±0.16 g. Hen day egg production was highest (PT. esculentum diet. These results suggest that I. belina (Westwood and V. subterranea (L Verde are potentially good protein sources for formulating poultry diets.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Accumulation in the Rhizomes of Fagopyrum dibotrys and an Irradiation-Induced Mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caixia; Li, Ailian

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Fagopyrum dibotrys is a traditional Chinese medicine that has recently gained attention due to substantial findings regarding its bioactive proanthocyanidin (PA) compounds. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys remains elusive. We previously obtained an irradiation-induced mutant (RM_R) of F. dibotrys that had a higher PA content compared to that of the wild-type (CK_R). The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys by comparing the rhizome transcriptomes of the irradiation-induced mutant and wild-type using RNA-seq analysis. A total of 53,540 unigenes were obtained, of which 29,901 (55.84%) were annotated based on BLAST searches against public databases, and 501 unique sequences were differentially expressed between the two samples, which consisted of 204 up-regulated and 297 down-regulated unigenes. Further analysis showed that the expression patterns of some unigenes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in F. dibotrys rhizomes differed between RM_R and CK_R. In addition, we identified transcription factor families and several cytochrome P450s that may be involved in PA regulation in F. dibotrys. Finally, 12 unigenes that encode PA biosynthetic enzymes were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying radiation-mediated flavonoid accumulation and regulation in F. dibotrys rhizomes. These results will also provide a platform for further functional genomic research on this particular species. PMID:27047386

  17. Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in proanthocyanidin accumulation in the rhizomes of Fagopyrum dibotrys and an irradiation-induced mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia eChen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Fagopyrum dibotrys is a traditional Chinese medicine that has recently gained attention due to substantial findings regarding its bioactive proanthocyanidin (PA compounds. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F.dibotrys remains elusive. We previously obtained an irradiation-induced mutant (RM_R of F.dibotrys that had a higher PA content compared to that of the wild-type (CK_R. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying PA accumulation in F. dibotrys by comparing the rhizome transcriptomes of the irradiation-induced mutant and wild-type using RNA-seq analysis. A total of 53,540 unigenes were obtained, of which 29,901 (55.84% were annotated based on BLAST searches against public databases, and 501 unique sequences were differentially expressed between the two samples, which consisted of 204 upregulated and 297 down regulated unigenes. Further analysis showed that the expression patterns of some unigenes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in F.dibotrys rhizomes differed between RM_R and CK_R. In addition, we identified transcription factor families and several cytochrome P450s that may be involved in PA regulation in F. dibotrys. Finally, 12 unigenes that encode PA biosynthetic enzymes were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying radiation-mediated flavonoid accumulation and regulation in F. dibotrys rhizomes. These results will also provide a platform for further functional genomic research on this particular species.

  18. Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Yao, Jingwen; Zhao, Yangyang; Xie, Dengfeng; Jiang, Xue; Xu, Ziqin

    2016-01-01

    Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After six different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g l(-1) fresh weight, 1.78 g l(-1) dry weight) and rutin content (0.85 mg g(-1)). The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3, TB7, and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of ftpAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H, and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots. PMID:26870075

  19. Efficient rutin and quercetin biosynthesis through flavonoids-related gene expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn hairy root cultures with UV-B irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan eHuang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Transformed hairy roots had been efficiently induced from the seedlings of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. due to the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Hairy roots were able to display active elongation with high root branching in 1/2 MS medium without growth regulators. The stable introduction of rolB and aux1 genes of A. rhizogenes WT strain 15834 into F. tataricum plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Besides, the absence of virD gene confirmed hairy root was bacteria-free. After 6 different media and different sources of concentration were tested, the culturing of TB7 hairy root line in 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g•l-1 sucrose for 20 days resulted in a maximal biomass accumulation (13.5 g•l-1 fresh weight, 1.78 g•l-1 dry weight and rutin content (0.85 mg•g-1. The suspension culture of hairy roots led to a 45-fold biomass increase and a 4.11-fold rutin content increase in comparison with the suspension culture of non-transformed roots. The transformation frequency was enhanced through preculturing for 2 days followed by infection for 20 min. The UV-B stress treatment of hairy roots resulted in a striking increase of rutin and quercetin production. Furthermore, the hairy root lines of TB3,TB7 and TB28 were chosen to study the specific effects of UV-B on flavonoid accumulation and flavonoid biosynthetic gene expression by qRT-PCR. This study has demonstrated that the UV-B radiation was an effective elicitor that dramatically changed in the transcript abundance of FtPAL, FtCHI, FtCHS, FtF3H and FtFLS-1 in F. tataricum hairy roots.

  20. 荞麦七提取物对肺癌A549细胞增殖及凋亡的影响%Effects of Fagopyrum cymosum extracts on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 王晓梅; 杨春娟; 刘帆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Fagopyrum cymosum extracts on proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell line A549. Methods A549 lung cancer cells were processed with aqueous extracts and anthraquinone of Fagopyrum cymosum. Cell viability was detected by trypan blue staining. The inhibition rate of cell proliferation was detected by MTT. The protein expression levels of Csapase 9 and P53 were detected by immunohis-tochemical method. Results The inhibition effects of Fagopyrum cymosum aqueous extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 increased along with higher concentration of the extracts. The inhibition rate at 72 h was significantly higher than the rates at 24 h and 48 h, while there were no significant differences in inhibition rates among the three con-centrations of Fagopyrum cymosum anthraquinone. The induction on Csapase 9 and inhibition on P53 by both extracts were enhanced with the increase of concentration. Conclusion The aqueous extracts and anthraquinone of Fagopy-rum cymosum can inhibit the proliferation of human lung cancer cell line A549 and induce their apoptosis, with the underlying mechanism possibly related to the up-regulation of Caspase 9 and down-regulation of P53.%目的:研究荞麦七提取物对人肺癌A549细胞增殖及凋亡的影响。方法应用荞麦七水提物及荞麦七蒽醌处理肺癌A549细胞,锥虫蓝染色法检测细胞存活率,MTT法检测细胞增殖抑制率,免疫细胞化学法检测Caspase 9和P53蛋白表达水平。结果荞麦七水提取物对肺癌A549细胞增殖的抑制作用随浓度而增强,72 h的抑制率明显较24 h及48 h强,荞麦七蒽醌3种浓度的抑制率之间差异不大。2种提取物对Caspase 9的诱导作用均随着浓度的增大而增强,对P53的抑制作用也随着浓度的增大而增强。结论荞麦七水提物及蒽醌能抑制人肺癌A549细胞的增殖,并诱导其凋亡,其机制可能与上调Caspase 9的表达及下调P53的表达有关。

  1. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine. [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal methylene-{sup 3}H)spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The {sup 14}C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. ({sup 3}H)Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and {beta}-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed.

  2. Water-use efficiency and drought tolerance in Lycopersicon esculentum and L. pennellii and their F sub 2 crosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Soyza, A.G.; Kay, L.E.; Gutschick, V.P.; Maxwell, C. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (United States))

    1991-05-01

    In growth chamber experiments the authors compared the water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance (DT - retention of dry mass vegetative yield when droughted) of the drought intolerant common tomato, L. esculentum and the ostensibly drought tolerant tomato, L. pennellii. Drought treatment was imposed as two severe episodes of drought, each episode lasting until all leaves on the plant were silted, with a period of recovery between treatments. They measured up to 20 performance attributes to WUE and DT, including: root:shoot ratio, leaf internal CO2/ambient CO2, {delta}{sup 13}C, leaf photosynthetic rate, specific leaf mass, leaf water potential, leaf osmotic potential, and stomatal density. Water-use efficiency is negatively correlated with drought tolerance; drought tolerance is positively correlated with plants' ability to increase WUE under stress. Few other attributes are correlated with drought tolerance, and some are conspicuous by their absence. They find evidence for substantial genetic linkage among attributes that confer drought tolerance; and interplant rankings in drought tolerance depend strongly upon the type of drought stress experienced (episodic vs. continuous).

  3. ACTIVIDAD BIOLÓGICA DEL PECTIMORF EN LA MORFOGÉNESIS In Vitro DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill VAR. AMALIA

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    Dagmara Plana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones realizadas en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología de las plantas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, han demostrado el papel de los oligogalacturónidos como biorreguladores del crecimiento y desarrollo in vitro. En este trabajo se estudió la actividad biológica de diferentes concentraciones de la mezcla de oligogalacturónidos conocida como Pectimorf, en la respuesta morfogenética in vitro del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. En los ensayos realizados se emplearon como explantes segmentos apicales de hipocótilos y cotiledones provenientes de plántulas del cultivar Amalia, cultivadas en medio basal complementado con diferentes concentraciones de Pectimorf (1, 5, 10 y 15 mg.L-1 enpresencia o no de bajas concentraciones de BAP (0.25, 0.5 y 1 mg.L-1. Se puso de manifiesto la acción favorable del producto sobre la regeneración in vitro de los explantes estudiados, siendo la dosis de 10 mg.L-1 de Pectimorf la que favoreció la regeneración de plantas a partir de hipocótilos. En el caso de los cotiledones, las mejores combinaciones fueron aquellas donde se emplearon 10 mg.L-1 de Pectimorf con 0.25 y 0.5 mg.L-1 de BAP como complemento del medio de cultivo.

  4. On-line anti-acetylcholine esterase activity of extracts of oxystelma esculentum, aerva javanica and zanthoxylum armatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease of brain, resulting in memory impairment and the loss of thinking. The main reason of Alzheimer's disease is firmly associated with some impairment in cholinergic transmission. This impairment may be improved by diminishing the breakdown of acetylcholine at the synaptic site in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this work, extracts of three different plants Oxystelma esculentum (OEM), Aerva javanica (AJM) and Zanthoxylum armatum (ZAA) have been screened for their anti-AchE activity. Results of the study demonstrate that of the studied extracts, ZAA (IC/sub 50/ 55.5 micro g/ml) acquired stronger anti-AChE activity. While OEM with IC/sub 50/ 107.2 micro g/ml showed moderate and ZAE and AJM showed weaker action (IC/sub 50/ 182.5 and 275.2 micro g/ml). Galanthamine was used as a positive control (IC/sub 50/ 1.47 micro g/ml). (author)

  5. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum

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    C.E. Chávez-Murillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

  6. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample. PMID:22922837

  7. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26347324

  8. 普通荞麦染色体的原位PCR技术研究%The In Situ PCR Technology on Chromosome of Common Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李分龙; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索一种适合荞麦的简单易行的染色体原位PCR技术.[方法]采用16S套式引物、4.5S套式引物与psbA引物,以栽培甜荞为材料,进行染色体原位PCR、原位套式PCR与多次原位PCR试验.[结果]高温干燥可以起到与包埋类似的作用;染色体的原位套式PCR效果比原位PCR明显,多次原位PCR次数为5~6效果较佳.16S引物和4.5S引物均显示了4对信号,但位置不同;而psbA引物是单拷贝的,仅显示出1对信号.根据这些信号的位置差异可以区分普通荞麦的5对染色体.[结论]所使用的荞麦染色体原位PCR技术简单易行.%[ Objective ] The paper aimed to explore a simple in-situ PCR technology for buckwheat. [ Method ] Common buckwheat was taken as experimental material. By using 16S and 4.5S nested primers and psbA primer, the in-situ PCR, nested in-situ PCR and multiple in-situ PCR were carried out respectively. [ Result ] High-temperature drying treatment had the effects similar to that of embedding methods. The effect of the nested in-sim PCR is better than that as usual. A better result could be obtained when the multiple in-situ PCR was performed as many as 5 -6 times. Four pair of signals could be obtained by using both 16S and 4.5S primers, but their sites differed. and psbA primer is a single copy which only shows a signal. A total of five pairs of chromosome of common buchwbeat can be identified according to the difference in the signal's location. [ Conclusion] The used in situ PCR technique for buckwheat is simple and feasible.

  9. Effect of carbon monoxide on respiration in higher plants. [Fagopyrum esculentum L. ; Delphinium Ajacis L. ; Raphanus sativus L. ; Pyrus Malus L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Phaseolus limensis L. ; Medicago pratense L. ; Nicotiana Tabacum L. ; Cucumis sativus L. ; Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G.C.

    1954-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide and light on the respiration of a number of plant tissues were examined. The respiration of root or other tissue was measured at 25/sup 0/C by standard manometric techniques in a ratio of 95% CO and 5% O/sub 2/. The respiration of all eleven tissues studied was strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide. In ten of the eleven cases examined the inhibition was largely or completely eliminated by irradiation of the tissue with light. The evidence fairly well precludes the participation of a tyrosinase and definitely supports the participation of a cytochrome oxidase in respiration. 5 references, 1 table.

  10. TOLERANCIA DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. A APLICACIONES POST TRASPLANTE DEL HERBICIDA HALOSULFURON-METIL Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. tolerance to post transplant applications of the herbicide halosulfuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño N.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la temporada 1998/99 en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA (33º34’ lat. Sur, 70º38’ long. Oeste, 625 m.s.n.m., en un suelo franco-arcilloso, se realizaron ensayos para determinar la tolerancia de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de los cultivares industriales H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410 y cultivares de consumo fresco Cal Ace y XPH-12221 a aplicaciones de post trasplante de halosulfurón-metil (Sempra® 75 WG en la dosis recomendada 75 g ha-1 y en sobredosis de 150 y 300 g ha-1. En todas las dosis halosulfurón-metil no produjo síntomas adversos importantes sobre el follaje. Los mayores niveles de decoloración foliar se observaron en la sobredosis 300 g ha-1 en el cv. P-76 siete días después de la aplicación (DDA. Esta fitotoxicidad fue temporal, restringida a 7-15 DDA, desapareciendo casi completamente 21 DDA. No hubo reducciones en alto y ancho de las plantas 30 DDA, a excepción del ancho del cv. P-76 a 300 g ha-1. 0El rendimiento individual y total de frutos en los cvs. Cal Ace, XPH-12221, H-993, APT-127 y APT-410 no fueron afectados por las aplicaciones de halosulfurón-metil. Ninguna dosis produjo efectos adversos en el diámetro ecuatorial y polar de los frutos. El híbrido industrial P-76 tuvo una baja significativa en rendimiento y número de frutos planta-1 a 150 y 300 g ha-1, pero no con la dosis de 75 g ha-1. Las plantas de tomate fueron tolerantes a aplicaciones tempranas de post trasplante en la dosis máxima recomendada de halosulfurón-metil.During the 1998/99 season at La Platina Research Regional Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA (33º34’ S lat, 70º38’ W long, altitude 625 m.o.s.l., on a loamy-clay soil, field trials were conducted to determine crop tolerance of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. of the industrial cultivars H-993, P-76, APT-127, APT-410, and fresh consumption cultivars Cal Ace, and XPH

  11. Efectos genéticos y heterosis de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en campo e invernadero para rendimiento y calidad Genetic effects and heterosis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in field and greenhouse for yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez Aspeytia

    Full Text Available El cultivo de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ocupa el segundo lugar de importancia en México, por su gran producción de 2.22 millones de toneladas que alcanzo en el año 2007, con un rendimiento promedio de 35.54 t ha-1. Para la región noreste de México este cultivo representa una alternativa agrícola bajo condiciones de agricultura protegida debido a la poca disponibilidad de agua y a las temperaturas extremas que llegan a ser hasta 48 ºC en verano. El conocimiento de la habilidad combinatoria general y específica de materiales genéticos es esencial para lograr diversos objetivos en un programa de mejoramiento tales como: desarrollar híbridos y variedades, incrementar variabilidad genética y evitar erosión genética. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los efectos genéticos de cuatro progenitores y seis cruzas directas posibles, evaluados en campo e invernadero bajo el análisis de variables de rendimiento y de calidad. En el análisis de varianza combinado hubo diferencias altamente significativas (p≤ 0.01 entre ambientes para peso promedio de fruto y rendimiento así como diferencias significativas (p≤ 0.05 para días a primer corte, donde las condiciones ambientales de cada localidad fueron diferentes para los genotipos en general, incluyendo progenitores e híbridos, peso promedio de fruto y rendimiento, indicándonos que los genotipos se comportaron diferente y que los híbridos difirieron en su comportamiento debido a la diversidad genética de los progenitores.Tomato cultivation (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ranks second place of importance in Mexico, for its big production of 2.22 million tons that reached in year 2007, with an average yield of 35.54 t ha-1. For northeast region of Mexico this crop represents an agricultural alternative under protected agriculture conditions due to little water availability and to extreme temperatures that rise up to 48 ºC in summer. Knowledge of general and

  12. Ciclo de maturação e produção de etileno de tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. transgênicos Ripening cycle and ethylene production of transgenic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia CHAVES

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o comportamento fisiológico de frutos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., da cv. Kadá, transformados geneticamente, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, com o clone de DNA pMEL1, em orientação antisenso, e de frutos desta mesma cultivar, não transformados. O estudo fisiológico foi realizado avaliando-se a duração do ciclo de maturação dos frutos, amadurecidos na planta e após a colheita no estádio verde-maduro, e sua produção de etileno. Os frutos transformados amadurecidos na planta tiveram um ciclo total médio de 27 dias, enquanto os amadurecidos após a colheita, tiveram este intervalo prolongado a 50 dias. Ao contrário, os tomates não transformados apresentaram um ciclo de maturação mais acelerado quando colhidos no estádio verde-maduro, em relação aos frutos amadurecidos nas plantas. Os valores foram, em média, de 20 e 30 dias, respectivamente. Estes resultados estão correlacionados com as variações na produção de etileno observada nos dois genótipos. Frutos não transformados produziram, em média, 10,46 nL de etileno.g-1.h-1, enquanto os transgênicos tiveram sua produção de etileno diminuída para 0,13 nL.g-1.h-1. Pode-se concluir, então, que a redução da produção de etileno, verificada nos tomates transformados, é necessária, mas não é suficiente para prolongar o ciclo de maturação e aumentar a durabilidade dos frutos. Para que isto ocorra, é necessário que se proceda à colheita dos tomates no estádio verde-maduro.This work was carried out to study the physiological behaviour of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., var. Kada, geneticaly transformed, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, with the pMEL1 DNA clone, in antisense orientation, and nontransformed ones, from the same variety, growth in a greenhouse. The physiological study was conducted for evaluating the ripening cycle of fruits, ripened attached and detached from the plants in the mature-green stage

  13. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller compression due to "K" wood box closing Compressão de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller em função do fechamento da caixa de madeira tipo "K"

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    Rita de Fátima Alves Luengo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood boxes kind "k" are the most used in table tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller commercialization in Brazil. Due to the fruit accommodation process that occurs during the transport from the production place to the commercialization point, producers fill tomato boxes a little bit over its physical capacity, and they close it with wood strips fixed with nails. In order to prevent strips from cracking, it is common to keep them inside water before using, to increase flexibility. When boxes are opened, many fruits are cracked or kneaded in a significant part of their total area, and normally they are thrown away. The purpose of this paper was to quantify the compression tomato fruits are exposed to in consequence of the "k" box fill / closing system. For this study a special instrumented box was constructed with a scales plate located at the bottom, with a hydraulic load cell instrumented in the box. This instrument was then used to study the compression of fruits as the box is filled and the compression increase caused by the addition of its wooden lid. The "k" box closing system caused an initial compression increase 3.5 times the compression of the open tomato box, and during time as the fruits are substantially deformed. This compression was reduced two about two times de initial reference value. The consequence of this observed fruit compression is compatible with the fruit deformations and even cracks observed in the market, which are known to be relevant post harvest losses causes in the Brazilian tomato handling industry.Caixas de madeira do tipo "K" são as mais utilizadas na comercialização de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Miller de mesa no Brasil. Em razão do processo de acomodação dos frutos que ocorre durante o transporte desde o local de produção até o local de comercialização, os produtores enchem a caixa de tomate um pouco acima de sua capacidade física e a fecham com ripas de madeira e pregos. Para evitar

  14. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  15. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  16. MODIFIKASI TEPUNG UMBI TALAS BOGOR (COLOCASIA ESCULENTUM (L SCHOTT DENGAN TEKNIK OKSIDASI SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN PENGGANTI TEPUNG TERIGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman talas bogor (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott sangat mudah dibudidayakan di daerah tropik dan sub-tropik, termasuk Indonesia. Umbi talas bogor kaya akan karbohidrat, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber energi yang potensial bagi manusia melalui berbagai proses modifikasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memperbaiki kualitas tepung umbi talas bogor dengan mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi suspensi, katalis, oksidator, dan temperatur dari proses modifikasi dengan cara oksidasi menggunakan larutan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2. Variabel yang dikaji adalah suspensi tepung dengan air (40, 30, 20, dan 10%, waktu reaksi (30, 60, 90, dan 120 menit, konsentrasi katalis (0; 0,1%; 0,2%, konsentrasi oksidator (1%, 2% dan 3% dan temperatur (30; 40; 50oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan konsentrasi suspensi 40% , konsentrasi katalis 0,1%, konsentrasi H2O2 2% dan temperatur 30oC pada waktu oksidasi 30 menit memberikan hasil yang paling optimum ditinjau dari daya kembang (swelling power dengan nilai 7g/g dan kelarutannya dalam air yaitu 4% dengan mempertimbangkan aspek teknis dan ekonomis dari proses. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan H2O2 sebagai oksidator cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai daya kembang tepung talas bogor yang sebelumnya hanya 4,3 g/g menjadi 7 g/g, dimana nilai tersebut telah masuk dalam rasio daya kembang tepung terigu yaitu 6,8-7,9 g/g. Namun oksidator H2O2 tidak cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai kelarutan tepung dalam air yang sebelumnya hanya 2% menjadi 4%, dimana nilai tersebut masih dibawah rasio kelarutan tepung terigu yaitu 6,3-7,3%. Selain itu uji organoleptik pada kue kering berbahan baku tepung umbi talas bogor teroksidasi menunjukkan kelemahan berupa rasa yang agak pahit dan tekstur yang terlalu rapuh dibandingkan dengan kue kering yang menggunakan bahan baku tepung terigu.Bogor taro (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott is one of the local resources which can be used as raw material for flour

  17. Disturbances in the development of the female gametophyte in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was found that part of the ovules in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum: Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy show disturbances in the development of the embryo sac. These irregularities can be seen in four phases: pre-meiotic, post-meiotic (tetrad, nucleate and cellular. The majority of irregularities were observed in the cellular stage of embryo sac development. The total number of ovules with disturbed female gametophyte was higher in the A33 (32.6% than in the Kh line (23.5%.

  18. EVALUACIÓN Y SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE NUEVAS LÍNEAS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) EN LA PROVINCIA LA HABANA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Moya; Marta Álvarez; J. Arzuaga; M. Ponce; Dagmara Plana; F. Dueñas; Rodríguez, J.; J. Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Con vistas a continuar incrementando la diversidad genética de la especie (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) en manos de los productores de la provincia La Habana y que al mismo tiempo estos adopten variedades mejor adaptadas a las características agroecológicas de sus fincas, se realizaron investigaciones en las áreas experimentales del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas, San José de las Lajas, y en la finca de un productor perteneciente a la CCS ¿Juan Benito Ruiz¿, Batabanó. En el primer...

  19. Caracterización de germoplasma de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill) con vistas a la implementación de un programa de fitomejoramiento participativo

    OpenAIRE

    Solís, A.; R. Martínez; J. Pupo; Cabrera, F.; Reyna Parra

    2001-01-01

    En las áreas de la Estación Territorial de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de Holguín (ETIAH), sobre un suelo Pardo sin carbonato, se realizó un estudio con 18 líneas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill) obtenidas por el campesino Jorge Pupo1, con el objetivo de caracterizarlas y establecer una estrategia de mejora que permita alcanzar genotipos con características varietales adaptadas a las condiciones del territorio. La información disponible fue sometida a variados análisis de la estadí...

  20. VALIDACIÓN AGRONÓMICA DEL BIOBAC® EN EL CULTIVO DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) EN CONDICIONES DE AGRICULTURA ORGÁNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Aniuska López Martínez; Lázaro Izquierdo Damas; Aida Nieve Rodríguez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    El uso de productos biológicos beneficiosos para los cultivos agrícolas, en condiciones de organopónico, constituye una tarea primordial para la agricultura urbana, que garantiza una producción sostenible de alimentos más sanos. Evaluar en condiciones de organoponía, la efectividad del biopreparado bacteriano BIOBAC®, obtenido a partir de la cepa Bs INIFAT -101 de Bacillus subtilis, como antagonista y estimulador del crecimiento vegetal en el cultivo de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) ...

  1. Growth, yield, and calcium and boron uptake of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) asaffected by calcium and boron humate application in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    EKİNCİ, MELEK; ESRİNGÜ, ASLIHAN; DURSUN, ATİLLA; YILDIRIM, Ertan; TURAN, METİN; KARAMAN, MEHMET RÜŞTÜ; ARJUMEND, TUBA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of calcium humate, boron humate, and humic acid solutions on growth, yield, quality, and calcium and boron uptake of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), as well as changes in soil nutrient status after crop harvest. Four different concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 mg kg-1) of calcium humate (12% CaO, 15% humic and fulvic acid), boron humate (10% BOH4, 15% humic and fulvic acid), and humic acid (15...

  2. Hypoglycaemic Effects of Dietary Intake of Ripe and Unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and unripe tomatoes have been implicated in prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer probably due to their antioxidant, antibiotic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Problem statement: This study was designed to investigate whether ripe and unripe tomatoes will have hypoglycaemic effect in a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus that has been characterized with hyperglycaemia. Approach: Twenty albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (2 control and 2 test groups of 5 rats each. The normal and diabetic control groups were given citrate buffer (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow and 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow respectively. The test groups were given 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin via intraperitoneal route and either a mixture of ripe or unripe tomato and normal rat chow. In all groups, the blood samples were obtained at the tail vein of the animals and the fasting blood glucose level were monitored and determined on the 1st, 3rd and 14th day of consumption of different feed combinations. Results: There was significant difference in blood glucose level in animals fed on ripe and unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato compared to the normal and diabetic control groups on the 3rd and 14th day without significant difference on the 1st day. Conclusion: Both high-lycopene ripe tomato and high-tomatine unripe tomato have hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mellitus at short period of dietary intake therefore this suggest that consumers may benefit by not only eating high-lycopene ripe tomatoes, but also high-tomatine unripe tomatoes.

  3. The life cycle and yielding of Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Mill) pretreated with deuterium depleted water and nano magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this investigation was to reveal the effect of deuterium depleted water (DDW) upon the first (germination) and the last one (yield) life cycle of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomatoes) in water stress condition. Specifically, growth methods were applied. The obtained data were statistically processed (Ceapoiu, 1968). There were pointed out the differences and proportionality in germination dynamics when the seeds were pretreated with DDW and a mixture of DDW with NMP (Nano Magnetic Particles). The descendants of different fruits/plants were analyzed. In comparison to Control (H2O-d) in DDW the germination was repressed in one descendant (4.4%) or contrary it was stimulated on other descendant (12.7%). In presence of NMP suspended in DDW, the seed indices were higher: 13.1% for the basal fruit and 22% for the upper one. In the plants cultivated in water well supplied or under water stress conditions the yield was higher i.e. 94.68 t/ha and 62.76 t/ha, respectively. The difference of 31.92 t/ha emphasizes the favorable effect of initial treatment. The DDW pretreatment induced favorable biological effects expressed in a high yield in both groups (normal and stressed). The average yield/surface unit was the highest. The life cycle was prolonged in high yielding descendants. In their case after 105 days only 2% of total yield was gathered. Short phenophases developed the stressed plants. The maturity took place earlier on stressed plants yielding 8% from total production after 105 days.The pretreatment with DDW or DDW and NMPs is useful for practical purposes in case of tomatoes varieties in which technology nursery transplant is an important stage in cultivation. (authors)

  4. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p 0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods. PMID:24783783

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  6. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds. PMID:26511862

  7. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  8. Influence of Pulse Pressure on the State of Biopolymers and the Probability of Hydrolysis of Starch in Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Pavlova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage of seeds which leads to destruction of the crystal lattice and the phase transition of polymers is formed under the pulse pressure (PP treatment. Biopolymers such as starch compressed under specific conditions can be changed from crystalline to a glassy state; this transition is known to extend the life of seeds. The aging of seeds is involved in the enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Reducing sugars which have been produced in seeds by non-enzymatic hydrolysis enter into reaction of glycosylation with proteins and amino acids actively. The authors studied the water absorption by seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., cultivar Saulyk treated by PP. The values of PP which were used to treat had an influence on water absorption during the first hours of imbibition. When water content was 60%, hydrolysis of reserve substances could begin, so water potential was created by osmotically active molecules. Gibbs energy calculation by method of groups’ contribution indicated the reduction in probability of starch hydrolysis in plant seeds during transition from the crystalline to the glassy state.

  9. Measurement of Trace Element in Tartary Buckwheat by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion%微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕芹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]采用微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素.[方法]用HNO3+H2O2对苦养样品进行微波消解处理,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定苦荞消解液中的Fe、Cu、Zn、Mn、Mg的含量.[结果]苦荞中Mg的含量较高;各元素的回收率为94.8%~101.5%,结果满意.[结论]该法简便、快速、准确,有良好的重现性,能满足日常分析检测的需要.%[Objective] The research aimed to measure the trace element in Tartary buckwheat by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry with microwave digestion. [ Method] Tartary buckwheat sample was carried out the microwave digestion by HNO, + H20,. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the contents of Fe,Cu,Zn,Mn and Mg in the digestion solution of Tartary buckwheat. [Result] Mg content was higher in Tartary buckwheat. The recovery ratio of each element was during 94.8% -101.5% ,and the result was satisfactory.[Conclusion] The method was simple,convenient,quick and accurate. It had the good repeatability and could satisfy the requirement of routine analysis and detection.

  10. 中国四川蓼科荞麦属一新种——皱叶野荞麦%Fagopyrum crispatifolium J. L. Liu, a new species of Polygonaceae from Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 夏明忠; 邵继荣; 蔡光泽; 罗强; 孙俊秀

    2008-01-01

    描述了蓼科Polygonaceae一新种--皮叶野荞麦Fagopyrum crispatifolium J.L.Liu.本种近似于细柄野荞麦F. gracilipes(Hemsl.)Damm.& Diels,但以其叶片表面泡状突起,叶缘皱波状,具不规则波状圆齿、圆齿或小圆齿,聚伞花序密集与之相区别.此外,还报道了该物种的染色体数目,发现它是一个四倍体,染色体数目为2n=4x=32.

  11. 苦荞麦的化学成分和药理活性研究进展%Research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological effect of Fagopyrum tataricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林兵; 胡长玲; 黄芳; 韩婷; 秦路平

    2011-01-01

    苦荞麦Fagopyrum tataricum为蓼科荞麦属植物,在我国两南、中南、华北等省区均有分布.苦荞麦主要含黄酮类、甾体类、酚类等化学成分,具有降血糖、降血脂、抗氧化、雌激素样、抗癌防癌、镇痛抗炎、抗疲劳等作用,具有很高的食用价值和药用价值.综述近年来苦荞麦化学成分和药理作用方面的研究进展,为苦荞麦的进一步研究提供参考.

  12. An interspecific backcross of Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum: linkage analysis and a QTL study of sexual compatibility factors and floral traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, D; Tanksley, S D

    1997-10-01

    A BC1 population of the self-compatible tomato Lycopersicon esculentum and its wild self-incompatible relative L. hirsutum f. typicum was used for restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of reproductive behavior and floral traits. The self-incompatibility locus, S, on chromosome 1 harbored the only QTL for self-incompatibility indicating that the transition to self-compatibility in the lineage leading to the cultivated tomato was primarily the result of mutations at the S locus. Moreover, the major QTL controlling unilateral incongruity also mapped to the S locus, supporting the hypothesis that self-incompatibility and unilateral incongruity are not independent mechanisms. The mating behavior of near-isogenic lines carrying the L. hirsutum allele for the S locus on chromosome 1 in an otherwise L. esculentum background support these conclusions. The S locus region of chromosome 1 also harbors most major QTL for several floral traits important to pollination biology (e.g., number and size of flowers), suggesting a gene complex controlling both genetic and morphological mechanisms of reproduction control. Similar associations in other flowering plants suggest that such complex may have been conserved since early periods of plant evolution or else reflect a convergent evolutionary process. PMID:9335620

  13. 古代荞麦种植及加工食用研究%The Research of Buckwheat's Planting and Processing Consumption in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红中; 惠富平

    2008-01-01

    荞麦是蓼科荞麦属作物,学名Fagopyrum Mill,一年生草本双子叶植物。部分少数民族称为“额”,古代也写成菠麦。分布于欧、亚二洲,我国各地都有栽培,有时为野生,生于荒地或路旁。荞麦不仅具有极高的营养价值,而且含有其它粮食作物所缺乏和不具有的特种微量元素及药用成分,对现代“文明病”及中老年心脑血管疾病有预防和治疗功能。荞麦还能预防癌症,对小孩的生长和智力开发也很有帮助。

  14. Effect of Explosion Puffing on the Quality of Wholewheat Tartary Buckwheat Tea%气流膨化对苦荞全麦茶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    以苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)米为原料,在0.4~0.8 MPa气压下进行气流膨化,制得苦荞全麦茶样品.通过对比不同样品的感官评价得分、复水率、总黄酮含量、芦丁含量和槲皮素含量,分析气流膨化生产苦荞全麦茶的最好气压条件.结果表明,在0.6 MPa气压下苦荞全麦茶感官评价得分为81.10分、复水率为110.61%、槲皮素含量为0.91%,均为所测定的最高值,其中总黄酮含量为1.46%(干基,以芦丁计)和芦丁含量为0.73%,都处于较高水平;在0.6 MPa气压条件下气流膨化生产苦荞全麦茶综合品质最好.

  15. Research Advances in Chemical Composition,Physiological Function and Application in Livestock of Fagopyrum Dibotrys%金荞麦的化学成分、生理功能及在畜禽养殖中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭露霖; 艾蓉; 罗文菊; 薛红; 邓蓉

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of Fagopyrum dibotrys is complex,including flavonoids,terpenoids,steroids,organic acid and so on. Fagopy ̄rum dibotrys have oxidation resistance,immunity,antibacterial,antitumor and other physiological function; Fagopyrum dibotrys is a high quality forage grass which contains the high content of crude protein,the low content of crude fiber,and variety of amino acid. Fagopyrum dibotrys is easy to breed and adapat,high to yield,and used in livestock feed as additive for special function. This paper reviews the chemical composition, physiological function and application in livestock of Fagopyrum dibotrys.%金荞麦化学成分复杂,含有黄酮类、萜类、甾体、有机酸等化学成分;具有抗氧化、免疫、抗菌、抗癌等生理功能;粗蛋白含量高,粗纤维含量低,氨基酸种类丰富,有较高的营养价值;金荞麦易繁殖,产量高,是一种适应性强、高产的牧草资源;作为添加剂用于畜禽饲料中有其特殊作用。文章对金荞麦的化学成分、生理功能、营养价值、繁育种植及在畜禽养殖中的应用进行了综述。

  16. 新体系评价市售荞麦的营养及健康效应%Evaluation for Nutritional and Healthy Effects of Buckwheat&Prevention of Chronic Epidemics by Diets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 靳谨; 周岳; 沈秀; 龙伟; 吴红英; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    荞麦是我国传统杂粮之一, 本研究通过玉米低营养小鼠模型结合食品BDI-GS新体系进行荞麦营养健康效应的综合评价,用损益指数(BDI)及其累计积分(GS)考察荞麦摄取对机体重要脏器组织及微观血清生化指标的影响.以线性生长期健康的ICR小鼠为对象,设有玉米空白对照组,掺和8%、16%、32%荞麦组,喂养12 d后,称重并取血样、解剖,完整剖取9项脏器组织,并进行血清生化指标的分析检测.结果表明荞麦对机体胸腺、脾脏、胰腺指标的营养、健康存在有益的效应,表现在3个剂量的重量及系数BDI均高于1.0;且3个剂量荞麦实验组的累计GS值也均高于9.0(9项指标)的基本积分.表明低剂量下摄取荞麦对机体重要脏器组织有良好的营养和健康效应,可降低血糖、血脂.同时,可以控制体重增加对抗肥胖,对我国糖尿病、癌症等相关慢性流行病的预防,降低发病率具有积极的意义.%Buckwheat is one of traditional grain cereals, in this study, through low-nutritional mice model combined the BDI-GS evaluation system of food, nutritional and healthy effects of buckwheat were evaluated comprehensively, observe the influences of buckwheat intake for functions of vital organs and/or tissues by using approach of benefit-damage index (BDI) and accumulative general scores (GS), as well as microscope serum biochemical parameters. The healthy ICR male mice during the linear growth were selected as subject. Including of blank control mice fed with maize, 8%, 16%and 32%spiking buckwheat diets fed mice were designed in the study, respectively. After fed 12 days, took mice body weights and obtained blood samples, performed necropsy and excised perfectly 9 organs or tissues , record weights and calculated indices and their BDI values , as well as accumulative GS values, further detected the serum biochemical parameters. The buckwheat intake for indicators of thymus, spleen and pancreas in

  17. EKOLOŠKI UZGOJENA HELJDA – ZDRAVA HRANA I IZVOR PRIRODNIH ANTIOKSIDANATA

    OpenAIRE

    Kreft, Ivan; Germ, Mateja

    2008-01-01

    Obična heljda (Fagopyrum esculentum) i tatarska heljda (Fagopyrum tataricum) su zbog sadržaja fenolnih supstanca otporne na napade štetnika i bolesti, te otporne na UV-B zrake i nepogodne uvjete zemljišta. Heljda se često ponaša kao divlja, nekultivirana biljka te je osjetljiva na upotrebu mineralnih gnojiva. Zbog nabrojanih osobina, heljda je pogodna biljka za upotrebu u organskoj poljoprivredi.

  18. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-01

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  19. ソバ属(Fagopyrum )の種間交配における花粉管伸長

    OpenAIRE

    南, 峰夫; 五味, 正輝; 氏原, 暉男

    1992-01-01

    普通ソバ(Fagopyrum esculentum : 以下F. e)と野生種3種(F. Cymosum, F.urophyllum, F. Leptopodum : 以下それぞれ,F. c, F. u, F. l)間の交雑親和性を明らかにするために,4種間の交配を行い,花粉の発芽と花粉管伸長を調査した。得られた結果は以下の通りである。(1) F. eとF. lの組合せで,花粉が発芽しない場合がみられたが,その他の種間交配組合せでは種間交配と同様に,すべての雌ずいで花粉の発芽と花粉管の花柱内への伸長が認められた。(2) 種間交配では花粉管先端部が肥大して伸長を停止しているものが認められ,花粉管の伸長は種内交配より明らかに劣った。種内交配では大部分の雌ずいにおいて花粉管の子房内への伸長が見られたのに対し,種間交配では,F. eとF. cの正逆交配とF. u×F. lだけで観察された。(3) 花粉管長/花柱長比率から,F. eとの交雑親和性はF. c>F. u>F. lの順であり,F. eを母本にした方が良いと考えられた。...

  20. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  1. 表面活性剂-超声波协同提取荞麦壳黄酮工艺研究%Study on surfactant assisted ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 陈旭清

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant assisted ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull was studied. With the yield of flavonoids as index,ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull was optimized by the orthogonal experiments. Under the best conditions,the influences of surfactants of SDS,Tween–20 and Tween–80 on the yield rate of flavonoids were illustrated. The results showed that under the best conditions of extraction temperature 80℃,ethanol volume fraction 40%,ultrasonic time 70 min,solid–liquid 1∶50,ultrasonic power 200 W,the yield of flavonoids was 5.176%,add the concentration of SDS 1.5 g/L,the yield of flavonoids was up to 5.445%. surfactant could improve the yield of ultrasonic extraction of flavonoids from buckwheat hull.%  研究表面活性剂―超声波协同提取荞麦壳黄酮类化合物,以黄酮得率为指标,采用正交实验优化超声波辅助提取荞麦壳黄酮工艺;在此基础上,考察表面活性剂SDS、Tween–20和Tween–80对黄酮得率影响。结果表明,在超声温度80℃、乙醇体积分数40%、超声时间70 min、料液比1∶50、超声功率200 W条件下,黄酮得率为5.176%;添加浓度为1.5 g/L至SDS后,黄酮得率提高至5.445%,表明表面活性剂对超声波提取荞麦壳黄酮具有一定增效作用。

  2. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  3. Gamma radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) stored at room temperature and under refrigerated conditions; Efeito da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) armazenados em temperatura ambiente e refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Raquel Medeiros de Almeida

    1994-07-01

    This work was carried out in two distinct experiments. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) of the variety 'Santa Clara in the 'turning' stage (first experiment) and of the variety 'Santa Cruz' in the 'mature-green' stage (second experiment), were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source with doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 e 2.0 kGy, and stored at room temperature (20{+-}2 deg C) and under refrigeration (9 deg C). The aim of the experiments was to verify the effects of the gamma-radiation on the extension of the market life of tomatoes stored under two different temperatures. The following types of analysis were carried out: physical (weight and skin resistance), chemical (brix, pH), sensorial (general appearance, external coloration and firmness) and organoleptic (aroma and flavor), during 30 days of storage, with four evaluations. At the end of the experiment microbiologic and microscopic analyses of histological sections were also performed. In both experiments, occurred a greater loss of weight in the irradiated tomatoes in relation to the controls proportional to the increase in the period of storage, but not to the increase of doses. This effect was more pronounced in fruits stored at room temperature. Concerning the resistance, the fruits of the first experiment showed that irradiation causes softening of the fruit skin. This softening was proportional to the increase of doses, in the 1, 10 e 30th day, and also the fruits irradiated with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy showed a higher softening on both temperatures. In the second experiment, on both temperatures, the fruits showed an increase of skin resistance until the 10th day, which diminished until the 30th day. The content of soluble solids was altered by irradiation in the first experiment, and this resulted in a decrease of Brix proportional to the increase of dose. In the second experiment, the radiation induced a maximum Brix value at the 10th day in the fruits maintained under

  4. Gamma radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) stored at room temperature and under refrigerated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in two distinct experiments. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) of the variety 'Santa Clara in the 'turning' stage (first experiment) and of the variety 'Santa Cruz' in the 'mature-green' stage (second experiment), were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source with doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 e 2.0 kGy, and stored at room temperature (20±2 deg C) and under refrigeration (9 deg C). The aim of the experiments was to verify the effects of the gamma-radiation on the extension of the market life of tomatoes stored under two different temperatures. The following types of analysis were carried out: physical (weight and skin resistance), chemical (brix, pH), sensorial (general appearance, external coloration and firmness) and organoleptic (aroma and flavor), during 30 days of storage, with four evaluations. At the end of the experiment microbiologic and microscopic analyses of histological sections were also performed. In both experiments, occurred a greater loss of weight in the irradiated tomatoes in relation to the controls proportional to the increase in the period of storage, but not to the increase of doses. This effect was more pronounced in fruits stored at room temperature. Concerning the resistance, the fruits of the first experiment showed that irradiation causes softening of the fruit skin. This softening was proportional to the increase of doses, in the 1, 10 e 30th day, and also the fruits irradiated with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy showed a higher softening on both temperatures. In the second experiment, on both temperatures, the fruits showed an increase of skin resistance until the 10th day, which diminished until the 30th day. The content of soluble solids was altered by irradiation in the first experiment, and this resulted in a decrease of Brix proportional to the increase of dose. In the second experiment, the radiation induced a maximum Brix value at the 10th day in the fruits maintained under normal conditions, and also on the

  5. 荞麦属种质资源的谷草转氨酶同工酶研究%Study of Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase Isozyme on Resources of Genus Fagopyrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张以忠; 陈庆富

    2008-01-01

    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术对荞麦属(Fagopyrum Mill)S个种(含大粒组7个种和小粒组1个种)33份荞麦资源的谷草转氨酶同工酶进行了研究.结果发现:谷草转氨酶同工酶酶带共14条.不同物种的酶带为3~5条,甜荞和苦荞分别有3带和5条带.酶谱分析及聚类分析表明:大粒组荞麦种的酶带与F. gracilipes等小粒组荞麦种问差异极大,甜荞和苦荞酶带分别与F.megaspaaanium和F.pilus相似,并分别与F.megaspartanium和F.pilus聚类最近,暗示F.megaspartanium和F.pilus可能分别是甜荞和苦荞的祖先种.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Response of Fagopyrum dibotrys to High Temperature Stress and Evaluation of Their Heat Tolerance%高温对金荞麦生理生化特征的影响及其耐热性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 陈超; 邓蓉; 赵丽芬; 杨芳

    2016-01-01

    为阐明金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys Hara)耐热生理生化机制,以8个金荞麦种质为试验材料,研究高温对其生理生化指标的影响.结果表明:高温处理后,各金荞麦种质的相对电导率、丙二醛(MDA)和脯氨酸(Pro)含量增加;可溶性蛋白(SP)含量先升高后降低;超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性增加.综合分析,评价出供试材料耐热顺序为:JQ6>JQ2>JQ3>JQ1>JQ8>JQ4>JQ5>JQ7.

  7. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Glutathione S-transferase (FtGST)Gene from Fagopyrum tatarium%苦荞谷胱甘肽转移酶(FtGST)基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海霞; 李双江; 李成磊; 陈惠; 吴琦

    2012-01-01

    采用RACE技术,从苦荞(Fagopyrum tatarium)中克隆得到一个谷胱甘肽转移酶(Glutathione S-transferase protein,FtGST)基因.序列分析表明,FtGST基因全长DNA序列和cDNA序列编码区分别为746 bp和666bp,DNA序列含有一个长度为80bp(342-421 bp)的内含子;开放阅读框(ORF)长666bP,编码221个氨基酸.生物信息学分析表明,FtGST基因推导的蛋白质含有Tau家族典型的底物结合口袋、谷胱甘肽结合位点(G-site)和疏水性底物结合位点(H-site)氨基酸残基,表明FtGST为Tau家族蛋白.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity of the Total Soluble Sugar from Various Organs of Fagopyrum megaspartanium%大野荞不同器官可溶性糖的抗氧化能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    用蒽酮比色法测定大野荞(Fagopyrum Megasp artanium)不同器官中可溶性糖的含量,并采用NBT光化还原法、Fenton反应法和钼酸铵显色分光光度法研究了大野荞不同器官(茎、叶、花和种子)可溶性糖体外抗羟基自由基(·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(·O2-)和过氧化氢(H2O2)的能力.结果表明:大野荞不同器官可溶性糖体外均能抗·OH、·O2-和H2O2.抗·OH的能力为:花、种子>茎、叶;抗·O2-的能力为:花>叶、种子、茎;抗H2O2的能力为:花、叶>茎>种子.

  9. 中国荞麦属(蓼科)一新种——密毛野荞麦%Fagopyrum densovillosum J. L. Liu, a New Species of Polygonaceae from Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建林; 唐宇; 夏明忠; 邵继荣; 蔡光泽; 罗强; 孙俊秀

    2008-01-01

    描述了蓼科一新种--密毛野荞麦(Fagopyrum densovillosum J. L. Liu),本种与细柄野荞麦(F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Damm. et Diels)相近似,不同在于植株全体密被白色直立长毛,茎枝较粗壮,节较密集,节间较短, 叶较大,长(0.9~)1.7~6 cm,宽(0.7~)1.2~5.1 cm,阔卵形,心形,阔心形,阔卵状心形,卵形,长卵形,三角状卵形或卵状三角形,在上面具细皱纹,明显小泡状突起,叶柄较长,长 (0.5~) 2.6~7.5 cm,果实较小,长1.8~2.5 mm,直径1.5~2 mm,易于区别.

  10. 金荞麦芽尖开发为功能茶的基础研究%Fundamental Research on Developing the Shoot Tips of Fagopyrum dibotrys to Be A Functional Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠莲; 汤洪敏

    2015-01-01

    为了进一步开发和利用金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys)植物资源,对金荞麦芽尖开发为黄酮型功能茶的可行性进行初步研究.以时间、浸泡次数、料液比作为变量因子,探索各因素对金荞麦芽尖总黄酮溶出率的影响.结果表明,在浸泡10 min内溶出速率较快;料液比对总溶出率影响不大;第一次浸泡溶出量平均占5次浸泡总溶出率的50%左右:且溶出率随浸泡次数的增加而迅速降低,自然阴干的溶出率高于60℃烘干的,金荞麦芽尖具有开发为功能茶饮的潜力,可为金荞麦芽尖的功能性利用提供理论依据.

  11. 微量元素锌肥对苦荞芽中锌及黄酮含量的影响%Effect of Micronutrient Zinc Fertilizer on the Contents of Flavonoids and Zn in the Bud of Tartary Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘天春

    2015-01-01

    采用不同浓度锌肥喷施,促进苦荞[Fagopyrum tataric um(L.)Gaertn]种子萌发,测定苦荞芽中锌、总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量.结果表明,喷施锌肥可以极显著增加苦荞芽中锌含量,也可以增加总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量,喷施锌肥浓度为1.00 mg/L时,苦荞芽中总黄酮、芦丁和槲皮素的含量最高.

  12. Breeding Report of A New Buckwheat Variety Dingtianqiao 2%优质荞麦新品种定甜荞2号选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 贾瑞玲; 魏立萍; 陈富

    2011-01-01

    Dingtianqiao 2 was a new buckwheat variety selected from mixed strains among the introduction of Japanese buckwheat grain varietie by Inner Mongolia.In 2005 — 2007,the average yield of Dingtianqiao 2 was 2 205.0 kg/hm2 and 12.8% higher than of the check Dingtianqiao 1 in three years 18 points(times) in region test of Dingxi city.The results showed that plant height was 80.8 cm,the number of branches was 4.4,grain weight per plant was 2.8 g,1000-grain weight was 30.2 g,growth period was 80 d.The results also indicationed that seed crude protein,crude starch,lysine,fat,rutin,moisture content were 136.6 g/kg,599.6 g/kg,14.3 g/kg,29.6 g/kg,30.3 g/kg,12.3%,respectively.In addition,it was resistance drought,barren,lodging,resistance to leaf spot.It is suitable to plant in the region of semi-arid areas of precipitation 350~600 mm,the district of 2 500 m above sea level in Dingxi,silver,Tianshui,Gansu and other cities,and mountainous areas in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and other similar ecological areas.%荞麦新品种定甜荞2号是定西市旱作农业科研推广中心于2000年从内蒙古引进的日本大粒荞品种中经多年株选而成。2005—2007年在定西市区域试验中,3 a 18点(次)折合平均产量2 205.0 kg/hm2,较对照品种定甜荞1号增产12.8%。该品种株高80.8 cm,分枝数4.4个,单株粒重2.8 g,千粒重30.2 g,生育期80 d。籽粒含粗蛋白136.6 g/kg、粗淀粉599.6 g/kg、赖氨酸14.3 g/kg、粗脂肪29.6 g/kg、芦丁30.3 g/kg、水分12.3%。表现抗旱、耐瘠薄、抗倒伏、耐褐斑病。适宜在甘肃省中东部的定西、白银、天水、陇南等市降水量350~600 mm、海拔2 500 m以下的半干旱区及宁夏回族自治区南部山区同类生态区种植。

  13. 略说日本的素面、乌冬面和荞麦面%On Vegetarian Noodles,Udon Noodles and Buckwheat Noodles of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波

    2014-01-01

    Noodles came to Japan from China in the earth 8th century with Buddhism. First there were only vegetarian noodles. Then in the late 16 th century,people in western Japan began eating udon noodles while those in eastern Japan began eating buckwheat noodles. In the 18 th century,due to the appearance of soybean sauce,these two noodles became traditional Japanese foods. This paper is a detailed description of the appearance and evolution of traditional Japanese noodles based on both historical literature and personal experience of the author.%面条类的食物大约在8世纪初随佛教从中国传入日本,起初的名称曰,索饼或麦绳,镰仓时代的后期出现了索面的名称,以后逐渐改写为素面。约在16世纪末,在西部和东部分别产生了乌冬面和荞麦面,在江户中期,随着酱油的普及,这两种面类逐渐演变成具有浓郁东瀛色彩的传统日本食物。本文依据文献和作者的个人体验,对传统日本面类的发生和发展作了较为详尽的叙述。

  14. Study on effect of shelling-gap on whole-half kernel rate of buckwheat%剥壳间隙对荞麦整半仁率的影响规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁斯琴; 杜文亮; 隋建民; 赵卫东

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the existing problems of adjusting the shelling gap only according to the farmer's experience in the process of shelling the buckwheat,the main purpose is to find the optimum rotational speed of the moving sand wheel for shelling the buckwheat with the particle size ranging from Φ 4.6 mm to Φ 4.8 mm when its optimum shelling gap is 4.00 mm,and the measuring object is the whole-half kernel rate.The effect trend curves of different buckwheat particle size and shelling gap on the whole-half kernel rate have been obtained through a large number of experiments and theory analysis when the working rotational speed is 1 038.4 r/min.As is shown from those curves,the whole-half kernel rate begins to rise at first and then falls while the shelling gap is decreasing.That means the optimum shelling gap does exist.Meanwhile,the optimum shelling gap is increasing while increasing the particle size of the buckwheat.Finally,when the rotational speed of the moving sand wheel is 1 038.4 r/min and the shelling gap is 4.00 mm for the buckwheat with the particle size ranging from Φ 4.6 mm to Φ 4.8 mm,the maximum whole-half kernel rate will come up to 65.41% and its broken kernel rate is 6.32%.%针对荞麦剥壳过程中剥壳间隙凭经验操作易调节失当的问题,以养麦整半仁率为衡量指标,选Φ4.6~4.8 mm粒径荞麦在较优剥壳间隙为4.0 mm时,寻找其较优工作转速.在此工作转速(1 038.4 r/min)下,以不同粒径荞麦、寻找剥壳间隙对荞麦整半仁率的影响规律.获得了随着剥壳间隙的减小,整半仁率呈先升后降的趋势,即存在着较优的剥壳间隙;随着荞麦粒径的增加,较优剥壳间隙呈增大趋势.粒径Φ4.6~4.8 mm荞麦动砂盘转速为1 038.4 r/min,剥壳间隙为4.0 mm时整半仁率达到最高值为65.41%,碎仁率为6.32%.

  15. Soluble Proteins, Proline, Carbohydrates and Na+/K+ Changes in Two Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Cultivars under in vitro Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Amini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of NaCl stress on soluble proteins, proline, carbohydrates and Na+/K+ of two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Isfahani and Shirazy were studied. Seeds were germinated on medium containing only water agar, then transferred to MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM for 21 days. Increasing of salinity resulted in increasing of soluble proteins in stem & leaf of cv. Isfahani but decreasing in cv. Shirazy. Soluble proteins in roots of both cultivars showed some variations. When concentration of NaCl in the medium was increased proline contents of stem-leaf and roots in both cultivars increased significantly. However, cv. Shirazy showed higher amount of proline level. Proline content in stem-leaf in comparing with roots was higher in two cultivars. In response to increasing of salt concentration of the medium, the average amount of total carbohydrate in stem-leaf of cv. Shirazy increased but, in cv. Isfahani level of carbohydrate decreased. When explants form both cultivars were exposed to the higher concentration of salt the level of carbohydrate in roots increased. High-level salinity decreased the reduced sugars in both cv. either in stem-leaf or roots. Salt stress increased Na+ and decreased K+ content in both cultivars significantly.

  16. Caracterización de germoplasma de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill con vistas a la implementación de un programa de fitomejoramiento participativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Solís

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En las áreas de la Estación Territorial de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de Holguín (ETIAH, sobre un suelo Pardo sin carbonato, se realizó un estudio con 18 líneas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill obtenidas por el campesino Jorge Pupo1, con el objetivo de caracterizarlas y establecer una estrategia de mejora que permita alcanzar genotipos con características varietales adaptadas a las condiciones del territorio. La información disponible fue sometida a variados análisis de la estadística descriptiva y multivariada, ambos procederes adecuados para este tipo de trabajo, a fin de profundizar en la caracterización de la población. Los resultados indicaron una alta variabilidad y segregación genética en los materiales evaluados, por lo que se recomienda continuar el proceso de evaluación y selección hasta alcanzar la estabilidad varietal; no obstante, los de mayores perspectivas fueron la J10-87, J4-90, J4-92 y J6-93, que mostraron características agrícolas favorables y mayores potencialidades que las variedades más comúnmente cultivadas en el territorio.

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2‧-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm-1, being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  18. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  19. Effects of Crop Development on the Emission of Volatiles in Leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum and Its Inhibitory Activity to Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Volatiles emitted from the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum at the two-, ten-leaf and anthesis periods were collected by a gas absorbing method and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. In total, 33 compounds of volatiles emitted from three developmental stage plants were separated and identified, and quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard addition method. All of the samples of volatile were found to be rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.β-phellandrene and caryophyllene predominated in the volatiles of the leaves of plants at the two- and ten-leaf stages.Furthermore, (E)-2-hexenal were the dominant components in the volatiles emitted from anthesis plants. The results of volatiles analyzed show that the compositions varied depending on the developmental stages. The volatiles emitted from crushed tomato leaves of plants at the anthesis stage had the most strongly inhibitory activity against the spore germination and hyphal growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, followed by ten- and two-leaf plants. However, the activity of volatiles, emitted from the leaves of plants at the two-leaf stage, in inhibiting F. oxysporum was greater than B. cinerea.

  20. Humic substances can modulate the allelopathic potential of caffeic, ferulic, and salicylic acids for seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Monaci, Linda; Senesi, Nicola

    2005-11-30

    The capacity of a leonardite humic acid (LHA), a soil humic acid (SHA), and a soil fulvic acid (SFA) in modulating the allelopathic potential of caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and salicylic acid (SA) on seedlings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated. Lettuce showed a sensitivity greater than that of tomato to CA, FA, and SA phytotoxicity, which was significantly reduced or even suppressed in the presence of SHA or SFA, especially at the highest dose, but not LHA. In general, SFA was slightly more active than SHA, and the efficiency of the action depended on their concentration, the plant species and the organ examined, and the allelochemical. The daily measured residual concentration of CA and FA decreased drastically and that of SA slightly in the presence of germinating seeds of lettuce, which were thus able to absorb and/or enhance the degradation of CA and FA. The adsorption capacity of SHA for the three allelochemicals was small and decreased in the order FA > CA > SA, thus suggesting that adsorption could be a relevant mechanism, but not the only one, involved in the "antiallelopathic" action. PMID:16302757