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Sample records for buckwheat fagopyrum esculentum

  1. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

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    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  2. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

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    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  3. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

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    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  4. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

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    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  5. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum.

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    Kwang-Soo Cho

    Full Text Available We report the chloroplast (cp genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats and F. esculentum (one repeat, and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  6. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

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    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  7. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

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    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  8. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants.

  9. Growth and rutin production in hairy root cultures of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.).

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    Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Soo-In; Park, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Eul; Park, Sang-Un

    2007-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative properties. To examine in vitro production of rutin, we established a hairy root culture of buckwheat by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, and tested the growth conditions and rutin production rates of these cultures. Ten hairy root clones were established; their growth and rutin production rates ranged from 233 to 312 (mg dry wt per 30 mL flask, and 0.8 to 1.2 (mg/g dry wt), respectively. Clone H8, which had high growth and rutin production rates (312 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask and 1.2 mg/g dry wt, respectively), was selected for further experiments. H8 showed maximal growth and rutin content at 30 days in culture in MS medium. Of four tested culture media, half-strength MS medium was found to induce the highest levels of growth (378 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask) and rutin production (1.4 mg/g dry wt) by clone H8. In contrast, supplementation with auxins (0.1-1 mg/l IAA, IBA and NAA) increased the growth rate, but had no significant effect on rutin production by H8. Collectively, these findings indicate that hairy root cultures of buckwheat culture could be a valuable alternative approach for rutin production.

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

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    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  11. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

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    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  12. Antigenotoxic effect of Tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum) buckwheat flour.

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    Vogrinčič, Maja; Kreft, Ivan; Filipič, Metka; Zegura, Bojana

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our work was to determine and to compare the possible antigenotoxic effect of methanolic extracts of common buckwheat (CB) and Tartary buckwheat (TB) flour, containing naturally present rutin (R), and quercetin (Q), and of R and Q in chemical form, against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). R and Q content of CB and TB flour extracts was determined by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and antigenotoxic effect of flour extracts, R and Q was evaluated using the comet assay. R (100 μM) and Q (50 μM) decreased the extent of t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 51% and 67%, respectively. CB and TB flour extracts showed high antioxidant capacity and prominent genoprotective ability. CB extract containing up to 0.1 μM R decreased t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 34%, and TB extract containing up to 12.64 μM R, and 2.86 μM Q for 40%. The obtained results show high antigenotoxic activity of buckwheat and furthermore, they suggest that complex nutrient and flavonoid rich food products are more efficient in their health promoting effects compared to a single active substance.

  13. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours

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    LI Fu-hua; YUAN Ya; YANG Xiao-lan; TAO Shu-ying; MING Jian

    2013-01-01

    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.

  14. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

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    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  15. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

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    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  16. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

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    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  17. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

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    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat.

  18. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat.

  19. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats.

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    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-04-19

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  20. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

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    Rui Jing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae, currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum Moench. (common buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum (L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys (D. Don Hara. (perennial buckwheat, which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  1. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

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    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases.

  2. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  3. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  4. The effect of methyl jasmonate and phenolic acids on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and phenolic acids: trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, salicylic acid (SA as well as naringenine (NAR on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were studied. JA-Me and phenolics were applied to growth medium of 4-days etiolated buckwheat seedlings before their exposition to day/night (16h/8h conditions. The increase of primary roots and hypocotyls length were measured after 3 days of seedling growth in such conditions. At the end of experiment the total anthocyanins contents were measured as well. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA inhibited growth of the primary root in young buckwheat seedlings, while naringenine (NAR had a stimulatory influence, and p-coumaric acid had no effect at all. None of investigated phenolics or JA-Me had an effect on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls, except the mixture of JA-Me and p-coumarcic acid. JA-Me significantly decreased the anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocototyls, but not in cotyledons. trans-Cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and naringenine had no significant influence on the anthocyanin level in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous treatment of buckwheat seedlings with JA-Me and t-CA or p-CA did not change the inhibition of anthocyanins accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls by JA-Me. In the hypocotyls of buckwheat treated with a mixture of JA-Me and NAR, or SA, a synergistic reduction of anthocyanins was observed.

  5. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

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    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  6. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

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    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  7. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis.

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    Kreft, S; Knapp, M; Kreft, I

    1999-11-01

    The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.

  8. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information.

  9. Distribution of Vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin in common buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Kalinova, Jana; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2006-07-26

    Buckwheat leaves and young parts of the plant are consumed in some countries as a vegetable. Green flour, obtained by milling of the dried plants, is used as a natural food colorant. The distribution of vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin (as the most important antioxidants) within buckwheat plants, as well as changes of their content within leaves during the growing season, were determined by GC-MS and HPLC analyses. alpha-Tocopherol was found as the main component of vitamin E in all parts of the plant; epicatechin and squalene were also detected. For the use of buckwheat as an antioxidant source in the human diet, the most suitable part of the plants seems to be the leaves and the flowers at the stage of full flowering due to the considerable amounts of rutin and epicatechin. alpha-Tocopherol content correlates positively with temperature, drought, and duration of solar radiation. Certain differences appear among varieties of buckwheat, especially in their squalene and rutin contents.

  10. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

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    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  11. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  12. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  13. Optimal recovery of high-purity rutin crystals from the whole plant of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) by extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Hyung Hwan; Kwon, Ik Boo; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2005-10-01

    Rutin, one of the flavonoids derived from plants, is increasingly in demand in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its various biological and physiological activities including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-hypertension. The whole plant of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a major source of natural rutin. This study developed a low-cost process encompassing the efficient extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization to obtain high-purity rutin from buckwheat, and it could improve the economic utilization of this abundant low-value agricultural product. The sequential separation and purification procedures established in this study involved extraction with 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at 80 degrees C for 1 h followed by elution with water and aqueous ethanols at 20% and 30% (v/v) on a styrene-based resin column, and recrystallization at 4 degrees C for 12 h. These conditions resulted in the recovery of 92% of total rutin with over 95% purity. In the present study, high-purity rutin was obtained from whole buckwheat through low-cost processes, the separation and purification strategy established in this study could provide valuable information to the relevant industries.

  14. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A

    2011-05-12

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  15. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum based on transcriptome sequence data.

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    Natalia V Demidenko

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits. These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1, AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  16. IgE-binding epitopic peptide mapping on a three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Didier, Alain; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The three-dimensional model built for the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) consists of three protomers exhibiting the cupin motif, arranged in a homotrimer around a three-fold symmetry axis. Using the SPOT technique, 11 continuous IgE-binding epitopic peptides were characterized on the molecular surface of the 13S globulin allergen of buckwheat. Except for one of them, they all correspond to well exposed regions containing electropositiveley and/or electronegatively charged residues, which cover up to 40% of the molecular surface of the allergen. Some of these epitopes come in close contact to probably create more extended discontinuous epitopes, especially those located on the edge of the 13S globulin homotrimer. Half of the identified epitope peptides remain unaltered in a core structure protected against hydrolysis by digestive proteases and are thus assumed to promote the allergenicity of the 13S globulin. In addition, a few of these epitopes coincide with sequential IgE-binding epitopes previously characterized in soybean 11S globulins, that could account for the IgE-binding cross-reactions observed between soybean and buckwheat in Western blot experiments.

  17. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  18. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  19. Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection.

  20. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  1. Spatial characteristics of aluminum uptake and translocation in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Benjamin; Horst, Walter J

    2010-06-01

    The detoxification of aluminum (Al) in root tips of the Al accumulator buckwheat by exudation of oxalate leading to reduced Al uptake (Al resistance) is difficult to reconcile with the Al accumulation (Al tolerance). The objective of this study was to analyze resistance and tolerance mechanisms at the same time evaluating particularly possible stratification of Al uptake, Al transport and oxalate exudation along the root apex. The use of a minirhizotron made it possible to differentiate between spatial responses to Al along the root apex with regard to Al uptake and organic acid anion exudation, but also to measure at the same time Al and organic acid transport in the xylem. Al accumulates particularly in the 3-mm root apex. The study showed that Al taken up by the 10-mm root apex is rapidly transferred to the xylem which differentiates in the 10 to 15-mm root zone as revealed by a microscopic study. Al induces the release of oxalate from the root apex but particularly from the subapical 6-20 mm root zone even when Al was applied only to the 5-mm root apex suggesting a basipetal signal transduction. Citrate proved to be the most likely ligand for Al in the xylem because Al and citrate transport rates were positively correlated. In conclusion, the data presented show that the Al-induced release of oxalate, and Al uptake as well as Al accumulation are spatially not separated in the root apex.

  2. Phenological phases of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. in the primary and secondary crop depending on seeding rate

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    Dariusz Juszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the growth stages of buckwheat grown as a primary or secondary crop as well as using three seeding rates. A field experiment was conducted in the years 2003-2004 and in 2006 on podzolic soil derived from slightly loamy sand. Phenological observations were made at 5-day intervals, from the time of buckwheat emergence (in the primary crop around 28 May, in the secondary crop 7 June, on selected and properly marked plants. The buckwheat plants were harvested when more than 80% of buckwheat seeds on them were brown. The duration of particular growth stages of buckwheat are presented in phenological diagrams. It was found that crop rotation treatment and weather conditions affected significantly the time of occurrence of the phenological phases of buckwheat, but these phases were less dependent on seeding density. A rainfall deficit in 2006 caused a delay in particular growth stages compared to the previous years.

  3. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA, but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and cotyledons, but CA synthesis was promoted in cotyledons, whereas in hypocotyls no significant effect was found. Highest concentration of MJ (10-4 M caused small decline of CA in hypocotyls, but large stimulation of the acid production in cotyledons was noted. MJ had stimulatory effect on caffeic acid forming, but inhibited synthesis of vanillic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons. Lowest concentration of MJ (10-8 M elicited accumulation of quercetin glycosides in both studied tissues of buckwheat seedlings, however at higher doses (10-8 and 10-4 M did not affect the flavonol level. The obtained results suggest that nonequivalent influence of methyl jasmonate on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of MJ uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons. Decline of anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocotyls caused by MJ cannot be explained by enhanced accumulation of quercetin glycosides or free phenolic acids, but probably by synthesis of other unknown phenolic compounds.

  4. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

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    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  5. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  6. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  7. [Effect of synthetic cyclopentane beta,beta'-triketones on amino acid metabolism in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, E A; Tishchenko, L Ia; Shestak, O P; Novikov, V L; Anisimov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Germination of buckwheat seeds in solutions of synthetic mono- and tricyclic cyclopentane-containing beta,beta'-triketones of various concentrations was accompanied by inhibition of seedling root growth and changes in the contents of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, proline, glutamine, and alanine. The monocyclic triketone also affected the amount of isoleucine. It is likely that the increase in proline content is a nonspecific response significant for enhancing stress tolerance in seedlings.

  8. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  9. Influence of lactic acid bacteria on redox status and on proteolytic activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-07-15

    Redox potential and proteolysis determine protein networks in doughs and thus dough rheology as well as the structure of baked goods. Namely, gluten-free bakery products needs structural improvements but little is known about these parameters in gluten free dough systems. In this work the influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on redox status and proteolysis of buckwheat sourdoughs was investigated. An increase of free thiol groups was detected as redox potential was decreasing during fermentation. Thiol content at 8 h was higher in doughs fermented with strains with high reductive activity, such as Weissella (W.) cibaria in comparison to Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus, which exhibited a lower reducing activity. At 24 h each fermentation showed a similar content of free thiol groups. Endogenous buckwheat proteases were characterized using various protease inhibitors in buckwheat doughs. Until pH3.1 a proteolysis increase was monitored in doughs. Employed LAB didn't show any detectable extracellular proteolytic activity. Flour proteases are thus responsible for protein breakdown, and this was demonstrated comparing free amino nitrogen (FAN) values and protein electrophoretic patterns of sourdough fermentations with chemical acidified (CA) doughs. FAN content at 24 h using P. pentosaceus, proteolytic comparative strain of Enterococcus faecalis, W. cibaria, mixed culture (containing P. pentosaceus and W. cibaria), CA and CA doughs containing glutathione (GSH) reached 45.9±1.3, 42.4±1.3, 40±1, 31±2, 29±2 and 17.8±3.9 mmol kg(-1) flour, respectively. Proteolysis was mainly influenced by pH and incubation time. The addition of GSH showed a decrease of proteolysis and of free amino acids. CA doughs showed a higher total free amino acids content than sourdough fermented with LAB indicating their metabolization. Fermentations with high FAN values exhibited lower band intensity (analyzed under reducing condition) in electrophoretic patterns. These results show that

  10. THE PHENOLS ACCUMULATION IN TRANSFORMED ROOT CULTURES OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS SOURCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    O. V. Sytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters of transformed root cultures, total phenolic content and phenolic acids composition has been studied in root cultures, which were obtained from various explants of buckwheat by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4. The methods of obtaining of the transformed root cultures, total phenol estimation, gas-liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction has been used. Elevated levels of total phenols in transformed roots of buckwheat from different sources of explants have been found. The high content of chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-anisic and caffeic acids has been discovered in the root cultures, which can be used for their industrial production. Maximal root growth was equal 21.2 g/l of dry weight in the roots as source for root culture, 17.7 g/l with leaves and 14.6 g/l with stems at 3 week after placement. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification was confirmed that the rol B gene (652 bp which transferred info hairy roots from Ri-plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for induction of root from plant species.

  11. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

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    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on donor-acceptor connections of plant organs.

  12. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes.

  13. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  14. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-07-17

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.

  15. Progress and prospects for interspecific hybridization in buckwheat and the genus Fagopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler-Drienyovszki, Nóra; Cal, Andrew J; Dobránszki, Judit

    2013-12-01

    Cultivated buckwheat, such as common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) buckwheat, is one of the most versatile crops for forage and food and has several benefits for human health. Interspecific hybridization between Fagopyrum species is of great importance to improvement of buckwheat. Hybridization would allow the transfer of agronomical beneficial characteristics from wild Fagopyrum species, including self-pollination and increased fertility, frost tolerance, and higher content of beneficial compounds. However, conventional breeding methods are only partially applicable because of the self-incompatibility and incompatibility barriers between different species. Present review summarizes the morphology of self-incompatibility, the genetic and cellular basis of incompatibility between different Fagopyrum species. In many interspecific crosses hybrid embryos are aborted after successful pollination due to post-zygotic incompatibility. The use of in vitro embryo rescue after interspecific hybridization has been successful in circumventing breeding barriers between Fagopyrum species. Methods applied successfully for the construction of interspecific hybrids are discussed in detail.

  16. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  17. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  18. Level of catechin, myricetin, quercetin and isoquercitrin in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), changes of their levels during vegetation and their effect on the growth of selected weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Jana; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2009-04-01

    Buckwheat is well-known as a crop rich in flavonoids, however, attention has usually only been paid to the main flavonoid rutin as an important natural antioxidant or as a possible allelopathic compound. Therefore, some of the other constituents found within individual plant parts of buckwheat (isoquercitrin, quercetin, catechin, and myricetin), as well as changes of their level during the growing season, were determined by HPLC analysis. The effects of these compounds on plant growth were proved on seven plant species. In buckwheat, isoquercitrin represented the largest component of the selected compounds. The strongest inhibitive effects on the growth of those selected plants were produced by catechin. Quercetin and isoquercitrin had weak inhibitive effects. Myricetin did not show any influence on plant growth. Hence we suppose that myricetin, isoquercetin and quercetin do not have important function in allelopathy of buckwheat. Buckwheat as row material for functional foods could be a significant source of another antioxidant, isoquercitrin.

  19. Control of lead polluted leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grown on lead contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M; Tamura, H; Kimura, T; Kinoshita, T; Matsufuru, H; Sato, T

    2007-04-01

    The remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil using plants is a technology worth developing. However, the overall effect of phytoremediation in high-density Pb polluted sites remains unknown. Especially, little information is available about the effects of using plants to control lead polluted leachate. Thus, we investigated the control of leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat, a Pb hyperaccumulator, grown on Pb contaminated soil. In the presence of buckwheat, the change in volumetric water content was smaller than that of the control with rainfall. The total amount of Pb in the leachate strongly correlated with the amount of leachate and the decrease in the density of Pb in the leachate. During the cultivation period, the total amount of Pb leached in the control was 1.28mg per container, while in the presence of buckwheat the total amount of Pb was approximately 22.7% of the control. Moreover, with buckwheat cultivation, Pb polluted leachate resulting from rainwater was prevented. The results suggested that buckwheat was a Pb hyperaccumulator and also had a high ability for phytostabilization. Control of Pb polluted leachate using buckwheat was shown to be a phytoremediation technology applicable to heavily Pb contaminated sites.

  20. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2008-02-01

    Agriculture productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. In the present work, transgenic buckwheat plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, were regenerated after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These plants were able to grow, flower and accumulate more rutin in the presence of 200 mmol/l sodium chloride. Moreover, the content of important nutrients in buckwheat was not affected by the high salinity of the soil. These results demonstrated the potential value of these transgenic plants for agriculture use in saline soil.

  1. Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Milisavljević Mira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

  2. [Genetic transformation of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) with AtNHX1 gene and regeneration of salt-tolerant transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast Na+ /H+ antiporter gene, AtNHX1, was transferred into buckwheat by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic buckwheat plants were regenerated and selected on MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0mg/L 6-BA, 1.0mg/L KT, 0.lmg/L IAA, 50mg/L kanamycin and 500mg/L carbenicillin. 426 seedlings from 36 resistant calli originated from 864 explants (transformed about at 4.17 percentage) exhibited resistance to kanamycin. The transformants were confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and Northern blotting analysis. After stress treatment for 6 weeks with 200mmol/L NaCl, transgenic plants survived, while wild-type plants did not. After 3 days of stress treatment through different concentrations of NaCl, transgenic plants accumulated higher concentration of Na+ and proline than the control plants. However, the K+ concentration of transgenic plants declined in comparison with the control plants. Moreover, the rutin content of the roots, stems and leaves of transgenic buckwheat increased than those of the control plants. These results showed that it could be possible to improve the salt-tolerance of crops with genetic technology.

  3. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected.

  4. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  5. PCR method for detecting trace amounts of buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Takashi; Imai, Shinsuke; Sawada, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Nobuo; Hachimura, Satoshi; Kato, Hisanori

    2005-04-01

    Buckwheat often causes severe allergic reactions, even when its ingestion level is extremely low. Therefore, buckwheat is listed in several countries as a common food allergen. In addition to common buckwheat and Tartarian buckwheat that are cultivated and consumed widely, wild buckwheat may be potentially allergenic. Food containing undeclared buckwheat poses a risk to patients with the buckwheat allergy. We describe in this report a PCR method to detect buckwheat DNA by using primers corresponding to the internal transcribed spacer region and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The method is buckwheat-specific and compatible with both cultivated and wild buckwheat of the Fagopyrum spp. Its sensitivity was sufficient to detect 1 ppm (w/w) of buckwheat DNA spiked in wheat DNA. This method should benefit food manufacturers, clinical doctors, and allergic patients by providing information on the presence of buckwheat contamination in food.

  6. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and quercitrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabjan, Nina; Rode, Janko; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Wang, Zhuanhua; Zhang, Zheng; Kreft, Ivan

    2003-10-22

    Two samples of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) from China and one from Luxembourg were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal the possibilities of growing tartary buckwheat herb as a possible source of rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The content of rutin was determined as up to 3% dry weight (DW) in tartary buckwheat herb. Quercitrin values were in the range of 0.01-0.05% DW. Only traces of quercetin were detected in just some of the samples. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin (about 0.8-1.7% DW) than common buckwheat seeds (0.01% DW). Rutin and quercetin content in seeds depends on variety and growing conditions. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained traces of quercitrin and quercetin, which were not found in common buckwheat seeds.

  7. Avaliação nutricional do trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench para coelhos em crescimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660 Nutritional evaluation of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, Moench for growing rabbits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Scapinello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados, sendo um ensaio elaborado com o objetivo de determinar o valor nutritivo e o outro para verificar o desempenho de coelhos em crescimento alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de trigo mourisco em substituição ao farelo de trigo. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 24 coelhos machos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, com idade média de 45 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos, uma dieta referência e uma teste e 12 repetições. Na dieta teste, o trigo mourisco substituiu a ração referência em 30%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, da energia bruta (EB, da proteína bruta (PB e do amido (AM do trigo mourisco foram, respectivamente, de 83,95, 76,64, 75,04 e 98,01%. Os valores de energia digestível (ED, proteína digestível (PD e amido digestível (AMD, com base na matéria natural, foram de 2.914 kcal/kg, 8,63 e 36,84%. No experimento de desempenho, foram avaliadas rações com níveis crescentes de trigo mourisco (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de trigo. Foram utilizados 70 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, 35 machos e 35 fêmeas, com 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 14 repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um animal. Não foram observadas diferenças (p Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutritive value and to evaluate the performance of growing rabbits fed with rations containing different buckwheat levels. In the digestibility assay, 24 male White New Zealand rabbits were used, 45 days old, allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments, one reference diet and one test diet, and 12 replications. In the elaboration of test diet, the buckwheat replaced 30% of the reference diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry

  8. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) FeMT3 gene in heavy metal stress: protective role of the protein and inducibility of the promoter region under Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dragana B; Samardzić, Jelena T; Bratić, Ana M; Radin, Ivan P; Gavrilović, Srdjan P; Rausch, Thomas; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-03-24

    The protective role in vivo of buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) during metal stress and the responsiveness of its promoter to metal ions were examined. Increased tolerance to heavy metals of FeMT3 producing Escherichia coli and cup1(Delta) yeast cells was detected. The defensive ability of buckwheat MT3 during Cd and Cu stresses was also demonstrated in Nicotiana debneyii leaves transiently expressing FeMT3. In contrast to phytochelatins, the cytoplasmatic localization of FeMT3 was not altered under heavy metal stress. Functional analysis of the corresponding promoter region revealed extremely high inducibility upon Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) treatments. The confirmed defense ability of FeMT3 protein in vivo and the great responsiveness of its promoter during heavy metal exposure make this gene a suitable candidate for biotechnological applications.

  9. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M. Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

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    Jeong-Ho Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  10. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of AGAMOUS sequences reveals the origin of the diploid and tetraploid forms of self-pollinating wild buckwheat, Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyoshi, Mitsuyuki; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsako, Takanori; Li, Cheng-Yun; Ohnishi, Ohmi

    2012-09-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a self-pollinating wild buckwheat species indigenous to eastern Tibet and the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. It is useful breeding material for shifting cultivated buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. esculentum Moench) from out-crossing to self-pollinating. Despite its importance as a genetic resource in buckwheat breeding, the genetic variation of F. homotropicum is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum based on the nucleotide sequences of a nuclear gene, AGAMOUS (AG). Neighbor-joining analysis revealed that representative individuals clustered into three large groups (Group I, II and III). Each group contained diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum. We identified tetraploid plants that had two diverged AG sequences; one belonging to Group I and the other belonging to Group II, or one belonging to Group II and the other belonging to Group III. These results suggest that the tetraploid form originated from at least two hybridization events between deeply differentiated diploids. The results also imply that the genetic diversity contributed by tetraploidization of differentiated diploids may have allowed the distribution range of F. homotropicum to expand to the northern areas of China.

  12. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis.

  13. AFLP fingerprinting of tartary buckwheat accessions (Fagopyrum tataricum) displaying rutin content variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2012-09-01

    In light of the economic importance of buckwheat as well as existence of enormous accessions of Fagopyrum species in the Himalayan regions of India, the characterization of tartary buckwheat for rutin content variation vis-à-vis DNA fingerprinting was undertaken so as to identify fingerprint profiles unique to high rutin content accessions. Rutin content analysis in mature seeds of 195 accessions of Fagopyrum tataricum showed a wide range of variation (6 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg D.W.) with most of the accessions (81%) containing 10-16 μg/mg of rutin followed by 14% accessions with significantly higher rutin content (17 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg) and 5% accessions with low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg). AFLP fingerprinting of 18 accessions having high (≥17 μg/mg) and low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg) with 19 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations yielded 136 polymorphic fragments out of total 907. The hierarchical and model-based cluster analyses of AFLP data strongly suggested that the 18 populations of F. tataricum were clustered into two separate groups. The high and low rutin content accessions were clustered into two separate groups based on AFLP fingerprinting. The AFLP fingerprints associated with high rutin content accessions of F. tataricum are expected to be useful for evaluation, conservation and genetic improvement of buckwheat.

  14. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

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    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  15. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

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    Lian-Xin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn. From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and response surface methodology (RSM was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion : The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat.

  16. Genetic analyses of agronomic traits in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Kobayashi, Kiwa; Yoshida, Yasuko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of products made from Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) has increased in recent years in Japan. Increased consumer demand has led to recognition of the need for early varieties of this crop with high and stable yields. In order to accomplish this, more information is needed on the genetic mechanisms affecting earliness and yield. We conducted genetic analysis of 3 agronomic traits (days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight per plant) to segregate F(2) and F(3) populations derived from a cross between Tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokuriku No. 4' and 'Ishisoba'. Broad-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight were 0.70, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively, in F(3) population. Narrow-sense heritability for total seed weight (0.51) was highest, followed by heritability for days to flowering (0.37), with heritability for plant height (0.26) lowest. Later flowering was associated with increased plant height and higher yields. From the F(4) generation, we identified twelve candidate plants with earlier maturity and reduced plant height compared to 'Hokuriku No. 4', but almost the same total seed weight. These results suggest that hybridization breeding using the single seed descent (SSD) method is an effective approach for improving agronomic characteristics of Tartary buckwheat.

  17. Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity.

  18. Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Rong Fu; Iwashita, Takashi; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionic aluminum (Al) is toxic for plant growth, but some plant species are able to accumulate Al at high concentrations without showing toxicity symptoms. In order to determine whether other species in the genus Fagopyrum are able to accumulate Al like common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), we investigated the external and internal detoxification mechanisms of Al in two self-compatible species: tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and wild buckwheat (Fagopyrum homotropicum). Both tartary and wild buckwheat showed high Al tolerance comparable to common buckwheat. Furthermore, these two species also secreted oxalate rapidly from the roots in response to Al in a time-dependent manner. Both tartary and wild buckwheat accumulated > 1 mg g(-1) Al in the leaves after short-term exposure to Al. Analysis with (27) Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that Al was present in the form of Al-oxalate (1 : 3 ratio) in the roots and leaves, but in the form of Al-citrate (1 : 1 ratio) in the xylem sap in both species. These results indicate that similar to common buckwheat, both tartary and wild buckwheat detoxify Al externally and internally, respectively, by secreting oxalate from the roots and by forming the Al-oxalate complex, which is a nonphytotoxic form. These features of Al response and accumulation may be conserved in genus Fagopyrum.

  19. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  20. Identification and characterization of granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Feng, Bo; Xu, Zhibin; Sestili, Francesco; Zhao, Guojun; Xiang, Chao; Lafiandra, Domenico; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-25

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is increasingly considered as an important functional food material because of its rich nutraceutical compounds. Reserve starch is the major component of tartary buckwheat seed. However, the gene sequences and the molecular mechanism of tartary buckwheat starch synthesis are unknown so far. In this study, the complete genomic sequence and full-size cDNA coding tartary buckwheat granule-bound starch synthase I (FtGBSSI), which is responsible for amylose synthesis, were isolated and analyzed. The genomic sequence of the FtGBSSI contained 3947 nucleotides and was composed of 14 exons and 13 introns. The cDNA coding sequence of FtGBSSI shared 63.3%-75.1% identities with those of dicots and 56.6%-57.5% identities with monocots (Poaceae). In deduced amino acid sequence of FtGBSSI, eight motifs conserved among plant starch synthases were identified. A cleavage at the site IVC↓G of FtGBSSI protein produces the chloroplast transit sequence of 78 amino acids and the mature protein of 527 amino acids. The FtGBSSI mature protein showed an identity of 73.4%-77.8% with dicot plants, and 67.6%-70.4% with monocot plants (Poaceae). The mature protein was composed of 20 α-helixes and 16 β-strands, and folds into two main domains, N- and C-terminal domains. The critical residues which are involved in ADP and sugar binding were predicted. These results will be useful to modulate starch composition of buckwheat kernels with the aim to produce novel improved varieties in future breeding programs.

  1. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health.

  2. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-12-29

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour.

  3. On the origin of the woody buckwheat Fagopyrum tibeticum (=Parapteropyrum tibeticum) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinmin; Luo, Jian; Wang, Ailan; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2011-11-01

    Here we tested whether 'insular woodiness', a striking evolutionary pattern that commonly occurs on islands, has also appeared in QTP continental endemics. Parapteropyrum, a monotypic shrubby genus occurring in the central QTP, has been previously placed in the tribe Atraphaxideae of the family Polygonaceae, while all the other woody species of this tribe mainly occur in western and central Asia. We studied sequence variations of nuclear ITS (internal transcribed spacer) and cp (chloroplast) DNA (rbcL and accD) of this genus and the other ten genera. The constructed phylogenies based on ITS, cpDNA or a combination of both datasets, suggest that the woody Parapteropyrum is nested within and most likely evolved from the herbaceous Fagopyrum. We propose that the large-scale uplift of the QTP not only promoted continental species radiation, but also the secondary feature of woodiness in a few herbaceous lineages in response to strong selection pressures, similar to those acting on island flora. In addition, the confirmation of Parapteropyrum within Fagopyrum highlights its potential use as a new, perennial source of buckwheat.

  4. Phenolic acids in the inflorescences of different varieties of buckwheat and their antioxidant activity

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    Oksana Sytar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of total phenolics and phenolic acid composition together with parameters of antioxidant activities was studied in the inflorescences of three varieties of buckwheat (F. esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum rotundatum and Fagopyrum esculentum, forma green-flowers. Antioxidant activity of extracts of these buckwheat varieties has been found high and at the same time extracts of inflorescences of green flower buckwheat have been characterized by the highest total phenolic content. Eight phenolic acids (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, p-anisic acid, salicylic acid and methoxycinnamic acid were found in the investigated buckwheat inflorescences with HPLC analysis. Inflorescences of F. esculentum, forma green-flowers have a high content of chlorogenic acid (16 mg 100 g−1 DW and p-anisic acid (872 mg 100 g−1 DW. The highest content among the investigated buckwheat inflorescences of vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and p-anisic acid was found in the F. tataricum, F. esculentum inflorescences have been characterized by the highest content of salicylic acid (115 mg 100 g−1 DW and methoxycinnamic acid (74 mg 100 g−1 DW.

  5. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  6. Plantlet Regeneration of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) in Vitro Tissue Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Dong, Xue-Ni; Ding, Meng-Qi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wu, Yan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is an ancient annual dicotyledonous herb, which is widely distributed around the world, specifically in the high altitude area of southwestern China and in the hill region of Himalayan. The plantlet regeneration of tartary buckwheat via somatic embryogenesis or multiple shoot induction was investigated in two different tartary buckwheats, Yuanzi and Xichang. The regeneration ability of Yuanzi was better than Xichang tartary buckwheat, and the hypocotyls were better than cotyledons as tartary buckwheat plantlet regeneration explants via somatic embryogenesis. The most suitable medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog basal medium added 2 mg/L 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L Kinetin, which could reach up to 98.96% callus induction percentage. The plantlet regeneration percentage from callus of tartary buckwheat could reach up to 55.77%, which induced on 2.0 mg/L Benzyladenine and 1.0 mg/L KT in MS basal medium. In addition, maximum of multiple shoot induction percentage was 69.05%, which was observed in case of Yuanzi tartary buckwheat in MS basal medium with added 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 1.0 mg/L Thidiazuron. Roots induction of regenerated plants were achieved on 1/2 MS basal medium with added 1mg/L Indole-3-Butytric acid, which has 75% survival after transferred regenerated plants to soil under field conditions.

  7. Expression Analysis of Key Enzyme Genes in Lignin Synthesis of Culm Among Different Lodging Resistances of Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)%不同抗倒性甜荞茎秆木质素合成关键酶基因的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 刘星贝; 汪灿; 杨浩; 李鹤鑫; 阮仁武; 袁晓辉; 易泽林

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The objective of this study is to explore the critical period and key enzyme genes in lignin synthesis of stem in common buckwheat and to provide a theoretical basis for common lodging resistance breeding cultivation by determining the lignin content and related genes expression characteristics at different stages of different lodging resistance cultivars.[Method]Degenerate primers were designed to amplify part of the CDS sequences ofCAD,CCR,F5H,COMT andCCOAOMT genes and blast was conducted in the NCBI database. The lignin content at the 2nd internode from the bottom were analyzed at branching stage, full bloom stage and milk ripe stage among four different lodging resistances of common buckwheat by UV spectrophotometry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the expression characteristics of nine related genes (PAL,4CL, C4H,C3H,CAD,CCR,F5H,COMT, andCCOAOMT), and the relative expression level was defined as 2-△△CT. Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 19 were used for sorting data, drawing and analysis of variance, correlation analysis, respectively.[Result]Amplified CAD, CCR,F5H,COMT and CCOAOMTgenes sequences were used to design the subsequent qRT-PCR primers. Lignin content of stem gradually increased from branching stage to milk ripe stage among different lodging resistances of common buckwheat, and lodging resistance cultivar was significantly higher than that of lodging susceptible cultivar. The expression levels of four genes (PAL,4CL, C4H,CCR) varied significantly or extremely significantly among different cultivars and stages,CCOAOMT,F5H varied significantly among stages and cultivars, respectively. The remaining three genes (C3H,CAD,COMT) showed no significant difference among the cultivars and stages. The expressions of genesPAL,4CL,C4H,CAD,CCOAOMT,F5H andCCR increased and then decreased, and the maximum appeared at full bloom stage, and lodging resistance cultivar was significantly higher than that of lodging

  8. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  9. Effect of different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains on hairy root induction and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

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    Aye Aye eThwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum ‘Hokkai T10’ cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as FtPAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3, H1, FtF3,H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 µg/mg DW, respectively, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 µg /g DW, respectively, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 µg /g DW, respectively. A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  10. Effect of Different Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Hairy Root Induction and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Li, Xiaohua; Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Sun Ju; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient protocol for successful hairy root induction by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is the key step toward an in vitro culturing method for the mass production of secondary metabolites. The selection of an effective Agrobacterium strain for the production of hairy roots is highly plant species dependent and must be determined empirically. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the transformation efficiency of different A. rhizogenes strains for the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' cultivar; to determine the expression levels of the polypropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, such as ftpAL, FtC4H, Ft4CL, FrCHS, FrCH1, FrF3H, FtFLS1, FtFLS2, FtF3(,) H1, FtF3'H2, FtANS, and FtDFR; and to quantify the in vitro synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Among different strains, R1000 was the most promising candidate for hairy root stimulation because it induced the highest growth rate, root number, root length, transformation efficiency, and total anthocyanin and rutin content. The R1000, 15834, and A4 strains provided higher transcript levels for most metabolic pathway genes for the synthesis of rutin (22.31, 15.48, and 13.04 μg/mg DW, respectively), cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (800, 750, and 650 μg/g DW, respectively), and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (2410, 1530, and 1170 μg/g DW, respectively). A suitable A. rhizogenes strain could play a vital role in the fast growth of the bulk amount of hairy roots and secondary metabolites. Overall, R1000 was the most promising strain for hairy root induction in buckwheat.

  11. Influence of Pulse Pressure on Seed Quality and Yield of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.

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    Elena Nefed'eva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of pre-sowing treatment of seeds by pulse pressure which is characterized by high intensity and accuracy of dosage has been proposed. Pulse pressures in the range of 11-29 MPa did not lead to acute lethality determined by phosphorescence at room temperature. So there was no elimination of unproductive individuals but pulse pressure stimulated physiological processes in seeds and plants, leading to increased yield. Changes of germination, growth, and distribution of substances as well as plant productivity were observed. Generalization and analysis of experimental results demonstrated zones in dose-dependent area, such as the zone of hormesis (11-17 MPa, transitional zone (20-26 MPa and stress zone (29 MPa and more.

  12. Expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes vis-à-vis rutin content variation in different growth stages of Fagopyrum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2011-11-15

    Buckwheat is one of the field crops with the highest concentration of rutin, an important flavonoid of medicinal value. Two species of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum, are the major sources of rutin. Seeds of latter contain 40-50× higher rutin compared to the former. The physiological and molecular bases of rutin content variation between Fagopyrum species are not known. The current study investigated the differences in rutin content in seeds and in other tissues and growth stages of two Fagopyrum species, and also correlated those differences with the expression of flavonoid pathway genes. The analysis of rutin content dynamics at different growth stages, S1-S9 (from seed germination to mature seed formation) of Fagopyrum species revealed that rutin content was higher during seedling stages of F. tataricum (3.5 to 4.6-fold) compared to F. esculentum and then increased exponentially from stages S3 to S6 (different leaf maturing stages and inflorescence) of F. esculentum, whereas it fluctuated in F. tataricum. The rutin content was highest in the inflorescence stage (S6) of both species, with a relatively higher biosynthesis and accumulation during post-flowering stages of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. The expression of flavonoid pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, in different growth stages vis-à-vis rutin content variation showed differential expression for four genes, PAL, CHS, CHI and FLS with the amounts of transcripts relatively higher in F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum, thereby, correlating these genes with the biosynthesis and accumulation of rutin. The expression of PAL was highest, 7.69 and 8.96-fold in Stages 2 (seedling stage) and 9 (fully developed seeds) of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum, respectively. The expression of the CHS gene correlated with the rutin content because it was highest in the flowers (S6) and fully developed seeds (S9) of both Fagopyrum species, with relatively higher transcript amounts

  13. Rapid and simple method for the determination of emodin in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lian-Xin; Wang, Jing-Bo; Hu, Li-Xue; Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Xiang, Da-Bing; Zou, Liang; Zhao, Gang

    2013-01-30

    A simple and rapid method for determining emodin, an active factor presented in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been developed. Emodin was separated from an extract of buckwheat on a Kromasil-ODS C(18) (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) column. The separation is achieved within 15 min on the ODS column. Emodin can be quantified using an external standard method detecting at 436 nm. Good linearity is obtained with a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.9992. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification are 5.7 and 19 μg/L, respectively. This method shows good reproducibility for the quantification of the emodin with a relative standard deviation value of 4.3%. Under optimized extraction conditions, the recovery of emodin was calculated as >90%. The validated method is successfully applied to quantify the emodin in tartary buckwheat and its products.

  14. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

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    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  15. Separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains via off-line two dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujing; Liu, Qi; Xie, Yixi; Zeng, Hualiang; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    An off-line two dimensional (2D) high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) strategy was successfully used for preparative separation of five flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn) grains with different solvent systems for the first time in this paper. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water 3:5:3:5 (v/v) was selected as the first dimension solvent system to purify quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5). The second dimension solvent system, ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water 7:3:10 (v/v), was used to isolate quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-rutinoside (3). The purities of these compounds were all above 96.0% and their structures were identified through UV, MS and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the off-line 2D HSCCC is an efficient technique to isolate flavonoids compounds from grains.

  16. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

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    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  17. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  18. Development of SSR Molecular Markers Based on Expressed Sequence Tags from Seeds of Fagopyrum esculentum%基于微卫星标记普通荞麦种子序列表达标签的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石桃雄; 黎瑞源; 郭菊卉; 李月; 李光; 陈庆富

    2014-01-01

    为丰富普通荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)的序列信息,挖掘有效的 SSR 标记,基于Hiseq 2000测序平台对普通荞麦的种子转录谱进行测序、分析,利用 Misa 软件进行 SSR 位点扫描,采用Primer 5.0引物设计程序对其中的300个 SSR 位点设计引物,随机挑选40对引物对19个普通荞麦品系进行遗传多样性分析。结果表明:测序共产生20508824条高质量的短序列(read),总长度为1889111004 bp,通过拼接最终获得54947条转录本(transcript)和36133个独立基因(unigene)。在2226个独立基因中发现了2666个 SSR 位点。有20对引物(占50%)能扩增出目标产物,其中,12对有多态性,多态性信息量(PIC)范围为0.10~0.93,平均为0.57,多态性程度高。%To enrich sequences information and develop mass SSR marker,the authors used Hiseq2000 to sequence and de novo assemble the seed transcriptome of F.esculentum.SSR motifs were identified using MISA 1.0 software and 300 primer pairs flanking EST-SSR loci were designed using Primer 5.0 software.A total of 20 508 824 high quality reads (total length 1,889,111,004 bp)were obtained comprising 54 947 transcripts and 36 133 unigenes.In total,2 666 SSRs were identified from 2 226 unigenes.Twenty (50%)out of 40 primer pairs selected at random yielded amplification products,of which 12 primer pairs showed polymorphism among 19 different common buckwheat varieties,and the PIC ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with the mean value of 0.57.

  19. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing.

  20. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn.

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    Zhou Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  1. Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lian-xin; HUANG Yan-fei; LIU Yuan; ZHANG Zhi-feng; LU Lu-yang; ZHAO Gang

    2014-01-01

    The essential and toxic element concentrations in buckwheat were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentration data were subjected to common chemometrics analyses, including correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), to gain better understanding of the differences among the tested samples. Our results indicated that the essential and toxic element concentrations were not different between Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn and F. esculentum Moench. The element concentrations varied among buckwheat samples from different sources. Commercial tartary buckwheat tea contained several essential elements, thus, could be used as the source of essential elements. The detection of toxic heavy metals in commercial tartary buckwheat tea suggested that safety issue of such buckwheat products should be seriously concerned. Our results also revealed that the place of origin and the processing protocol of tartary buckwheat affected the element concentrations of the commercial form. The implications to the quality control and safety evaluation of buckwheat were extensively discussed.

  2. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  3. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, 'f3g-162', and the 'Hokkai T8'. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, 'f3g-162', is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety.

  4. Anaphylaxis to buckwheat in an atopic child: a risk factor for severe allergy to nuts and seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Eva-Maria; Kollmann, Dagmar; Zach, Maximilian; Bohle, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is known to cause severe anaphylactic reactions in adult individuals. However, type I allergy to buckwheat is rarely seen in children. We report on a 7-year-old boy who developed a grade III anaphylactic reaction after consumption of a cake containing buckwheat flour. Prior to this incident, the boy had developed severe allergic reactions to hazelnuts and suffered from an oral allergy syndrome to poppy seed. Analysis of the patient's IgE reactivity by immunoblotting experiments revealed that he was sensitized to members of the 2S albumin and 11S globulin protein families in buckwheat. Additionally, cross-reactivity was found between the 11S globulins in buckwheat, poppy and hazelnut. IgE inhibition experiments indicated that the 11S globulin in buckwheat was the initial sensitizing protein. We conclude that 11S globulins in buckwheat have the potential to induce IgE antibodies cross-reactive with 11S globulins in other, botanically unrelated foods and may induce anaphylactic reactions.

  5. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods.

  6. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling.

  7. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

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    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  9. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array detector/linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-02-15

    In recent years tartary buckwheat has become popular healthful food due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic and antitumor activities. However, its chemical constituents have not yet been fully characterized and identified. In this paper, a novel high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/LTQ-FTICRMS) method was established to characterize and identify a total of 36 compounds by a single run. The retention time, maximum UV absorption wavelength, accurate mass weight and characteristic fragment ions were collected on line. To confirm the structures, 11 compounds were isolated and identified by MS and NMR experiments. 1, 3, 6, 6'-tetra-feruloyl sucrose named taroside was a new phenlypropanoid glycoside, together with 3, 6-di-p-coumaroyl-1, 6'-di-feruloyl sucrose, 1, 6, 6'-tri-feruloyl-3-p-coumaroyl sucrose, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and quercetin-3-O-[β-D-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnoside] were isolated for the first time from the Fagopyrum species. The research enriched the chemical information of tartary buckwheat.

  10. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

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    B. Gej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  11. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

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    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  12. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.

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    Gupta Nidhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher what genetic factors in addition to flavonoid structural genes contribute to high rutin content of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. Results Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP in seed maturing stages (inflorescence to seed maturation with 32 primer combinations generated total of 509 transcript fragments (TDFs. 167 TDFs were then eluted, cloned and sequenced from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. Categorization of TDFs on the basis of their presence/absence (qualitative variation or differences in the amount of expression (quantitative variation between both the Fagopyrum species showed that majority of variants are quantitative (64%. The TDFs represented genes controlling different biological processes such as basic and secondary metabolism (33%, regulation (18%, signal transduction (14%, transportation (13%, cellular organization (10%, and photosynthesis & energy (4%. Most of the TDFs except belonging to cellular metabolism showed relatively higher transcript abundance in F. tataricum over F. esculentum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine TDFs representing genes involved in regulation, metabolism, signaling and transport of secondary metabolites showed that all the tested nine TDFs (Ubiquitin protein ligase, ABC transporter, sugar transporter except MYB 118 showed significantly higher expression in early seed formation stage (S7 of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. qRT-PCR results were found to be consistent with the c

  13. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  14. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

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    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  15. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

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    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  16. Differences in Aluminium Accumulation and Resistance between Genotypes of the Genus Fagopyrum

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    Benjamin Klug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al toxicity is a major factor reducing crop productivity worldwide. There is a broad variation in intra- and inter-specific Al resistance. Whereas the Al resistance mechanisms have generally been well explored in Al-excluding plant species, Al resistance through Al accumulation and Al tolerance is not yet well understood. Therefore, a set of 94 genotypes from three Fagopyrum species with special emphasis on F. esculentum Moench were screened, with the objective of identifying genotypes with greatly differing Al accumulation capacity. The genotypes were grown in Al-enriched peat-based substrate for 21 days. Based on the Al concentration of the xylem sap, which varied by a factor of five, only quantitative but not qualitative genotypic differences in Al accumulation could be identified. Aluminium and citrate and Al and Fe concentrations in the xylem sap were positively correlated suggesting that Fe and Al are loaded into and transported in the xylem through related mechanisms. In a nutrient solution experiment using six selected F. esculentum genotypes differing in Al and citrate concentrations in the xylem sap the significant correlation between Al and iron transport in the xylem could be confirmed. Inhibition of root elongation by Al was highly significantly correlated with root oxalate-exudation and leaf Al accumulation. This suggests that Al-activated oxalate exudation and rapid transport of Al to the shoot are prerequisites for the protection of the root apoplast from Al injury and thus overall Al resistance and Al accumulation in buckwheat.

  17. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  18. The prebiotic and protective effects of buckwheat flour and oat bran on Lactobacillus acidophilus

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    Aida VASILE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.

  19. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  20. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  1. Effects of seeding rate and fertilizer on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of spring Fagopyrum esculentum%播种量和施肥水平对春播甜荞光合特性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪灿; 王诗雪; 李曼; 杨浩; 胡丹; 阮仁武; 袁晓辉; 易泽林

    2014-01-01

    [Objectives]Fagopyrum esculentum originated in China,and has the higher nutritional, medicinal and health care quality, and has been one of the most popular green functional foods in the 21th century. At present, Fagopyrum esculentum having lower yields is relatively scarce both in the domestic market and abroad exportation market. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide the best cultivation measures for Fagopyrum esculentum by investigating the effects of seeding rate and fertilizer on net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and yield of a Fagopyrum esculentum cultivar, Xidahuaqiao, which is usually planted in spring. [Methods]Xidahuaqiao was used to investigate the effects of seeding rate and fertilizer on net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and yield by using the quadratic general rotary unitized design, and the seeding rate, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash were defined as experimental factors. The field experiments were respectively conducted from March to June in 2012 and in 2013 at the Xiema experimental station of Southwest University located at Beibei city, Chongqing municipality, China. The field experiments were the randomized block design with three replications, and the individual plot had 10 m2 area with 2 m width × 5 m length, and included 6 rows by spacing 33 cm, and surrounded by 3 guard rows. The reciprocal third functional leaf of three plants in the middle stripe was randomly selected to measure the net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content ( SPAD) between am 9:30 and 11:30 at a sunny day of full-bloom stage by using photosynthetic apparatus LI-6400 XT and chlorophyll meter SPAD 502 , respectively. Grain in each plot was harvested separately at the stage with 70%-80% mature grain, and then threshing, air drying and calculating yield. Data of each indicator were analyzed separately using Microsoft Excell2003 and SPSS 19 , and the contour map of interaction of two factors was drawn by Surfer 8

  2. 荞麦糊粉层和子叶中贮藏蛋白质积累过程的超微结构%THE ULTRASTRUCTURES OF STORAGE PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN ALEURONE LAYER AND COTYLEDONS OF FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新起; 王秀玲; 席湘媛

    2002-01-01

    应用透射电镜技术对荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum)子叶和糊粉层细胞中贮藏蛋白质的积累过程进行了研究.荞麦开花后15天,胚乳最外层细胞的液泡中开始积累蛋白质.开花后25天,最外层胚乳细胞中积累较多的糊粉粒(直径1-2μm)形成糊粉层.开花后20天,子叶细胞中蛋白质开始在液泡和细胞质中积累,同时液泡通过膜的向内生长和缢裂两种方式形成体积较小的液泡.开花后25天,成熟的子叶细胞中含有丰富的蛋白质,贮藏蛋白质主要积累在液泡中形成体积较大的蛋白质贮藏液泡(PSVs,protein storage vacuoles,直径1-3μm).在荞麦子叶积累蛋白质的各个阶段,细胞质中都有一些来源于高尔基体、含蛋白质的电子不透明小泡(直径0.1-0 7μm)存在,观察到有些小泡正进入液泡,推断这种来自于高尔基体膜囊的小泡不仅有将蛋白质运输到液泡形成PSVs的作用,也可能是荞麦成熟子叶积累贮藏蛋白质的一种结构.

  3. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

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    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  4. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  5. S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 is exclusively present in the genomes of short-styled buckwheat plants that exhibit heteromorphic self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Mori, Masashi; Aii, Jotaro; Abe, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Daiki; Sato, Shingo; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Ota, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The different forms of flowers in a species have attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists, including Charles Darwin. In Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat), the occurrence of dimorphic flowers, namely short-styled and long-styled flowers, is associated with a type of self-incompatibility (SI) called heteromorphic SI. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single genetic locus named the S-locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are heterozygous (S/s) and plants with long-styled flowers are homozygous recessive (s/s) at the S-locus. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the molecular basis of flower development and plant SI systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying heteromorphic SI remain unresolved. By examining differentially expressed genes from the styles of the two floral morphs, we identified a gene that is expressed only in short-styled plants. The novel gene identified was completely linked to the S-locus in a linkage analysis of 1,373 plants and had homology to EARLY FLOWERING 3. We named this gene S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 (S-ELF3). In an ion-beam-induced mutant that harbored a deletion in the genomic region spanning S-ELF3, a phenotype shift from short-styled flowers to long-styled flowers was observed. Furthermore, S-ELF3 was present in the genome of short-styled plants and absent from that of long-styled plants both in world-wide landraces of buckwheat and in two distantly related Fagopyrum species that exhibit heteromorphic SI. Moreover, independent disruptions of S-ELF3 were detected in a recently emerged self-compatible Fagopyrum species and a self-compatible line of buckwheat. The nonessential role of S-ELF3 in the survival of individuals and the prolonged evolutionary presence only in the genomes of short-styled plants exhibiting heteromorphic SI suggests that S-ELF3 is a suitable candidate gene for the control of the short-styled phenotype of buckwheat plants.

  6. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  7. Comparative analysis of flavonoids and polar metabolite profiling of Tanno-original and Tanno-high rutin buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Soo-Yun; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2014-03-26

    Rutin is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of buckwheat. In this study, flavonoid biosynthesis was compared between two common cultivars (an original and a high-rutin line) of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Transcriptional levels of the main flavonoid biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time PCR, and main flavonoid metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); levels of gene expression varied among organs of the two cultivars. Significantly higher transcription levels of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes, except FeFLS1, were detected in stems of the high-rutin line than in stems of the original line. FeCHI and FeFLS2 genes also showed higher expression levels in seeds of the high-rutin cultivar. In contrast, FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeCHS, FeF3H, FeF3'H, FeFLS2, and FeDFR were highly detected in the roots of the original line. The HPLC results indicated 1.73-, 1.62-, and 1.77-fold higher accumulation of rutin (the primary flavonoid compound) in leaves, stems, and mature seeds of the high-rutin cultivar (24.86, 1.46, and 1.36 μg/mg, respectively) compared with the original cultivar (14.40, 0.90, and 0.77 μg/mg, respectively). A total of 46 metabolites were identified from seeds by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA could clearly differentiate the original and high-rutin cultivars. Our results indicate that the high-rutin cultivar could be an excellent alternative for buckwheat culture, and we provide useful information for obtaining this cultivar.

  8. Purification and molecular structure of digalactosyl myo-inositol (DGMI), trigalactosyl myo-inositol (TGMI), and fagopyritol B3 from common buckwheat seeds by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wei; Lemley, Bethan A; Keresztes, Ivan; Condo, Anthony M; Steadman, Kathryn J; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2013-10-18

    Three galactosyl cyclitols, digalactosyl myo-inositol (assigned the trivial name DGMI), trigalactosyl myo-inositol (assigned the trivial name TGMI), and trigalactosyl d-chiro-inositol (fagopyritol B3), were isolated from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds. Structures of the three compounds were determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy. DGMI is α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→1)-1l-myo-inositol, TGMI is α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→1)-1l-myo-inositol, and fagopyritol B3 is α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-1d-chiro-inositol. DGMI and TGMI are higher oligomers of galactinol, a major galactosyl donor in plant seeds. Fagopyritol B3 is a higher oligomer of the fagopyritol B series and one of six fagopyritols found in buckwheat seeds and in the bran milling fraction. Samples of TGMI and fagopyritol B3 also contained the compounds N-(β-glucopyranosyl)-nicotinic acid and β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-(1-O-methyl)-glucopyranoside.

  9. Comparison of fluence-response relationships of phototropism in light- and dark-grown buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R J

    1987-11-01

    Fluence-response relationships of phototropism in light- and dark-grown buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) were compared using systematically varied fluence rates and irradiation times of unilateral monochromatic blue light. Etiolated seedlings respond to most fluence rates in a tri-phasic manner. Phase one differs from classic first positive in that reciprocity is not observed and the peak occurs at a wide variety of fluences, often orders of magnitude less than those characteristic of first positive. Light-grown plants display this pattern only when stimulated by low fluence rates. Phase three is an ascending arm directly related to irradiance time and is comparable to classic second positive. Phase two is a nearly indifferent zone separating phases one and three. At the lowest fluence rates, the maximal observed curvature is greater for dark-grown than for light-grown plants and the former curve more in response to short (2-second) exposures than do the latter. At the highest fluence rates, the maximal observed curvature is much greater for light-grown than for dark-grown seedlings, particularly at irradiation times of 2 to 3 minutes or more. Tropic curvatures correlate positively with increasing fluence rate up to some inflection range, above which the relationship becomes negative. This inflection range is approximately two orders of magnitude higher for light-grown plants.

  10. Effects of Temperature and Light on Seed Germination and Seedling Yield and Quality of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum)%温度、光照对苦荞麦种子萌发、幼苗产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海平; 李灵芝; 任彩文; 李向东; 桑鹏图

    2009-01-01

    以苦荞麦'黑丰一号'种子为材料,研究不同温度对种子萌发的影响;采用2因素3水平设计,研究不同温度(A_1,A_2和A_3分别为20,25和30℃)和光照强度(B_1,B_2和B_3分别为1,3和5×10~3lx)对幼苗产量及品质的影响.结果表明:苦荞麦种子萌发的适宜温度为25℃;因素A,B和A*B对幼苗产量、V_c和黄酮含量的影响均达显著水平(p≤0.05);对幼苗产量影响最好的水平组合是A_2B_1和A_2B_2,对幼苗V_c和黄酮含量影响最好的水平组合分别是A_3B_1和A_3B_2.在苦荞麦幼苗生长的不同阶段,应进行不同的温光控制,以提高产量与品质.%The seeds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum) variety 'Heifeng No. 1' were used as experimental material in an experiment to study the effects of different temperatures (A_1, A_2 and A_3, which were 20, 25 and 30 ℃, respectively) and light intensity (B_1, B_2 and B_3, which were 1, 3 and 5×10~3 lx, respectively) on its seed germination and seedling yield and quality. The results showed that 25℃ was suitable for seed germination; the factors A, B and A * B bad significant effects on the yield and contents of vitamin C and flavonoids of the seedlings (p≤0.05). The optimum combinations were A_2B_1 and A_2B_2 for seedling yield and A_3B_1 and A_3B_2 for vitamin C and flavonoid contents of the seedlings. To improve seedling yield and quality of tartary buckwheat, the levels of temperature and light intensity should be controled depending on different growth stages.

  11. 苦荞肉桂酸羟化酶基因(FtC4H)的克隆及其UV-B胁迫下的组织表达%Cloning of Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase Gene(C4H) from Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tararicum) and Its Tissue-specific Expression under UV-B Stress during Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿翰; 袁梦求; 李双江; 赵海霞; 陈惠; 李成磊; 吴琦

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the second enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in plant, and its expression level affects the contents of many secondary metabolites such as flavonoid and lignin. In order to learn more about the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids biosynthesis, a cDNA encoding C4H was cloned through the methods of RT-PCR and RACE from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tararicum). The results showed that the FtC4H cDNA with 1 515 bp in foil-length encoded 504 amino acids including all the active sites of C4H. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of FtC4H was improved in both cotyledon and hypocotyl (P<0.05) under UV-B stress. Statistical analysis indicated that both of the expression levels of FtC4H in the cotyledon and hypocotyl were significantly associated with the flavonoid contents in the relative tissues, and their correlation coefficients were 0.945 and 0.768, respectively. Our results can provide useful information to understand the relationship between expression level of FtC4H and flavoniod content induced by environmental factors in tartary buckwheat. Further more, this study indicated that FtC4H can be a new candidate target gene for developing high flavoniod tartary buckwheat by secondary metabolic engineering.%肉桂酸羟化酶(C4H)是植物苯丙烷代谢通路中的第二个酶,该酶在植物细胞中的含量可以影响木质素和黄酮类物质的合成等多条代谢支路.为进一步揭示苦荞黄酮合成的分子机制,对苦荞C4H基因的全长序列进行克隆.本研究采用RT-PCR和RACE技术从苦荞(Fagop yrum tararic um)花蕾中克隆得到一个肉桂酸羟化酶基因的全长cDNA (FtC4H).结果表明,FtC4H基因的ORF全长为1 515 bp,编码504个氨基酸,具有C4H的所有活性位点.利用半定量RT-PCR分析了苦荞芽期UV-B胁迫前后子叶和胚轴中FtC4H的表达量变化,同时比较其总黄酮含量变化,统计学分析表明,UV-B胁迫显著提高了FtC4H

  12. Use of on-line stop-flow heart-cutting two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of 12 major constituents in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-08-23

    The use of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) for quantification studies presents challenges with respect to repeatability, precision, and robustness. The present study used an on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system to determine 12 chemical constituents in tartary buckwheat. A combination of various stationary phases was developed and bridged using two switch valves as the interface. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography was chosen for separation in the first dimension ((1)D), and mixed mode stationary phases (an amide polar-embedded phase and alkyl-phenyl phase) were used in parallel for separation in the second dimension ((2)D). The mobile phase comprised acetonitrile and water containing 0.03% aqueous phosphoric acid. The sample was separated into two fractions on the (1)D column (HILIC-10 column) using 5% acetonitrile. One fraction, mainly comprising flavonoids, was directly eluted onto the head of (2)D column (Polar Advantage II column) and further separated using a linear gradient of 11-23% acetonitrile. The second fraction, containing phenylpropanoid glycosides, was trapped on the (1)D column. This retained fraction was back-flushed onto the (2)D column (Phenyl-1 column) and separated using a linear gradient of 35-43% acetonitrile. An on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system was successfully developed with column switching and back-flush. This 2D-LC system was validated and was able to simultaneously determine 12 major components in tartary buckwheat: seven flavonoids, four phenylpropanoid glycosides, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. The system showed good performance with respect to linearity (r>0.996), repeatability (RSD, relative standard deviation<3.4%), intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD<4.6%), recovery (91.2-108%), limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.21μg/mL), and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.10-0.41μg/mL). The on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system offers a potential approach to analyze compounds, which have similar

  13. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  14. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in anticancer new medicine Fagopyrum dibotrys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zeng, Yan; Li, Jin-Tong

    2011-01-01

    The golden buckwheat Fagopyrum dibotrys produced in Yunnan has a unique anti-cancer effects. It is a main raw material of "Wei Mai ning" capsules which is the national second-class anti-cancer drug. The present paper used (5 : 1) mixed acid as digestive juice to process the sample, and determine the twelve elements including K, Ca, Cu, Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Co in the Fagopyrum dibotrys by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES). The detection limits of this method were 0.017-0.084 microg x mL(-1), the RSDs (n = 8) were all 0.09%-1.87%, and the addition standard recoveries(ASR) (n = 8) were 98.2%-107.4% for all elements. The research results showed that there is rich K(1 477.3 microg x g(-1)) in the Fagopyrum dibotrys, there are not harmful elements Cd and Pb, and this result is mainly related to the geochemistry background where the sample lived. The contents of seven remaining kinds of elements ranked as Na (826.1) > Ca (765.2 > Mg (493.4) > Zn (112.7) > Fe (56.5) > Cu (11.4) > Mn (4.49 microg x g(-1)). This result provides some theoretical basis for the study of internal relations between trace elements in Fagopyrum dibotrys and efficacy. It' s also useful for better development and utilization of the resource.

  15. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  16. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...

  17. Buckwheat in Tibet (TAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Scheucher

    2004-01-01

    The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is one of the poorest provinces in China. Buckwheat is mostly cultivated in areas with sloping infertile land on which other crops cannot be grown. It is a valuable crop in remote and food deficient mountain areas, and the potential of enhanced buckwheat utilization in TAR is high and diverse.

  18. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75 % ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40 μg/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200 μg/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients.

  19. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  20. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  1. Phenolic compound production by different morphological phenotypes in hairy root cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy roots were obtained after inoculating sterile young stems of Fagopyrum tataricum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000. The established roots displayed two morphological phenotypes when cultured on hormone-free medium containing Murashige-Skoog salts and vitamins. The thin phenotype had a higher growth rate than the thick phenotype. Further, the phenolic compound content of the thin phenotype was higher than that of the thick phenotype. In terms of their total dry weight, the thin phenotype produced an almost double amount of (--epigallocatechin as well as more than 51.5% caffeic acid, 65% chlorogenic acid, and 40% rutin compared to the thick phenotype after 21 days of culture. Therefore, selection of the optimal morphological phenotype of hairy roots of tartary buckwheat is an important factor for improved phenolic compound production.

  2. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

  3. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  4. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  5. 五个中国荞麦(Fagopyrum)种的核型分析%Karyotype analysis of five Fagopyrum species native to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆富

    2001-01-01

    The karyotypes of F. esculentum,F. tataricum,F. megaspartanium,F.pilus and F. zuogongense were studied by means of the cytological observation of stem-tips. The results indicated that the five species are similar in karyotype. They all have two pairs of satellite chromosomes and symmetric karyotypes. The karyotype formulas of F. esculentum,F. tataricum,F. megaspartanium,F. pilus and F. zuogongense are 12m+4m(SAT),12m+4sm(SAT),8m+4sm+4m(SAT),12m+2m(SAT)+2sm(SAT) and 24m+4sm+4m(SAT),respectively.%用去壁低渗法对甜荞(Fagopyrum esculentum)、苦荞(F. tataricum)、左贡野荞(F. zuogongense Q. F. Chen),大野荞(F. megaspartanium Q. F. Chen)及毛野荞(F. pilus Q. F. Chen)等大粒组荞麦种的根尖和茎尖有丝分裂染色体进行了观察,并对其茎尖有丝分裂染色体的核型进行了比较分析。结果表明:这5种荞麦在核型上类似,都有2对随体染色体,而且都为对称核型。但它们彼此有一定的差异。甜荞、苦荞、大野荞、毛野荞及左贡野荞的核型公式分别为12m+4m(SAT)、12m+4sm(SAT)、8m+4sm+4m(SAT)、12m+2m(SAT)+2sm(SAT)及24m+4sm+4m(SAT)。

  6. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10–15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, ...

  7. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity.

  8. 荞麦和商品苦荞茶中总黄酮的含量测定%Determination of total flavonoids in buckwheat and buckwheat goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静霞; 黄艳菲; 赵小燕; 孙美; 许云章; 彭镰心; 刘圆

    2013-01-01

    目的:测定荞麦不同栽培种、植株不同部位以及不同商品苦荞茶中的总黄酮含量.方法:采用UV法测定总黄酮含量;通过回流法提取,NaNO3-Al (NO3)3法显色测定样品吸光度,以芦丁为标准溶液计算求得总黄酮含量结果:芦丁在0.003006~0.1503mg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好,R2=0.9999;平均回收率为97.9%,RSD为1.95%结论:不同栽培种荞麦总黄酮含量测定中,苦荞的总黄酮含量在13.67~21.56mg/g之间,甜荞总黄酮含量在5.79~7.23mg/g之间,苦荞总黄酮含量总体高于甜荞;荞麦植株不同部位中叶的总黄酮含量最高,最高达到68.30mg/g;商品苦荞茶中,所测商品总黄酮含量在6.96~16.78mg/g之间,较苦荞种子中总黄酮含量有一定程度减少 该方法简便快捷,结果准确,重现性好,适用于荞麦和商品苦荞茶中总黄酮含量的测定.%Objective:To determine the content of total flavones in the different kinds of buckwheat,different parts of buckwheat and buckwheat goods. Method :UV spectrophotometry for determination of total flavonoids was used. Using Na(NO3)-AI(NO3)3 to detect the absorbance of samples and then count the total flavonoids. Results:The linear range of rutin was 0.003006~0.1503mg/mL(R2=0.9999) with average recovery of 97.9% (RSD 195%). Conclusions different cultivated species of buckwheat,the concentration of total flavonoids of Fagopyrum tataricum(L.) Gaerth was 13.67-21.56mg/g, and that of F. escuientum Moench was 5.79~7.23mg/g. In different parts of buckwheat,the concentration of total flavonoids of leaves was the highest,up to 68.30mg/g. For buckwheat tea,the concentration of total flavonoids was 6.96~16.78mg/g,but they were lower than that of buckwheat seeds. This method was simple,accurate and reproducible for determination of total flavonoids of buckwheat and buckwheat goods.

  9. Differential stress-response expression of two flavonol synthase genes and accumulation of flavonols in tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Yeji; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Flavonoids are ubiquitously present in plants and play important roles in these organisms as well as in the human diet. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is a key enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, acting at the diverging point into the flavonol subclass branch. We isolated and characterized a FLS isoform gene, FtFLS2, from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). FtFLS2 shares 48% identity and 67% similarity with the previously reported FtFLS1, whereas both genes share 47-65% identity and 65-69% similarity with FLSs from other plant species. Using quantitative real-time PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the expression of FtFLS1/2 and the production of 3 main flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin) was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flowers and different stages of developing seeds. The relationship between the expression of the 2 FLS genes and the accumulation of the 3 basic flavonols was analyzed in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars. FtFLS1 and FtFLS2 exhibited differential transcriptional levels between the tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokkai T10' and 'Hokkai T8'. Generally, higher transcript levels of FtFLS1 and FtFLS2 and a higher amount of flavonols were observed in the 'Hokkai T10' cultivar than 'Hokkai T8'. The content of flavonols showed tissue-specific accumulation between the 2 cultivars. The transcription of FtFLS1 was inhibited by the exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and sodium chloride (NaCl), while FtFLS2 was not affected by ABA but up-regulated by SA and NaCl. These data indicate that the 2 FtFLS isoforms of buckwheat have different functions in the response of buckwheat to environmental stress.

  10. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  11. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  12. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  13. Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Shen, Siou-Ru; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching

    2013-04-30

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a healthy and nutritionally important food item. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of 75% ethanol extracts from tartary buckwheat (EEB) against ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. EEB were administered to C57BL/6 mice (ethanol induction) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (CCl(4) induction) for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, respectively. The major active compounds, rutin and quercetin, were also administered to ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals. EEB inhibited increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals; similar effects were found after rutin and quercetin administration. Moreover, EEB elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities, including those of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited the levels of hepatic inflammation in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-treated animals. This study suggests that EEB exerts hepatoprotection via promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against oxidative liver damage.

  14. Enhancement of rutin production in Fagopyrum tataricum hairy root cultures with its endophytic fungal elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianglin; Xiang, Dabing; Peng, Lianxin; Zou, Liang; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural bioactive flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examines the effects of endophytic fungi on rutin production in the hairy root cultures of F. tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the hairy roots, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors efficiently stimulated the hairy root growth and rutin biosynthesis, and the stimulation effect was mainly dependent on the mycelia elicitor species, as well as its treatment dose. Two endophytic fungal isolates Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened as promising candidates for promoting F. tataricum hairy root growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS) of endophyte Fat9 (200 mg/L), and PS of endophyte Fat15 (100 mg/L) to the hairy root cultures on day 25, the rutin yield was increased to 45.9 mg/L and 47.2 mg/L, respectively. That was about 3.1- to 3.2-fold in comparison with the control level of 14.6 mg/L. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of rutin resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia PS treatments. This may be an efficient strategy for enhancing rutin production in F. tataricum hairy root culture provided with its endophytic mycelia elicitors.

  15. Fagopyrins and Protofagopyrins: Detection, Analysis, and Potential Phototoxicity in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Eva Tavčar; Kreft, Samo

    2015-06-24

    Buckwheat contains many healthy nutrients, and its consumption is therefore increasing. Buckwheat also contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. A systematic review of fagopyrins and the phototoxicity of buckwheat found that reliable quantitative data on fagopyrin toxicity are not yet available. Generally, buckwheat seeds, flour, and teas are safe in normal amounts. Diets extensively composed of buckwheat sprouts, herbs, and particularly flowers or of fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts may cause fagopyrism. A reference standard is needed, as it would enable the accurate evaluation of fagopyrin content in buckwheat products and would allow proper testing of their as yet unknown physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  16. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  17. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  18. Effects of Yeast Polysaccharide on Growth and Flavonoid Accumulation in Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast polysaccharide (YPS on growth and flavonoid accumulation in sprout cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum (tartary buckwheat. Without obvious change in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous YPS notably stimulated the production of functional metabolites in F. tataricum sprouts, and the stimulation effect was concentration-dependent. With 400 mg/L of YPS applied to the sprout cultures on day 6, the total rutin and quercentin content was effectively increased to 42.8 mg/gdw, or about 1.4-fold in comparison with the control of 31.2 mg/gdw. Feeding with 800 mg/L of YPS on day 9, the sprouts biomass was increased by about 8% compared to the control culture (0.99 gdw/100 sprouts versus 0.92 gdw/100 sprouts. Moreover, the present study revealed that the accumulation of these bioactive metabolites resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by YPS treatment. It could be an effective strategy for improving the functional quality of the F. tataricum sprouts provided with YPS.

  19. A Study on the Flavone Content of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYu; ZhaoGang

    1999-01-01

    The highest flavone content of buckwheat is in its flowers,the mean value is as high as 7.4%.After flowering,the value will decrease gradually.The flavone content of buckwheat leaves is lower,its mean value is 5.3%,its highest peak appears at the stage of flowering,then decreasing slowly.The flavone content of buckwheat stems is the lowest, its mean value is 1.0%,no obvious change in the whole growth of the plant.Among the buckwheat grains,tatary buckwheat grains contain the highest flavone content,the mean value is 2.02%.The mean flavone content value of common buckwheat is only 0.23%.Radiative treatment-s can increase the flavone content of buckwheat.The formation of flavonid compounds of buckwheat is mainly controlled by PAL activity.

  20. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  1. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption.

  2. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  3. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  4. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  5. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  6. ISOLATION OF EPICATECHIN FROM OXYSTELMA ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pandya* and I.S. Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxystelma esculentum is used traditionally as diuretic, laxative, hepatoprotective and anti-ulcer.Objectives: The present work deals with the isolation and structure elucidation of Epicatechin from O. esculentum. Methods: Methanolic extract of the entire plant of O. esculentum was subjected to pilot TLC experiments and column chromatography. Results: This yielded a pure, white compound which resolved at Rf 0.3 on TLC plate using the mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate (5:4 when developed in iodine chamber. This compound was subjected to UV, IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis and its structure elucidation revealed it to be Epicatechin.Conclusion: This compound has been reported for the first time in this plant and can serve as a useful tool in its standardization.

  7. Anti-ulcer potential of Oxystelma esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang J Pandya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxystelma esculentum is a perennial twiner growing near water-logged areas in the Indian subcontinent. It is used traditionally in stomach ulcers. The present work deals with the investigation of anti-ulcer potential of O. esculentum. The plant was successively extracted with solvents of varying polarities, which served as the test extracts. Anti-ulcer effect was checked in Wistar rats using aspirin- and ethanol-induced acute ulcer models. The petroleum ether extract was found to possess the most effective anti-ulcer activity. This proves the traditional claim of the plant as an anti-ulcer drug. Phytochemical screening of this extract revealed the presence of important classes of compounds like cardenolides, flavonoids, phenolics, sterols and triterpenoids. This bioactivity-guided phytochemical screening can guide further therapeutic investigations and isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from Oxystelma esculentum.

  8. Initial density affects biomass – density and allometric relationships in self-thinning populations of Fagopyrum esculentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Weiner, Jacob; Zhou, Daowei;

    2013-01-01

    with the predictions of Metabolic Scaling Theory. If the independent variable initial density is included as a factor, the estimated slope of the log B–log N relationship is much steeper and consistent with the classical ‘Self-thinning Rule’. * The position of the self-thinning trajectory is determined in part...... in initial density can be analysed together. As plant allometry is a determinant of the self-thinning trajectory, and competition alters plants' allometric growth, initial density may have consequences for the self-thinning trajectory. * To ask whether initial density can influence allometric relationships......–density relationships in plant populations and communities. Interactions among plants and allometry are more important than internal physiological scaling mechanisms in determining the self-thinning trajectory of crowded stands....

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of 4-coumarate:CoA li gase gene from Fagopyrum tatarium%苦荞4-香豆酸辅酶A连接酶基因(Ft4CL)的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌瑶; 高飞; 王安虎; 李成磊; 陈惠; 吴琦

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on cloning and characterizing the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase gene (Ft4CL)from Fago-pyrum tatarium.Using buckwheat species ‘Xi Qiao No.2’,according to the conserved squences of 4CL from Gen-Bank,a pair of degenerate primer was designed and synthesized.Through RT-PCR (reverse transcription PCR)tech-nique,the conserved fragment of Ft4CL was amplified from the total RNA of F.tataricum flower buds.Then,the RACE technique (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)was performed,and the 5′end and 3′end of Ft4CL were suc-cesfully amplified,respectively.The complete cDNA of Ft4CL was obtained by splicing the above sequences,and a pair of gene-specific premie was synthesized to amplify the ORF (open reading frame)regine of Ft4CL.Using DNA-man software to deduce the ORF sequence of Ft4CL to the amino acid sequence,its homologous with other 4CLs were analyzed by NCBI Blast tool.The secondary structure of Ft4CL was predicted by SOPMA (http://pbil. ibcp.fr),multiple sequence alignment was performed by DNAman software,and phylogenetic tree was built with neighbor-joining method by MEGA 5.0.The results were as follows:the similarity of Ft4CL with F.esculentum (HM149785)showed the hightest level (up to 94%)and it ranging form 66%-75% with other plant 4CLs.Multi-ple sequence alignment results showed that the Ft4CL had conserved motifs of BOXⅠand BOXⅡnear by the C-termi-nus,but it had relatively low similarity with other 4CLs at the C-terminus.According to the phylogenetic tree analysis results,the selected 4CLs were grouped into 2 cluster,Ft4CL,Arabidopsis thaliana 4CL1 ,and A.thaliana At4CL2 belonged to ClusterⅠ.In conclusion,the results could provide basic data for in-depth study of Fagophrum tatarium flavonoid pathway.Furthermore,this study indicated that Ft4CL could be a new candidate target gene for developing high flavoniod F.tatarium by metabolic engineering technology in future.%以苦荞栽培种‘西荞2号’为材料,利用同

  10. HPLC法测定30个荞麦品种芦丁含量的研究%Researched on Rutin Contents among 30 Buckwheat Cultivars by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彬; 韩渊怀; 黄可盛; 路阳; 侯思宇

    2013-01-01

    采用快速高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定30个荞麦品种不同组织中的芦丁含量,为开发利用荞麦的药用价值提供科学依据.色谱条件为:安捷伦C18柱(150 mm× 4.6 mm,5μm),柱温30℃,流动相甲醇:水(V/V)为46:54,流速1 mL/min,进样量5μL,检测波长257 nm.结果表明,苦荞花、叶和茎的平均芦丁含量高于甜荞,各器官芦丁含量大小依次为花>叶>茎.该方法灵敏、可靠、重现率好,为进一步选育高芦丁含量的养麦品种以及将其用于医药工业的提取奠定了基础.%HPLC was used to determine rutin content rapidly in buckwheat. Thirty cultivars of buckwheat in different tissues flowers, leaves, stems were measured to provide valuable data for development and utilization of buckwheat. The optimum chro-matograph parameters were as follow: column as Agilent C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 Jim), mobile phase as methanol : water (46 : 54, V/V), flow rate of the mobile phase 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength 257 nm, column temperature 30℃, and the linear range was around 50~400 μg/mL. The results showed that the average rutin content in F. Tartaricum contains significant higher rutin than in F. Esculentum. The highest rutin content (60.91 mg/g) was found in flowers from Xi-nong 9940, and the rutin content in flower is higher than in leaves and stems. The proposed method showed a higher accuracy, reliablity and precision, which could be used for rutin quality control of buckwheat. Our work provided a new strategy to measure rutin content and a foundation for high rutin content buckwheat breeding.

  11. Buckwheat in the conservation of insects species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Naumkin, V.; Lysenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat one of the most important of the field rotation crop, attracting and keeping a large number of insects. Entomocenosis of a buckwheat field consists of more than 170 species of insects pollinators, phytophags, entomophags. The dominant species are pollinators; there are about 90 species of them. They feed on nectar, pick up it and make pollination possible. Bee honey, wild bees, bumblebees, wasps, other hymenopterans, dipterous, beetles are widely spread. All of them are polytrophs t...

  12. Contents of selected bioactive components in buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Górecka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritive value of food is determined by its content of basic nutrients essential for the proper functioning of the human organism. Buckwheat grain is one of the most valuable raw materials for production of groats as well as functional food. It is characterized by high contents of starch, protein as well as dietary fibre. Apart from the above mentioned nutrients, buckwheat groats contain flavonoid compounds, playing the role of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine contents of dietary fibre and its fraction composition, thiamine and phenolic compounds in roasted buckwheat groats, as well as antioxidant properties of ethanol buckwheat groats extracts. Material and methods. Experimental material comprised roasted buckwheat groats purchased at a grocery shop. Contents of neutral detergent dietary fibre (NDF and its fractions were determined by the detergent method according to Van Soest. Thermostable a-amylase (Termamyl 120 L was used in the digestion of starch. Contents of total dietary fibre (TDF, soluble dietary fibre (SDF and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF were determined according to Asp et al. The content of thiamine was determined by the thiochrome method. Total polyphenol content was determined by colorimetry according to the Folina-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant properties of extracts were estimated based on the capacity of extracts to scavenge the DPPH• radical (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and towards linolic acid. The capacity to inhibit self-oxidation of linolic acid was determined according to Lingnert et al. Results. The NDF and TDF contents in buckwheat groats, amounting to 5.63 and 8.4%, respectively. The fraction found in biggest amounts was the hemicellulose fraction (3.42%. The level of the IDF fraction was much higher (5.94% than that of SDF (2.46%. Thiamine content was 0.519 mg/100 g product, while the total content of phenolic compounds extracted from buckwheat groats was 30

  13. ULTRASTRUCTURES OF ALEURONE LAYER TRANSFER CELLS IN BUCKWHEAT%荞麦糊粉层传递细胞的超微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新起; 任秋萍; 席湘媛

    2002-01-01

    利用电子显微技术观察了荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)糊粉层传递细胞的发育过程.研究发现,荞麦开花后15 d,糊粉层细胞与珠心相邻-侧的细胞壁上开始出现壁内突;开花后20 d,糊粉层细胞与珠心相邻一侧的细胞壁上已形成发达的壁内突,壁内突附近的细胞质中有较多的线粒体和由膜包被的小泡;与胚乳相邻一侧的细胞壁上有丰富的胞间连丝.开花后25 d,糊粉层传递细胞的壁内突消失.结果表明荞麦的糊粉层传递细胞不仅能吸收母体的营养物质,可能也起到把母体营养物质转运到胚乳组织中贮存的作用.

  14. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  15. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  16. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  17. Genetic Diversity within Cultivar Population and among Different Cultivars of Common Buckwheat%甜荞品种内与品种间的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠景; 冯佰利; 柴岩; 胡银岗

    2009-01-01

    以9个甜荞品种为材料,1个苦荞品种为对照,每个品种随机取10粒种子发芽,提取基因组DNA,采用长随机引物和内含子切接点引物的PCR分子标记技术,对甜荞品种内和品种间的遗传多样性进行了分析.结果表明:(1)所使用的引物均能在 9份甜荞品种和1份苦荞品种中稳定扩增出条带,共获得了45条条带,其中多态性条带42条,占总数的93.3%;(2)甜荞同一品种内存在一定的遗传差异,但遗传距离较小,大部分不同甜荞品种间的遗传差异大于其品种内的遗传差异.因而,在甜荞品种鉴定和遗传多样性研究中,通过品种内适当混合取样可以较好地代表和反映甜荞品种特性.%Common buckwheat (F.esculentum) is an allogamy crop,which is entomophilous heterogony.Revealing the genetic diversity within cultivar population has great theoretical and practical significance for the establishment of the sampling strategy in its genetic diversity study.Nine common buckwheat varieties were used as materials,and one tartary buckwheat variety was as control in this study.Ten seeds of each cultivar were randomly picked for seedling germination and genomic DNA extraction.PCR with intron-splice junction primers and long random primers was employed to reveal the genetic diversity within cultivar population and among cultivars of common buckwheat.The results showed:(1)All of the primers used could amplify stable bands in 9 common buckwheat cultivars and 1 tartary buckwheat cultivar,the total bands amplified were 45,of which 42 bands were polymorphic,accounting for 93.3% of total bands;(2)There were differences between different individuals of the same common buckwheat cultivar,but the difference within the cultivar population was much smaller than that among different cultivars.Therefore,taking mixed sample of appropriate seedlings of one cultivar could reflect the characteristics of the cultivar in the germplasm idenfication and genetic diversity study

  18. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  19. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  20. 适宜机播深度及覆土厚度提高苦荞幼苗素质%Appropriate mechanical sowing depth and soil-covering thickness improving seedling quality of tartary buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向达兵; 邹亮; 彭镰心; 赵钢; 范昱; 韦爽; 宋超; 刘学仪; 海来吉木

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an edible and medicinal crop belonging to family Polygonaceae and it is native to southwest of China, northern India, Bhutan and Nepal. The seeds are widely consumed as daily diet and traditional medicine, such as tartary buckwheat flour, noodles, bread, tea, vinegar, sprouts, etc. Tartary buckwheat is one of the most complete and nutritional foods and rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, dietary fiber, amino acids, trace elements, and various bioactive phytochemicals. Thus, interest in the use of tartary buckwheat for health benefits is growing, and the market demand is increasing. However, the major tartary buckwheat production is in hilly and high-cold mountainous areas. Because of the inconvenience in transportation and lack of communication with outside, the mechanization of farming in these areas is still under developed, which seriously limits the development of tartary buckwheat industry. As we known, mechanization for farming is important in increase of farm productivity and improving efficiency for modern agriculture production. In order to investigate the feasibility of mechanized seeding technology and the measures of improving the mechanical sowing quality of tartary buckwheat in the hilly areas, a field experiment with three sowing depth (2, 4, 6 cm) and soil-covering (no-covering as CK) was conducted to study quality of tartary buckwheat seedlings during the growing season of 2012 at the farm of Jintang county in Sichuan Province. The results showed that sowing depth was the most important factor, and the optimum depth was 4 cm. The emergence rate, seedling number, seedling rate, root activity, stem diameter, dry matter, area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of the treatment of 2 cm sowing depth decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to 4 cm sowing depth. Besides, the 6 cm sowing depth resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower emergence rate, plant height, dry matter weight, area per plant, stem

  1. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  2. Determination of Rutin of Fagopyrum and its Commodities%荞麦和商品苦荞茶中芦丁含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳菲; 彭镰心; 丁玲; 李艳丹; 左旭; 刘圆; 赵钢

    2012-01-01

    采用RP-HPLC法测定不同种荞麦、不同商品苦荞茶中芦丁的含量.以回流法提取,采用DIKMA diamonsil (4.6 mm×250mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸水,柱温20℃,流速为1 mL/min,检测波长为255 nm,在该色谱条件下,芦丁分离效果好,线性范围为0.003976~0.5964 mg/mL (r=0.9999).平均回收率为96.93% (n=6),RSD为2.72%.结果表明:苦荞中芦丁含量远远高于甜荞;不同生产地的苦荞茶中芦丁含量差异较大,可能与原料产地及制作工艺不同有关;不同类型苦荞茶商品中以全胚茶中芦丁含量最高.%A high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for the determination of rutin of buckwheat and its commodities. The extraction method was heat reflux, and rutin was separated on DIKMA diamonsil (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The column temperature was 20℃ and the detection wavelength was set at 255 nm. The results indicated that rutin was basically isolated. The linear ranges was of 0.003976-0.5964 mg/mL (r=0.9999). The average recoveries was 96.93 % (n=6) with a RSD of 2.72 %. The results showed that the concentration of rutin of F. tataricum (L. ) Gaertn. was more higher than that of F. esculentum Moench,. The concentration of rutin of different producing area and preparation technique of buckwheat tea was also significantly different and the highest concentration of rutin was found in the whole embryo tea.

  3. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  4. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  5. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  6. A search of Brassica SI-involved orthologs in buckwheat leads to novel buckwheat sequence identification: MLPK possibly involved in SI response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI systems, gamethophytic (GSI and sporophytic (SSI, prevent self-pollination in angiosperms. Buckwheat displays heteromorphic SSI, with pollination allowed only between different flower morphs - thrum and pin. The physiology of thrum and pin morph SI responses are entirely different, resembling homomorphic Brassica SSI and Prunus GSI responses, respectively. Considering angiosperm species may share ancestral SI genes, we examined the presence of Brassica and Prunus SI-involved gene orthologs in the buckwheat genome. We did not find evidence of SRK, SLG and SP11 Brassica or S-RNase and SFB Prunus orthologs in the buckwheat genome, but we found a Brassica MLPK ortholog. We report the partial nucleotide sequence of the buckwheat MLPK and discuss the possible implications of this finding.

  7. Study on tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain processing%苦荞米及萌动苦荞米加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 胡俊君; 李云龙; 陕方; 边俊生

    2011-01-01

    研究了苦荞米及萌动苦荞米加工过程中浸泡和蒸煮时间对熟化度,以及熟化后苦荞含水量对脱壳率和整米率的影响。结果表明:苦荞浸泡时间≥4h,蒸煮≥30min和浸泡时间≥5h,蒸煮≥20min的各处理,熟化度都能达到100%;当熟化后的苦荞水分含量在24.0%~26.0%时,脱壳率达到100%,整米率〉90%。萌动苦荞米与苦荞米的加工工艺,可以采用相同的熟化条件和脱壳条件。苦荞及萌动苦荞脱壳工艺条件的研究为苦荞米及萌动苦荞米的加工提供了一定的科学依据。%The effect of soaking time and steaming time on maturation degree and tartary buckwheat moisture on hulling rate and the rate of whole rice after maturation in tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat processing were conducted. The results showed that the maturation degree could reach 100% under the condition of above 4h soaking time with over 30min steaming time or above 5h soaking time with over 20min steaming time. When matured tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat moisture was in the range of 24. 0% to 26. 0%,the hulling rate and the rate of whole rice could reach 100% and 90. 0%,respectively. Tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain can use the same maturation and hulling processing. This study on tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat hulling process provided scientific basis for tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain production.

  8. Farklı Azot Dozlarının Karabuğdayın (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Tane Verim ve Kalitesine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya OKUDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araştırma; karabuğday için uygun azot dozunun (gübresiz-0 ve saf olarak: 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 ve 7.5 kg/da belirlenmesi ve azotun verim ve kaliteye etkisini araştırmak amacıyla 2014 yılında Isparta’da yürütülmüştür. Karabuğdayın en uzun bitki boyu (77.0 cm, en yüksek tane verimi (125.4 kg/da ve biyolojik verim (431.3 kg/da 7.5 kg/da N dozunda, en yüksek bin tane ağırlığı (24.2 g, agronomik etkinlik (11.91, geri dönüşüm etkinliği (67.74 ve yararlılık etkinliği (50.58 6.0 kg/da N dozunda elde edilmiştir. En yüksek fizyolojik etkinlik (0.76 4.5 kg/da N dozunda ve en yüksek agro-fizyolojik etkinlik (0.26  ise 1.5 kg/da N dozunda belirlenmiştir. Karabuğdayın mineral besin içeriği, uygulanan N dozlarının artışına bağlı olarak yükselmiş ve en yüksek N (%1.95, P (%0.216, K (%0.243, Mg (%0.131, Cu (4.53 ppm, Zn (18.59 ppm, Fe (3.7 ppm ve Mn içeriği (3.00 ppm 7.5 kg N uygulamasında tespit edilmiştir. Karabuğdayın mineral besin içeriği bakımından Fe elementi hariç 6.0 kg/da ile 7.5 kg/da azot dozları arasında istatistiksel olarak fark ortaya çıkmamış ve diğer elementler aynı grupta yer almışlardır.

  9. 荞麦的应用研究及展望%Research progress in application and prospect of buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎红

    2011-01-01

    Buckwheat is the important crops with effect of nutrition and health at western region of China. In this paper,the health products of buckwheat, buckwheat noodles products, buckwheat baking foods, buckwheat fermenting products, puffed food made by buckwheat, buckwheat flavoring and oil, seedling of buckwheat were investigated. There was a summary about application and exploitation of buckwheat produce nearly a decade in China.The existing problems and put forward some measures and methods were discussed, hoping that the processors produced buckwheat foods in China western could get some references from this paper.%荞麦是我国西部地区重要的集营养与保健为一体的粮食作物.本文通过对荞麦保健品、荞麦面条类产品、荞麦烘焙制品、荞麦发酵品、荞麦膨化食品、荞麦调辅品、荞麦芽菜等方面的研究调查,综述了十年来我国荞麦制品的应用研究和开发现状,对存在的问题进行了探讨,提出了一定的解决措施和方法,以期为我国西部的荞麦食品加工者提供一定的借鉴.

  10. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  11. A technology of making buckwheat flavor type buckwheat liquor%一种荞香型苦荞酒的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世权

    2015-01-01

    在深入研究苦荞酒现状的基础上,通过创新工艺来解决苦荞酒荞香和健康功能不明显的问题,创新点主要有:1、通过创新发酵工艺来生产原酒,酿酒原料由单一的苦荞变成苦荞、糯米、大米;发酵用曲由小曲或黄酒曲变成糖化酶、黄酒酵母、荞香专用米曲;取酒工艺由小曲酒蒸馏或黄酒过滤变成分型发酵、串蒸取酒;2、提出不通过发酵,直接对苦荞有效成分提取工艺的研究,提取出具有一定保健功能的荞香舒适的苦荞汁,并添加少量中药提取液,使得苦荞的有效成分发挥更充分;3、把发酵取得的原酒和提取的苦荞、中药汁合理调配,并创新澄清方式,经贮存老熟后制得一种口感均衡、风味俱佳新型产品.%This article is concerned about the solution of inconspicuous flavor and healthy function of buckwheat liquor through innovative technology based on the deep research on the current situation of buckwheat liquor . The major innovations include: ( 1 ) innovative fermentation process of making original liquor from buckwheat, sticky rice and rice instead of buckwheat only, of changing koji of xiaoqu or rice wine koji to glucoamylase, rice wine yeast and rice koji specialized for buckwheat flavor in fermentation, and of using various types of fermentation and tandem distillation instead of xiaoqu liquor distillation or rice wine filtration;(2) extraction of the active components in buckwheat without fermentation. The buckwheat juice with certain healthy function was extracted and supplemented with a small amount of Chinese traditional medicine extract which made the full use of active ingredients in buckwheat;(3) a new product with good taste and flavor made by reasonable adjustment of fermented original liquor with buckwheat extract and Chinese medicine extract, and by development of new clarification methods prior to aging for a period of time.

  12. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

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    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  13. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum) occur. The geographic extent...

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum) occur based on the description...

  16. Buckwheat for the production of biogas. Rediscover forgotten cultures; Buchweizen fuer die Biogasproduktion. Vergessene Kulturen wiederentdecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, Falko; Fritz, Maendy

    2011-07-01

    Buckwheat whole plant can be used for the production of biogas. Due to its short growing period, buckwheat can be integrated very variable in crop rotations. For example, buckwheat can be grown as a second crop in the summer. After the harvest of winter wheat, which is used as whole plant silage, the sowing date is around mid-June. The ingredients of buckwheat expect a good fermentability with corresponding biogas production. [German] Buchweizen-Ganzpflanzen koennen fuer die Erzeugung von Biogas genutzt werden. Durch seine kurze Vegetationsperiode laesst sich Buchweizen sehr variabel in Fruchtfolgen einbinden. Zum Beispiel kann Buchweizen als Zweitfrucht im Sommer angebaut werden. Nach der Ernte von Wintergetreide, das als Ganzpflanzensilage genutzt wird, liegt der Saattermin etwa Mitte Juni. Die Inhaltsstoffe von Buchweizen lassen eine gute Vergaerbarkeit mit einer entsprechenden Biogasproduktion erwarten.

  17. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurendić-Brenesel, Maja; Popović, Tamara; Pilija, Vladimir; Arsić, Aleksandra; Milić, Miljan; Kojić, Danijela; Jojić, Nikola; Milić, Nataša

    2013-05-01

    As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF) mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia.

  18. Thermal Analysis Kinetics of Buckwheat%荞麦的热分析动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严云

    2015-01-01

    The thermal stabilities of buckwheat stalk and buckwheat shell in the static air were studied by the thermogravi-metric differential thermal analysis instrument of SHMASZU DTG-60. According to the thermal analysis of the experimental data, the activation energy of decomposition reaction of buckwheat stalk and buckwheat shell was calculated by using the Coats-Redfern integral method,the results showed that the stability of buckwheat stalk was higher than the buckwheat shell.%用SHMASZU DTG-60差热-热重分析仪器,在静态空气气氛条件下,研究了荞麦秆和荞麦壳的热稳定性。根据热分析试验数据,采用Coats-Redfern积分法计算荞麦秆和荞麦壳的热分解反应的活化能,通过比较得出了荞麦秆的稳定性比荞麦壳的稳定性高。

  19. Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two tartary buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the relative contributions of variety and growing environment to phenolic content and antioxidant properties were determined, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. The total phenolic contents varied from 5,150 to 9,660 μmol of gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of dry weight (DW of tartary buckwheat and the free phenolics accounted for 94% to 99%. Rutin content was in the range from 518.54 to 1,447.87 mg per 100 gram of DW of tartary buckwheat. p-Hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the prominent phenolic acids and other phenolics, including p-coumaric, gallic, caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids were also detected. Tartary buckwheat exhibited higher DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities and was more effective at preventing the bleaching of β-carotene in comparison with reference antioxidant and plant phenolics constituents. Additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. This study suggests that tartary buckwheat has potential health benefits because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant properties. These components could also be enhanced by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected variety.

  20. 荞麦芽的抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 桂英; 刘笑笑; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the antioxidant activity of buckwheat buds, the experiment with different growth stages of buckwheat buds as the object of study by 70% ethanol solvent extracting total flavonoids of the different growth stages of sweet buckwheat buds and bitter buckwheat buds were studied. The effect on eliminating DPPH from the extract of buckwheat buds were determined by colorimetry. The results indicated that the different varieties of buckwheat buds had certain antioxidant capacity. And the antioxidant capacity of bitter buckwheat was significantly higher than sweet buckwheat. The ability of buckwheat buds on DPPH free radical clearance was the highest on the 14th d of growing period. Bitter buckwheat buds achieved 80% above, sweet buckwheat buds in more than 50%, after a few days it gadually declined within a narrow range.%为了研究荞麦芽的抗氧化活性,以不同生长阶段的荞麦芽为研究对象,采用70%乙醇为溶剂提取了不同生长阶段甜荞麦芽和苦荞麦芽的总黄酮,利用比色法测定了荞麦芽提取物对DPPH自由基的清除率。结果表明,不同品种的荞麦芽苗均有一定的抗氧化能力,且苦荞的抗氧化能力明显高于甜荞。并在第14d时荞麦芽提取物对DPPH自由基的清除能力最高,苦荞麦芽达到80%以上,甜荞麦芽在50%以上,以后几天略有下降。

  1. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  2. Detection of serum markers and pulmonary fibrosis indexes in COPD rat model intervened by Fagopyrum dibotrys extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Li Fan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect ofFagopyrum dibotrys extract on serum markers and pulmonary fibrosis indexes in COPD rat model.Methods: Adult male SD rats were selected, COPD models were made by smoking method andFagopyrum dibotrys extract was given for treatment. After treatment, macroeconomic indicators and molecular markers of pulmonary fibrosis as well as serum inflammation related molecules were detected.Results:(1) pulmonary fibrosis: Compared with the control group, airway resistance, intrathoracic pressure as well as Col I, Col III, TGFβ and Smad3 contents of the model group increased, and dynamic lung compliance as well as AQP1 and AQP5 contents decreased; compared with the model group, airway resistance, intrathoracic pressure as well as Col I, Col III, TGFβ and Smad3 contents of the treatment group decreased, and dynamic lung compliance as well as AQP1 and AQP5 contents increased; (2) serum indicators: Compared with the control group, serum INF-γ, CXCR3, IL-17, PCT and LTB4 contents of model group significantly increased; compared with the model group, serum INF-γ, CXCR3, IL-17, PCT and LTB4 contents of the treatment group significantly decreased.Conclusion:Fagopyrum dibotrys extract intervention can improve pulmonary fibrosis and relieve the degrees of inflammation; it is an ideal drug for the treatment of COPD.

  3. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  4. Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui

    2015-05-01

    Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion.

  5. Processamento mínimo de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) :

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Mônica de Caldas

    1999-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. O perfil atual de consumidores tem impulsionado o incremento de vegetais minimamente processados, considerados produtos de conveniência, prontos para consumo, que mantém as características próximas ao do similar in natura. Com os objetivos de minimizar os custos de produção e manter a qualidade destes produtos, foi realizado um estudo de processamento mínimo de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum Mil...

  6. Allelopathic potential of Asarum europaeum toward Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asarum europaeum L. contains water-soluble substances which manifest allelopathic potential. Aqueous extracts from leaves and stems of Asarum europaeum were assayed to determine their allelopathic effects on Lycopersicon esculentum and Zea mays seeds germination and early seedling growth. The germination of the investigated seeds was found to be inhibited with increasing of the Asarum europaeum L. extract concentration. Moreover, the active substances extracted from leaves were found to be more inhibitory on the seeds germination in comparison with those extracted from stems.

  7. 苦荞查尔酮合成酶基因序列特征及分子进化分析%Characterize of Sequences and Molecular Evolution Analysis of Chalcone Synthase in Fagopyrum Tartaricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝霞; 侯思宇; 郭彬; 令狐斌; 黄可盛; 许冬梅; 韩渊怀

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other grain crops, Fagopyrum tataricum contain high levels of flavonoids, especially rutin. It has important significance for the research of key enzymes in the rutin biosynthesis pathway. This study focuses on the rutin biosynthesis pathway first key gene-chalcone synthase. Two genes FtCHS1 (1 430 bp, Genbank number:KJ130961) and FtCHS2 (1 454 bp, Gnebank number: KJ139980) were assembing and sequenced according to flo-wer transcriptom in F. tataricum. Protein 3D structure domain analysis showed that FtCHS contains three active site, 11 product binding sites, five acetyl coenzyme A binding sites. The amino acid sequences were aligned and compared to orthologous sequences from other plants, such as F. esculentum, F. dibotrys and P. cuspidatum. The phylogenetic tree showed that 22 polygonaceae plants was divided into two categories: (Ⅰ and Ⅱ), FtCHS1 and FtCHS2 belong to different categories. Gene expression of different tissues for FtCHS were analysed by semi-quantitive and real-time PCR. It showed that it had a higher expression level in immature embryo and flower for FtCHS1 and FtCHS2, and the expression level were decreased in roots and stems. Our work provides a strategy to improve rutin content, which could also be used to study molecular mechanism of rutin biosynthesis pathway.%相比其他杂粮作物,苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)植株中含有高含量的黄酮类物质--‘芦丁’,因此对其生物合成途径中关键酶的研究具有十分重要意义。查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase)是黄酮类物质生物合成的第一个关键酶,本研究基于转录组数据库同源搜索方法,核酸序列拼接获得两个查尔酮合成酶基因,分别命名为 FtCHS1(Genbank 登录号: KJ130961)和 FtCHS2(Genbank 登录号: KJ139980)。生物信息学分析结果表明,这两个基因编码的蛋白序列有3个保守结构域,其结构域上包含3个活性位点,11个产物结合位点,5个乙酰辅酶 A 结合

  8. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenlechner, Regine; Drausinger, Julian; Ottenschlaeger, Veronika; Jurackova, Katerina; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2010-12-01

    The use of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta was investigated in the present study. The aim of the work was to produce pasta of good textural quality, in particular, low cooking loss, optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The results demonstrated that pasta produced from amaranth had decreased texture firmness and cooking time, while pasta from quinoa mainly showed increased cooking loss. In buckwheat pasta the least negative effects were observed. By combination of all three raw materials to one flour blend in the ratio of 60% buckwheat, 20% amaranth and 20% quinoa, dough matrix was improved. After decreasing dough moisture to 30%, addition of an increased amount of egg white powder of 6% and addition of 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) texture firmness as well as cooking quality of gluten-free pasta produced from such a flour blend reached acceptable values comparable to wheat pasta.

  9. Modeling bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for predicting hourly evapotranspiration of maize and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Hiroki, Oue; Zhang, Chuan; Xue, Zhu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models for predicting hourly canopy resistance ( r c) and evapotranspiration (ETc) based on Penman-Monteith approach. The micrometeorological data and ET c were observed during maize and buckwheat growing seasons in 2006 and 2009 in China and Japan, respectively. The proposed models of r c were developed by a climatic resistance ( r *) that depends on climatic variables. Non-linear relationships between r c and r * were applied. The measured ETc using Bowen ratio energy balance method was applied for model validation. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between predicted ETc by proposed models and measured ETc for both maize and buckwheat crops. The model for predicting ETc at maize field showed better performance than predicting ETc at buckwheat field, the coefficients of determination were 0.92 and 0.84, respectively. The study provided an easy way for the application of Penman-Monteith equation with only general available meteorological database.

  10. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  11. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  12. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  13. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  14. Effect of phosphorus on the resistance of roots and border cells to aluminum in buckwheat%铝胁迫下磷对荞麦根系和根边缘细胞抗性生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美红; 吴韶辉; 刘鹏; 徐根娣; 蔡妙珍

    2009-01-01

    以荞麦(Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)根系和根尖边缘细胞(border cell, BC)为材料,研究铝胁迫下磷对根系抗氧化酶活性和边缘细胞数目、活性的影响.结果表明,与200 μmol·L-1的单铝处理相比,3.0 mmol·L-1的供磷处理铝胁迫组的相对根长和根系蛋白质含量分别增长了22.8%和18.7%,根系超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性分别增加了20.8%和26.1%.1.5 mmol·L-1的磷与铝共处理,边缘细胞的数目和活性分别比200 μmol·L-1的单铝处理增加了243.0%和187.0%.铝胁迫下供磷可有效促进根伸长和根系蛋白质的合成,提高SOD和POD活性,显著削弱铝毒对边缘细胞产生的抑制,减少细胞的死亡.说明供磷可有效增强荞麦根系的抗铝毒能力,提高根尖边缘细胞的数目和活性.

  15. 磷对铝胁迫下荞麦根际土壤铝形态和酶活性的影响%Effects of phosphorus on aluminum forms and soil enzymatic activities of buckwheat rhizosphere under aluminum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢承华; 朱美红; 张淑娜; 李方; 蔡妙珍; 汪增基

    2009-01-01

    Two different Al tolerence buckwheat that were Neimeng(Al tolerant) and Jiangxi (Al sensitive) were compared under aluminum stress. The effects of P on buckwheat growth, Al forms and soil enzymatic activities of root rhizosphere microecology under Al toxicity were studied by using methods of soil culture. The results revealed that the biomass of Neimeng and Jiangxi buck-wheat supplied with 0.2 g·kg~(-1) P and 0.4 g·kg~(-1) Al were 67.9% and 21.2% higher than that supplied without P. P could ameliorate the inhibition of Al on root elongation, enhance the root biomass and root-to-shoot ratio. P and Al interaction significantly decreased both exchangeable Al (ExAl), while increased hydroxyl Al (HyAl) and organically complexed Al (OrAl) content of rhizosphere soil that were low toxicity. Changes of soil enzyme activities in Rhizosphere was complexity. Catalase activities showed positive correlation with P. 0.2 g·kg~(-1) P was the most convenient concentration for catalase activities. These results indicated that P application may alle-viate Al toxicity by decreasing ExAl content and enhancing catalase activity of rhizosphere soil.%采用土培法,以耐铝性明显差异的两个荞麦Fagopyrum esculentum基因型“江西养麦”(耐性)和“内蒙荞麦”(敏感)为材料,研究铝胁迫下磷对荞麦生长和根际土壤铝形态、土壤酶活性的影响.结果表明,0.4 g·kg~(-1)铝配施0.2 g·kg~(-1)磷的内蒙和江西荞麦根系生物量分别比不施磷组增加了67.9%和21.2%,磷能显著缓解铝对荞麦根系生长的抑制,提高根系生物量和根冠比.磷铝互作下根际土壤的交换态铝含量显著降低,毒性较小的吸附态羟基铝和络合态铝含量显著增加.根际土壤酶活性变化复杂,过氧化氢酶活性与磷质量分数呈正相关,w_p=0.2 g·kg~(-1)对铝胁迫下荞麦根际土壤转化酶活性最有利.说明施磷降低铝胁迫根际土壤的交换态铝含量,提高土壤过氧化氢酶活性,减缓

  16. Optimization of the Formula of Tartary Buckwheat Bread%苦荞面包配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    采用快速发酵法,研究了苦荞粉添加量、魔芋精粉和谷朊粉添加量对苦荞面包品质的影响.试验表明:苦荞粉添加量对苦荞面包的比容和感官评定得分起着决定作用;苦荞粉添加量占苦荞粉和面包专用粉总质量的30%时,魔芋精粉添加量为1.61%,谷朊粉添加量为1.60%,苦荞面包比容最大.%The influences of tartary buckwheat bread quality on added buckwheat powder and konjac flour and wheat gluten added by quick fermentation were tested. The experiments showed that the amount of tartary buckwheat powder played a decisive role of tartary buckwheat bread specific volume and sensory evaluation scores. The best addition amount of buckwheat powder was 30% of total counts of buckwheat powder and bread flour. The best addition amounts of konjac flour and wheat gluten werel.61%, and 1.60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the largest buckwheat bread specific volume was obtained.

  17. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  18. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  19. 荞麦的理化特性研究%Study on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 宋毓雪; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选保健功能较好的荞麦资源.[方法]以前期得到的营养保健成分较高的荞麦材料T330和T429及荞麦壳为试验材料,研究其膨胀力、持水率和束缚重金属离子能力的差异.[结果]荞麦材料间的膨胀力和持水率存在差异.膨胀力在不同荞麦材料间表现为荞麦壳>T429>T330,差异达显著水平;持水力表现为T330>荞麦壳>T429.荞麦壳对Pb和Cu的最大束缚浓度及最小束缚浓度均高于其他2份荞麦资源.[结论]荞麦壳具有较好的理化特性.%[ Objective ] To sift out fine buckwheat resources. [ Method ] Change of physical and chemical properties of buckwheat were studied on the material which based on the former study which we had higher nutritive component T330 and T429. At the same time, their buckwheat shell was also used. [ Result] The buckwheat had differences in expansion ability and water preservation ability. The expansion capacity in different kinds of buckwheat was Buckwheat > T429 > T330, reaching significance level; water holding capacity of these buckwheat would be T330 > buckwheat > T429. [Conclusion] The buckwheat shell has the better physical and chemical properties.

  20. Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Minnaar; Avrelija Cencic; Martha Kandawa-Schulz; Jose Jackson; Petrina T. Kapewangolo; Sam O. Yeboah; Runner T. Majinda; C.J. Schoeman; Yolandi van Zyl; Gyebi Duodu; Walter Chingwaru

    2011-01-01

    Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama) – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, A...

  1. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  2. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  3. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  4. 苦荞麦挂面研制%Manufacture on Fine Dried Noodles of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永; 肖诗明; 张忠

    2011-01-01

    以苦荞粉、小麦粉为主要原料,研究了预糊化处理,谷朊粉、碳酸钠、魔芋精粉添加量对苦荞麦挂面质量都有明显影响,结果表明:预糊化处理是提高苦荞麦挂面苦荞粉含量的前提条件,谷朊粉、碳酸钠、魔芋精粉添加量分别为3Z、0.4名、1.2Z。%The study was carried out with the buckwheat flour and wheat flour as the main raw material. Results are as follows: pre-gelatinization, gluten, sodium carbonate and content of konjac flour have a significant effect on the quality of the buckwheat noodles ; it has been tested that pre-gelatinization is the prerequisites and the optimum proportion is to add 3% gluten, 0.4% sodium caibonate and 1.2% konjac flour to improve the content of buckwheat flour of the buckwheat paste noodles.

  5. Ecology of Kearney’s Buckwheat (Eriogonum nummulare) for Restoration Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eriogonum are a highly complex group of plants with a long history of changes in scientific names. These distinctive plants often have unique associations with endemic animals. One such case that has received much interest involves Kearney’s Buckwheat (Eriogonum nummulare) and an endemic Sand Mo...

  6. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...

  7. Metabolism of secondary metabolites isolated from Tartary buckwheat and its extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiang; Li, Yingfei; Wu, Caisheng; Wang, Caihong; Jin, Ying; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-07-01

    The metabolism of Tartary buckwheat was investigated using a strategy from single bioactive compounds to complex Tartary buckwheat extract. Firstly, the metabolites of different structural compounds were investigated by an in situ liver-intestinal perfusion model and the metabolic pathways were proposed. Furthermore, Tartary buckwheat extract in rats was elucidated on the basis of the metabolism information of single compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass and multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS(n)) was performed to characterise and identify 19 metabolites in perfusate and intestinal content after administration of single compounds to an in situ liver/intestinal perfusion model and 16 metabolites and 6 components in rat faeces, urine, bile, and plasma after oral administration of Tartary buckwheat to rats. Five new metabolites were identified as the glucuronidation and sulfation products of N-trans-feruloyltyramine and the methylation product of quercetin-3-O-[β-d-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-l-rhamnoside]. The metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid glycosides and N-trans-feruloyltyramine were proposed for the first time.

  8. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  9. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL).

  10. Effect of roasting time of buckwheat groats on the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Wronkowska; Konrad, Piskuła Mariusz; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat, induced by roasting at 160 °C for 30, 40 and 50 min, were evaluated in the study. Furozine, was detected after roasting, in all buckwheat samples. Increase of FIC, the presence of significant amounts of CML and enhanced browning were observed, along with increasing times of roasting. The formation of acrylamide in the obtained buckwheat products was also significantly connected with the time of roasting. A significant degradation was observed in natural antioxidants, as affected by heat treatment time. The colour parameter changed significantly with the increasing of roasting time. Overall, 30min of roasting was beneficial from a nutritional point of view for the obtained buckwheat product.

  11. Topological incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast DNA trees suggesting hybridization in the urophyllum group of the genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-04-01

    We performed phylogenetic analyses of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group based on nucleotide sequences of two nuclear genes, FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) and AGAMOUS (AG), and three segments of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), rbcL-accD, trnK intron, and trnC-rpoB spacer. The FLO/LFY and AG sequences turned out to be phylogenetically more informative at the intrageneric level than the cpDNA sequences. Congruence among these gene trees, inferred by a maximum-likelihood (ML) method, demonstrated that topologies were partially incongruent between the nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogenies. The nuclear DNA sequence data supported a monophyletic relation of F. statice, F. gilesii, and F. jinshaense, whereas the former two species formed another monophyletic relation with the F. capillatum-F. gracilipes-F. gracilipedoides-F. rubifolium clade excluding F. jinshaense in the synthetic cpDNA phylogeny. In addition, two divergent sequences of FLO/LFY were found in F. rubifolium (tetraploid). One of these was sister to F. gracilipedoides and another was sister to F. statice, and a monophyletic relation of these two genes was rejected by a bootstrap analysis. These results suggest that hybridization may have occurred during diversification of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group, and that F. rubifolium is possibly allotetraploid species.

  12. Clarification of Buckwheat Vinegar%荞麦醋的澄清研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 翟小艳

    2015-01-01

    以壳聚糖、β-环糊精、明胶、硅藻土作为澄清剂对荞麦醋进行澄清处理,结果表明壳聚糖的澄清效果最佳。研究了壳聚糖对荞麦醋的澄清效果,测定了荞麦醋澄清前后主要成分的变化,经过单因素试验和正交试验,确定了壳聚糖澄清荞麦醋的最佳工艺条件:壳聚糖用量3 g/L、澄清处理pH 3.5、澄清处理时间8 h、澄清处理温度35℃。在此最佳工艺条件下,壳聚糖对荞麦醋有良好的澄清效果,可以较好地降低荞麦醋中蛋白质的含量,从而有效地改善其贮藏稳定性。%Take chitosan,β-cyclodextrin,gelatin,diatomite as clarifying agents to clarify buckwheat vinegar.The result shows that the clarification effect of chitosan is the best.Study the clarification effect of chitosan on buckwheat vinegar;detect the change of main components of buckwheat vinegar before and after clarification. Determine the optimum process conditions of chitosan clarifying buckwheat vinegar through the single factor test and orthogonal test.The optimum process conditions are as follows:dosage of chitosan of 3 g/L,clarifying treatment pH of 3.5,clarifying treatment time of 8 h,clarifying treatment temperature of 35 ℃.Under the optimum process conditions,chitosan has good clarification effect on buckwheat vinegar,can reduce the content of protein in buckwheat vinegar and effectively improve its storage stability.

  13. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  14. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  15. 荞麦多糖的研究进展%Research Advances of Buckwheat Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏

    2015-01-01

    The research advances on extraction,separation and purification,chemical analysis and biological activities of Buckwheat Polysaccharide were summarized.The problems at present and the future research progress on Buckwheat polysaccharides were put forward.%多糖是从动、植物中分离出的一类物质,在免疫调节、抗肿瘤、抗病毒和抗感染等方面有很强的活性,疗效高、毒副作用小,值得深入研究和开发。本文就荞麦多糖的提取纯化、化学结构、分子量测定、生物活性等方面的研究进展予以综述。

  16. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  17. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  18. Lycopersicon esculentum seeds: an industrial byproduct as an antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Marcos; Silva, Luís R; Vale-Silva, Luís A; Pinto, Eugénia; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-09-08

    Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit is a widely studied matrix. However, only few works focus their attention on its seeds, which constitute a major byproduct of the tomato processing industry. In this study the antimicrobial potential of ten different tomato seed extracts from "Bull's heart" and "Cherry" varieties were analyzed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum). Regarding antibacterial capacity, the different extracts were revealed to be active only against Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis being the most susceptible one (MIC: 2.5-10 mg/mL). Concerning antifungal activity, "Bull's heart" extracts were the most active. In a general way C. albicans was the most susceptible species (MIC: 5-10 mg/mL). The chemical composition of the extracts was also pursued, concerning organic acids, phenolics and fatty acids, in order to establish a possible relationship with the observed antimicrobial effect.

  19. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O Salawu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. Aim: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum : Source of antioxidants paste (TP was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5, were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II acetate (LA. Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: A Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyse the results obtained. Results: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life-death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. Conclusion: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Comparison and Analysis on the Content of Total Flavonoids in Liangshan Tartary Buckwheat Tea%凉山州苦荞茶总黄酮含量对比及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2011-01-01

    分析了8个全麦苦荞茶、15个造粒成型苦荞茶、2个苦荞叶芽茶共25个苦荞茶产品的总黄酮含量,结果表明,三类苦养茶总黄酮含量平均值高低依次是全麦苦养茶<造粒成型苦荞荼<苦养叶芽茶,总黄酮含量之比全麦苦荞茶:造粒成型苦荞茶:苦荞叶芽茶为1.00∶2.51∶3.57;同一类型苦荞茶之间总黄酮最高含量平均值和最低含量平均值比值最大的是造粒成型苦荞荼,总黄酮含量差异性最大的是苦荞叶芽荼,其次是造粒成型苦荞荼,最小的是全麦苦荞茶.%Total flavonoid contents in 25 tartary buckwheat tea products including 8 wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea, 15 granulated tartary buckwheat tea and 2 tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea were analyzed. The results showed that the levels of the total flavonoid contents in the 3 types of tartary buckwheat tea were as follows, wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea buckwheat tea < tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea; and the content ratio of wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea: granulated tartary buckwheat tea: tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea was 1.00:2.52:3.57. The ratio of highest and lowest content appeared in granulated tartary buckwheat tea; the most variable content of total flavonoid was in tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea, followed by granulated tartary buckwheat tea and wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea.

  1. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  2. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  3. Study of evapotranspiration and evaporation beneath the canopy in a buckwheat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Zhang, Chuan; Oue, Hiroki; Wang, Guoqing; He, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The determination of evaporation and transpiration separately is very important in improving water use efficiency and developing exact irrigation scheduling. Hourly crop evapotranspiration ( ET c) and soil evaporation ( E g) beneath the buckwheat canopy were measured using Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The total ET c and E g in the whole growth season of buckwheat were 187.4 and 72.1 mm, respectively. Crop coefficient of buckwheat plant was simulated by days after sowing (DAS) and leaf area index (LAI), the average values for four growth stages were 0.58, 0.59, 1.10, and 0.74; and soil evaporation coefficient (the ratio of soil evaporation to reference evapotranspiration) was modeled by soil water content at 5-cm depth by dividing the LAI into two stages. The relationship between the ratio of soil evaporation to actual evapotranspiration ( E g/ ET c) and LAI was decided. It was found that E g/ ET c decreased from 1 to 0.3 with the increase in LAI.

  4. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  5. Dose response and mutation induction by ion beam irradiation in buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Degi, K.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.; Tanaka, A.; Abe, T.

    2003-05-01

    The biological effects of ion beams were investigated to pursue the development of a method for breeding by mutation in buckwheat. Common buckwheat (Botansoba, Bot) and tartary buckwheat (Rotundatiem, Rot) seeds were exposed to various ions in linear energy transfer (LET) at 9-630 keV/μm. The lethal dose 50 (LD 50) of ion beams were 10-300 Gy (Bot) and 30-500 Gy (Rot). It was indicated that a penetrating depth in excess of 1.7 mm is necessary to thoroughly saturate the target, and ions with a penetrating depth of less than 2.2 mm were affected by the presence of hulls. The maximum values of the relative biological effectiveness were 17.7 (Rot) and 22.5 (Bot) at 305 keV/μm. The effective cross sections increased with the LET, and the maximum values were 2.7 (Rot) and 3.0 μm 2 (Bot). The mutation induction effects of He and C ions were higher than those of gamma rays.

  6. EXPANDING THE RANGE OF GLUTEN-FREE FLOUR CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS BASED ON BUCKWHEAT AND QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding the range of flour confectionery products for people suffering from intolerance to wheat protein is relevant in the circumstances of import substitution. The domestic market of gluten-free confectionery products fully meets the demand of this category of people, which are dominated by sweet tooth children, requiring constant variety of confectionery. Therefore, the purpose of the work, which consists in expanding the range of pastry products based on buckwheat and quinoa, is relevant. The study presents a shortbread recipe based on buckwheat flour with different dosages of quinoa, a block diagram of the production and evaluation of the quality of the finished confectionery. Sensory evaluation of quality was carried out by a tasting analysis by a special system of scores: quantified indicators of quality - color, taste, smell, surface, shape and form in a break - is presented in the form of balls, followed by mathematical processing. We have defined physical and chemical indicators of quality biscuits, including moisture, alkalinity, absorption, fat and sugar content. Based on the assessment of quality of gluten-free shortbread we have set the optimal ratio of buckwheat flour and quinoa is equal to 70:30. The developed formulation will expand the range of gluten-free flour confectionery and can be adapted to the process and the equipment installed on the existing confectionery businesses

  7. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  8. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (Pbuckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  9. 发酵荞麦面条制备工艺研究%Preparation of fermented buckwheat noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小磊

    2011-01-01

    以荞麦面为主要原料,加入一定量的酵母和水,调制成荞麦面团,在30℃恒温条件下发酵成具有一定的芳香酸味的荞麦面团,再利用面条机将发酵好的荞麦面团挤压成荞麦面条。试验了面团含水量、酵母添加量、发酵时间和温度对荞麦面团发酵程度及面团成型的影响。%Buckwheat flour was made as the primary raw material,joining the ration yeast and the suitable proportion water then changing them for the buckwheat pasta.There ferments long time with 30 ℃ until it became aromatic acid taste buckwheat pasta.The buckwheat paste was made into noodle by the noodle maker.Water content,yeast's recruitment,ferment time and ferment temperature factors affecting buckwheat paste.

  10. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  11. Study on Thermal Analysis for the Distinguish of Black Buckwheat Tea and Raw Buckwheat%黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的热分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静平

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of black buckwheat teas and raw buckwheat were studied by TG-DTG method in the static air. To understand the distinguish of the black buckwheat tea and the raw black buckwheat , then discuss if the nutrition of raw black buckwheat flowed away by industrial processing. By setting experimental conditions, we can get the DTA curves. By the analyses of the articulation and the weightless rate of the curves, the optimum conditions can be got. The analysis shows that the DTA curves were similar, and the tea's wave crest had one more peak than the raw black buckwheat. The industrial processing had few influence on the nutrition. The decomposition temperature of black buckwheat tea was 292.97 ℃,The decomposition temperature of raw black buckwheat was 303.65 ℃,The better experimental condition was 15 ℃/min for the heating rate, the mass of the samples are about 2 mg.%用差热-热重分析对黑苦荞茶和黑苦荞原料进行热分析.目的在于对比黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的区别,探讨加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失是否严重.通过实验确定其最佳条件.结果表明,黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料热分解曲线相似, 且比黑苦荞原料多一个峰. 加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失影响不大. 黑苦荞茶开始分解的温度为292.97℃,黑苦荞原料开始分解的温度为303.65℃.以上材料在静态空气气氛下热分析实验条件均为:升温速率为15℃/min,样品质量2 mg左右.

  12. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Robl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  13. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, D.; Thimoteo, S.S.; de Souza, G.C.C.F.; M.R. Beux; Dalzoto,P.R.; Pinheiro, R L; PIMENTEL, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  14. Occurrence of Candida orthopsilosis in Brazilian tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, D; Thimoteo, S S; de Souza, G C C F; Beux, M R; Dalzoto, P R; Pinheiro, R L; Pimentel, I C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify yeasts found in the tomato fruit in order to obtain isolates with biotechnological potential, such as in control of fungal diseases that damage postharvest fruits. We identified Candida orthopsilosis strains LT18 and LT24. This is the first report of this yeast on Lycopersicum esculentum fruits in Brazil.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of somatic hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and Lycopersicon peruvianum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandi, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several desirable traits, such as disease resistances, have been introduced from more or less related wild Lycopersicon species, into the cultivated tomato, L.esculentum , by classical breeding techniques. Somatic hybridisation by protoplast fusion can enhance the germplasm pool available for tomato

  16. 苦荞花生奶茶的研制%Development on Tartary Buckwheat and Peanut Milk Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静波; 赵江林; 彭镰心; 邹亮; 贾丹; 李园园; 赵钢

    2013-01-01

      Tartary buckwheat, peanut and skimmed milk powder were used as the raw material for developing buckwheat and peanut milk tea. Through the orthogonal experiment analysis, the extraction conditions of tartary buckwheat, the optimal formula and stability of tartary buckwheat and peanut milk tea were investigated. The results showed that the best extracting procedures of tartary buckwheat were determined as follows:ratio of solid to liquid 1∶30, extracting temperature 70℃, extracting time 2 hours;the optimal formula was obtained by using 40%tartary buckwheat extract, 20 % peanut plasma, 20 % skim milk and 1.5 % sucrose; and the optimal stabilizer was combination of 0.02%carrageenan, 0.10%xanthan gum and 0.20%sucrose fatty acid ester.%  以苦荞、花生和脱脂奶粉为主要原料,通过正交试验对苦荞浸提条件、苦荞花生奶茶的配方以及稳定性进行了研究。结果表明,苦荞最佳浸提条件为料水比1∶30,浸提温度70℃,浸提时间2 h;苦荞花生奶茶的最佳配方为苦荞浆40%,花生浆20%,脱脂奶20%,蔗糖1.5%;最佳的复合稳定剂添加量为卡拉胶0.02%,黄原胶0.10%,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.20%。

  17. 苦荞麦麸复合饮料的研究%Research on the Buckwheat Bran Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅臣; 王明力; 陆雅丽; 郑君花

    2012-01-01

    For comprehensive development of buckwheat functional foods,the production technology of buckwheat bran compound beverage was studied with buckwheat bran as the main raw material.The results show that buckwheat wheat gluten powder through 40 mesh fineness were extracted about 10min with water of mass ration 1︰30 at 90 ℃,80% wheat bran extract,15% pear juice,5% grapefruit juice were respectively added and 1% mass fraction of honey was appended.The mixture was filtered and clarified through sodium alginate,buckwheat bran compound beverage with general flavones 0.256 mg/mL was obtained,pale brown and buckwheat unique fragrance.%为综合开发苦荞功能食品,以苦荞麦麸为主要原料,对苦荞麦麸复合饮料的工艺进行研究。结果表明:过40目筛的苦荞麦麸粉用质量比1︰30的水于90℃浸提10 min,分别取体积分数80%的麦麸浸提液、15%的梨汁、5%西柚汁,并加入1%质量分数的蜂蜜,经海藻酸钠进行澄清过滤,所得苦荞麦麸复合饮料,其总黄酮含量为0.256 mg/mL,呈淡褐色、具有苦荞特有的清香。

  18. 苦荞麦毛状根的诱导研究%Study on Hairy-roots Induction of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雁霞; 王跃华; 陈燕; 张红玉; 赵钢; 邬晓勇

    2012-01-01

    利用发根农杆菌Ri1601浸染苦养植物预培养2d的叶片外植体,经不同时间的共培养和除菌培养后获得毛状根.经硅胶薄层色谱板检测表明,发根农杆菌Ri1601和苦养叶片上未经转化产生的不定根都不含有冠瘿碱;而经发根农杆菌Ri1601遗传转化后所产生的毛状根有冠瘿碱的存在.因此,可确定苦荞叶片上产生的毛状根为发根农杆菌Ri1601转化所得.建立了用发根农杆菌Ri1601诱导苦荞植物叶片产生毛状根的有效方法.%The Hairy-roots can be obtained by inoculating two-day-precultured leaf explants of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn with Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601. The silicon thin layer chromatogra-phy (TLC) tests showed that the adventitious roots produced by leaves of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn and Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601 do not contain crown gall alkali. On the other hand, the hairy roots which were produced by Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601-mediated genetic transformation of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn leaves have crown gall alkali. Therefore, it can be determined that the hairy roots from leaves of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn were produced by Agrobaterium rhizogenes Ril601-mediated transformation. Due to these, the different factors were designed to examine for their effects on hairy-roots induction and growth. The effective methodology of hairy-roots induction by Agrobaterium rhizogenes was established and provided a foundation for industrial production of active components from Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

  19. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  20. Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiaoxuan; Wintersteen, Carol L; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-03-27

    Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.

  1. 苦荞超微粉对苦荞小麦混合粉及其挂面品质的影响%Influence of micronized buckwheat flour on the quality of buckwheat-wheat mixed flour and dried noodle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽萍; 田晓红; 刘明; 刘艳香; 吴娜娜; 谭斌

    2015-01-01

    Common buckwheat flour,ultrafine buckwheat flour A and B,with 5% ~30%,was added to wheat flour and mixed,respectively. The farinograph properties of mixed flour were analyzed. The senso-ry quality,cooking quality and texture characteristics of dry noodle made of mixed flour were studied. The results showed that:compared with common buckwheat flour,the water absorption of ultrafine buck-wheat flour dough was increased,dough formation time and stability time were shorten,dough softness was increased,farinogram quality number was decreased,the sensory quality of noodle was improved be-cause of adding ultrafine buckwheat flour. Adding buckwheat flour with 15% or less,the cooking weight of the noodles containing common buckwheat flour was higher than the others. Adding 15% ~30%,the cooking weight with ultrafine buckwheat flour A was higher. Adding with 5% ~30%,the cooking loss of ultrafine buckwheat flour A was the least. Because of buckwheat micronization,the firmness and shear power of buckwheat noodles were increased and the chewiness and toughness of noodles were enhanced.%将普通苦荞粉,苦荞超微粉A和B按照5%~30%的比例添加到小麦粉中,对苦荞小麦混合粉的面团粉质特性及其挂面的感官品质、蒸煮品质及质构特性进行了研究,结果表明:与普通粉相比,添加苦荞超微粉的混合粉面团的吸水率增加,面团形成时间和稳定时间缩短,弱化度值升高,粉质指数降低;添加苦荞超微粉提高了挂面的感官品质;添加量在15%以下时,添加苦荞普通粉制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,添加量在15%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,而添加量在5%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟的干物质损失率最低;苦荞粉超微处理增加了苦荞挂面的坚实度和剪切功,面条咀嚼性和韧性增强。小麦粉中添加20%苦荞超微粉A时制作的挂面韧性,口感良好。

  2. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  3. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  4. Research progress of buckwheat nutrition and its product%荞麦营养及其制品研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海莹; 张锐昌; 张应龙; 聂小宝

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews research statusof nutritional valueof buckwheat,proportionof major nutrient in different buckwheat powder,and the processingcraftof its product. Meanwhile it analyzes the problems existing in buckwheat processing,and gives anoutlookon its prospect.%简要综述了荞麦的营养价值,不同荞麦粉主要营养成分的比例,以及其制品加工工艺的研究状况,同时,分析了荞麦加工存在的问题,并对其前景进行展望。

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 65 °C. UAE method is an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of FTB.

  6. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors from Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the Growth, Flavonoid Accumulation and Antioxidant Property of Fagopyrum tataricum Sprout Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different fungal polysaccharides, named water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS, sodium hydroxide-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS, hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS, and exo-polysaccharide (EPS obtained from the endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Fat9 on the sprout growth, flavonoid accumulation, and antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat. Without visible changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors strongly stimulated sprout growth and flavonoid production, and the stimulation effect was closely related with the polysaccharide (PS species and its treatment dosage. With application of 200 mg/L of EPS, 200 mg/L of APS, 150 mg/L of WPS, or 100 mg/L of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yields of buckwheat sprouts were significantly increased to 41.70 mg/(100 sprouts, 41.52 mg/(100 sprouts, 35.88 mg/(100 sprouts, and 32.95 mg/(100 sprouts, respectively. This was about 1.11 to 1.40-fold compared to the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of tartary buckwheat sprouts was also enhanced after treatment with the four PS elicitors. Furthermore, the present study revealed the polysaccharide elicitation that caused the accumulation of functional flavonoid by stimulating the phenylpropanoid pathway. The application of beneficial fungal polysaccharide elicitors may be an effective approach to improve the nutritional and functional characteristics of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  7. Analysis on contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles%苦荞茶和荞麦面条中芦丁及槲皮素含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪锋; 唐宇; 孙俊秀; 钟志惠

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法分析苦荞茶和荞麦面条中的芦丁和槲皮素含量.结果表明:造粒型和非造粒型(全麦和全胚)苦荞茶中芦丁和槲皮素的含量(质量分数)具有明显差异,非造粒型苦荞茶中芦丁的质量分数较高(0.518 3%~0.850 6%),槲皮素的质量分数较低(0.0573%~0.252 1%);而造粒型苦荞茶和荞麦面条中槲皮素的质量分数较高(0.481 6%~1.022 2%,0.034 9%~0.072 0%),芦丁的质量分数较低(0.029 7%~0.031 4%,0.008 1%~0.024 4%),这可能是由于荞麦中存在的芦丁降解酶分解芦丁产生槲皮素的缘故.由此可见,并非所有的苦荞茶和荞麦面条都是以芦丁作为主要的黄酮类物质,单纯以芦丁和总黄酮的质量分数来评价荞麦制品的品质是不准确的.%Contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the contents of rutin and quercetin had significant differences between granulated and whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. There was more rutin (0. 518 3% ~0. 850 6%) than quercetin (0. 057 3% ~0.252 1%) in whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. However, in granulated tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles, the content of rutin (0. 029 7% ~0.0314% and 0.008 1%~0. 024 4% respectively) was much less than quercetin (0.481 6%~1. 022 2% and 0. 034 9%~0. 072 0% respectively). One of the possible explanations is the presence and activity of the rutin degrading enzyme. Rutin transformed to quercetin could be caused by this enzyme found in buckwheat. Rutin was not the main flavonoids in all tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles. So, it was inaccurate to evaluate the quality of buckwheat products only by rutin content and total flavonoids content.

  8. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of FeMADS1 Gene from Fagopyrum esculentum%甜荞花同源异型基因FeMADS1的克隆和序列结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方正武; 刘志雄

    2015-01-01

    采用同源克隆方法,并结合RACE技术,从甜养花芽分离得到1个A类MADS-box基因FeMADS1的cDNA全长,GenBank登录号为KM386627,其cDNA全长1 107 bp,包括1个编码234个氨基酸、长为705bp的开放阅读框.序列同源比对和分子系统发生分析表明,其蛋白与拟南芥AGL8 (FUL)的相似性最高,属A类MADS-box基因亚家族中的euFUL进化系,含MADS、I、K和C末端4个明显的结构域,并且K结构域包含K1、K2和K3共3个保守的富含疏水氨基酸残基的亚结构域,C末端结构域含FUL型基因2个特有的模体:FUL motif和paleoAP1 motfi.

  9. Study on the optimized formula of buckwheat milk tea%苦荞奶茶的配方优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永; 肖诗明; 张忠

    2012-01-01

    The formula of buckwheat milk tea was studied by using ultra-fine grinding, mixing, and packaging process and adding different proportions of puffed buckwheat flour, white sugar, creamer, the vanillin fine, skim sugar-free milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose sodiuml. The results showed that: the optimal proportion of buckwheat milk tea for puffed buckwheat powder 25%, 35% of white sugar, creamer 19%, vanillin fine 6%, 14% skim sugar-free milk powder, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 1%.%以经气流膨化后的苦荞米花为原料,采用超微粉碎、搅拌、包装等工艺流程,通过设置不同比例的膨化苦荞粉、白砂糖、植脂末、香兰素精、脱脂无糖奶粉、羧甲基纤维素钠,对苦荞奶茶的配方进行研究.试验结果表明:苦荞奶茶的最佳配方为膨化苦荞粉25%、白砂糖35%、植脂末19%、香兰素精6%、脱脂无糖奶粉14%、羧甲基纤维素钠1%.

  10. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined with and without (the control sample an addition of hypotensive drugs. Four antihypertensive drugs in one dose (one tablet per sample were analysed: metocard (a β-blocker, cardilopin (a Ca-antagonist, apo-perindox (ACE-I and indapen (a diuretic. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in buckwheat groats before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results. It was found that cardilopin (amlodipine and indapen (indapamide significantly increased the release of zinc from groats. The degree of release of magnesium was higher and the release of iron was lower in samples with apo-perindox (perindopril than in the control group. The release of copper was significantly decreased by indapen (indapamid. Conclusions. Amlodipine, perindopril and indapamide affected the release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion.

  11. 苦荞麦酥配方的优化%The Optimized Formula of Buckwheat Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

      以经气流膨化制得的苦荞米花为原料,采用过油、搅拌、压型、切分、包装等工艺流程,通过添加不同比例的麦芽糖醇﹑柠檬酸、玛雅琳、食盐、煎蛋香精、山梨糖醇,对苦荞麦酥的配方进行研究,试验结果表明:苦荞麦酥的最佳配方为麦芽糖醇95.27%,柠檬酸0.30%,玛雅琳1.2%,食盐1.2%,煎蛋香精0.03%,山梨糖醇2%。%The formula of buckwheat cakes was studied by using the oil, stirring, pressure type, segmentation, packaging process and adding different proportions of maltitol, citric acid, margarine, salt, omelette flavor, sorbitol. The results showed that:the best optimized formula of buckwheat cakes for maltitol 95.27%, 0.30%citric acid, Maya Lin 1.2%, salt 1.2%, 0.03%of the omelette flavor, sorbitol 2%.

  12. Effect of processing and cooking on mineral and phytic acid content of buckwheat-enriched tagliatelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrec Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of buckwheat flour - non-treated (NBF and autoclaved (TBF were used for the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle (control sample at the level of 10-30% and the produced tagliatelle samples (dry and cooked were examined in terms of mineral and phytic acid (PA content. Both NBF and TBF possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of all investigated minerals compared to whole wheat flour (WWF, but significantly lower (p < 0.05 PA content. Cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe compared to the cooked control sample, while mineral content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples was not significantly different from the control. Autoclaving significantly reduced (p < 0.05 PA content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples compared to cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle samples and the control sample. The mineral bioavailability defined through molar ratio of mineral to phytate was slightly improved in buckwheat-containing tagliatelle samples, but it still remains at low level. Regarding all results, the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle with NBF at higher levels of substitution (20-30% resulted in significant increase in mineral content and bioavailability.

  13. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  14. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  15. Effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality%荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温纪平; 毛瑞; 郑学玲

    2013-01-01

    According to the abundant nutrition,medicine and edible value of buckwheat,steamed bread was prepared by 10 %,20%,30%,40%,50% and 60% of the total buckwheat flour in replacement of high gluten wheat flour.By the changes of sensory evaluation,color,texture properties,the effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality was studied.The results showed that:the buckwheat flour dough structure and steamed bread quality were weakened;with the increase of the content of buckwheat flour,the steamed bread skin and internal color was darkened,hardness,gelling and chewiness significantly increased.%荞麦具有丰富的营养和药食价值,采用10%、20%、30%、40%、50%和60%的全荞麦粉置换出等量高筋小麦粉蒸制馒头,通过荞麦馒头感官评价、色泽、质构特性的变化,研究荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响.结果表明:全荞麦粉会弱化面团结构,影响馒头的品质.随着荞麦粉添加量的增加,馒头表皮及内部色泽变暗,质构参数中硬度、胶凝性、咀嚼性明显增大.

  16. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value.

  17. Induction of volatile organic compound in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum by chitosan oligomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Peiqing; Lin Xuezheng; Shen Jihong; Huang Xiaohang; Chen Kaoshan; Li Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Induction of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum by chitosan oligomer elictor was studied. The results demonstrated that VOCs in chitosan oligomer-treated leaves showed stronger inhibitory activity against Botrytis cinerea than that in water-treated leaves, and the spore germination was reduced by 22.1% in 144h after elicitor treatment at a concentration of 1.0%. A total of 16 constituents were detected in water-treated leaves, and chitosan oligomer treatment increased the amount of VOCs production. Chitosan oligomer at different concentration and different time courses of induction treatment could induce different amount of VOCs. Chitosan oligomer resulted in an optimal production of VOCs in 144h after elicitation at concentration of 0.6%. Chitosan oligomer also enhanced activtity of PAL and LOX. The results showed that the enhancement of VOCs production after chitosan oligomer treatment might be an important agent for L.esculentum acquiring resistance against pathogen.

  18. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Chingwaru; Runner T. Majinda; Sam O. Yeboah; Jackson, Jose C.; Petrina T. Kapewangolo; Martha Kandawa-Schulz; Avrelija Cencic

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethan...

  19. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Radin, D. N.; Eisenback, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg prod...

  20. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  1. 四川及藏东南荞麦资源的调查研究%Investigation and Research of Buckwheat Resources in Sichuan Province and Southeast Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安虎; 蔡光泽; 陈波; 华劲松

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the investigation and research of buckwheat resources of Sichuan province and Southeast Tibet by CAAS biology resource expedition in 2010 was detailed. 120 villages and more than 360 village teams of 40 villages and towns were investigated. 88 buckwheat resources including 64 tartary buckwheat resources, 20 common buckwheat resources, 4 wild buckwheat resources were obtained. The valuable buckwheat resources considered by local minority were large grain long cone resources, short thin cone resources,disease resistant, insect resistant,drought resistant and cold resistant resources.%本文叙述了2010年中国农业科学院农业生物资源考察队对四川及藏东南荞麦资源的详细调查结果.考察队共调查了40个乡镇的120个村,360余个村小组,共获得荞麦资源88份,其中苦荞资源64份,甜荞资源20份,野生荞麦资源4份.当地少数民族认知有价值的荞麦资源分别是长锥大粒型资源、短锥皮薄型资源、抗病资源、抗虫资源、抗旱资源和抗寒资源等.

  2. 苦荞的膳食纤维含量研究%Study on Dietary Fiber Content of Taratry Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 宋毓雪; 韩承华; 黄凯丰; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    The author used 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat as experimental material to determine the total dietary fiber content, insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber content. The results showed that, total dietary fiber of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 4.61%-40.95%, with an average of 17.18%.The insoluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat changed between 3.36%-31.08%, with an average of 9.65%. The soluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 0.92%-17.51%, with an average of 7.53%. The dietary fiber content was higher, mainly with insoluble dietary fiber. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. This study had important significance for further study on the genetic and variation law of dietary fiber content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同产地的30份苦荞资源为试验材料,测定其籽粒中的总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维及可溶性膳食纤维的含量.结果表明:30份苦荞资源的总膳食纤维含量变化的幅度为4.61%~40.95%,平均.值为17.18%;不可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为3.36%~31.08%,平均值为9.65%;可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为0.92%~17.51%,平均值为7.53%.苦荞中膳食纤维含量较高,以不可溶性膳食纤维为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维、可溶性膳食纤维含量存在差异.此研究结果对进一步研究膳食纤维含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律具有重要意义.

  3. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai; Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  4. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/ cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  5. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  6. 荞麦贮藏过程中的品质变化%Changes of Buckwheat Quality During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝才; 李丹; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The changes of buckwheat quality( color, flavor) during storage were reviewed.Furthermore, the affecting factors and their mechanism were discussed.In the conclusion, the control methods were put forward.%综述了贮藏和制粉过程中荞麦色泽和风味的变化,探讨了其影响因子和作用机制,并提出了品质控制方法。

  7. Epitope mapping and identification on a 3D model built for the tartary buckwheat allergic protein TBb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Xiaodong Cui; Yuying Li; Zhuanhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Allergic protein TBb, a major allergen in tartary buckwheat, was divided into four epitope-containing fragments and was named Fl, F2, F3, and F4, respectively.Results of immunological assays revealed that F2 had the strongest IgE-binding activity to patient's sera, which indicated that it might contain the linear IgE-binding epitope of TBb.According to the results of sequence analysis and molecular modeling of tartary buckwheat allergen, three mutants of F2 gene (R139A, R141A, and D144A) were reconstructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and each mutant was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).Following purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot blot were performed for wild-type F2 and its mutants using sera from buckwheat-allergic patients and a negative control (non-allergic patient).Results showed that mutants R139A and D144A had weaker IgE-binding activity to patient's sera than wild-type F2, implying that Arg139 and Asp144 might be involved in the allergic activity of TBb.However, R141A had the weakest IgE-binding activity,suggesting that Arg141 may be the critical amino acid of TBb.This is the first report on the epitope mapping and identification of TBb.Our findings will contribute to the production of TBb hypoallergens and to allergen-specific immunotherapy for tartary buckwheat allergy.

  8. Two metallothionein gene family members in buckwheat: Expression analysis in flooding stress using Real Time RT-PCR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majić Dragana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are an extensive and diverse family of small cysteine-rich proteins with metal-binding ability that are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Two cDNA clones of the MT3 type, differing in 3’ UTRs, were isolated from the developing buckwheat seed cDNA library. Following sequence analyses, expression profiles during flooding stress were monitored by Real Time RT PCR technology.

  9. The Problems and the Advantages of Tongliao Buckwheat Industry under the New Situation%新形势下通辽荞麦产业优势与问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆福

    2013-01-01

    Tongliao City is the advantages district of the buckwheat industry, but research, production and processing of buckwheat is later. In recent years, it promote research and development of buckwheat for the importance of a healthy diet. From the Chinese buckwheat industry overview, this paper described the significance of the development of buckwheat industry;expand the analysis the advantages of buckwheat industry in Tongliao City, demonstrated a favorable factor in the Tongliao City on the development of buckwheat industry;analysis development issues of buckwheat Industry from Tongliao City, , and then make recommendations.%通辽市是荞麦产业的优势区,但荞麦科研、生产和加工起步较晚,近年来因人们对饮食健康的重视,促进了荞麦的研究和开发。从中国荞麦产业发展概况入手,阐述了发展荞麦产业的意义;从通辽市发展荞麦产业的优势条件展开分析,论证了通辽市发展荞麦产业的有利因素;就通辽市荞麦产业发展现状分析其中存在的问题,进而提出建议。

  10. The retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starches as observed with FT-IR, 13C NMR and DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Wang, Changjun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Li, Lin

    2014-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852 cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.

  11. Weed Survey of Buckwheat Field in Liangshan%凉山州荞麦田杂草调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓玲; 熊仿秋; 钟林; 林松; 刘纲

    2015-01-01

    通过对凉山州荞麦田杂草的种类、分布及危害进行调查,结果表明凉山州荞麦田荞麦地杂草据不完全统计有22科59种.双子叶杂草的辣子草、酸模叶蓼、尼泊尔蓼、凹头苋、三叶鬼针草、荠菜、繁缕、藜和单子叶杂草的马唐、光头稗、鸭跖草是凉山州荞麦田的优势种群.%The species ,distribution and harm of weeds of buckwheat fields in Liangshan, were investigated, the results show that according to incomplete statistics, buckwheat weeds in wheat field in Liangshan, , there are 22 families 59 species. Dicotyledonous weeds Galinsoga parviflora, Polygonum lapathifolium , Amaranthus blitum, Nepal, Bidens pilosa, Shepherd's purse, Chickweed, Chenopodium album and Monocotyledonous weeds Barnyardgrass, Commelina communis are the dominant population of buckwheat field in Liangshan.

  12. Study on Saccharification of Buckwheat Healthcare Wine%荞麦保健酒糖化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海文; 周文美

    2011-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of buckwheat and the alcoholicity of buckwheat healthcare wine, the saccharifying process of buckwheat healthcare wine had been optimized. The effects of temperature, pH, glucoamylase addition level and saccharifying time were investigated. The relative technical parameters were optimized as follows by orthogonal experiments: the addition level of glucoamylase was 4 %, saccharifying time was 50 min, temperature was at 65 ℃, and pH value was 3.5.%为提高荞麦原料的利用率和荞麦保健酒的酒精度,对荞麦保健酒生产过程中的糖化工艺进行探讨优化。研究糖化过程中温度、pH值、糖化酶添加量、时间对糖化效果的影响。利用正交试验对糖化过程中的工艺参数进行优化。结果表明,糖化最优工艺参数为:酶添加量4%,时间50min,温度65℃,pH值3.5。

  13. 荞麦薄饼加工工艺研究%Study on buckwheat pancakes processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武奕宏; 牛晓峰

    2015-01-01

    With sensory evaluation as the scoring criteria, by single factor and orthogonal test to optimize a product of the formula, the processing technology of buckwheat pancakes was studied,. The results show that the optimum formula of buckwheat pancakes of buckwheat powder 60%, oil 15%, salt 1.5%, 1.27 times of water, sodium bicarbonate 1%, egg 6%. According to the formula,the make pancakes appearance is complete, with uniform thickness, crispy and delicious.%研究了荞麦薄饼的加工工艺,以感官评价为评分标准,通过单因素和正交试验对产品的配方进行优化.试验结果表明,荞麦薄饼的最佳工艺配比为:荞麦粉60%,食用油15%,食用盐1.5%,水1.27倍,小苏打1%,鸡蛋6%,按此配方制作的薄饼外形完整,厚薄均匀,酥脆可口.

  14. Effects of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) consumption on plasma lycopene levels of male light smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Gunawan; Sri S. Sudardjat; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2004-01-01

    The study was an experimental study with pre- and post-test design, to evaluate the effects of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) consumption on plasma lycopene level. Blood sample of 27 subjects with average age of 34.70 ± 5.74 years old, moderate education level (85.2%), experienced direct contact with working environmental pollutant (40.74%) and smoked kretek cigarettes (77.78%) were given treatment with 350 gram/day of tomato juices (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) which had been ...

  15. 荞麦冷面中荞麦粉的添加量及芦丁限值的研究%Research on the addition level of buckwheat flour in buckwheat noodle and the limit value of rutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛若竹; 丁梅; 陈友军; 孟宪志; 康金仙; 彭永凯

    2013-01-01

    The apparent condition,palatability, breaking rate, spit slurry rate, untidy degree, iodine colorimetry and the content of rutin were used as quality index, and the effect of the addition level of buckwheat flour on the quality of noodle was studied. The results showed that the optimal addition level of buckwheat flour was 20 %~ 30%; the minimum limit of rutin content in standard buckwheat flour was no less than 90 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg using the dry bar technique and the wet bar technique, respectively;and the minimum limit in refined buckwheat flour was no less than 10 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg by the dry bar technique and the wet bar technique, respectively, which provided reference for buckwheat noodle production and processing, quality control and quality evaluation.%以荞麦冷面的外观状态、适口性、熟断条率、吐浆率、不整齐度、碘呈色度及芦丁含量为质量指标,研究了荞麦粉添加量对冷面品质的影响,确定荞麦粉的最佳添加量为20%~30%,并研究确定了荞麦冷面中芦丁含量最低限值分别为:以标准荞麦粉为原料的干条冷面芦丁限值为≥90 mg/kg,湿条冷面芦丁限值为≥75 mg/kg;以精制荞麦粉为原料的干条冷面芦丁限值为≥10 mg/kg,湿条冷面芦丁限值为≥8 mg/kg.为荞麦冷面的生产加工、质量控制及品质评价提供了参考依据.

  16. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  17. Mannosyl- and Xylosyl-Containing Glycans Promote Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, B; Gross, K C

    1992-01-01

    The oligosaccharide glycans mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)(xylosylbeta1-2) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosaminyl(fucosylalpha1-3) N-acetylglucosamine were infiltrated into mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Rutgers). Coinfiltration of 1 nanogram per gram fresh weight of the glycans with 40 micrograms per gram fresh weight galactose, a level of galactose insufficient to promote ripening, stimulated ripening as measured by red coloration and ethylene production.

  18. Role of nano-SiO2 in germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum seeds Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzer H. Siddiqui; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is very familiar with the properties of nanomaterial and their potential uses. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to test the beneficial effects of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2: size- 12 nm) on the seed germination of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv Super Strain B). Application of nSiO2 significantly enhanced the characteristics of seed germination. Among the treatments, 8 g L−1 of nSiO2 improved percent seed germination, mean germination time, s...

  19. 荞麦芽功能性成分研究综述%Research Review on the Functional Composition of Buckwheat Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 徐红艳; 崔泰花; 金铁岩; 李官浩; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    发芽可以提高荞麦的营养价值和功能特性,荞麦芽具有口感良好、营养丰富、无过敏性反应等优点。该文介绍了荞麦芽的培养过程及其在生长过程中各种功能性成分的变化,对荞麦芽产品的开发前景进行展望,以期促进荞麦芽的开发利用。%Malting can enhance the nutritional and functional properties of buckwheat.Buckwheat sprouts as a new type of food with good taste,nutrient-rich,non-allergic reactions and so on.The change of buckwheat sprouts various functional components during the growth process were introduced in this paper,and the development prospects of buckwheat sprouts product were discussed,so as to promote the development and utilization of buckwheat sprout.

  20. 食品过敏原荞麦的实时荧光PCR检测%Detection of buckwheat in food by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒亚; 李妮; 刘金华; 高琴; 陈颖; 郭云霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for detection of buckwheat in food exported to Japan based on that buckwheat was the mandatory - signed food allergen in Japan. Methods: A real - time PCR method was established for detection of buckwheat in food. Results: The method was specific for buckwheat, and the limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Conclusion: The PCR procedure is suitable for the detection of buckwheat in food.%目的:荞麦是日本法规要求强制性标识的食品过敏原,我国需要建立出口日本食品中过敏原荞麦成分的标准方法.方法:参考现有文献,采用实时PCR方法建立食品过敏原荞麦成分的检测方法.结果:研究表明建立的检测方法具有特异性,灵敏度高,检测限为1mg/kg.结论:本方法适用于食品中过敏原荞麦成分检测.

  1. Phytotoxic effects of a natural bloom extract containing microcystins on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sana; Oufdou, Khalid; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-05-01

    The cyanobacterial toxins microcystins (MC) are known to affect many processes in plants. Their presence in the water used for irrigation may have considerable impact on the survivorship, growth and development of plants. In this study, a crude extract of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom from "Lalla Takerkoust" reservoir (Morocco) was used to study the effects of extract containing MC on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five MC variants: MC-LR, MC-FR, MC-LY, MC-(H4)-YR and DMC-LR were identified by HPLC in the cyanobacterial extract. Exposure of the seeds to the crude extract (containing 22.24 μg MC mL(-1)) caused a reduction of germination up to 85%. Experiments showed that 30 days exposure of plant to the cyanobacterial extract containing MC caused inhibition of L. esculentum growth and productivity, as well as harmful effects on photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. An accumulation of nutrients Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) was also registered. The activity of peroxidase and phenolic content indicated that the extract caused an oxidative stress. The tissue necrosis of leaves was also a consequence of MC exposure indicating a disorder in the exposed plant metabolism.

  2. Enhanced biosynthesis of quercetin occurs as A photoprotective measure in Lycopersicon esculentum mill. under Acute UV-B exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Shourie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lycopersicon esculentum respond to UV-B by enhanced synthesis of flavonoid quercetin, a strong antioxidant that helps the plants to well acclimatize to UV-B stress. Three weeks old plants of L. esculentum were subjected to acute UV-B irradiation for 20, 40 and 60 minutes daily until 28 days and analyzed for the morphological and biochemical changes. UV-B exposure for 40 and 60 minutes considerably affected the growth and biomass of L. esculentum. The leaves were deformed, developed chlorosis and abscised early as compared to the unexposed plants. Biomass declined by 35% and total chlorophyll decreased by 24.7% due to disintegration of chloroplasts. Enhancement was seen in the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins and total flavonoids by 15, 33.3 and 22.8%, respectively, which was attributed to the photoprotective role of these compounds as potential quenchers of excess excitation energy. Quercetin content decreased on UV-B exposure to 20 and 40 min, and thereafter increased significantly by 5.19% on 60 min of exposure. This pattern probably indicated that the over-expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR occurred only after certain threshold exposure (60 min, which could be the strategy for developing tolerance against UV-B stress in L. esculentum.

  3. Nitrogen Requirements for Growth and Early Fruit Development of Drip-Irrigated Processing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of continuous application of small quantities of nitrogen (N) in irrigation water and N applied as starter on growth and development of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), from transplanting to beginning of fruit set, was studied in two experiments: a pot experiment and a f...

  4. 苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用的研究%Study on Antioxidant Effect of Tartary Buckwheat Flavonoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 肖刚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat showed different antioxidanteffects in lard and linoleic acid. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with high quercetin content made a good antioxidant result in lard system. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with different components proved to be an excellent cooperative result in linoleic acid system.%苦荞黄酮对猪油和亚油酸的抗氧化效果不同.在猪油体系中,含槲皮素较多的苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用较强;在亚油酸体系中,苦荞黄酮各组分协同抗氧化效果较好.

  5. 苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用的研究%Study on Antioxidant Effcets of Tartary BuckwheatFlavonoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    苦荞黄酮对猪油和亚油酸所起的抗氧化效果不同。在猪油体系中,含槲皮素较多的苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用强;在亚油酸体系中,苦荞黄酮各组分协同抗氧化效果好。%The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat showed different antioxidant effects in lard and linoleic acid. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with high quercetin content showed good antioxidant results in lard system. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with different components proved to be an excellent synergistic antioxidant in linoleic acid system.

  6. 超高压处理对荞面碗托品质的影响%Effect of ultra-high pressure treatment on quality of buckwheat wantuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭登峰; 柴春祥; 张坤生; 王伟

    2014-01-01

    通过对荞面碗托在25℃进行200,400和600 MPa 20 min的超高压处理,以未经超高压处理的荞面碗托为对照,研究超高压对荞面碗托品质的影响。结果显示,在感官评分方面,200 MPa处理后的荞面碗托的感官评分最高,优于对照和经过400,600 MPa处理的荞面碗托;在质构方面,超高压对荞面碗托的硬度、黏着性、胶着性、咀嚼性、回复性有显著性影响(P<0.05),对弹性、内聚性没有显著性影响(P>0.05);在色泽方面,超高压处理后的荞面碗托的ΔE*值都小于2,说明超高压对荞面碗托的色泽基本无影响;在水分含量和水分活度方面,超高压对荞面碗托基本没有影响;在菌落总数方面,超高压处理可以显著延长荞面碗托的货架期;在挥发性气味方面,200 MPa超高压对荞面碗托的气味基本没有影响。试验说明200 MPa的超高压处理能使荞面碗托获得良好的外观品质和较长的货架期。%The buckwheat wantuo were submitted to high pressure treatments at 200, 400, 600 MPa for 20 min at 25℃.In the comparison of the quality with buckwheat wantuo that was not using high pressure treatment , the effects of different pressure on the quality of buckwheat wantuo were studied .In conclusion , in the aspect of sensory score , the buckwheat wantuo under 200 MPa pressure treatment had highest sensory score and was better than the control and the buckwheat wantuo under 400 and 600 MPa pressure treatment .In the aspect of texture , ultra-high pressure had significant difference on the hardness , adhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience of buckwheat wantuo ( P0.05 ) .In the aspect of color , theΔE* value of buckwheat wantuo under ultra-high pressure was less than 2, it demonstrated that ultra-high pressure had no impact on the color of buckwheat wantuo .In the aspect of moisture content and water activity , it had basically no effect on it .In the

  7. Discussion on the Buckwheat Culture within Traditional Agricultural Society%浅析彝族传统农耕文化中的苦荞文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马史火

    2013-01-01

    彝族传承着别具特色的农耕文化,苦荞文化是彝族传统农耕文化中的重要组成部分。苦荞麦是彝族人的日常生活中重要的粮食之一;在长期的生产实践中,彝族人总结了苦荞麦生产的习俗和经验;在彝族节日、婚丧嫁娶、祭祀鬼神等民俗活动中,苦荞麦往往也是不可或缺的物品;苦荞麦可食可药,具有很好的医疗保健功效和巨大的市场开发价值。%Among the distinctive cultures of Yi agricultural society, the buckwheat culture shares an indispensable part of them. Buckwheat is one of staple food of Yi people. Over many years of raising buckwheat, the Yi have developed many customs and experiences about producing buckwheat. On special days, weddings, engagements, funerals, giving offerings to spirits, and other customary activities, the presenting of buckwheat is a very important part of the ceremonial offerings. Buckwheat can be eaten and can be used for medical purpose. It has good medicinal properties and is useful for maintaining good health. It also has great potential for opening up a very wide market for sale.

  8. Study on Amylum Content of Different Tartary Buckwheat Genotypes%苦荞种子中淀粉含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    Thirty five portions of tartary buckwheat resource from different origin were used as experimental material to determine the total amylum content,amylose and amylopectin content. The amylum content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied from 40. 70% to 86. 41% with an average of 62. 80% ; The amylose content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 12. 24%-32. 18% with an average of 19. 32% ;The amylopectin content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 13. 31% -68 78% with an average of 43. 48%. The amylum content is higher,amylopectin content is the highest. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. The results of this study had important significance for further study on the genetic variation law of amylum content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同原产地的35份苦养资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉的含量.结果表明,35份苦养资源的总淀粉含量变化幅度为40.70%~86.41%,平均值为62.80%;直链淀粉含量的变异幅度为12.24%~32.18%,平均值为19.32%;支链淀粉含量的变异幅度为13.31%~68.78%,平均值为43.48%.苦荞中淀粉含量较高,以支链淀粉为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉含量存在差异.

  9. Study on Scavenging DPPH Radical Activity with Polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat%苦荞麦多糖清除DPPH自由基的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍; 方玉梅; 王毅红; 张春生

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the further exploration of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat resource, a study of the antioxidant action of polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat is made. The activity component is extracted with water. Using the assay system of DPPH, the antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buck-wheat were studied and compared with those of VE and assorbic acid. Results shows that the extracts of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat could inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge active oxygen free radi-cals. The elimination of the density of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat (21.764µg/mL) was attained by 24.85%, and remarkable exceeded the same density VE and assorbic acid. The polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat extracts showed strongest inhibitory effect on the antioxidation of superoxidized anionic and lipid peroxidantion.%以水为溶剂提取苦荞麦多糖类化合物,并以抗坏血酸( VC)和VE为对照品,采用DPPH法探究了苦荞麦多糖提取物对自由基的清除作用。结果表明:苦荞麦多糖具有一定的抗氧化作用,在其浓度为21.764µg/mL时其清除率可达24.85%,显著高于相同浓度下的VC和VE的清除率。认为苦荞麦多糖是一种有前途的天然抗氧化剂。

  10. 荞麦治疗糖尿病化学成分的研究进展%Advances of Buckwheat Chemicals in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小理; 李宗杰; 周一鸣

    2011-01-01

    荞麦是一种粮药兼备的粮食作物,目前世界上有多个国家传统食疗研究都发现食用荞麦可降血糖,因此荞麦可用于中药治疗糖尿病.通过现代生化与分子生物学、细胞生物学等研究手段已经逐渐确定荞麦中起降血糖作用的化学成分及其可能作用途径,降糖成分主要是植物肌醇、生物类黄酮以及荞麦蛋白.分离鉴定荞麦降糖成分可以为研究开发荞麦源糖尿病药物提供思路,亦能为加工生产荞麦功能性食品提供参考信息.本文主要综述了国内外关于荞麦降糖化合物的研究进展,并对其可能作用机制进行了初步讨论.%Buckwheat is a kind of grain that can be exploited for both food production and medicine application, and its glycemic - lowering effects have been wildly known by traditional dietetic therapy in many countries of theworld. Therefore, buckwheat can be used in traditional medical therapy of diabetes. The buckwheat compounds with serum glucose lowering function are gradually determined, and their possible signal pathway is partially clear through modem biochemistry and molecular biology and cell biological study. Main functional chemicals in buckwheat are plant inositol, bio - flavonoids and buckwheat protein. Isolation and characterization of buckwheat glycemic - lowering components can provide candidates with new diabetic drugs, and can be benefit for the production of buckwheat functional food. This paper focused on the research progress of buckwheat glycemic- lowering compounds, and their possible mechanism is also preliminarily discussed.

  11. 内蒙古荞麦总黄酮含量测定%Determination of total flavonoids content of Inner mongolia buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫超; 郭军; 张美莉; 刘莉敏

    2015-01-01

    从内蒙古和其它省区采集了37种荞麦,75%乙醇回流提取后用分光光度法测定总黄酮含量。结果表明,总黄酮含量(均值±2SD,单位:mg/kg)分别为,内蒙甜荞409.61±287.07(N=23),其中一个内蒙甜荞样品总黄酮含量(3553.42)极高未计入均值,其它省区甜荞503.51±411.29(N=7),差异不显著;实验室自去皮甜荞样品524.27±340.81(N=16),高于无皮甜荞样品(325.52±85.56,N=14),差异极显著(ρ=0.000);苦荞总黄酮含量(16177.23±1841.40,N=6)为甜荞(431.52±322.56,N=30)的37倍。测定结果为鲜有报道的内蒙古荞麦总黄酮含量提供了数据。%37 kindsof buckwheat samples from Inner Mongolia andother regions werecollected. Total flavonoids were extracted by 75% ethanol and determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that total flavonoidscontent(mean±2SD,mg/kg)of Inner Mongoliacommon buckwheat was 409.61±287.07(N=23). Andcontentofother regionscommon buckwheat was 503.51±411.29(N=7). The difference was not significant. One sampleof Inner Mongoliacommon buckwheat,with high total flavonoidscontent(3 553.42),was not included in the average. Contentofcommon buckwheat samples which were peeled in laboratory was 524.27±340.81(N=16) and higher than hulless samples(325.52±85.56,N=14). The difference was significant(ρ=0.000). Tartary buckwheat (16 177.23±1 841.40,N=6) was 37 timesofcommon buckwheat(431.52±322.56,N=30) in total flavonoidscontent. The results provided data which were rarely reported for total flavonoidscontentof Inner Mongolia buckwheat.

  12. 荞麦基因型间的耐铝性研究%Research on Al3+ Tolerance among Different Buckwheat Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选出耐铝性较强的荞麦资源.[方法]用水培法对25份荞麦资源的耐铝性进行研究.以发芽的荞麦种子在3 d内的根伸长量衡量耐铝性程度.[结果]低浓度(500 μmol/L以下)的AlCl3处理对荞麦根系的生长具有明显的促进作用,而高浓度(1 000μmol/L)的AlCl3处理则会抑制荞麦根系的生长.荞麦基因型间的耐铝性具有明显差异.[结论]在所选取的25份荞麦材料中,L2081和T442的耐铝胁迫能力最强,值得在荞麦耐铝性育种和耐铝机制的研究中开发利用.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to select the buckwheat accessions with higher Al3+ tolerance. [ Method ] 25 buckwheat accessions were used as materials, the Al3+ tolerance were studied by means of solution culture method in this research. The length of root was used to evaluate the degree of Al3+ tolerance. [ Result] The root growth of some buckwheat accessions were significantly promoted under the concentration of 500 μmol/L, while high concentration of Al3+ ( 1 000 μmol/L) inhibited the buckwheat roots growth. There were great variations of Al3+ tolerance among the different buckwheat genotypes. [ Conclusion] Among the 25 buckwheat genotypes, L2081 and T442 had much higher Al3 + tolerance than the others, which could be used for researching on the buckwheat breeding and the mechanism of the buckwheat Al3+ tolerance.

  13. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a utilização de películas, à base de compostos proteicos e fenólicos provenientes de farelo de arroz fermentado, em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram realizados testes com: glicerol 3% (v/v; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico do farelo de arroz (5%; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico da biomassa gerada em 96 hours (5%, e um controle (sem a película. Os tomates revestidos foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente durante 28 dias, sendo determinados, a cada 96 horas, os seguintes aspectos: a perda de massa, o pH e a acidez, os sólidos solúveis totais e os carotenoides. A película elaborada com os extratos da biomassa reduziu os níveis de carotenoides e acidez dos frutos estudados em 17 e 21,1%, respectivamente, em relação ao controle. A película também foi eficiente como barreira ao vapor de água; assim, com perda de massa 57% inferior à do controle, sugere-se que esta poderá ser utilizada como alternativa para conservação desse tecido vegetal.

  14. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Möller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, compared to standard sweet bread, with wheat flour in its composition. The passion fruit sweet bread had the highest percentage of humidity, with significant difference among the other formulations (p≤0.05. Ash and lipids had the highest amount in the banana sample and proteins showed its highest value in the standard sweet bread (p≤0.05. A sensory analysis was conducted, with good results. It was also evaluated the purchase intention, indicating that these products are not only viable, but worth buying.

  15. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Novel Protein Obtained from Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Yao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TBWSP31 is a novel antitumor protein that was isolated from tartary buckwheat water-soluble extracts. The objective of this paper was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of TBWSP31 on breast cancer Bcap37cells and to explore its possible mechanism. After treatment of Bcap37 cells with TBWSP31, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by inverted microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, such as detachment from the culture plate, change to a round shape, cell shrinkage, the absence of obvious microvilli, plasma membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that treatment with TBWSP31 resulted in a G0/G1 arrest and prevented the cells from growing from G0/G1 phase to S phase, which was most prominent at 48 h. The expression of bcl-2 and Fas were detected quantitatively by FCM, which showed that TBWSP31 induced-apoptosis may be involved with the participation of Fas and bcl-2. These results suggest that TBWSP31 is a potential antitumor compound and that apoptosis induced by TBWSP31 is a key antitumor mechanism.

  16. 冷藏条件下荞麦淀粉回生规律的研究%Study on the retrogradation law of buckwheat in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤生; 周雪; 连喜军; 吴常燕

    2013-01-01

    荞麦食品一般在冷藏条件下贮藏,研究冷藏贮藏过程荞麦淀粉的回生规律有利于确定荞麦食品适宜的贮藏条件.本实验以荞麦淀粉为原料,研究淀粉乳浓度和冷藏时间对荞麦淀粉回生的影响.实验结果表明,当荞麦淀粉浓度为1%和10%时,0℃贮藏荞麦淀粉回生率较高,达到30%以上,5%、15%和20%浓度下2℃和6℃下贮藏淀粉回生率高.荞麦淀粉浓度高于5%时冷藏容易回生.电镜图片显示,荞麦淀粉呈现不规则块状,有凸起和凹陷截面,颗粒直径为1~10μm,部分颗粒表面有针扎状小孔.荞麦回生淀粉呈粘状结构.荞麦淀粉吸附碘后的最大可见吸收波长为564nm,而回生后荞麦淀粉没有最大可见吸收波长.%Most of the buckwheat foods were kept at cold storage,and the research on cold storage process of buckwheat starch retrogradation rule was beneficial to determine suitable storage conditions for the buckwheat food.In this experiment,the buckwheat starch was used as raw materials,the effect of starch concentration and storage time on buckwheat starch retrogradation were investigated.The experimental results showed that,when the buckwheat starch concentrations were 1% and 10%,the buckwheat starch retrogradation rate was higher at 0℃ storage,reaching above 30%.For concentrations of 5%,15% and 20%,the retrogradation rates at 2℃ and 6℃ were higher.The buckwheat starch inclined to retrograde when its concentrations was in excess of 5% in cold storage.Electron microscopy images showed that buckwheat starch granule was irregular block with a rising or falling in surface,its particle diameter was of 1~10μm.Some of the granule surface had needle shaped holes.Retrograded buckwheat starch had adhesive structure.The maximum visible absorption of buckwheat starch attached with l2/Kl was 564nm and its retrograded ones had no maximum absorption.

  17. Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Minnaar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538, Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091. We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB, were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM, seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM, cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB, seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB, cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL against C. albicans

  18. Starch grains from dental calculus reveal ancient plant foodstuffs at Chenqimogou site, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chenqimogou site, located at the south bank of Tao River, is comprised of a large group of graves dated to ~4000 a BP. For its large scale, unique mortuary system, and abundant of typical artifacts, the site was named one of "Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2008 in China". Many intact human skeletons have been excavated from the graves. Three teeth from two adult skeletons excavated from graves M187 and M194 were examined. Forty-eight starch grains were retrieved from dental calculus of three teeth. Six of those starch grains could not be identified because of damage. The others were classified into seven groups. Most of them were from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and/or barley (Hordeum vulgare). Remains possibly from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), gingkgo (Ginkgo biloba), acorn (Quercus spp.), bean, roots or tubers were identified. Ancient starch grains from dental calculus indicate that human foodstuffs primarily sourced from wheat, buckwheat, and foxtail millet. Acorn, beans, tubers or roots were supplements. A variety of starch grains retrieved from dental calculus revealed that diverse crops were cultivated in the Chenqimogou site 4000 years ago, and both dry-land farming and gathering were engaged.

  19. 荞麦纳豆制作4艺研究%Study on Production Process of Buckwheat Natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Natto has good health functions,but the variety is single.In order to enrich the varieties of natto,this study starts with the process and adds buckwheat as materials.The optimal production technology of natto is determined through single factor experiment and orthogonal test.The results are as follows:the soaked buckwheat and soybean that being broken into four pieces is mixed as 1∶4 at 121 ℃ for 40 min,the inoculation amount of seed liquid is 12%,being fermented for 21 h at 37 ℃. After ripening,the sensory score and physiochemical indexes of buckwheat natto are excellent.%纳豆具有很好的保健功能,但品种较单一。为丰富纳豆的品种,从纳豆的工艺入手,原料上添加了荞麦,通过单因素试验及正交试验,确定纳豆的最佳制作工艺。结果为浸泡后的荞麦和四瓣大豆1∶4混合,在121℃蒸煮40 min,晾凉后接种12%种子液,37℃发酵21 h,经后熟后制作出的荞麦纳豆感官评分和理化指标极佳。

  20. 双辽市荞麦生产的意义及发展的可行性分析%Analysis on Significance of Buckwheat Production and Feasibility of Development in Shuangliao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫春兴; 杨喜梅

    2015-01-01

    阐述了双辽市的自然条件、荞麦生产的意义,从市场需求、自然条件、交通、技术等方面分析了该市荞麦生产的可行性,以促进该市荞麦产业的发展.%The natural condition,significance of buckwheat production were elaborated in Shuangliao City,feasibility of buckwheat development in Shuangliao City were analyzed from market demand,natural conditions,transportation,technology,etc,so as to promote the development of buckwheat industry in this city.

  1. Expression of a Buckwheat Trypsin Inhibitor Gene in Escherichia coli and its Effect on Multiple Myeloma IM-9 Cell Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gene of buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (BTI) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The yield of this recombinant inhibitor was over 12 mg/L by using one-step purification on a Ni2+-NTA Sepharose column. Its molecular weight was 9322.1 Da, determined by mass spectrum analysis. The MTT and cytometry analyses showed that recombinant BTI could specifically inhibit the proliferation of IM-9 human B lymphoblastoid cells (from patient with multiple myeloma) in a dose-dependent manner. The test of recombinant BTI-induced apoptosis in IM-9 cells implied that the inhibitor might have potential application in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Acetylcholine causes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Shrish Chandra; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    The animal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) induces rooting and promotes secondary root formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby), cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's medium. The roots originate from the midrib of leaf explants and resemble taproot. ACh at 10(-5) M was found to be the optimum over a wide range of effective concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-3) M. The breakdown products, choline and acetate were ineffective even at 10(-3) M concentration. ACh appears to have a natural role in tomato rhizogenesis because exogenous application of neostigmine, an inhibitor of ACh hydrolysis, could mimic the effect of ACh. Neostigmine, if applied in combination with ACh, potentiated the ACh effect.

  3. Genetic control of modified genomic region in a firm ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ricken Schuelter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies involving the firm tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mutant have shown that pleiotropy or geneticlinkage are responsible for modifications in morphological and postharvest traits. The objective of this report was to evaluatethe hypothesis of pleiotropy or genetic linkage linked to morphologic traits and to verify the effect of QTL on fruit firmness.Plants of mutant firm and L. cheesmani were intercrossed; the F2 and F3 generations were analyzed for segregation ofmorphological traits and firmness, and the RAPD technique was used for the F2 population. Results showed that the recessivepleiotropic gene is responsible for the morphological traits, but environmental and/or genetic factors affect the penetranceand expressivity of the mutation. By the RAPD analysis, a QTL was detected in the group represented by the markers AS-08622,AQ-16747 and l-2 that explains 29.77% of the variation to fruit firmness.

  4. Isolation and characterization of venom from nematocysts of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jinhua; YU Huahua; LI Cuiping; XING Ronge; LIU Song; WANG Lin; CAI Shengbao; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    The present work is the first report of the biochemical characterization of the venom from nematocysts of the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The nematocysts were isolated by autolysis and centrifugation and separated by flow cytometry. Four types of nematocysts were identified: mastigophores, euryteles, and atrichous and holotrichous isorhiza. SDS-PAGE and amino acid analyses demonstrated that most of the proteins in the nematocyst extract were between 10 kDa and 40 kDa, and that glutamic acid was the main amino acid. A hemolytic activity assay showed that the activity of the nematocyst venom (RNV) was strongest in Tris-HCl buffer (50 mmol/L, pH 7.8, 5% glycerol, 0.5 mmol/L EDTA, 0.1 mol/L NaCl). The hemolytic activity was related to protein concentration and the HU_(50) against chicken erythrocytes was 0.91 μg/mL.

  5. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  6. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huahua; FENG Jinhua; CHEN Xiaolin; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  7. Infection of Cultured Thin Cell Layer Roots of Lycopersicon esculentum by Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, D N; Eisenback, J D

    1991-10-01

    A new aseptic culture system for studying interactions between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Meloidogyne incognita is described. Epidermal thin cell layer explants from peduncles of tomato produced up to 20 adventitious roots per culture in 4-9 days on Murashige &Scoog medium plus kinetin and indole acetic acid. Rooted cultures were transferred to Gamborg's B-5 medium and inoculated with infective second-stage juveniles. Gall formation was apparent 5 days after inoculation and egg production by mature females occurred within 25 days at 25 C in the susceptible genotypes Rutgers and Red Alert. Resistant genotypes LA655, LA656, and LA1022 exhibited a characteristic hypersensitive response. This system provides large numbers of cultured root tips for studies on the molecular basis of the host-parasite relationship.

  8. Amino acid sequences of heterotrophic and photosynthetic ferredoxins from the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, K; Sakai, H; Aoki, K; Sanada, Y; Wada, K; Green, L S; Yee, B C; Buchanan, B B

    1995-11-01

    Several forms (isoproteins) of ferredoxin in roots, leaves, and green and red pericarps in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were earlier identified on the basis of N-terminal amino acid sequence and chromatographic behavior (Green et al. 1991). In the present study, a large scale preparation made possible determination of the full length amino acid sequence of the two ferredoxins from leaves. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root were sequenced from the amino terminus to the 30th residue or beyond. The leaf ferredoxins were confirmed to be expressed in pericarp of both green and red fruit. The ferredoxins characteristic of fruit and root appeared to be restricted to those tissue. The results extend earlier findings in demonstrating that ferredoxin occurs in the major organs of the tomato plant where it appears to function irrespective of photosynthetic competence.

  9. A major QTL introgressed from wild Lycopersicon hirsutum confers chilling tolerance to cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Goodstal, F; Kohler, Glenn R; Randall, Leslie B; Bloom, Arnold J; St Clair, Dina A

    2005-09-01

    Many plants of tropical or subtropical origin, such as tomato, suffer damage under chilling temperatures (under 10 degrees C but above 0 degrees C). An earlier study identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for shoot turgor maintenance (stm) under root chilling in an interspecific backcross population derived from crossing chilling-susceptible cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and chilling-tolerant wild L. hirsutum. The QTL with the greatest phenotypic effect on stm was located in a 28 cM region on chromosome 9 (designated stm 9), and enhanced chilling-tolerance was conferred by the presence of the Lycopersicon hirsutum allele at this QTL. Here, near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used to verify the effect of stm 9, and recombinant sub-NILs were used to fine map its position. Replicated experiments were performed with NILs and sub-NILs in a refrigerated hydroponic tank in the greenhouse. Sub-NIL data was analyzed using least square means separations, marker-genotype mean t-tests, and composite interval mapping. A dominant QTL controlling shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling was confirmed on chromosome 9 using both NILs and sub-NILs. Furthermore, sub-NILs permitted localization of stm 9 to a 2.7 cM interval within the original 28 cM QTL region. If the presence of the L. hirsutum allele at stm 9 also confers chilling-tolerance in L. esculentum plants grown under field conditions, it has the potential to expand the geographic areas in which cultivated tomato can be grown for commercial production.

  10. 荞麦壳膳食纤维咀嚼片制备工艺研究%Processing of buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 陈旭清

    2014-01-01

    该实验以荞麦壳中提取的膳食纤维为主要原料,制备膳食纤维咀嚼片。通过设计正交试验优化配方,确定了咀嚼片最佳配方:荞麦壳膳食纤维添加量为20%、菊粉添加量为20%、微晶纤维素添加量为19.3%、木糖醇添加量为38.7%、柠檬酸添加量为1.0%。制备膳食纤维咀嚼片口感细腻、酸甜可口,具有润肠通便、降压、降脂等功效。%Buckwheat hull dietary fiber was taken as the raw material to prepare buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing in this study. The formulation of buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing tablets was optimized by orthogonal array design,the optimal formula was:buckwheat hull dietary fiber 20%, inulin 20%,microcrystalline cellulose 19.3%,xylitol 38.7%,citric acid 1.0%. The product has sour and sweet taste with smooth feeling,and has laxative,blood pressure lowering effect.

  11. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa.

  12. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  13. 晋荞麦(甜)3号的选育及高产栽培%Selection of Jin Buckwheat (Sweet)3 and Its Cultivation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明; 李秀莲; 张耀文

    2011-01-01

    晋荞麦(甜)3号是用60C-γ射线处理甜荞品系83-230,采用集团选择和系谱选育相结合的方法选育而成的,2006年3月经山西省品种审定委员会认定通过.其在山西省区域试验中,比对照品种晋荞麦(甜)1号增产9.8%,适宜在山西、陕西、甘肃、宁夏等省区种植.同时对其配套高产栽培技术进行了阐述.%Jin buckwheat (sweet)3 was selected with buckwheat 83-230 treated by 60Co-γ rays, through method of group selection and system selection by the buckwheat research team in the Research Centre, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The species was identified by Shanxi Variety Assessment and Appraisement Committee in March 2006.In its area experiment, it had a mean yield improvement of 9.8% than the control Jin buckwheat (sweet) 1.It is adapted to grow in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu,Ningxia and other regions.Besides, its high yielding cultivation technology system was introduced.

  14. 不同品种荞麦挤压面条品质探究%Study on the quality of different varieties of buckwheat extruded noodle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓峰; 李雪帆; 贾平

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is one of the characteristics of agricultural products in Shanxi Province, because of its rich nutri-tion, unique function increasingly welcomed by consumers. 10 varieties of buckwheat in national total were selected to make into extruded buckwheat noodles by extrusion technology , and the noodles ' soaking time, rehydration ratio and cooking loss were tested and analyzed. Finally, Sweet No. 3, Jinbian No. 1, Jingbian No. 2 were selected as the better va-rieties choice for extruded buckwheat noodles.%荞面是山西省特色农产品之一,因其营养丰富、功能独特日益受到消费者的欢迎。选取了全国共计10个品种的荞麦,通过挤压膨化工艺生产荞麦挤压面条,并对其浸泡时间、复水率及烹调损失进行测试分析,最终确定定甜3号、靖边1号、靖边2号为挤压荞麦面条较好的品种选择。

  15. Effect of Exogenous Mg2+ on Salt Tolerance of Buckwheat%外源Mg2+对荞麦耐盐性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2012-01-01

    The salt-sensitive buckwheat variety ( TQ-0808) was used as experimental material, which was treated with different concentrations of Mg2 + under NaCl stress of 100 mmol/L to study the effect of exogenous Mg2+ on physiological characters of salt tolerance in buckwheat. The results showed that the exogenous Mg2 + treatment of 40 mmol/L could significantly decrease the plasmalemma permeability and malondialdehyde ( MDA ) content of buckwheat leaves,and obviously increase the superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity and net photosynthetic rate of buckwheat leaves, which made the SOD activity of buckwheat leaves under NaCl stress close to the control level,and the net photosynthetic rate of buckwheat leaves reach the control level. It indicated that appropriate concentrations of exogenous Mg 2+ treatment could obviously improve the physiological characters of salt tolerance in buckwheat and had better mitigation to salt stress,while too high concentrations of exogenous Mg 2+ might aggravate stress.%以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808为试验材料,在100 mmol/L NaCl胁追下进行不同浓度的外源Mg2+处理,探讨外源Mg2+对养麦耐盐生理特性的效应.结果表明,40 mmol/L外源Mg2+处理能显著降低NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片质膜透性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,明显增加NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和净光合速率,使NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片SOD活性接近对照水平,荞麦叶片净光合速率达到对照水平.说明适当浓度的外源Mg2+处理可明显改善盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗的生理特性,对盐胁迫具有较好的缓解作用;而外源Mg2+浓度过高可能会加剧胁迫.

  16. Experimental Study on the Relationship between Buckwheat-Feeding and Blood Glucose%荞麦喂饲与血糖关系的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 李延红; 徐荷; 蔡全才

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between buckwheat and blood glucose. [Methods] Measuring the variation of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity after buckwheat-feeding in the hyperglycemia model mice. [Results] The results showed that the blood glucose level in the group with buckwheat feeding (7.57±0.90 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that in the group with common feeding (9.08±1.12 mmol/L) (P<0.01). There was not significant difference between two experimental groups on the measurement of blood serum insulin. But,the insulin sensitivity in the buckwheat-feeding group (-3.34±0.24) was significantly higher than that in non-buckwheat-feeding group (-3.56±0.23) (P<0.05). [Conclusion] Buckwheat could low the level of blood glucose in hyperglycemia model mice with increasing the utilization of blood glucose by increasing the insulin sensitivity. Buckwheat is a kind of natural food with a wide use in the prevention and therapy of diabetes.%[目的]探讨荞麦喂饲与血糖之间的关系。[方法]通过建立小鼠的高血糖模型,对荞麦喂饲后小鼠的血糖及胰岛素敏感性的变化进行了检测。[结果]对两组高血糖小鼠分别给予荞麦喂饲和普食喂饲后,荞麦组的血糖水平(7.57 mmol/L±0.90 mmol/L)明显低于普食组(9.08 mmol/L±1.12 mmol/L),经检验差异显著(P<0.01)。同时,荞麦组的胰岛素敏感性(-3.34±0.24)高于普食组(-3.56±0.23),差异显著(P<0.05)。[结论]荞麦可使高血糖小鼠血糖值降低,下降的原因可能是胰岛素敏感性增高,血糖利用增加,导致血糖水平下降。说明荞麦是一种很有应用前途的防治糖尿病的天然食品。

  17. Synthesis of hypoallergenic derivatives of the major allergen Fag t 1 from tartary buckwheat via sequence restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhuang; Li, Yuying; Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuanhua

    2012-08-01

    Fag t 1, a legumin-type protein, is the major allergen in tartary buckwheat. In the current study, three recombinant derivatives of Fag t 1, designated as Fag t 1-rs1, Fag t 1-rs2, and Fag t 1-rs3, were constructed via rational design and genetic engineering. However, because of the loss of their native-like folds, the Fag t 1 derivatives failed to bind IgE, and their allergenic activities were reduced. The recombinant hypoallergenic variants are promising vaccine candidates for specific immunotherapy of buckwheat allergy. The unfolding of the Fag t 1 structure reduced its high resistance to gastrointestinal proteolysis and strongly reduced its IgE reactivity. The derivatives showed a more than 90% reduction in allergenic activity compared with rFag t 1. These results suggest that the structure-dependent stability of 11S seed storage proteins is directly related to digestive stability and allergenic potential. Therefore, the destruction of the native conformation is the appropriate strategy to reduce the allergenicity of the cupin family food allergens.

  18. Fermentation Process and NutritionaI Components of Tartary Buckwheat Natto%苦荞纳豆发酵H艺及其营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董岳峰

    2016-01-01

    以苦荞和黄豆为原料,以感官评价、纳豆菌数量和纳豆激酶活力三者的加权评分为指标,采用正交设计优化苦荞纳豆的制作发酵工艺,并对苦荞纳豆的氨基酸组成、氨基酸态氮、黄酮和多糖含量进行了测定。优化后的苦荞纳豆发酵工艺:苦荞和黄豆质量比为2∶8,接种量为5%,发酵时间为24 h。苦荞纳豆含有丰富的氨基酸,氨基酸态氮含量为0.4 g/100 g,黄酮类化合物含量为78 mg/100 g,多糖含量为4.0 g/100 g。%Soybean and tartary buckwheat are used as raw materials for making tartary buckwheat natto.With sensory evaluation,Bacillusnattocount and nattokinase activity as indexes,the optimum fermentation process is determined by L9 (34 )orthogonal experiment design.The nutritional components of buckwheat natto are determined,including amino acids composition,amino acid nitrogen,polysaccharides and flavonoids.The optimum fermentation technology is the mass ratio of tartary buckwheat and soybean as 2∶8 ,the inoculum concentration of 5% and fermentation time of 24 h.Amino acids composition of tartary buckwheat natto is abundant,the content of amino acid nitrogen and polysaccharides is 0.4,4.0 g/100 g respectively.The total flavonoids content is 78 mg/100 g.

  19. Research on Se Content of Different Tartary Buckwheat Genotypes%苦荞种子中硒含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to screening the tartary buckwheat resources with higher Se content. [Method] 35 accessions of tartary buckwheat resources were used as experimental materials, and the Se content of seeds were determined. [ Result] The Se content of 35 kinds of tartary buckwheat will change in a range of 0.009 9 to 0.120 8 mg/g with an average of 0.040 6 mg/g. There was difference among tartary buckwheat from different origins. The seeds from Gansu had the highest content of Se, while the seeds from Nayong in Guizhou and Shaanxi had a lowest content of Se. [ Conclusion ] The study had important significance for further study on the genetic and variation law of Se content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%[目的]筛选出硒含量较高的苦荞资源.[方法]以不同产地的35份苦荞资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的硒含量.[结果]35份苦荞资源的硒含量变化幅度为0.0099-0.1208mg/g,平均值为0.0406mg/g;不同产地苦荞的硒含量存在差异,以甘肃地区较高,贵州纳雍和陕西较低.[结论]为进一步研究硒含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律提供了理论依据.

  20. Application of Composite Improvers in Buckwheat Noodles%复合改良剂在荞麦面条中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海燕; 祝海洋; 闫利纳; 陈帅家; 苏泉泉; 王毅

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis,the mixture of buckwheat and common wheat was used to product noodle and the optimal proportions of buckwheat and other additives were studied.The texture of noodles such as breaking strength of dry noodles and bending distance was determined by TA.XT.plus.The formula of buckwheat noodle was optimized by response surface design.The results showed that the best conditions were buckwheat flour 20%,xanthan gum 1.09%,phosphate ester starch 5.76%,sodium tripolyphosphate 0.15%.Under this conditions the quality of buckwheat noodles was improved significantly.%以荞麦-小麦混合粉制作面条,研究了不同比例的荞麦粉和添加剂对荞麦面条加工特性的影响,用TA.XT.plus质构仪测定分析干面条的断裂强度和弯曲距离。结合其它单因素试验,对荞麦面条的综合品质进行分析,精选出合适的荞麦面条添加剂,并通过响应面优化,得出添加剂的最佳添加量为:黄原胶1.09%,磷酸酯淀粉5.76%,三聚磷酸钠0.15%。在此条件下加工出的荞麦面条改良效果显著。

  1. The change of flavonoids content of tartary buckwheat and its evaluation during buckwheat dried noodles processing%苦荞挂面加工过程中苦荞黄酮含量的变化及其评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳香; 刘明; 田晓红; 汪丽萍; 谭斌

    2011-01-01

    The change of tartary buckwheat flavonoids content and the feasibility of the method which evaluated the buckwheat content by the flavonoids as markers in processing buckwheat dried noodles were investigated in this paper.The results indicated that the flavonoids content were not significant difference(p0.05) in the pre and post watering,kneading dough,aging,calendaring and drying process.And buckwheat flavonoids had good stability.There was a good linear correlation between buckwheat addition and flavonoids content(R2=0.999).Flavonoids would be a good marker to fast evaluate the buckwheat addition in dried noodles,which will be a good feasibility and have application prospects.%以苦荞粉、小麦粉为主要原料制作苦荞挂面,探讨苦荞挂面在加工过程中黄酮含量的变化规律及以黄酮作为标记物评价苦荞挂面中苦荞含量方法的可行性。结果表明:加水、和面、醒置、压延、干燥工艺前后的黄酮含量(干基)差异均不显著(p〉0.05),苦荞黄酮在挂面加工过程中具有较好的稳定性;苦荞粉添加量与挂面中黄酮含量呈线性相关(R2=0.999)。将黄酮作为标记物来快速评价挂面中苦荞含量具有较好的可行性与应用前景。

  2. Induction of Volatile Organic Compounds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Its Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by Burdock Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Qing He; Li Tian; Kao-Shan Chen; Lin-Hua Hao; Guang-You Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and its resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by burdock oligosaccharide. The disease severity of L. esculentum was evaluated 48 h after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide, followed by inoculation with a spore suspension of B. cinerea. The formation of O()2, the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the quantity and quality of changes in VOCs were determined a period of time after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide. The results demonstrated that the disease index in treated plants was decreased by 42.5% compared with control 96 h after inoculation. The production of O()2 reached a maximum 6 h after treatment (1.36-fold compared with control). There was an increase in LOX, POD, CAT and SOD activity in response to burdock oligosaccharide treatment and the enzymes showed different trends in the time-course of induction. At 120 h after treatment,(E)-2-hexenal was increased by 92% compared with control, whereas methyl salicylate showed a gradual increase with induction period. Previous results had demonstrated that chitosan elicitor enhanced the production VOCs of L. esculentum and decreased plant susceptibility towards B. cinerea. Together, these findings suggest that increasing the production of VOCs in response to burrdock oligosaccharide may be an important mechanism for L. esculentumin its defense against pathogens. In addition, burrdock oligosaccharide may act as a potent elicitor of resistance to disease in L. esculentum.

  3. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

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    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-nott test p 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts signicantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Major Ingredients of Three Flavonoids Extracted from Tartary Buckwheat%中国粮食宏观调控思路与确保粮食安全核心问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶维武

    2012-01-01

    The research progresses on the all sorts of color reaction to flavonoids,buckwheat buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids and buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids solution in the chemical composition of flavonoids of qualitative discrimination.And there is guiding significance to the function of flavonoids.The results showed that, buckwheat flavonoids, buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids, buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids contains flavonols, and they are the main component.What is more, quercetin,kaempferol and rutin has a wide distribution.Choose, rutin quercetin and kaempferol as standard, carries on the thin layer chromatography experiment.%回顾2011年中国粮食价格的基本走势,对本轮粮价波动周期内国家有关部门的调控思路与成效进行简要梳理及评析,提出确保国家粮食安全的重要手段乃是不断地提高种粮比较效益,建议“十二五”时期应进一步丰富与完善各项“三农”政策措施。

  5. 苦荞黄酮对α-淀粉酶的抑制作用研究%Research on α- Amylase Inhibition Function of Buckwheat Flavonoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯慧; 白银花; 黄琬凌; 曾里; 曾凡骏

    2012-01-01

    为了比较研究各种不同提取方法下的苦荞黄酮对α-淀粉酶的抑制作用,分别对苦荞总黄酮溶液、苦荞水溶性黄酮溶液、苦荞醇溶性黄酮溶液用α-淀粉酶进行体外活性抑制作用试验,并绘制抑制曲线,所得的结果与阿卡波糖进行比较。结果表明:阿卡波糖、苦荞总黄酮、苦荞水溶性黄酮、苦荞醇溶性黄酮对α-淀粉酶均有抑制作用,其半抑制浓度(IC50)值分别为0.095、0.086、0.10、0.202 mg/mL。本研究为三种提取产物在防治糖尿病及其并发症等方面的应用提供参考,具有较大的理论意义和应用价值。%For comparison research of various extraction methods of buckwheat flavonoids with α-amylase were identified inhibitory effect respectively, the buckwheat flavonoids solution, buckwheat water soluble flavonoids solution, buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids solution with u-amylase were identified in vitro activity conducted inhibition experiment. Through the rendering of α-amylase activity inhibit curve, calculate the half inhibiting concentration (IC50) of raw material on α-amylase were identified respectively, acarbose is 0.09, buckwheat flavonoids solution is 0.086 ,water-soluble flavonoids solution is 0.108, buckwheat alcohol soluble flavonoids solution is 0.200 mg/mL. The results can provide important references for the value-added utilization of the 3 products and theirs application in preventing and treating diabetes.

  6. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp.

  7. Tylosema esculentum (Marama Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Chingwaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tylosema esculentum (marama beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4, adult pig (CLAB and adult bovine (CIEB origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE and cotyledon water extract (MCW without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp. (≥0.1 mg/mL, seed coat extract (MSCE and seed coat water extract (MSCW (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL, especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2 of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  8. Characterisation of the arabinose-rich carbohydrate composition of immature and mature marama beans (Tylosema esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Minah M; Hansen, Ase S; Engelsen, Søren B; Diaz, Jerome; Sørensen, Iben; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G T; Blennow, Andreas; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-08-01

    Marama bean (Tylosema esculentum) is an important component of the diet around the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa where this drought resistant plant can grow. The marama bean contains roughly 1/3 proteins, 1/3 lipids and 1/3 carbohydrates, but despite its potential as dietary supplement little is known about the carbohydrate fraction. In this study the carbohydrate fraction of "immature" and "mature" marama seeds are characterised. The study shows that the marama bean contains negligible amounts of starch and soluble sugars, both far less than 1%. The cell wall is characterised by a high arabinose content and a high resistance to extraction as even a 6M NaOH extraction was insufficient to extract considerable amounts of the arabinose. The arabinose fraction was characterised by arabinan-like linkages and recognised by the arabinan antibody LM6 and LM13 indicating that it is pectic arabinan. Two pools of pectin could be detected; a regular CDTA (1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or enzymatically extractable pectin fraction and a recalcitrant pectin fraction containing the majority of the arabinans, of which about 40% was unextractable using 6M NaOH. Additionally, a high content of mannose was observed, possibly from mannosylated storage proteins.

  9. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingwaru, Walter; Majinda, Runner T; Yeboah, Sam O; Jackson, Jose C; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Cencic, Avrelija

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm(2)) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  10. Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jogendra; Sastry, E V Divakar; Singh, Vijayata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted using ten genetically diverse genotypes along with their 45F1 (generated by diallel mating) under normal and salt stress conditions. Although, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is moderately sensitive to salinity but more attention to salinity is yet to be required in the production of tomato. In present study, germination rate, speed of germination, dry weight ratio and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in root and shoot, were the parameters assayed on three salinity levels; control, 1.0 % NaCl and 3.0 % NaCl with Hoagland's solution. Increasing salt stress negatively affected growth and development of tomato. When salt concentration increased, germination of tomato seed was reduced and the time needed to complete germination lengthened, root/shoot dry weight ratio was higher and Na(+) content increased but K(+) content decreased. Among the varieties, Sel-7 followed by Arka Vikas and crosses involving them as a parent were found to be the more tolerant genotypes in the present study on the basis of studied parameters.

  11. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants.

  12. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  13. Expression of human coagulation Factor IX in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuhui; Cui, Lijie; Ren, Weiwei; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, a plant binary expression vector PG-pRD12-hFIX (where PG is polygalacturonase) harbouring the hFIX (human coagulation Factor IX) gene was constructed and introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After kanamycin selection, 32 putative independent transgenic tomato plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern-blot analyses confirmed the transgenic status of some plants. RT (reverse transcription)-PCR analysis for the expression of the introduced gene (hFIX) demonstrated that the hFIX gene was expressed specifically in fruits of the tomato. Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of a 56 kDa band specific to hFIX in the transformed tomatoes. ELISA results showed that the expression of hFIX protein reached a maximum of 15.84 ng/g fresh weight in mature fruit. A blood-clotting assay demonstrated the clotting activity of the expressed hFIX protein in transgenic tomato fruits. This is the first report on the expression of hFIX in plants, and our research provides potentially valuable knowledge for further development of the plant-derived therapeutic proteins.

  14. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  15. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  16. Origin and evolution of tomato production Lycopersicon esculentum in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsicio Medina Saavedra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lycopersicon esculentum known as tomato, although has an Andean origin is a contribution of Mexico to the world is, being the first agricultural product to be exported. This research aimed to review the literature in relation to the origin and evolution of the production of tomato in Mexico within the historical development of the country. In ancient times, the tomato was cultivated in milpas (open field and chinampas (artificial islands for riparian agriculture using sustainable methods. Spanish colonizers showed the tomato to the rest of the world and diversified its uses. In independent Mexico, haciendas and railroads integrated the different farming regions. Production decreased during the Mexican revolution, and with land reform, the milpa returned. During the Green Revolution (1970, Sinaloa stood out, with the separation of two systems, subsistence, and modern with technology programs. Biotechnological development (1990 emerged parallel to organic production. So actually with this system, we could return to more sustainable pre-Hispanic ecological principles with less environmental impact.

  17. Morphogenetic Potential of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Arka Ahuti’ to Plant Growth Regulators

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    Kanakapura K. NAMITHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly reproducible in vitro regeneration method for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar ‘Arka Ahuti’ was established by using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones 6-Benzylamino purine (2 to 4 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid (0.1 to 1 mg/L. The medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid was found to be the best for inducing direct shoot regeneration and multiple shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants. Callus induction was observed in all the explants and regeneration of shoots was also promoted by all these combinations. Shoots were transferred to the elongation medium which also induced 100% rooting. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established for ‘Arka Ahuti’ cultivar of tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon as explants.

  18. EFFECTS OF RADIO FREQUENCY / MICROWAVE ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammal Marwa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In our work, the effects of radio frequency / microwave on the morphology, chemical composition and the antioxidant power of the plant Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown in our laboratory have been accomplished. The obtained results showed that after 10 days of exposure of this plant to electromagnetic fields with high frequency (1250 MHz the stems were long with less leaves than the non exposed plant. However, after 20 days of exposure to this same frequency the stems were long and contain more leaves than the non exposed plant. These leaves were larger and thicker in comparison with those of the non exposed plant. On the other side, the phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids in the exposed and non exposed plant. Alkaloids, phenols and saponins were only present in non exposed plant. The tannins were absent in the exposed and non exposed plant. Therefore, resins were highly expressed in the exposed plant. On the other side, the x-ray fluorescence indicated the presence of various trace elements more particularly niobium and molybdenum. After exposure, the amount of these elements varies. On the other hand, the DPPH and H2O2 tests showed an important decrease in the antioxidant potential after exposure to studied frequency. This decrease was from 42 % to 18 % at the concentration 0.5 mg/ml. All of these results show that the high frequency emitted by the electromagnetic fields exert a strong effect on the plant and by consequence on human health.

  19. Shoot regeneration from GUS-transformed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) hairy root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2004-01-01

    To study the influence of genetic background on the transformation and regeneration of cultivated tomato plants, hairy root lines of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were obtained by inoculating the hypocotyl explants of three tomato cultivars with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain DCAR-2, which harbors the pBI-121 binary vector. The Ri-T-DNA transformation into the plant DNA was confirmed by both of mikimopine and GUS assay analyses. The regeneration efficiency from hairy root explants was assessed. The data indicated that white embryonic calli were formed within two weeks in the presence of 2 mgl(-1) 2, 4-D plus 0.25 mgl(-1) kinetin. Adventitious shoots emerged from the embryonic callus in the presence of 1 mgl(-1) GA3 along with 0.5 mgl(-1) NAA. The regeneration frequency was higher in the cultivar UC-97, followed by Momotaro and then Edkawi. Molecular confirmation of the integration of the GUS gene into the hairy root-derived plants genomes was done via PCR using GUS-specific primers and also using Southern blotting analysis. Our data shows that regeneration is possible from hairy roots of the cultivated tomato and this system could be used to produce transgenic tomato plants expressing the genes present in Agrobacterium rhizogenes binary vectors.

  20. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27792185

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Collagen from Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye for Use in Hemostatic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaochen; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hemostat has been a crucial focus since human body is unable to control massive blood loss, and collagen proves to be an effective hemostat in previous studies. In this study, collagen was isolated from the mesoglea of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and its hemostatic property was studied. The yields of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble (PSC) were 0.12% and 0.28% respectively. The SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that the collagen extracted from jellyfish mesoglea was type I collagen. The lyophilized jellyfish collagen sponges were cross-linked with EDC and interconnected networks in the sponges were revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Collagen sponges exhibited higher water absorption rates than medical gauze and EDC/NHS cross-linking method could improve the stability of the collagen sponges. Compared with medical gauze groups, the blood clotting indexes (BCIs) of collagen sponges were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the concentration of collagen also had an influence on the hemostatic property (P < 0.05). Collagen sponges had an improved hemostatic ability compared to the gauze control in tail amputation rat models. Hemostatic mechanism studies showed that hemocytes and platelets could adhere and aggregate on the surface of collagen sponge. All properties make jellyfish collagen sponge to be a suitable candidate used as hemostatic material and for wound healing applications. PMID:28103327

  2. Environmental controls over methanol production, emission, and δ13C values from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P.; Giebel, B. M.; Mak, J. E.; Riemer, D. D.; Swart, P. K.; Lerdau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Phytogenic methanol is the dominant source of methanol to the atmosphere, where it is the second most abundant organic compound. Beyond methanol’s role in atmospheric chemistry, it is an indicator of plant function and is linked to plant wound response. Methanol emissions are considered to be a by-product of cell wall expansion and, more specifically, the demethylation of pectin by pectin methylesterase (PME) in cell walls. Production of methanol was investigated in mature and immature tomato Lycopersicon esculentum via measurement of methanol flux, foliar PME activity, and methanol extraction from leaf, root, and stem tissues. δ13C values for mature and immature methanol emissions were also measured using a GC-IRMS system. Environmental control over methanol production and emission was studied by changing temperature and light while holding stomatal conductance constant. As seen previously, mature leaf methanol emissions were significantly less than immature emissions. Surprisingly, preliminary results suggest mature leaf methanol production to be similar to immature leaves, indicating an enhanced metabolic sink for methanol in mature leaves. These data enhance our understanding of methanol production, a term which is not well constrained in current methanol flux models.

  3. Pengaruhh konsentrasi larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan kering tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAWAN BUNTARAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 20011. Pengaruh konsentrasi larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan kering tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum. Bioteknologi 8: 1-9. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mempelajari pengaruh perendaman dalam larutan gula terhadap karakteristik manisan tomat kering dan untuk menetapkan konsentrasi larutan gula yang tepat sehingga dihasilkan manisan tomat kering dengan karakteristik yang baik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK yang terdiri dari empat perlakuan dengan enam kali ulangan. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi larutan gula dimana untuk kelompok A (40%, B (50%, C (60% dan D (70%, selama 18 jam. Variabel yang diamati adalah kandungan air, abu, vitamin C dan uji organoleptik meliputi rasa, warna, aroma serta uji tekstur. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anova (Analisis of Variance dilanjutkan dengan uji DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. Hasil penelitiaan menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan gula berpengaruh terhadap kandungan air, kandungan abu, kandungan vitamin C, tekstur serta warna,rasa dan aroma manisan. Manisan tomat kering kelompok A (40% relatif lebih baik dengan kandungan air 24,20%%, kandungan abu 0,62% dan vitamin C 31,15 mg/100 g. Syarat mutu kandungan manisan kering buah-buahan maximal 25% (SII No.0718¬2003, kandunggan abu bahan makanan maximal 1,0% (SII 0272.90 dan dan kandungan vitamin C tidak banyak berkurang dimana pada tomat adalah 30-40 mg/100 g. Hasil uji organoleptik menunjukkan bahwa kelompok A (40% mendapat nilai tertinggi terhadap rasa (3,98, aroma (3,89 dan warna (3,98.

  4. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  5. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  6. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen interactions. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, D.C.; Weinstein, L.H.; Mancini, J.F.; van Lueken, P.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments in fumigation chambers with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants were performed to assess the effects of hydrogen fluoride on plant-pathogen (fungal and bacterial) interactions. Hydrogen fluoride was found to alter the plant-pathogen interaction, although the kind and consistency of effect caused by HF depended upon the host, pathogen, and several other factors. A reduction in powdery mildew probably indicates that HF was affecting the infectivity of the pathogen itself because reduction in disease was proportional to the length of the exposure period, infection was continuous during the exposure period, and the pathogen itself was epiphytic. The effect of fluoride on bean rust may have been due to accumulated fluoride in the leaf having a direct or indirect effect on the pathogen because both pre- and post-inoculation exposures to HF were effective and additive. Other evidence for an indirect effect of fluoride was found in halo-blight where stem collapse was affected but foliar symptoms were not, and the site affected was spatially removed from the site of fluoride accumulation. Effects on early blight of tomato also indicated an effect of fluoride in the leaf.

  7. Functional Characterization of Mi, a Root-knot Nematode Resistance Gene from Tomato( Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Gang Chen; Li-Ying Zhang; Jun-Hong Zhang; Wei Zhang; Xue Wang; Bo Ouyang; Han-Xia Li; Zhi-Biao Ye

    2006-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause major economic damage to numerous crop species around the world. Plant resistance is the most important attribute that is able to suppress invasion by the rootknot nematodes. In the present study, a candidate root-knot nematode resistance gene (Mi) was isolated from the resistant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) line RN-1. Expression profiling analysis revealed that this gene was expressed specifically in the roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the flowers or fruits.To verify the real function of this candidate gene, both sense and inteference RNA (RNAi) vectors were constructed. We obtained 31 transgenic plants with between one and seven copies of T-DNA inserts of sense Mi from two nematode-susceptible tomato cultivars as assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)and Southern blotting analysis. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of the Mi gene varied in different transgenic plants. Nematode assays showed that the resistance to root-knot nematodes was significantly improved in some transgenic lines compared with untransformed susceptible controls and that the resistance was heritable in selfed progeny. Loss of function via RNAi further confirmed the role of the Mi gene and the original resistant lines became susceptible to root-knot nematodes.

  8. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch by heat-moisture treatment and annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Guo, Xudan; Li, Wuxia; Wang, Xiaofang; Lv, Manman; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Min

    2015-11-05

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) were applied in the test to investigate how they can affect the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of common buckwheat starch (CBS). In the practice, these two modification methods did not change typical 'A'-type X-ray diffraction pattern of CBS. However, the gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and relative crystallinity increased and peak viscosity value and gelatinization enthalpy of CBS declined significantly. Both the solubility and swelling power, which were temperature dependent, progressively decreased along with the treatments. Remarkable increase in slowly digested starch and resistant starch level was found at the same time. Besides, the decreases of rapidly digested starch and total hydrolysis content by using HMT were greater than by using ANN. The results indicated that the ANN and HMT efficiently modified physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of CBS and were able to improve its thermal stability, healthy benefits and application value.

  9. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Material and methods. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropa- noid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. Results. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control, whereas phenylala- nine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control. Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively, condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively, and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively. Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. Conclusion. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of sec- ondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of

  10. 中国荞麦的育种现状与展望%Status quo of Chinese Buckwheat Breeding and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钢; 唐宇; 王安虎

    2002-01-01

    @@1 中国荞麦的育种现状 1.1 荞麦的资源状况及分布 荞麦属蓼科(Polygonaceae)荞麦属(Fagypyrum Gaerth)。我国是世界荞麦的主产区之一,也是世界荞麦的起源中心和遗传多样性中心。全世界目前发现的荞麦共有15个种和2个变种,其中在我国就有10个种和2个变种。荞麦的栽培种有甜荞(Common Buckwheat)和苦荞(Tartary Buckwheat)两种,在我国均有种植。……

  11. 彭阳县机修梯田荞麦种植技术%Buckwheat Cultivation Technologies in Terraced Fields Constructed by Machinery in Pengyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2015-01-01

    荞麦有较高的营养价值,目前市场需求量很大,但由于种植粗放,产量水平较低。从种植适期尧种子准备尧科学施肥尧田间管理等方面总结了机修梯田荞麦种植技术,以供当地种植户参考。%Nutritive value of buckwheat is higher,and the market demand is great at present.However,due to the extensive planting,the production level is low. Buckwheat cultivation technologies in terraced fields constructed by machinery were summarized from planting in appropriate period,seed preparation,scientific fertilization,field management etc,so as to provide reference for local growers.

  12. 甜荞和苦荞籽中多酚存在形式与抗氧化活性的研究%Comparison of antioxidant activity and the content of free and bound phenolics in common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红叶; 杨联芝; 柴岩; 王玉堂; 王敏

    2011-01-01

    Object:To compare the free, bound and total phenolics content and antioxidant capacities of common and tartary buckwheat and to evaluate the main anti-oxidative grain milling fractions of the two spices.Methods: Bran and flour of common and tartary buckwheat were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH · ), cation ABTS and β-carotene bleaching assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content ( TFC).Results: The TPC and TFC decreased in the following order: tattary buckwheat bran > tartary buckwheat flour > common buckwheat bran > common buckwheat four, and had significant differences ( p < 0.05 ).Tartary buckwheat bran had the greatest TPC and TFC,with 2433.98mg GA eq/100g DW and 3306.60mg Rutin eq/100g DW, respectively.The rutin contents in flour and bran of tartary buckwheat were 183 ~ 275 times and 136 ~ 207 times, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat,while no significant differences between flour and bran in the same type buckwheat.The most buckwheat phenolics were in free form,96% and 93% in tartary and common flour,and 95% and 88% in tartary and common buckwheat bran, respectively.In addition, there was a closely relationship between buckwheat phenolics and anti- oxidant activities ( r > 0.90).Coclusion: Tartary buckwheat were recommended for their higher anti- oxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly for tartary buckwheat bran, being rich in free phenolics.%目的:对比研究两种荞麦籽粒在多酚物质分布、存在形式和抗氧化活性上的差异.方法:以甜荞、苦荞的麸皮和内粉为试材,分别测定其中自由态多酚(free phenolies)、结合态多酚(bound phenolics)、黄酮及芦丁的含量,并利用ABTS·、DPPH·清除实验及抑制β-胡萝卜素氧化模型分别考察其抗氧化活性.结果:各样品中总酚、总黄酮含量

  13. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  14. Copper-induced oxidative damage, antioxidant response and genotoxicity in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşeri, Özlem Darcansoy; Körpe, Didem Aksoy; Yurtcu, Erkan; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Haberal, Mehmet

    2011-09-01

    Adequate copper (Cu(2+)) concentrations are required for plants; however, at higher concentrations it can also cause multiple toxic effects. In the present study, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels as well as ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1/11/1/11) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activities were determined in Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. and Cucumis sativus L. seedlings after 7-day exposure to copper sulfate. In addition, DNA damage in these two crops was assessed by measuring micronucleus (MN) frequency and tail moments (TM) as determined by Comet assay. Inhibitory copper concentrations (EC(50): 30 and 5.5 ppm for L. esculentum and C. sativus, respectively) were determined according to dose-dependent root inhibition curves, and EC(50) and 2×EC(50) were applied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) levels significantly increased in all groups studied. CAT activity increased in treatment groups of C. sativus. APX activity increased in L. esculentum seedlings due to 2×EC(50) treatment. Reductions in mitotic indices (MI) represented Cu(2+)dependent root growth inhibition in all treatment groups studied. According to TMs and MN frequencies, copper exposure induced significant DNA damage (p sativus roots. In conclusion, Cu(2+)induced oxidative damage, elevations in H(2)O(2) levels and alterations in APX and CAT activities, as well as significant DNA damage in nuclei of both study groups. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative and comprehensive study demonstrating the effects of copper on two different plant species at relevant cytotoxic concentrations at both biochemical and genotoxicity levels with multiple end points.

  15. Nutritional components and prophylactic values of tartary buckwheat%苦荞麦营养成分和保健功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂薇; 李再贵

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is introduced into the diet as an alternative crop and raw material for func-tional food due to its excellent nutritive and prophylactic values.It is a rich source of high -quality pro-teins,dietary fibre,vitamins and polyphenols,and the content of rutin in flowers is over 8%.This article has reviewed overseas and domestic research status of tartary buckwheat in the aspect of its nutritional components and prophylactic values,and some rational development strategies were provided based on the current situation and existing problems in tartary buckwheat processing industry.%苦荞麦具有卓越的保健价值和食疗功效,是一种重要的粮食替代作物和功能性食品原料。苦荞麦富含高生物价的蛋白质和丰富的膳食纤维、维生素以及多酚等营养成分,其花序中芦丁含量可高达8%以上。总结了国内外对苦荞营养保健功能成分与作用的研究成果,并针对我国苦荞加工业的现状与存在问题,提出了发展思路。

  16. Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti; Larine Kupski; Meritaine da Rocha; Melissa dos Santos Oliveira; Jaqueline Garda Buffon; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v), glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%), glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%), and a control (without coating). The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carote...

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE CALIDAD EN FRUTOS DE SIETE GENOTIPOS NATIVOS DE JITOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad en frutos de siete genotipos nativos de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme): JCPRV-05, JCPVR-09, JCPRV-10, JCPRV-43, JCPRV-70, JCPRV-71, y JCPRV-76, cultivados en hidroponía sin recirculación y bajo invernadero. Como testigo se usó un híbrido comercial de jitomate tipo 'cherry' (H-790). Se evaluó firmeza, días para alcanzar 7 % de pérdida de peso (DPP), pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, contenido de licopeno, de ...

  18. Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-02-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) of Low Soluble Solids and Development of a Shelf Stable Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Balaswamy K; Prabhakara Rao PG; Pragati Yadav; Narsing Rao G; Sulochanamma G; Satyanarayana A

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is known to be associated with a reduced risk of developing a certain chronic diseases and cancers due to the presence of lycopene, a bioactive carotenoid. Commercially, the vegetable is used in the preparation of tomato puree or ketchup, but the local varieties with lower total soluble solids was found to be not useful for the same and fetching not enough prices during glut and being wasted without processing. In the present study, the local...

  20. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugar syrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the best characteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six times repetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%, B (50%, C (60%, and D (70% group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color, flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture, and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained on A (40% group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality of water content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003 and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0% (SII 0272.90. Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets result indicated that A (40% group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.

  1. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  2. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  3. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hongjin; LIU Xiangquan; ZHANG Xijia; JIANG Haibin; WANG Jiying; ZHANG Limin

    2013-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa,Rhizostomatidae).One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations.The polymorphic ratio,Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%,0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population,74.3%,0.313,and 0.201 for the red hatchery population,79.3%,0.349,and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population,and 74.9%,0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population,respectively.Thus,all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity.A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population.There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations.Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided.For the hatchery populations,the white and red populations clustered separately; however,for the wild populations,Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together.The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined.Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations,which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing.These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  4. Plant Spacing and Cultivar Affects Yield Components, Qualitative Traits and Early Ripening of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim MAMNOIE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-year field trial was set up on sandy clay soil in the Jiroft and Kahnouj Agricultural Research Center with the objective to determine the effect of plant spacing and different cultivars on the yield and qualitative characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum. This experiment was performed as split plot based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications. The main plots were in – row spacing in 4 levels include 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 m and the subplots were cultivars naming ‘Shef ’, ‘Peto Early CH’ and ‘FDT 202’. The results showed that, fruit length to diameter ratio, total acidity, fruit number per plant, mean fruit weight, yield per plant, total yield and first harvest to total harvests ratio were significantly affected by plant spacing. In addition, cultivars showed significant effect on all traits evaluated (p<0.01. In this experiment, fruit length to diameter ratio and total acidity increased as plant spacing increased, however it had no effect on total soluble solids. In this study, total fruit yield is being increased while the yield per plant, number of fruit per plant and fruit weight is being reduced by increased number of plants per unit area. Although among tomato cultivar, ‘Peto Early CH’ had a higher yield over other cultivars, but cultivar ‘Shef ’ showed higher yield in the first harvest. Generally it seems according to the results collected that plant spacing 0.3 m and ‘Shef ’ cultivar owing to better adaptation and higher commercial yield for production in Jiroft city is suggested.

  5. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to phytoene synthase of Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P D; Misawa, N; Sandmann, G; Johnson, J; Schuch, W; Bramley, P M

    1998-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been prepared against the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit ripening-enhanced phytoene synthase (PSY1). The antigen was prepared as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein by cloning a 1.13 kb fragment of Psy1 cDNA into pUR291, followed by transformation of E. coli. The fusion protein, induced by IPTG, was purified by preparative SDS-PAGE and used to elicit an immune response. The cell lines were screened for cross-reactivity against beta-galactosidase-phytoene synthase fusion protein in E. coli extracts using western blotting and ELISA detection procedures. Positive clones were further screened for their ability to cross-react with the mature phytoene synthase protein on western blots as well as their ability to inhibit enzyme activity. Eleven monoclonal lines were obtained. Nine of these, all of the IgM isotype, exhibited strong responses to phytoene synthase of ripe tomato fruit on western blots, but did not inhibit enzyme activity effectively. The other two lines (IgG/la 2 isotypes) inhibited phytoene synthase activity in ripe tomato stroma, but produced a poor response to the protein on western blots. The monoclonals identified a ripe fruit phytoene synthase of 38 kDa, exclusively located in the chromoplast. In contrast, antibodies were unable to detect microbial phytoene synthases, nor phytoene synthase of maize leaf, tomato chloroplast or mango fruit extracts, either on western blots or from inhibition of phytoene synthase activity. However, they did cross-react with a 44 kDa protein from carrot leaf stroma and with three different proteins (44, 41, and 37 kDa) in carrot root. Cross-reactivity was also found with a 37 kDa protein from pumpkin fruit stroma.

  6. Cloning of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) arginine decarboxylase gene and its expression during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R; Dulson, J; Rothstein, S J

    1993-11-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the first enzyme in one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ADC have previously been cloned from oat and Escherichia coli. Degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to two conserved regions of ADC were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction amplification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genomic DNA, and a 1.05-kb fragment was obtained. This genomic DNA fragment encodes an open reading frame of 350 amino acids showing about 50% identity with the oat ADC protein. Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated several partial ADC cDNA clones from a tomato pericarp cDNA library. The 5' end of the coding region was subsequently obtained from a genomic clone containing the entire ADC gene. The tomato ADC gene contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 502 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of about 55 kD. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibits 47 and 38% identify with oat and E. coli ADCs, respectively. Gel blot hybridization experiments show that, in tomato, ADC is encoded by a single gene and is expressed as a transcript of approximately 2.2 kb in the fruit pericarp and leaf tissues. During fruit ripening the amount of ADC transcript appeared to peak at the breaker stage. No significant differences were seen when steady-state ADC mRNA levels were compared between normal versus long-keeping Alcobaca (alc) fruit, although alc fruit contain elevated putrescine levels and ADC activity at the ripe stage. The lack of correlation between ADC activity and steady-state mRNA levels in alc fruit suggests a translational and/or posttranslational regulation of ADC gene expression during tomato fruit ripening.

  7. Retention of Photoinduction of Cytosolic Enzymes in aurea Mutant of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, K. V.; Sharma, R.

    1994-06-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) aurea (au) mutant has been characterized as a phytochrome-deficient mutant lacking spectrally detectable phytochrome A in etiolated seedlings. Seedlings of au grown under red light (RL) lack phytochrome regulation of nuclear genes encoding plastidic proteins, possess ill-developed chloroplasts, and are slow to de-etiolate. In the present study, the effect of phytochrome deficiency on photoinduction of enzymes in etiolated au seedlings was investigated. The photoinduction of the cytosolic enzymes amylase and nitrate reductase (NR) and of the plastidic enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR) in au was compared with that in the isogenic wild-type (WT) tomato and the high-pigment (hp) mutant with exaggerated phytochrome response. In WT and hp, both brief RL pulses and continuous RL induced amylase, NR, and NiR activities, whereas in au no photoinduction of enzymes was observed with brief RL pulses, and continuous RL induced only amylase and NR activities. The time courses of photoinduction of NR and amylase in au under continuous RL followed patterns qualitatively similar to hp and WT. A blue-light pretreatment prior to continuous RL exposure was ineffective in inducing NiR activity in au. Only continuous white light could elicit a photoinduction of NiR in au seedlings. The norflurazon-triggered loss of photoinduction of NiR in WT and hp indicated that NiR photoinduction depended on chloroplast biogenesis. The results indicate that observed photoinduction of NR and amylase in au may be mediated by a residual phytochrome pool.

  8. In vitro and in vivo inoculation of four endophytic bacteria on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Anna Lucia; Santacecilia, Alessandra; Ercole, Claudia; Cacchio, Paola; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2013-09-25

    Four bacteria selected on the basis of their capability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, stimulating plant-growth, and protecting the host plant from pathogens - Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Burkholderia ambifaria - were inoculated on tomato seeds either singularly, in couple and in a four bacteria mixer. Aim of this research was to evaluate: (1) effect of single and mixed cultures on the inoculated plant - plant growth, dry weight, root length and surface, number of leaves, among others; (2) colonization and interactions of the bacteria inside the host plant; (3) localization inside the host of single bacterial strains marked with the gusA reporter gene. The results obtained indicate that all selected microbial strains have colonized Lycopersicon esculentum but in a different way, depending on the single species. A. brasilense, G. diazotrophicus inoculated in vitro singularly and together were the best plant colonizers. In vivo essays, instead, B. ambifaria and the four-bacteria mixer gave the best results. It was possible to localize both A. brasilense and H. seropedicae inside the plant by the gusA reporter gene. The bacterial strains occur along the root axis from the apical zone until to the basal stem, on the shoot from the base up to the leaves. The four bacteria actively colonize tomato seeds and establish an endophytic community inside the plant. This review gives new information about colonization processes, in particular how bacteria interact with plants and whether they are likely to establish themselves in the plant environment after field application as biofertilizers or biocontrol agents.

  9. Animal Experiments of Drinking Tartary Buckwheat Wine to Reduce Blood Lipids%苦荞酒辅助降血脂动物实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童国强; 杨强; 杨年红

    2011-01-01

    通过采用给予高脂饲料建立大鼠高血脂模型,试验前检测血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL—C)含量。依据TC水平,将大鼠随机分成4组:高脂模型组和5倍、10倍、30倍3个苦养酒剂量组,剂量组预防性给予苦荞酒30d,禁食16h测定大鼠血清TC、TG和HDL—C含量。结果表明,10倍、30倍剂量组TG水平均显著低于高脂对照组;30倍剂量组血清TC水平明显低于高脂对照组和正常对照组。证明苦荞酒具有辅助降血脂功能。%Rats model with high blood lipids was established by feeding high fat diet to rats. TC, TG, and HDL-C content in rats were measured before the experiments. All rats were divided into four groups randomly according to their TC levels: high blood lipids group and three dose groups (5 times, 10 times and 30 times feeding quantity of tartary buckwheat wine respectively). All dose groups were administered with tartary buckwheat wine for 30 d, then after 16 h fasting, TC, TG, and HDL-C content in rats were measured. The results showed that TG content in rats in dose groups of 10 times and 30 times feeding quantity of tartary buckwheat wine was evidently lower than that in contrast group, TC content in rats in dose group of 30 times feeding quantity of tartary buckwheat wine was evidently lower than that in high blood lipids group and other two dose groups, which proved that drinking tartary buckwheat wine is helpful for reducing blood lipids. (Tran. by YUE Yang)

  10. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  11. Screening of Extraction Methods for Glycoproteins from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Oral-Arms by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyan; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; ZHUANG Yongliang; YAN Mingyan; HOU Hu; ZHANG Xiukun; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotcin. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against con-centration for TGP were linear (r=0.9984, y=4.5895x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400mgL-1. The mean extrac-tion recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish (R. esculentum) oral-arms bv four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water ex-traction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophtlized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and ana-lyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8mm×300mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.Kay words HPLC; glycoprotein; jellyfish; extraction method

  12. Low-temperature-related growth and photosynthetic performance of alloplasmic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with chloroplasts from L-hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, O; Venema, JH; Groot, PJ; van Hasselt, PR

    2002-01-01

    Growth and photosynthetic performance were analyzed in alloplasmic tomato at a high- (25/17degreesC; HTR) and low-temperature regime (12/6degreesC; LTR) in order to establish the role of cytoplasmic variation on low-temperature tolerance of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Four alloplasmic t

  13. Analysis of low-temperature tolerance of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cybrid with chloroplasts from a more chilling-tolerant L-hirsutum accession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Eekhof, M; van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of an alloplasmic tomato (cybrid), i.e. line AH47, containing the nuclear genome of the chilling-sensitive cytoplasmic albino mutant of L. esculentum Mill. 'Large Red Cherry' (LRC) and the plastome of a more chilling-tolerant high-altitude accession of the related wild spec

  14. RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. A Stemphylium solani Weber RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. TO THE Stemphylium solani Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Soares de Paula

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">In the climate conditions of the Brazilian central west regions, tomato can be cultivated the whole year. However, the production is low and quite onerous in function of different factors Besides, different diseases affect the crop. Among the most being the fungal important is the fungi Stemphylium solani, responsible for damages of qualitative and quantitative nature in tomato. With the objective of finding a way to minimize the effect of these pathogen, an experiment was conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brazil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41’S and longitude of 49° 17’W, with temperature varying among 20 to for 40ºC, relative humidity (average of the month of 80% in August, 83% in September and 85% in October. Precipitation in August, September and October of 1999 was respectively 0.0 mm, 69.6 mm, and 118.4 mm. The main objectives were to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the bank of germoplasm of Embrapa-CNPH and F1 generations of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum in field conditions to S. solani. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting combining diagramatic scale and grades. Was considered the percentage of infected area on the leaf (PIAL and the also grades: 1 – without symptoms; 2 – spraid lesions; 3 – gathering lesions; 4 – partial dryness of the leaf; 5 – death of the leaf and 6 – death of the plant. The differentiation among genotypes was made through analysis of variance of the values of area under disease progress curve and by of Tukey’s test at the level of 5% of probability and also the logistic model. Regarding resistance to S. solani, Ohio 4013, Yoshimatusu and TSW-10 behaved as resistant, among the indeterminate. Among the determined ones, F1 (Hawaii 7998 x Monense showed higher resistance. The genotypes Ohio 4013 and

  15. Development Status and Countermeasures of Industrialization of Black Tartary Buckwheat in Ganluo County%甘洛县黑苦荞产业化发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蓉

    2012-01-01

    Black tartary buckwheat is one of the featured crops with development advantage in Ganluo County. The production status,existing problems, and advantage of industrialization of black tartary buckwheat economic efficiency were introduced, the development put forward, so as to promote the development of the black tartary buckwheat industry of Ganluo County.%黑苦荞是甘洛县具有发展优势的特色农作物之一,介绍了甘洛县黑苦荞产业的现状,分析了甘洛县实施黑苦荞产业化的优势及存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策,以期促进甘洛县黑苦荞产业化发展。

  16. 碳酸钾与魔芋精粉添加量对苦荞挂面品质的影响%The Influence of Potassium Carbonate and Konjac Powder Addition on Buckwheat Noodles Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠; 巩发永; 肖诗明

    2012-01-01

      With the buckwheat heart powder 65% , flour 30% , gluten powder 3.5% and salt 1.5% , adding potassium carbonate and konjac powder, we explore the formula of high content buckwheat noodles and the influence of drying methods on the quality of buckwheat noodles through the uniform test. Experiments show that: adding potassium carbonate and konjac powder can reduce the ratio of broken noodle and cooking loss rate, and prolong the cooking time of buckwheat noodles. When adding quantity of potassium carbonate and konjac powder reaching the total quality of buckwheat heart powder, flour, gluten, salt for 0.30% and 0.60% , the buckwheat noodles quality can be guaranteed.%  按苦荞心粉65%、面粉30%、谷朊粉3.5%、食盐1.5%的比例,添加碳酸钾和魔芋精粉,通过均匀试验探讨制作高含量苦荞挂面配方以及干燥方式对苦荞挂面质量的影响.试验表明:添加碳酸钾和魔芋精粉可以降低苦荞挂面的熟断条率和烹饪损失率,延长苦荞挂面的烹调时间;碳酸钾和魔芋精粉添加量为苦荞心粉、面粉、谷朊粉、食盐总质量的0.30%和0.60%时,可以保证苦荞挂面的质量.

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Major Ingredients of Three Flavonoids Extracted from Tartary Buckwheat%3种苦荞黄酮提取物主要成分定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯慧; 黄琬凌; 曾里; 曾凡俊

    2012-01-01

    通过研究颜色分析法对苦荞总黄酮、苦荞水溶性黄酮和苦荞醇溶性黄酮3种溶液中黄酮类物质的化学成分进行定性判别,从而对黄酮降血糖功能的机制有指导意义。7个颜色反应结果表明苦荞总黄酮、苦荞水溶性黄酮、苦荞醇溶性黄酮3种黄酮中没有二氢黄酮、二氢黄酮醇,可能有黄酮、黄酮醇、异黄酮、可能有3-OH或5-OH或2'-OH的查尔酮,为进一步的分析研究提供了依据。%The research progresses on the all sorts of color reaction to flavonoids,buckwheat buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids and buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids solution in the chemical composition of flavonoids of qualitative discrimination.And there is guiding significance to the function of flavonoids.The results showed that, buckwheat flavonoids, buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids, buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids contains flavonols, and they are the main component.What is more, quercetin,kaempferol and rutin has a wide distribution.Choose, rutin quercetin and kaempferol as standard, carries on the thin layer chromatography experiment.

  18. Relationships between fruit exocarp antioxidants in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) high pigment-1 mutant during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Preston K.; Fahy, Deirdre A.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2004-04-01

    Development-dependent changes in fruit antioxidants were examined in the exocarp (epidermal and hypodermal tissues) of the monogenic recessive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) mutant high pigment (hp-1) and its wild-type parent 'Rutgers' grown under non-stress conditions in a greenhouse. The hp-1 mutant was chosen for this study because the reportedly higher lycopene and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of the fruit may alter its tolerance to photooxidative stress. Throughout most of fruit development, reduced AsA concentrations in the exocarp of hp-1 were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in 'Rutgers', but total glutathione concentrations were similar in both genotypes. Only in ripe red fruit were reduced AsA and total glutathione concentrations lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. The redox ratios (reduced : reduced + oxidized) of AsA in hp-1 and 'Rutgers' exocarps were similar and usually > 0.9, however, the redox ratio of glutathione was lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers' throughout development. Lycopene concentrations in ripe red fruit were about 5 times higher in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. Large increases in the specific enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) occurred during fruit development in both genotypes, with an inverse relationship between the activities of these enzymes and chlorophyll content. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and MDHAR-specific activities were higher in hp-1 than 'Rutgers' only at the later stages of fruit development. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activities, however, were usually higher in 'Rugters' than in hp-1. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activities increased with fruit development until the fruit were orange/light red, when CAT was higher in 'Rutgers' than in hp-1, but then declined in the ripe red fruit of both genotypes. These results suggest that elevated AsA in the exocarp of hp-1 fruit early in fruit development may

  19. Salt-mediated changes in leaf mesophyll cells of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gapinska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five-week-old tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Perkoz grown in pots containing garden soil in a growth chamber were submitted to 50 or 150 mM NaCl for 1 h, 2 and 5 days. Tomato leaf anatomy generally did not change after short time salinity, except 5-day-treatment with 150 mM NaCl, where changed cell shape (shrunk and deformed simultaneously with increased volume of intercellular spaces (IS were observed. Although leaf hydration (H depleted only 1 h after 150 mM NaCl treatment both salt concentrations generated two coexisting populations of salt-affected mesophyll cells: (i slightly-affected (Sl-A which showed incipient plasmolysis or slightly changed shapes, and (ii severely-affected (Sv-A which showed severe plasmolysis; serious deformation of cell shape or disorganization including cell degeneration. In Sl-A cells salinity changed location and shape of chloroplasts which were: more rounded, with oversized starch grains (SG (2d or more flat (5d. Salt-mediated changes were becoming more distinguished and pronounced with length of 150 mM NaCl treatment. The amount of salt-affected cells was changing during the experiment and depended on the salt concentration. In 50 mM-treated plants salt-affected cells appeared 1 h after treatment (~40% and raised up to 78% on 2nd day, however the population of Sl-A cells dominated. In 150 mM NaCl-treated plants the percentage of affected cells raised during the experiment from 75% to 99%. Firstly Sl-A cells dominated, but on the 5th day the majority was Sv-A. Salt-affected cells were distributed quite evenly in palisade or spongy mesophyll, except 2 d after treatment with 50 mM NaCl, when their number was higher in the palisade mesophyll. Sv-A cells in the spongy mesophyll were located mostly near the bundle while in the palisade mesophyll more irregularly. Different susceptibility of cells to salt stress might be the consequence of an unequal distribution of osmotic stress and subsequent ionic

  20. Research progress on the functional components and healthy functions of buckwheat%荞麦的功效因子与保健功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2011-01-01

    The functional components, nutritive properties, physiological functions of lowering blood fat, blood sugar and saccharorrhea of buckwheat were analyzed. The study showed that the buckwheat is a kind of green food resource which has nutritive, healthy functions and vast exploitable prospects.%通过对荞麦的功效因子、营养特性及其降血脂,降血糖、降尿糖等生理功能的分析,表明荞麦是一种具有食疗保健功能的食品资源,开发前景广阔。

  1. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  2. Adsorption kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherm of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using buckwheat hulls from Jiaodong of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengdi; Yin, Ping; Qu, Rongjun; Chen, Hou; Wang, Chunhua; Ren, Shuhua

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms of buckwheat hulls in the region of Jiaodong, China (BHJC) for Hg(II) were investigated. Results revealed that the adsorption kinetics of BHJC for Hg(II) were well described by a pseudo second-order reaction model, and the adsorption thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were -5.83 kJ mol(-1)(35°C), 73.1, and 256 JK(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Moreover, Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models were applied to analyse the experimental data and to predict the relevant isotherm parameters. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm equation, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Hg(II) is 243.90 mg/g at 35°C. Furthermore, investigation of the adsorption selectivity showed that BHJC displayed strong affinity for mercury in the aqueous solutions and exhibited 100% selectivity for mercury in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II).

  3. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression in hairy roots of tartary buckwheat under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Nam-Il; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2014-12-01

    Differential expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in the hairy roots of tartary buckwheat cultivars "Hokkai T8" and "Hokkai T10" were studied over a time course of the light-dark cycle. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system was applied for inducing hairy roots. Further, a total of six phenolic compounds and two anthocyanins were analyzed in the hairy roots which were exposed to both light and dark conditions, and their amounts were estimated by HPLC. The gene expression levels peaked on day 5 of culture during the time course of both dark and light conditions. Notably, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtC4H, FtCHI, FtF3H, FtF3'H-1, and FtFLS-1 were more highly expressed in Hokkai T10 than in Hokkai T8 under dark conditions, among which FtPAL and FtCHI were found to be significantly upregulated, except on day 20 of culture. Significantly higher levels of phenolic compound, rutin, along with two anthocyanins were detected in the hairy roots of Hokkai T10 under both conditions. Furthermore, among all the phenolic compounds detected, the amount of rutin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots was found to be ∼5-fold (59,01 mg/g dry weight) higher than that in the control (12.45 mg/g dry weight) at the respective time periods under light and dark conditions.

  4. 高抗性淀粉苦荞乳饮料制备工艺研究%Preparation Process of Buckwheat Starch Milk Beverage with High Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾泽生; 朱波; 邓姗

    2016-01-01

    以苦荞米为原料,添加脱脂奶粉、甜赛糖、复合稳定剂等辅料,采用烘焙、浸泡、磨浆、预糊化、液化、糖化、普鲁兰酶处理、过滤、调配、均质等一系列工艺过程制备出高抗性淀粉含量的苦荞乳饮料。以抗性淀粉含量为指标,通过糊化米水比、糊化时间、普鲁兰酶处理用量及时间的一系列单因素实验,确定出苦荞乳饮料最佳工艺条件为糊化米水比1:8、糊化时间40min、普鲁兰酶用量0.06mL、酶处理时间30min;此工艺条件下,苦荞乳饮料中抗性淀粉含量达到最大,为10.97%。以感官得分为指标,通过正交实验,确定出了苦荞乳饮料的最佳配方为苦荞米10%、奶粉2.5%、甜赛糖0.15%、复合乳化剂0.1%(均为质量分数比)。%Using buckwheat as raw material, add skim milk powder, the sugar sweet game, emulsifier and other accessories, by baking, soaking, grinding, pre-gelatinized, liquefaction, saccharification, pullulanase treatment, fil-tration, blending and homogenization process for preparing a series of high resistant starch content of buckwheat milk drinks. With resistant starch content as an indicator, by a series of single factor experiments, gelatinized rice water ratio, pasting time, pullulanase dosage and time of treatment, to determine the optimum conditions about buckwheat milk drinks is gelatinized rice to water ratio of 1:8, pasting time 40min, pullulanase dosage 0.06mL, en-zyme treatment time 30min. Under this condition, buckwheat milk drinks resistant starch content reached the maxi-mum 10.97%. With sensory scores as an indicator, by orthogonal experiment to determine the best formula of buckwheat milk drinks is buckwheat rice 10%, 2.5% milk powder, The sugar sweet game 0.15%, emulsifier 0.1%(Weight percentage).

  5. 苦荞籽粒的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents of seeds of Fagopyrum tataricum (Linn) Gaertn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑峰; 孙文文; 张琦; 苗芳; 周乐

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was conducted to analyze the chemical constituents of seeds of Fagopyrum tataricum(Linn) Gaertn,which would provide theoretical reference for further understanding of the constituents of secondary metabolites in seeds of F.tataricum(Linn) Gaertn.【Method】 A tube method was used to conduct chemical constituent pretest.The chemical consitituents were extracted by EtOH as solvent under ultrasonic assistance.Column chromatographys on silica gel,polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 were adopted to isolate compounds.The structures of compounds were elucidated by UV,IR,ESI-MS,1H NMR and 13C NMR.【Result】 Ten compounds were obtained from seeds of F.tataricum(Linn) Gaertn,and of which five were identified as umbelliferone,quercetin,kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside,(-)-epicatechin and rutin,respectively.【Conclusion】 Flavonoids are the main chemical components of seeds of F.tataricum(Linn) Gaertn.Umbelliferone has been found from this plant for the first time.%【目的】分析苦荞籽粒的化学成分,为进一步了解苦荞籽粒的次生代谢成分提供参考。【方法】采用试管法对苦荞籽粒化学成分进行系统预试,以工业乙醇为溶剂对其化学成分进行超声辅助提取,采用硅胶柱层析、聚酰胺柱层析和凝胶柱层析(Sephadex LH-20)对化合物进行分离,通过紫外-可见光谱法(UV)、红外光谱法(IR)、质谱法(MS)、核磁共振法(1 H NMR、13 C NMR)的综合分析结果对化合物结构进行鉴定。【结果】从苦荞籽粒中共分离得到10个单体化合物,其中5个分别被鉴定为伞形花内酯、槲皮素、山奈酚-3-O-芸香糖苷、(-)-表儿茶素和芦丁。【结论】苦荞籽粒中的主要化学成分为黄酮类化合物,伞形花内酯为首次从该植物中发现。

  6. Isolation and partial sequence of a Kunitz-type elastase specific inhibitor from marama bean (Tylosema esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, Deepa; Weintraub, Susan T; Hakala, Kevin W; Sherman, Nicholas E; Starcher, Barry

    2010-06-01

    An isolation procedure utilizing ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity chromatography was used to purify an elastase inhibitor present in large amounts in marama beans (Tylosema esculentum). The protein appeared to be heterogeneous due to carbohydrate differences, demonstrating two bands on SDS gels with molecular weights of 17.8 kDa and 20 kDa. Partial sequence, derived from mass spectrometry, indicated that the protein is a Kunitz-type inhibitor distinct from other known plant serine protease inhibitors. The marama bean inhibitor is specific for elastase, with very low K(i) for both pancreatic and neutrophil elastase. The quantity of elastase inhibitor present in marama beans is many times greater than in soybean or any other bean or nut source reported to date. This raises the question of why a bean found in an arid corner of the Kalahari Desert would be so rich in a very potent elastase inhibitor.

  7. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells.

  8. Phytochrome-mediated induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, B; Sodi, F; Fastami, C

    1982-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5.) induction in cotyledons from 96-h dark-grown Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was studied in response to continuous light and hourly light pulses (blue, red, far red). The increases of PAL promoted by blue and red pulses are reversed completely by immediately following 758 nm irradiations. The response to continuous red light could be substituted for by hourly 6-min red light pulses. The effect of continuous red treatments is mainly due to a multiple induction effect of phytochrome. In contrast to red light, hourly light pulses with far red and blue, light can only partially substitute for continuous irradiation. The continuous blue response could be due to a combination of a multiple induction response and of a high irradiance response of phytochrome. The continuous far red response, could represent a high irradiance response of phytochrome. Dichromatic irradiations indicate that phytochrome is the photoreceptor controlling the light response (PAL) in tomato seedlings.

  9. 苦荞醋发酵工艺条件的优化%Optimization on conditions for fermentation of buckwheat vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文丽; 林娟; 董吉林; 相启森

    2014-01-01

    The traditional technology of alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation was used to produce vinegar.The influence to technique parameters of the alcoholic fermentation caused by temperature,propor-tion of buckwheat with sorghum and usage of lees was investigated.The influence to technique parameters of the acetic fermentation caused by ethanol concentration,temperature and inoculations dosage was also investigated.The method of orthogonal design was employed to determine the optimal technological condi-tions of the vinegar.The optimal conditions for alcoholic fermentation were found as follows:temperature 32 ℃,proportion of buckwheat and sorghum 45%,the usage of lees 5 .5%.The optimal acetic fermentation conditions were obtained as follows:ethanol concentration of 5 .0%,temperature 36 ℃,inoculations dosage of 5%.Accordingly brewed buckwheat vinegar meets the national standard.It has not only the quality of traditional vinegar,but also the unique health benefits of buckwheat.%采用传统工艺酒精发酵和醋酸发酵两步法酿造苦荞醋.在考察酒精发酵温度、苦荞代替高粱比、大曲用量对酒精发酵之影响,和初始酒精度、发酵温度、醋酸菌用量对醋酸发酵之影响的基础上,分别通过正交试验得出酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的最佳工艺参数为:酒精发酵温度32℃,苦荞代替高粱比45%,大曲用量5.5%;醋酸发酵初始酒精度5.0%,发酵温度36℃,醋酸菌接种量5%.据此酿造的苦荞醋符合国标,既有传统食醋的品质,又有苦荞特有的保健功效.

  10. Optimization on Processing Technologies of Buckwheat Resistant Starch by Pullulanase Hydrolysis%酶解法制备荞麦抗性淀粉的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 肖新龙; 李海侠; 张国权

    2012-01-01

    With buckwheat used as raw material , the best technologies for producing resistant starch and the best resistant starch yield with pullulanase hydrolysis method were determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal test. The effects of various processing parameters on resistant starch yield were studied at the same time. It was found that influencing factors of resistant starch yield are the concentration of the buckwheat paste, amount of pullulanase, hydrolysis time and temperature. The optimum technical parameters and conditions were obtained:the concentration of the buckwheat paste was 5 g/(100 mL) which was laydrolyzed by 7.2 PUN/g pullulanase for 8 h at 45 ℃, and the RS yield is 15.82%. By combining pullulanase hydrolysis method and moist heat sterilization, there is a marked improvement of resistant starch yield compared with that of raw buckwheat flour.%为确定荞麦粉制备抗性淀粉的工艺条件,采用普鲁兰酶酶解脱支法,并通过单因素和正交试验研究了影响抗性淀粉得率的因素。结果表明:影响抗性淀粉得率的因素主次顺序依次为荞麦粉浓度、普鲁兰酶用量、酶解时间和酶解温度。酶解法制备荞麦抗性淀粉的适宜工艺条件为荞麦粉浓度5 g/(100 mL)、普鲁兰酶用量7.2 PUN/g、酶解温度45℃、酶解时间8 h,在此条件下测得的抗性淀粉含量为15.82%。与原粉相比,普鲁兰酶酶解脱支与湿热法相结合制备荞麦抗性淀粉使其抗性淀粉含量显著提高。

  11. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  12. 普通荞麦染色体的原位PCR技术研究%The In Situ PCR Technology on Chromosome of Common Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李分龙; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探索一种适合荞麦的简单易行的染色体原位PCR技术.[方法]采用16S套式引物、4.5S套式引物与psbA引物,以栽培甜荞为材料,进行了染色体原位PCR、原位套式PCR与多次原位PCR试验.[结果]高温干燥可以起到与包埋类似的作用;染色体的原位套式PCR效果比原位PCR明显;多次原位PCR次数为5~6效果较佳.16S引物和4.5S引物均显示了4对信号,但位置不同;而psbA引物是单拷贝的,仅显示出1对信号.根据这些信号得位置差异可以区分普通荞麦的5对染色体.[结论]所使用的荞麦染色体原位PCR技术简单易行.%[ Objective] The paper aimed to explore a simple in situ PCR technology for buckwheat. [Method] By using 16S and 4.5S nested primers and psbA primer, the in situ PCR, nested in situ PCR, and multiple in situ PCR were carried out on common buckwheat, respectively.[Result] High-temperature drying treatment had the effects similar to that of embedding method. The effect of the nested in situ PCR is better than conventional in situ PCR. A better result could be obtained till the multiple in situ PCR was performed as many as 5 -6 times. Four pair of signals could be obtained by using both 16S and 4.5S primers, but their sites differed from each other; psbA primer as a single copy only showed a pair of signals. A total of five pairs of common buckwheat chromosome could be identified according to the difference of the signal's location. [ Conclusion ] The chrornosome in situ PCR technique for buckwheat was simple and feasible.

  13. 药用金荞麦"3414"施肥效应研究%Effects of"3414"Fertilizer Application on the Yield of Fagopyrum cymosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂强; 何平; 张春平; 张益锋; 胡世俊

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究重庆渝西紫色土N、P、K不同施用量和不同组合方式对金荞麦根茎产量的影响,探索该类型土壤下的施肥优化方案.方法:采用"3414"施肥设计方案设计实验,在Excel 2003、SPSS 13.0、Matlab 7.0和Word2003下对数据处理,根据双聚原矢车菊苷元含量评定其品质.结果:不同施肥组合,肥料的有效转化率有差异,其中有效转化率最高组合为N3P2K2,为97.09%,最低组合为NOP2K2,为4.32%;除空白组外,NOP2K2组产量最低为186 kg/667 m2,N2水平15 kg/667 m2,另外两种肥料组合在高、中、低三个水平上差异不大;一元、二元、三元函数拟合效果都较为理想,其中矿值排前三的函数是N、K效应函数、N效应函数和N、P、K三效应函数;不施肥组双聚原矢车菊苷元含量最高为8.67%,高N、高K组其含量降低,但所有的含量均高于7.14%.结论:不同施肥组合,对单一肥料的转化率有一定影响;该类土壤N肥施用量是决定其产量的关键肥料,故应偏重于氮肥施用;可以采用N、K效应函数、N效应函数和N、P、K三效应函数任意一种作为指导该类型土壤的施肥依据;施肥后各组药效成分含量虽然有差异,但不降低金荞麦品质.%Objective:To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on the yield of Fagopyrum cymosum and explore the bese scheme for getting the maximum yield on purple soil in the Chongqing-west Methods: Experiment with implementing plan of “3414” ;The quality Assessment by the contents of bipoly-chrysanthemin;The data process program under the Excel 2003 ,SPSS 13. 0,Matlab 7.0,Word 2003 environments. Results:Various fertilizer combinations had different transformation efficiency which the N3P2K2.combination was the maximum 97. 09% and the N0P2K2 combination was the minimum 4. 32% ;The N0P2K2 combination had the lowest yield except of the bland group which was 186 kg/667 m2 ;When the N fertilizer Rate was controlled in the level

  14. 外源硒对铅污染下荞麦生长及生理特性的影响%Effect of exogenous selenium on growth and development of buckwheat under plumbum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦成; 裴红宾; 吴晓薇; 连慧达

    2015-01-01

    以荞麦‘右玉26’为材料,在防雨棚下进行盆栽试验,研究外源硒对土壤铅污染下荞麦幼苗的农艺性状及生理特性、成熟期各器官铅累积和产量的影响,旨在探讨硒对土壤铅胁迫下荞麦的生长发育、产量及铅在荞麦体内富集量的影响,为发现硒缓解重金属铅对植物的毒害作用提供理论依据,以期为农业区铅污染治理及荞麦生产提供有价值的思路和方法。试验采用2因素完全随机设计,设置3个土壤铅浓度(0 mg·L−1、500 mg·L−1、1000 mg·L−1)、5个硒浓度(0 mg·kg−1、1 mg·kg−1、2.5 mg·kg−1、5 mg·kg−1和10 mg·kg−1)。研究结果表明:1)随铅浓度增加,荞麦的株高、总根长、干重、根系总面积、根系活力、叶绿素含量、叶绿素荧光参数、经济产量(千粒重、株粒数)均呈降低趋势。2)低浓度硒(1~2.5 mg·L−1)可缓解铅对荞麦的毒害,高浓度硒(5~10 mg·L−1)和铅为协同作用,加剧了对荞麦的毒害。3)硒浓度为2.5 mg·L−1时,缓解铅对荞麦毒害的效果最为明显,显著降低了铅胁迫下荞麦幼苗SOD和POD活性;降低成熟期荞麦各器官铅含量,各处理下荞麦各器官铅含量均表现为根>茎>叶>种子;产量达到最大值。由此可见,外源硒可通过抑制荞麦对铅的吸收和转运,促进荞麦幼苗叶片的光合作用、提高叶片叶绿素含量和根系活力等途径来增强荞麦对铅胁迫的耐性。对本研究所用的5种浓度来说,缓解效果最佳的硒浓度为2.5 mg·L−1。%This study used ‘Youyu 26’ buckwheat cultivar to analyze the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) on agronomic and physiological characteristics of buckwheat seedlings in plumbum (Pb) polluted soil in a pot experiment. The study determined the effects of exogenous Se on Pb content, and growth, development and output of buckwheat under soil Pb stress. The results of the study could lay the

  15. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  16. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds.

  17. Influence of Pulse Pressure on the State of Biopolymers and the Probability of Hydrolysis of Starch in Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Pavlova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage of seeds which leads to destruction of the crystal lattice and the phase transition of polymers is formed under the pulse pressure (PP treatment. Biopolymers such as starch compressed under specific conditions can be changed from crystalline to a glassy state; this transition is known to extend the life of seeds. The aging of seeds is involved in the enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Reducing sugars which have been produced in seeds by non-enzymatic hydrolysis enter into reaction of glycosylation with proteins and amino acids actively. The authors studied the water absorption by seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench., cultivar Saulyk treated by PP. The values of PP which were used to treat had an influence on water absorption during the first hours of imbibition. When water content was 60%, hydrolysis of reserve substances could begin, so water potential was created by osmotically active molecules. Gibbs energy calculation by method of groups’ contribution indicated the reduction in probability of starch hydrolysis in plant seeds during transition from the crystalline to the glassy state.

  18. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed.

  19. 不同种类荞麦中各种存在形式多酚含量的研究%Analysis of Free and Bound Phenolics in Different Buckwheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红叶; 柴岩; 王玉堂; 陕方; 王敏

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic components including 11 phenolic acids and 3 flavonoids in common and tartary buckwheat varieties from different geographical regions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The results showed that a significant difference in the content of phenolic components was observed between common and tartary buckwheat varieties cultivated in same geographical regions.Similar results were also observed in same buckwheat variety cultivated in different geographical regions.Meanwhile,the contents of free phenolic acids and flavones in tartary buckwheat were higher than that of common buckwheats.In addition,common and tartary buckwheat varieties contained gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-cumaric acid,ferulic acid,catechin,rutin and quercetin.Moreover,tartary buckwheat was rich in p-hydroxybenzoic acid.%从全国5个荞麦种植区域中各选取一种甜荞和苦荞,采用反向液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)分析甜荞和苦荞麸皮中8种酚酸、3种黄酮的含量差异。结果表明:同一种植区域不同种类和同一种类不同种植区域的荞麦麸中酚类物质含量存在显著差异。其中,苦荞的自由态酚酸、总酚酸、自由态黄酮和总黄酮含量均高于同一种植区域的甜荞。此外,甜、苦荞中均含有没食子酸、原儿茶酸、香草酸、咖啡酸、p-香豆酸、阿魏酸、儿茶素、芦丁及槲皮素,其中苦荞中对羟基苯甲酸含量丰富。

  20. Effects and Mechanism of Natural Fermentation on the Tensile Properties of Buckwheat Noodle%自然发酵对荞麦挤压面条拉伸性能的影响效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立宏; 郝学良; 程永强; 李里特

    2012-01-01

    How to improve the poor textural properties caused by problems such as lack of mucedin, high fiber content was the bottleneck problem in buckwheat noodles manufacturing. The effecl of natural fermentation on the tensile properties of buckwheat noodles was studied by tensile measurement and rapid viscosity analysis(RVA). The results showed that maximum break strain increased from 24. 7% to 29. 4% and work - to - break increased by 0. 24 kg X mm of buckwheat noodles made of buckwheat fermented for 96 h compared with control. Swelling and breakdown of buckwheat starch was accelerated, and peak viscosity, trough viscosity and final viscosity was decreased by 96h of natural fermentation. The tensile properties of buckwheat noodle were strengthened by natural fermentation, so it is a viable option for texture improvement of buckwheat noodles.%面筋蛋白缺乏,淀粉糊稳定性差,纤维含量高等因素,导致荞麦粉凝胶质地差是当前面条等荞麦面制品开发的瓶颈问题.拉伸测试及RVA快速黏度分析法研究了自然发酵对荞麦挤压面条质地的改善效应.结果表明,自然发酵96 h可使面条的最大破断应变从24.7%增加到29.4%,破断功增加了0.25kg·mm;自然发酵加速了糊化过程中淀粉颗粒的膨胀及崩解,降低了淀粉糊化的峰值黏度、谷值黏度及终黏度,使得发酵荞麦粉面条制品的凝胶结构更加致密,凝胶强度增强.因此,自然发酵作为一种绿色加工技术用于改善荞麦面条的质地特性是切实可行的.

  1. Proteínas antifúngicas contra p. infestans en los espacios intercelulares de hojas de tomate (lycopersicon esculentum cerasiforme) posibles defensinas de plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Dary Riaño; Humberto Miguel Zamora

    2008-01-01

    Se aislaron y caracterizaron parcialmente proteínas antifúngicas de los espacios intercelulares de hojas de tomate Lycopersicon esculentum cerasiforme, variedad que ha mostrado resistencia en campo a Phytophthora Infestans; se observó quedespués de inoculación con el patógeno dichas proteínas se acumularon sistémicamente en la planta. Las proteínas identificadasmostraron características de Defensinas de plantas, una nueva f...

  2. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  3. Diversity and pollination value of insects visiting the flowers of a rare buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum: Polygonaceae in disturbed and “natural” areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griswold, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared flower-visitors of the endangered plant Eriogonum pelinophilum, at relatively undisturbed and highly disturbed sites. We found no difference between sites in flower visitation rate or species richness of flower-visitors; species diversity of flower-visitors was higher at disturbed than at undisturbed sites but there was no difference in equitability. We found significant differences in total E. pelinophilum pollen carried on the body among 14 abundant bee species; eight abundant wasp species; and 12 abundant fly species. Both bee and wasp species carried significantly more pollen on the ventral compared to dorsal segments of the body; pollen on the body of fly species was more equally distributed across body surfaces. Total pollen carried on flower-visitor bodies was significantly related to visitor length, suggesting that larger visitors were more effective pollinators. Total Pollination Value, a measure combining both visitor abundance and body pollen was greater at the disturbed site than the undisturbed site, further suggesting that pollination in fragments of this rare species is not a major concern. We conclude that the high diversity of insect flower-visitors and the generalized nature of E. pelinophilum flowers make a special management programme to conserve pollinators unnecessary. Conservation of this buckwheat is best achieved by simple habitat preservation, together with a program to enlist private citizens to include buckwheat plants in their backyard gardens.

  4. 红花甜荞籽粒淀粉的理化特性%Physicochemical properties of common buckwheat starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金锋; 晁桂梅; 杨秋歌; 刘小进; 王鹏科; 高小丽; 冯佰利

    2013-01-01

      为明确红花甜荞籽粒淀粉理化特性,选用12个红花甜荞品种为材料,分析了其淀粉颗粒形态、粒度分布特征、直链淀粉含量、溶解度、透明度及糊化特性以及品种间差异.结果表明,红花甜荞淀粉颗粒多为不规则多角形和球形,多角形多且颗粒较大,球形颗粒较少且颗粒小,淀粉粒径范围介于0.38~25.78μm;品种间淀粉粒径、直链淀粉含量、溶解度、透明度存在显著性差异(P<0.05);起始糊化温度在62.80~72.60℃,峰值黏度在126.58~141.00 RU;品种间谷值黏度、最终黏度、破损值、回生值和峰值时间差异显著.定边甜荞谷值黏度大,为118.00 RU;破损值及回生值小,分别为13.00和57.33 RU;达到峰值时间最长,达5.80 min;淀粉糊稳定性好.因此,在进行优质专用品种选育和产品加工时,应根据不同目标选择不同的甜荞品种.%In order to understand the physicochemical characters of common buckwheat starch, 12 varieties of common buckwheat were planted in the research farm of the Yan’an Institute of Agricultural Sciences and the granule morphology, solubility, transparencies, gelatinization and viscosities of their starch granules were investigated in this study. The starch granules’shapes and sizes were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The starch granule diameters, amylase contents, solubility and transparencies were found to significantly differ among the different test varieties(P<0.05). The starch granules of the test varieties had irregular polygonous and global shapes and the granules of the varieties with the former shapes were larger and numbered more than their ones with the latter shapes. The granule diameters of the test varieties ranged within 0.38-25.78μm. The starch granules of Ning D07-1, Wuqi Honghuaqiao-2, Pingxuan 01-036, Dingbian Tianqiao and D07-2 were polygonous with clear-cut edges and the starch granules of Qingyang Honghuaqiao, Zhidan Honghuaqiao

  5. 苦荞粉添加量对面团性质及馒头品质的影响%Effect of addition amount of buckwheat on the dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芸; 陈洁; 吕莹果; 屈凌波

    2015-01-01

    通过添加不同量的苦荞粉配成苦荞-小麦混粉,研究混粉揉混特性、面团微观结构的变化以及苦荞馒头的感官品质。结果表明,当添加量在5%~15%时,揉混结果中的和面时间和峰值面积变化不大,微观结构中蛋白质面筋网络结构略微减弱,但当添加量达到20%后,和面时间和峰值面积都有大幅度降低,微观面筋网络结构也出现明显的下降。同时,苦荞粉添加量为15%时馒头感官品质较好。综合分析可知,添加量为15%时苦荞馒头仍具有较好的品质。%Different amount of buckwheat flour was mixed into wheat flour. The kneading property,the microstructure of the mixed flour dough and sensory quality of buckwheat steamed bread was studied. The results showed that,when the addition between 5% ~15%,kneading dough time and peak area changed a little,the gluten network structure of protein in microstructure reduced a little,but when the addition to 20%,both kneading dough time and peak area reduced greatly,and the gluten network structure of pro-tein in microstructure decreased obviously. Buckwheat steamed bread had the good quality when 15%buckwheat flour was added. So the buckwheat steamed bread had a good quality when the adding amount was 15% through comprehensive analysis.

  6. Determination of Water Activity in Buckwheat Flour by Way of Conway's Dish Diffusion Method%康卫氏皿扩散法测定荞麦粉的水分活度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世民

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The water activity in different size buckwheat flour was determined to provide buckwheat flour storage and processing with basic data. [ Method] The water activity in buckwheat flour was determined by way of Conways dish diffusion method. [ Result]The standard deviation of experimental data was smaller and had high accuracy when using quaternary systems being composed of saturated solution of magnesium chloride,potassium carbonate,sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Water activity in buckwheat flour will be increased as the particle size decreases,but the extent of the increases is relatively small. [Conclusion] At 25 ℃,after 2 hours of water exchange equilibrium,it was determined that the water activities were 0.585,0.599 ,and 0.608 respectively for the particle size of 80 mesh,100 mesh and 120 mesh of buckwheat flour.%[目的]测定不同粒度养麦粉的水分活度,为荞麦粉这种食品原料的储存和加工提供基础数据.[方法]运用康卫氏皿扩散法测定荞麦粉的水分活度.[结果]用氯化镁、碳酸钾、氯化钠、氯化钾4种盐的饱和溶液构成的四元体系,试验数据标准偏差较小,精密度高.荞麦粉的水分活度会随着粒度的变小逐渐增大,但增大幅度较小.[结论]在25℃,经过2h的水分交换平衡,测定出粒度为80、100、120目的荞麦粉的水分活度分别为0.585、0.599和0.608.

  7. 晋中地区荞麦品质气候区划的GIS多元分析%Climate Regionalization of Buckwheat Quality Index Based on GIS Multivariate Analysis in Jinzhong Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德; 肖璐洁

    2012-01-01

    探索养麦的最佳生产布局,为优质养麦生产的区域化、规模化提供理论和实践依据.本文分析了荞麦品质指标与气象因子的关系,结合养麦地理分布,筛选影响各品质指标的主要气象因子,利用主成分分析法构建养麦综合品质评价模型,并以ArcGIS软件的空间分析功能,对养麦综合品质进行气候区划及区划评述.结果表明:温度、降水、日照时数等气象因子是影响各品质指标的主要因子.较高的均温和日最高温大于30℃时,对养麦的生长有不良影响,不利于各品质指标的积累.而8月丰富的降水和生育期充足的光照有利于养麦品质指标的积累.结合评价模型,利用GIS对荞麦综合品质进行区划,将晋中地区分为3个区,即适宜、次适宜、不适宜养麦种植区,且各区与实际状况基本符合.利用主成分分析法和GIS进行养麦品质气候区划是可行的,研究结果为荞麦的优质生产提供参考.%Buckwheat is mainly distributed in central and western regions in China, is one of the major food crops and economic crops in these areas. The production and development of buckwheat have direct impact on farmers' income and agricultural economic development of these areas. The climate regionalization of buckwheat quality is the important basis of optimizing cultivation environment and quality variety layout, and has a great guiding meaning towards high quality production of buckwheat. So, exploring the best planting pattern of buckwheat can provide theoretical and practical basis for the regionalization and high quality buckwheat production at larger scales. But the current climate regionalization studies of buckwheat mainly focused on the suitable cultivation division using traditional research methods, and no report about climatic regionalization of buckwheat quality using principal components analysis (PCA) and GIS was found. In this study, the correlation of quality index of buckwheat

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide on respiration in higher plants. [Fagopyrum esculentum L. ; Delphinium Ajacis L. ; Raphanus sativus L. ; Pyrus Malus L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Phaseolus limensis L. ; Medicago pratense L. ; Nicotiana Tabacum L. ; Cucumis sativus L. ; Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G.C.

    1954-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide and light on the respiration of a number of plant tissues were examined. The respiration of root or other tissue was measured at 25/sup 0/C by standard manometric techniques in a ratio of 95% CO and 5% O/sub 2/. The respiration of all eleven tissues studied was strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide. In ten of the eleven cases examined the inhibition was largely or completely eliminated by irradiation of the tissue with light. The evidence fairly well precludes the participation of a tyrosinase and definitely supports the participation of a cytochrome oxidase in respiration. 5 references, 1 table.

  9. 荞麦芽提取物抗突变和抑制肿瘤作用的实验研究%Study on antimutangenic andantitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李善姬; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2013-01-01

    对荞麦芽提取物的抗突变和抗肿瘤作用进行研究,为开发荞麦的保健作用提供依据.实验以小鼠骨髓细胞微核实验观察荞麦芽提取物的抗突变作用,以小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤观察荞麦芽提取物的抗肿瘤效果.结果显示,荞麦芽提取物对N-甲基-N-硝基-N-亚硝基胍(MNNG)诱发的小鼠骨髓细胞微核的发生有明显的抑制效果,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物、正丁醇提取物在80mg/kg度下,对小鼠骨髓微核的抑制率达73.4%、75.8%、74.2%;对小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤生长也有明显的抑制作用,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物的抑瘤率达39.5%、38.0%.说明荞麦芽对体细胞DNA损伤有保护作用,对肿瘤也有一定的预防作用.%The antimutangenic and antitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were studied to provide scientific basis for exploiting health function of buckwheat sprout.Antimutangenic effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on the mice bone marrow cell micronuclei test.Antitumor effects of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on S-180 tumor cell transplanting test.The micronuclei frequency induced by MNNG in mouse bone marrow cells was inhibited significantly by buckwheat sprout extracts.Under 80mg/kg,buckwheat ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract and butanol extract on mouse bone marrow micronucleus inhibition rate reached to 73.4%,75.8%,74.2%.Buckwheat sprout extracts on the growth of transplanted tumor of mouse S-180 also had the obvious inhibitory action,including buckwheat sprout ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract tumor inhibition rate reached to 39.5%,38.0%.Buckwheat sprouts had preventive effect on DNA damage in body cell,and had inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

  10. The effect of fungi solid-state fermentation on nutritional constituents of buckwheat%真菌固态发酵对荞麦营养功能成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路锶; 田北; 赵丹; 姚世聪

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae 3.1175 and Rhizopus oryzae 3.2751) solid-state fermentation on nutritional constituents of buckwheat was investigated in this work. The content of free amino acid, reducing sugar, y-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and titratable acid of buckwheat fermented by these three fungi were changed after incubation. The reducing sugar, free amino acid of buckwheat fermented by A. oryzae and R.oryzae 3.2751 were increased significantly (p〈0.05). While the reducing sugar and free amino acid of R.oryzae 3.1175 fermented buckwheat did not have statistical difference with that of non-fermented buckwheat (p〉0.05). Meanwhile the GABA of A.oryzae fermented wheat was increased significantly (p〈0.05) after 48 h incubation. However, the titratable acid of these three fungi fermented buckwheat did not have statistical difference with that of non-fermented buckwheat. Therefore, the fungi fermented buckwheat has a better nutrition than non-fermented buckwheat especially fermented by A.oryzae and R.oryzae 3.2751.%采用3株食品常用真菌(米曲霉,米根霉3.1175和米根霉3.2751)固态发酵荞麦,研究不同发酵时间下,这3株真菌对荞麦营养功能成分的影响。通过测定发酵后荞麦中的氨基态氮,还原糖,γ-氨基丁酸等营养功能成分的含量,结果发现荞麦中还原糖,氨基酸在米曲霉和米根霉3.2751的发酵下得到显著提高(p〈0.05),而米根霉3.1175发酵的荞麦,这2个营养成分变化不显著(p〉0.05)。米曲霉发酵的荞麦中γ-氨基丁酸含量随着发酵时间的增加而显著提高(p〈0.05)。可滴定酸含量在3株真菌的发酵下变化较小。因此米曲霉和米根霉3.2751发酵的荞麦相对未发酵荞麦具有更好的营养和功能价值。

  11. Measuring Methods of Inositol Contetin Buckwheat%苦荞中肌醇含量的测量方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾婕; 鲁卫东; 王韵; 陈克嶙; 周劲; 郭亚东

    2011-01-01

    目的 为得到一种简单、快速、准确测定苦荞中肌醇的方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测器(HPLC-ELSD)法进行测定,色谱柱为美国Phenomenex公司提供的Luna C18柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,3μm),流动相为甲醇-水(含0.1%的冰醋酸),流速:1 mL/min.漂移管温度50℃,载气压力40 psi.结果 肌醇进样量在0.0268~0.1340 μg范围内(r=0.9997)线性关系良好,平均加样回收率为99.7%(相对标准偏差RSD=3.49%).结论 该方法简便可靠,可用于苦荞中肌醇含量的质量控制.%Objective To explore a simple, rapid and accurate method for detecting inositol content in buckwheat. Methods HPLC-ELSD method was used to detect the content of inositol in buckwheat. A Phenomenex Luna-C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 3 μm) was used for separation. Methylalcohol-Water (containing 0.1% glacial acetic acid) was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The temperature of drift tube was 50 ℃, and the gas pressure was 40 psi. Results Under the above described chromatographic conditions, the linear ranges of inositol was 0.0268 ~ 0.1340 μg (r = 0.9997) , and the mean recovery rate was 99.7% (RSD = 3.49%). Conclusion The assay method is simple and accurate for the quality control of inositol in buckwheat.

  12. 金荞麦无色花色素还原酶基因FdLAR的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene in Fagopyrum dibotrys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧; 王斌; 代银; 眭顺照; 李名扬

    2012-01-01

    无色花色素还原酶(leucoanthocyantin reducase,LAR)基因是植物类黄酮代谢途径中催化缩合单宁合成的一个关键结构基因,本研究通过简并PCR结合RACE的方法,获得了1个金荞麦(Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don)Hara)无色花色素还原酶基因FdLAR(GenBank accession:JN793953),序列全长1 581 bp,其中开放阅读框长1 176 bp,编码391个氨基酸的蛋白质,在N端存在1个保守结构域,属于RED蛋白家族.将该基因重组到表达载体pET-32a(+)中进行原核表达,经IPTG诱导、SDS-PAGE检测,结果表明金荞麦无色花色素还原酶基因能在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达,电泳检测到l条大约66 kD的外源蛋白,与预测的融合蛋白分子量相符.利用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测FdLAR基因在金荞麦根茎中不同生长发育时期的表达情况,同时测定相应根茎中类黄酮的含量,结果表明FdLAR基因的表达量与类黄酮积累之间的关系在营养生长和生殖生长阶段呈现出不同的变化趋势,推测该基因可能在金荞麦类黄酮次生代谢产物积累中起作用.%The leucoanthocyantin reducase (LAR) gene, an important functional gene of catechins biosynthesis pathway, was cloned from Fagopyrum dibotrys (D.Don) Hara by degenerate PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of FdLAR is I 581 bp (GenBank accession: JN793953), containing a l 176 bp ORF encoding a 391 amino acids protein, and its 3'-untranslated region has an obvious polyadenylation signal. The recombinant plasmid containing FdLAR completed ORF was transformed into £. coli BL21 (DE3). The target fusion peptide with molecular weight of 66 kD was expressed under the condition of 16℃ and induced by IPTG at final concentration of 1.0 mmol·L-1. Bioinformation analysis indicated that the amino acid sequence of FdLAR showed great homology to other LAR with the NADB-Rossmann conversed domain in the N-terminus. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the

  13. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Chávez-Murillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

  14. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  15. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant.

  16. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  17. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  18. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  19. Physiological and biochemical responses of fruit exocarp of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutants to natural photo-oxidative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carolina A; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M

    2006-01-01

    Photo-oxidative stress was imposed under natural solar radiation on exposed and shaded sections of detached fruit of immature green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller = Solanum lycopersicum L.) mutants (anthocyanin absent, beta-carotene, Delta, and high pigment-1) and their nearly isogenic parents ('Ailsa Craig' and 'Rutgers'). After 5 h exposure to high solar irradiance, either with or without ultraviolet (UV) radiation, surface colour changes, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, antioxidant metabolites and enzyme activities, and selected flavonoids and antioxidant proteins in exocarp tissue were evaluated. The imposed photo-oxidative stress reproduced the symptoms observed on attached fruit. Both high temperature and solar irradiance caused fruit surface discoloration with faster degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) than carotenoids (Car), leading to an increase in the Car/Chl ratio. Surface bleaching was mostly caused by visible light, whereas elevated temperatures were mostly responsible for the inactivation of photosynthesis, measured as decreased F(v)/F(m). Ascorbate, glutathione, and total soluble protein concentrations decreased in the exocarp as the duration of exposure increased. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase increased with exposure, suggesting that these proteins were conserved during the imposed stress. GR protein expression remained stable during the imposed stress, whereas, MDHAR protein expression increased. Quercetin and kaempferol concentrations increased rapidly upon exposure, but not to UV radiation, suggesting rapid photo-protection in response to visible light; however, naringenin synthesis was not induced. The apparent increased tolerance of hp-1 fruit is discussed.

  20. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine. [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal methylene-{sup 3}H)spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The {sup 14}C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. ({sup 3}H)Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and {beta}-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed.

  1. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  2. ACTIVIDAD BIOLÓGICA DEL PECTIMORF EN LA MORFOGÉNESIS In Vitro DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill VAR. AMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Plana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones realizadas en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología de las plantas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, han demostrado el papel de los oligogalacturónidos como biorreguladores del crecimiento y desarrollo in vitro. En este trabajo se estudió la actividad biológica de diferentes concentraciones de la mezcla de oligogalacturónidos conocida como Pectimorf, en la respuesta morfogenética in vitro del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. En los ensayos realizados se emplearon como explantes segmentos apicales de hipocótilos y cotiledones provenientes de plántulas del cultivar Amalia, cultivadas en medio basal complementado con diferentes concentraciones de Pectimorf (1, 5, 10 y 15 mg.L-1 enpresencia o no de bajas concentraciones de BAP (0.25, 0.5 y 1 mg.L-1. Se puso de manifiesto la acción favorable del producto sobre la regeneración in vitro de los explantes estudiados, siendo la dosis de 10 mg.L-1 de Pectimorf la que favoreció la regeneración de plantas a partir de hipocótilos. En el caso de los cotiledones, las mejores combinaciones fueron aquellas donde se emplearon 10 mg.L-1 de Pectimorf con 0.25 y 0.5 mg.L-1 de BAP como complemento del medio de cultivo.

  3. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  4. HEALTH RISK OF AGROCHEMICALS USAGE IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum PRODUCTION IN THE OFFINSO-NORTH DISTRICT OF GHANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Mensah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum is prominent among vegetables produced in Ghana. About ninety percent (90% of the population of the study area are engaged primarily in tomato production. Due to theproblem posed by pests and diseases and the vulnerability of vegetables to most of these pests and diseases, a variety of pesticides including organophosphates, Organochlorines, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids are used extensively to deal with this persistent problem. The study was conducted to assess the current patterns and practices of pesticides use by farmers in three communities in the study area to investigate the level of farmers’exposure to agrochemicals. Pesticide residue analysis on selected sampled tomatoes from the study area was carried out to determine whether they were within the FAO/WHO set Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs. Field data collected indicated that almost all (99% of the farmers do not practice any form of safety precautions in the handling of agrochemicals on and off the farm. Laboratory analysis of tomato fruits revealed eleven (11 organophosphates and fourteen (14 organochlorines and synthetic pyrethroid residues in the samples from the three study communities. The residues detected included DDT and its derivative DDD. However, levels of most of the detected residues in the tomato samples were below the Maximum Residue Level (MRL of FAO/WHO except banned Heptachlor. All residues posed no health risks to consumers except Heptachlor, Chlorfenvinphos and Dieldrin which had estimated health indices of 5.92, 1.48 and 3.7 respectively.

  5. Potentially bioaccessible phenolics, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of young buckwheat sprouts affected by elicitation and elicitation supported by phenylpropanoid pathway precursor feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the study on impact of elicitation and the phenylpropanoid pathway feeding on the nutritional quality, the potentially bioaccessible phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of young buckwheat sprouts. Phenolics content was increased by elicitation and feeding with tyrosine and shikimic acid--an elevation of 30% and 17%, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was improved by feeding with tyrosine--an increase of 16.7% and 17.1% in both untreated and treated sprouts, respectively. The highest protein digestibility was determined for the control sprouts and those obtained after tyrosine feeding. The lowest starch digestibility was found for elicited sprouts obtained from seeds fed with tyrosine (a decrease by 52%). An increase of expected glycemic index by 38% was determined for elicited sprouts obtained after phenylalanine feeding. Starch and protein digestibility were negatively correlated with total phenolics (r = -0.55 and -0.58, respectively), however starch digestibility was also affected by resistant starch content.

  6. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  7. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  8. ソバ属(Fagopyrum )の種間交配における花粉管伸長

    OpenAIRE

    南, 峰夫; 五味, 正輝; 氏原, 暉男

    1992-01-01

    普通ソバ(Fagopyrum esculentum : 以下F. e)と野生種3種(F. Cymosum, F.urophyllum, F. Leptopodum : 以下それぞれ,F. c, F. u, F. l)間の交雑親和性を明らかにするために,4種間の交配を行い,花粉の発芽と花粉管伸長を調査した。得られた結果は以下の通りである。(1) F. eとF. lの組合せで,花粉が発芽しない場合がみられたが,その他の種間交配組合せでは種間交配と同様に,すべての雌ずいで花粉の発芽と花粉管の花柱内への伸長が認められた。(2) 種間交配では花粉管先端部が肥大して伸長を停止しているものが認められ,花粉管の伸長は種内交配より明らかに劣った。種内交配では大部分の雌ずいにおいて花粉管の子房内への伸長が見られたのに対し,種間交配では,F. eとF. cの正逆交配とF. u×F. lだけで観察された。(3) 花粉管長/花柱長比率から,F. eとの交雑親和性はF. c>F. u>F. lの順であり,F. eを母本にした方が良いと考えられた。...

  9. Absisik asit (ABA) uygulamalarının domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fidelerinde bazı fizyolojik ve morfolojik özellikler ile kök gelişim değerlerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

           Çalışma ile farklı doz ve sürelerde uygulanan absisik asit (ABA)'in domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fidelerde oluşturduğu stresin; fizyolojik, morfolojik ve gelişim parametrelerine etkisi tespit edilmiş, ABA'nın domates fide yetiştiriciliğinde kullanılabilecek optimum doz ve uygulama süresi belirlenmiştir. Lycopersicon esculentum cv....

  10. 菊粉对苦荞麦流变学特性改善作用的研究%A Study of the Improvement Effect of Inulin on Rheological Properties of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马越; 谢国莉; 陈红梅; 苑函

    2013-01-01

      苦荞麦具有降血脂、降糖等多种生理功能,但其加工性能较差。本文重点研究菊粉对于苦荞麦流变学特性的影响,并通过添加适量的菊粉改善苦荞粉的粉质特性,进而改善其加工性能。%Buckwheat has many physiological functions such as reducing blood lipids, lowering blood sugar and so on, but its processing performance is worse. Dough rheological properties of buckwheat influenced by adding inulin was studied. The results showed that farinograms properties and processing performance of buckwheat can be improved by adding appropriate inulin.

  11. 贵州不同生态区苦荞产量性状形成的初步分析%Preliminarily analysis on the yields of tartary buckwheat of different ecological regions in guizhou province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 黄凯丰; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    以4个苦荞品种为试验材料,测定了在6个生态区下株高、主茎分枝数、主茎节数、单株粒数、单株粒重、千粒重和最终产量的差异.结果表明:苦荞株高、主茎分枝数、主茎节数、单株粒数、单株粒重、千粒重和产量的变异范围分别为:57.20~123.70 cm、1.60~17.00、8.20~19.46、92.00~544.00、1.90~11.07 g、10.50~32.80 g和51.47~286.14 kg;苦荞材料间以九江苦荞的株高显著高于其余3份苦荞材料,以威苦1号的主茎分枝数、主茎节数最高,以六盘水苦荞的单株粒数、单株粒重和千粒重显著高于其余3份苦荞材料,产量则以九江苦荞和六盘水苦荞显著高于威苦1号和威苦2号;不同生态区间苦荞的产量以威宁地区显著高于其余5个生态区.相关性分析表明苦荞的产量与千粒重、株高呈密切的正相关关系.%Used 4 kinds of tartary buckwheat as experimental materials to determine the differences a-mong the plant height, main stem branches, main stem nodes, grain number per plant, grain weight per plant thousand seed weight and final production yield. The results showed that, the plant height, main stem branches, main stem nodes, per grain number, per grain weight, thousand seed weight and final production yield of tartary buckwheat changed between 57. 20 cm~123. 70 cm,l. 60~17. 00,8. 20~19. 46,92. 00~544.00,1. 90 g~ll. 07 g,10. 50 g~32. 80 g and 51. 47 kg~286. 14 kg; The plant height of Jiujiang tartary buckwheat is significance differences higher than the other buckwheat. The main stem branches and main stem nodes of Weikul tartary buckwheat is significance differences higher than other buckwheat while the grain number per plant grain weight per plant and thousand seed weight of Liupan-shui tartary buckwheat is significence differences higher than the other. The final production yield of Jiujiang and Liupanshui is higher than Weikul and Weiku2. Weining region's final production yield of

  12. Ciclo de maturação e produção de etileno de tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. transgênicos Ripening cycle and ethylene production of transgenic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.

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    Ana Lúcia CHAVES

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o comportamento fisiológico de frutos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., da cv. Kadá, transformados geneticamente, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, com o clone de DNA pMEL1, em orientação antisenso, e de frutos desta mesma cultivar, não transformados. O estudo fisiológico foi realizado avaliando-se a duração do ciclo de maturação dos frutos, amadurecidos na planta e após a colheita no estádio verde-maduro, e sua produção de etileno. Os frutos transformados amadurecidos na planta tiveram um ciclo total médio de 27 dias, enquanto os amadurecidos após a colheita, tiveram este intervalo prolongado a 50 dias. Ao contrário, os tomates não transformados apresentaram um ciclo de maturação mais acelerado quando colhidos no estádio verde-maduro, em relação aos frutos amadurecidos nas plantas. Os valores foram, em média, de 20 e 30 dias, respectivamente. Estes resultados estão correlacionados com as variações na produção de etileno observada nos dois genótipos. Frutos não transformados produziram, em média, 10,46 nL de etileno.g-1.h-1, enquanto os transgênicos tiveram sua produção de etileno diminuída para 0,13 nL.g-1.h-1. Pode-se concluir, então, que a redução da produção de etileno, verificada nos tomates transformados, é necessária, mas não é suficiente para prolongar o ciclo de maturação e aumentar a durabilidade dos frutos. Para que isto ocorra, é necessário que se proceda à colheita dos tomates no estádio verde-maduro.This work was carried out to study the physiological behaviour of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill., var. Kada, geneticaly transformed, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, with the pMEL1 DNA clone, in antisense orientation, and nontransformed ones, from the same variety, growth in a greenhouse. The physiological study was conducted for evaluating the ripening cycle of fruits, ripened attached and detached from the plants in the mature-green stage

  13. Efectos genéticos y heterosis de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en campo e invernadero para rendimiento y calidad Genetic effects and heterosis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in field and greenhouse for yield and quality

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    David Sánchez Aspeytia

    Full Text Available El cultivo de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ocupa el segundo lugar de importancia en México, por su gran producción de 2.22 millones de toneladas que alcanzo en el año 2007, con un rendimiento promedio de 35.54 t ha-1. Para la región noreste de México este cultivo representa una alternativa agrícola bajo condiciones de agricultura protegida debido a la poca disponibilidad de agua y a las temperaturas extremas que llegan a ser hasta 48 ºC en verano. El conocimiento de la habilidad combinatoria general y específica de materiales genéticos es esencial para lograr diversos objetivos en un programa de mejoramiento tales como: desarrollar híbridos y variedades, incrementar variabilidad genética y evitar erosión genética. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los efectos genéticos de cuatro progenitores y seis cruzas directas posibles, evaluados en campo e invernadero bajo el análisis de variables de rendimiento y de calidad. En el análisis de varianza combinado hubo diferencias altamente significativas (p≤ 0.01 entre ambientes para peso promedio de fruto y rendimiento así como diferencias significativas (p≤ 0.05 para días a primer corte, donde las condiciones ambientales de cada localidad fueron diferentes para los genotipos en general, incluyendo progenitores e híbridos, peso promedio de fruto y rendimiento, indicándonos que los genotipos se comportaron diferente y que los híbridos difirieron en su comportamiento debido a la diversidad genética de los progenitores.Tomato cultivation (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ranks second place of importance in Mexico, for its big production of 2.22 million tons that reached in year 2007, with an average yield of 35.54 t ha-1. For northeast region of Mexico this crop represents an agricultural alternative under protected agriculture conditions due to little water availability and to extreme temperatures that rise up to 48 ºC in summer. Knowledge of general and

  14. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  15. Study on Optimization of Buckwheat Maca Biscuit by Using Response Surface Analysis%响应面分析在荞麦玛咖饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 李磊

    2013-01-01

      To optimize the processing of buckwheat maca biscuit,based on single-factor tests the response surface methodology was adopted with three levels and four factors that are buckwheat,maca,white sugar and skimmed milk powder.The result of the Sensory evaluation score was used as the data for the response surface methodology.Design expert was used to optimize the response surface.The result of the experiments demonstrates that:buckwheat content 26.40 %,maca content 2.63%,white sugar content 22.12 %,skimmed milk powder 5.49%. Under these conditions, the sensory analysis score of buckwheat maca biscuits was 85.77.%  以新资源食品玛咖粉和荞麦为主要原料,在单因素分析的基础上,通过对玛咖荞麦饼干生产配方进行4因素(荞麦粉、玛咖粉、白砂糖和脱脂奶粉)3水平的响应面试验设计,以饼干的感官评定结果,通过Design expert软件进行响应面优化。试验结果表明:荞麦粉添加量为26.40%,玛咖粉添加量为2.63%,白砂糖添加量为22.12%,脱脂奶粉添加量为5.49%,在此条件下,荞麦玛咖饼干的感官分析评分为85.77。

  16. Measurement of Trace Element in Tartary Buckwheat by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion%微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕芹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]采用微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定苦荞中的微量元素.[方法]用HNO3+H2O2对苦养样品进行微波消解处理,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定苦荞消解液中的Fe、Cu、Zn、Mn、Mg的含量.[结果]苦荞中Mg的含量较高;各元素的回收率为94.8%~101.5%,结果满意.[结论]该法简便、快速、准确,有良好的重现性,能满足日常分析检测的需要.%[Objective] The research aimed to measure the trace element in Tartary buckwheat by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry with microwave digestion. [ Method] Tartary buckwheat sample was carried out the microwave digestion by HNO, + H20,. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the contents of Fe,Cu,Zn,Mn and Mg in the digestion solution of Tartary buckwheat. [Result] Mg content was higher in Tartary buckwheat. The recovery ratio of each element was during 94.8% -101.5% ,and the result was satisfactory.[Conclusion] The method was simple,convenient,quick and accurate. It had the good repeatability and could satisfy the requirement of routine analysis and detection.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE INTERÉS AGRONÓMICO DE SIETE GENOTIPOS NATIVOS DE JITOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) CULTIVADOS EN HIDROPONÍA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    México es considerado el centro de domesticación del jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Sin embargo, existe escasa información que permita el aprovechamiento de las formas nativas de esta especie. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar algunas características de interés agronómico de siete genotipos provenientes de los estados de Guerrero y Puebla, cultivados en invernadero e hidroponía, y compararlos con un híbrido comercial de jitomate cherry (H-790). Se evaluaron día...

  18. MODIFIKASI TEPUNG UMBI TALAS BOGOR (COLOCASIA ESCULENTUM (L SCHOTT DENGAN TEKNIK OKSIDASI SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN PENGGANTI TEPUNG TERIGU

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    Dessy Ariyanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman talas bogor (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott sangat mudah dibudidayakan di daerah tropik dan sub-tropik, termasuk Indonesia. Umbi talas bogor kaya akan karbohidrat, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber energi yang potensial bagi manusia melalui berbagai proses modifikasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah memperbaiki kualitas tepung umbi talas bogor dengan mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi suspensi, katalis, oksidator, dan temperatur dari proses modifikasi dengan cara oksidasi menggunakan larutan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2. Variabel yang dikaji adalah suspensi tepung dengan air (40, 30, 20, dan 10%, waktu reaksi (30, 60, 90, dan 120 menit, konsentrasi katalis (0; 0,1%; 0,2%, konsentrasi oksidator (1%, 2% dan 3% dan temperatur (30; 40; 50oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan konsentrasi suspensi 40% , konsentrasi katalis 0,1%, konsentrasi H2O2 2% dan temperatur 30oC pada waktu oksidasi 30 menit memberikan hasil yang paling optimum ditinjau dari daya kembang (swelling power dengan nilai 7g/g dan kelarutannya dalam air yaitu 4% dengan mempertimbangkan aspek teknis dan ekonomis dari proses. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan H2O2 sebagai oksidator cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai daya kembang tepung talas bogor yang sebelumnya hanya 4,3 g/g menjadi 7 g/g, dimana nilai tersebut telah masuk dalam rasio daya kembang tepung terigu yaitu 6,8-7,9 g/g. Namun oksidator H2O2 tidak cukup efektif dalam meningkatkan nilai kelarutan tepung dalam air yang sebelumnya hanya 2% menjadi 4%, dimana nilai tersebut masih dibawah rasio kelarutan tepung terigu yaitu 6,3-7,3%. Selain itu uji organoleptik pada kue kering berbahan baku tepung umbi talas bogor teroksidasi menunjukkan kelemahan berupa rasa yang agak pahit dan tekstur yang terlalu rapuh dibandingkan dengan kue kering yang menggunakan bahan baku tepung terigu.Bogor taro (Colocasia esculentum (L Schott is one of the local resources which can be used as raw material for flour

  19. Aftereffect conditions of prolonged space flight on physiological and biochemical processes and plant resistance Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. to pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya

    2016-07-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - one of the most popular vegetables in Ukraine, they are a valuable product of therapeutic and dietetic foods because they contain a significant amount of nutrients and essential to the human body minerals and vitamins, but by the content of carotenoids - lycopene and β-carotene - is a powerful antioxidant. Therefore, tomato plants can be used successfully to astronauts on long space flights. We aftereffect was studied factors of space flight on the variety of tomato seeds Mir-1, which lasted (6 years) were on an orbital space station "Mir". Then, also after long-term storage in 2011, seeds were sown in the laboratory and received seedlings grown in field conditions Kiev region. The resulting seeds of the tomato crop in 2011 ("Space" and still) we used in our subsequent field studies in Kyiv and Poltava regions. We have previously shown that the "space" seeds had shown in 2011-2012 increased resistance to viruses PVY and PVM natural infectious background. Therefore, it is necessary continue the investigation and started to observe in future years, including 2015 and to analyze the results obtained. Because plants grown constantly in the field natural infectious background, there was a high probability of their defeat pathogens of different nature, including viruses. The works of many authors proved reduce the concentration of carotene and lycopene in tomatoes with the defeat of viruses (Raithak, 2012). In addition, the control plants were observed symptoms of such that is a viral infection, namely in 2011 - leaves curl in 2012 - except leaves curl and even mosaics. The research results were confirmed in 2013, namely on the plants of "space" seed no symptoms of, and in control - detection of potato virus Y (method RT-PCR) and symptoms of leaf curl and mosaic. During the bearing samples were taken leaves of the options and experiment conducted determination of photosynthetic pigments. It should be emphasized that in plant

  20. Effect of Different Doses of NK Chemical Fertilizers and Compost on Growth and Yield Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    Thayamini Harold Seran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NK chemical fertilizers in combination with compost on the growth and yield attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. The pot experiment was done in a complete randomized block design possessing eight treatments with four replicates. Fruit weight, pulp weight, seed weight, total soluble solid, leaf area and dry weights of plat parts were taken and fruit yield was calculated. All the collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results revealed that there were significant differences in fruit and seed weights, total soluble solid, pulp weight, 100 seed weight, pulp consistency, leaf area and crop residue. In these parameters, higher mean values were recorded in chemical fertilizers (7.5 g N + 6 g K2O + 15 g P2O5 per m2 with compost (2 kg per m2 than those in the chemical fertilizers applied alone (9.0 g N + 8 g K2O + 15 g P2O5 per m2as standard control. Total soluble solid and fruit yield were 5.73 obrix and 3.21 kg/m2 respectively in the chemical fertilizers with compost (7.5 g N + 6 g K2O + 15 g P2O5 +2 kg compost per m2 treated plants and these were statically on par with the standard control which gave 4.36 obrix total soluble solid and 3.05 kg/m2 fruit yield. The result could be concluded that application of chemical fertilizers (7.5 g N + 6 g K2O + 15 g P2O5 per m2 with compost (2 kg per m2 could increase the total soluble solid and fruit yield as well as reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers in tomato cultivation over the standard control in sandy regosol.

  1. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  2. NUTRIÇÃO DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum EM FUNÇÃO DE DOSES DE FERTILIZANTES ORGÂNICOS

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    José André Custódio da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two doses of organic material in the nutrition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv Santa Cruz, grown in pots in an Oxisol Ultisol Distrocoeso the municipality of Rio Largo - AL. The design was in randomized blocks in factorial 2 X 4 (two and four fertilizer doses with 5 replicates. The experimental unit consisted of a vessel with capacity for 12 dm3 containing 15 kg of soil. The fertilizer materials were: 1 fertilizer - manure from corral + chicken manure + fertilizer and the filter cake of 2 - to corral manure + chicken manure + sugar cane bagasse, in doses 0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1. The applications were split in the following way: 10% at the time of transplantation, and 15% at 20, 34, 48, 62, 76 and 90 days after transplanting (DAT in coverage. The seedlings were produced in the tomato seed, on March 10, 2008, in polystyrene trays with 128 cells, after transplantation and were selected for the vessel on April 02, 2008, leaving two plants per pot . The plants were conducted in mentoring and single stem, and where, therefore, all cultural and treatment plant. There was a collection of leaves 4 + from the apex of the plant, to assess nutritional status at the beginning of flowering. Among the nutrients, the nitrogen was absorbed the most, followed by: potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium and phosphorus, whereas among the micronutrients, in increasing order of absorption was the following: boron, zinc, copper, manganese and iron. According to analysis of variance and regression analysis of the fertilizer did not affect the levels of nutrients in the plant, with only difference between the doses.

  3. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene post-harvest treatment on ripening process in cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Arnold M; Ying, Tie-Jin

    2005-02-01

    The responses of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated. The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG) cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L reduced fruit C(2)H(4) production, delayed the C(2)H(4) peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 microL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening, it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production. Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time, and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 microL/L or higher concentrations, and fruit color could not reach the control level even 2 weeks after 1-MCP treatment, indicating the close association of the metabolism of these pigments with ethylene perception. Since the concentration of 0.11 microL/L of 1-MCP was so high that it did not elicit additional response very much than 0.07 microL/L, these concentrations were considered to be practically effective concentrations for cherry tomato at MG stage. The effective 1-MCP concentrations might provide a useful reference to the levels of ethylene receptors as well as ethylene sensitivity in a specific fruit at given development stage.

  4. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

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    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  5. Hypoglycaemic Effects of Dietary Intake of Ripe and Unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

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    A. M. Akinnuga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and unripe tomatoes have been implicated in prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer probably due to their antioxidant, antibiotic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Problem statement: This study was designed to investigate whether ripe and unripe tomatoes will have hypoglycaemic effect in a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus that has been characterized with hyperglycaemia. Approach: Twenty albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (2 control and 2 test groups of 5 rats each. The normal and diabetic control groups were given citrate buffer (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow and 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow respectively. The test groups were given 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin via intraperitoneal route and either a mixture of ripe or unripe tomato and normal rat chow. In all groups, the blood samples were obtained at the tail vein of the animals and the fasting blood glucose level were monitored and determined on the 1st, 3rd and 14th day of consumption of different feed combinations. Results: There was significant difference in blood glucose level in animals fed on ripe and unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato compared to the normal and diabetic control groups on the 3rd and 14th day without significant difference on the 1st day. Conclusion: Both high-lycopene ripe tomato and high-tomatine unripe tomato have hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mellitus at short period of dietary intake therefore this suggest that consumers may benefit by not only eating high-lycopene ripe tomatoes, but also high-tomatine unripe tomatoes.

  6. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosterna Edyta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was done on the effect of different types of organic mulches that were applied in form of straw to the soil mulching process, on the weed infestation, number, and fresh mass of weeds in broccoli cv. Milady F1 (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck and tomato cv. Polfast F1 (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. grown under polypropylene fibre as a covering, or grown without a covering. The different types of organic straw mulches were: rye (Secale cereale L., corn (Zea mays L., rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. napus, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.. All the organic mulches were applied at a dose of 10 t/ha. The effect of the mulches was compared to a control plot which had no mulch. The type of organic mulch applied to the soil mulching process influenced species composition, number, and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weeds species. Irrespective of the investigated factors, 24 and 25 weeds species, respectively, were observed immediately after cover removal and before broccoli and tomato harvest. In the first date of estimation Chenopodium album L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve, Stellaria media (L. Vill., and Viola tricolor L. dominated, however, before the vegetables were harvested Ch. album, V. tricolor, Veronica arvensis L., and E. crus-galli dominated. An application of polypropylene fibre contributed to an increase in the number and fresh mass of weeds in both vegetables in the first date of estimation (after cover removal. During this period, vegetables cannot compete with weeds. It is important to note, though, that before the vegetables were harvested, a decrease was found in the number and fresh mass of weeds in the covered plots. The most efficient weed limiter, both after cover removal and also before the broccoli and

  7. Experimental study on the rheological properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato%荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉凝胶特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小芳; 李小昱; 王为

    2006-01-01

    利用电子万能材料试验机对荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉的力学特性进行了研究.结果表明:在一定范围内,随着淀粉乳浓度的增加,荞麦、玉米、马铃薯的凝胶强度、弹性模量和凝胶弹性呈线性增加,但凝胶弹性变化较小;同一淀粉乳浓度下凝胶强度由高到低顺序为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,凝胶弹性为荞麦淀粉>玉米淀粉>马铃薯淀粉.在淀粉乳浓度为20%时,随着NaCl浓度增加,3种淀粉的凝胶强度均有一定程度增强.在同一NaCl浓度下,其凝胶强度为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,对凝胶弹性的影响不大.%The mechanical properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato were tested with All-purpose Electronic Tester. The test results show that the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of buckwheat starch, corn starch and potato starch increase linearly with the increase of starch concentration, while the increase trend of gel elasticity changes little. Under the condition of the same starch concentration, the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of three different starches behave in different orders: the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follows the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; while the gel elasticity of starch order is reverse, the first is buckwheat starch and the last is potato starch. When the starch concentration is 20%, the gel strengths of three starches increase with the increase of NaCl concentration. Under the condition of same NaCl concentration, the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follow the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; but it has little effect on gel elasticity.

  8. 新体系评价市售荞麦的营养及健康效应%Evaluation for Nutritional and Healthy Effects of Buckwheat&Prevention of Chronic Epidemics by Diets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 靳谨; 周岳; 沈秀; 龙伟; 吴红英; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    荞麦是我国传统杂粮之一, 本研究通过玉米低营养小鼠模型结合食品BDI-GS新体系进行荞麦营养健康效应的综合评价,用损益指数(BDI)及其累计积分(GS)考察荞麦摄取对机体重要脏器组织及微观血清生化指标的影响.以线性生长期健康的ICR小鼠为对象,设有玉米空白对照组,掺和8%、16%、32%荞麦组,喂养12 d后,称重并取血样、解剖,完整剖取9项脏器组织,并进行血清生化指标的分析检测.结果表明荞麦对机体胸腺、脾脏、胰腺指标的营养、健康存在有益的效应,表现在3个剂量的重量及系数BDI均高于1.0;且3个剂量荞麦实验组的累计GS值也均高于9.0(9项指标)的基本积分.表明低剂量下摄取荞麦对机体重要脏器组织有良好的营养和健康效应,可降低血糖、血脂.同时,可以控制体重增加对抗肥胖,对我国糖尿病、癌症等相关慢性流行病的预防,降低发病率具有积极的意义.%Buckwheat is one of traditional grain cereals, in this study, through low-nutritional mice model combined the BDI-GS evaluation system of food, nutritional and healthy effects of buckwheat were evaluated comprehensively, observe the influences of buckwheat intake for functions of vital organs and/or tissues by using approach of benefit-damage index (BDI) and accumulative general scores (GS), as well as microscope serum biochemical parameters. The healthy ICR male mice during the linear growth were selected as subject. Including of blank control mice fed with maize, 8%, 16%and 32%spiking buckwheat diets fed mice were designed in the study, respectively. After fed 12 days, took mice body weights and obtained blood samples, performed necropsy and excised perfectly 9 organs or tissues , record weights and calculated indices and their BDI values , as well as accumulative GS values, further detected the serum biochemical parameters. The buckwheat intake for indicators of thymus, spleen and pancreas in

  9. Effects of Different Light Intensities on the Main Physiological Characteristics of Buckwheat%不同光照强度对苦荞主要生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安虎

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究不同光照强度对苦荞主要生理特性的影响.[方法]以出苗后19 d的苦荞为试材,设置3种遮光方法(自然光强的80%、60%、40%),进行遮光处理,100%光强为对照,遮光后5 d在不同生育时期分别测定各处理叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率及茎叶和种子黄酮含量的变化,并通过SSR法进行分析比较.[结果]苦荞遮光后较短时间内,叶片叶绿素指数随光强的增加而降低,遮光后较长时间内,叶片叶绿素指数随光强的减弱而减弱;在现蕾期、开花结实期和成熟期,光照越强,苦荞叶片的净光合速率和叶、茎的黄酮含量越高,表现为:CK>80%光强>60%光强>40%光强,成熟期苦荞籽粒黄酮含量变化与此一致.[结论]光照强弱对苦荞的叶绿素指数、净光合速率和黄酮含量均具有较大的影响.%[Objective]The purpose was to study the effects of different light intensity on buckwheat.[Method]With buckwheat after seeding emergence for 19 d as the tested material, 3 shading treatments with the light intensity of 80%, 60% and 40% of nature light were sep up to treat on the buckwheat seedlings, with light intensity of 100% as CK.After the shading treatments for 5 d, the leaf chlorophyll contents index, the net photosynthetic rates and the flavone contents in stem-leaves and seeds of the buckwheat during different growth stages were measured, and they were analyzed and compared by SSR.[Result]The chlorophyll exponent of buckwheat leaves was reduced with the increase of light intensity in short time after shading treatments and it was weaken with the reduction of light intensity.The stronger the light intensity was, the higher the net photosynthetic rate in leaves and the flavone content in stem-leaves were in squaring, blooming and bearing and mature stages.Their performance for different shading treatments in order was CK > 80% light intensity > 60% light intensity > 40% light intensity.The flavone content in

  10. A Study on the Relational Model of Spring Buckwheat Yield and Climatic Conditions in Liangshan Prefecture%凉山州春苦荞产量与气候条件的关系及模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国照; 曹艳秋; 阮俊

    2014-01-01

    According to the spring buckwheat yield data of Liangshan Prefecture from 1999 to 2011 ,the main climatic factors and the critical periods influencing spring buckwheat yield were studied ,and climatic models of spring buckwheat yield for Liangshan Prefecture and 5 representative counties in it were estab-lished .The results showed that the critical periods in which the weather conditions influenced buckwheat yield differed with different regions .There were different forms with different times and different factors on buckwheat yield .Temperature was correlated with buckwheat yield positively in the early and middle growth periods of the crop and negatively in its late growth period .The daily range had its influence mainly in the late growth period .Sunshine was associated with yield positively in the early stage and negatively in the late grow th stage .Precipitation had a positive effect ,especially in the early grow th stage of the crop . Climatic and ecological models of buckwheat yield were established in this study for meteorological depart-ments to be used in their service of buckw heat yield forecast .%根据凉山州各县1999-2011年春苦荞产量资料,研究了影响凉山州春苦荞产量形成的主要气象因子和关键时段,建立了凉山州及冕宁、昭觉等5个代表县春苦荞产量的气候生态模型。结果表明:(1)不同区域气象条件对荞麦产量影响的关键时段不同。凉山全州(区域平均),气候条件影响的关键时段在荞麦生产的前期和中后期两个时段,其它各代表县的关键时段有的有3个时段,有的只有2个时段或者1个时段。(2)不同时段不同因子对荞麦产量的影响形式不同。荞麦生产的中前期温度与产量呈现正相关,而后期呈负相关;日较差的影响在后期,产量呈抛物线关系;日照与产量的关系前期为正,后期为负;降水量的影响主要在前期,与产量

  11. 荞麦芽的抗氧化作用及醛糖还原酶抑制作用的研究%Study on effects of antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibition of buckwheat sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李红梅; 李善姬; 林顺成; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    以萌发期为4,6,8,9,10 d的甜荞麦芽和苦荞麦芽(黑丰一号,坝上苦荞)为原料,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),探明荞麦芽在萌发过程中芦丁的变化趋势,同时观察荞麦芽的ABTS自由基的清除作用以及对大鼠晶状体醛糖还原酶(rAR)的抑制作用.结果表明:无论是甜荞还是苦荞,芦丁的含量都随发芽时间的延长而有所增加,同时黑丰一号苦荞对ABTS自由基的清除作用在萌发的第10天时达最大值(IC50=12.18 μg/mL),作用效果高于芦丁标准品(IC50=21.10 μg/mL), 但是低于对照物Trolox(IC 50 =3.89 μg/mL).坝上苦荞在萌发的第10天时对rAR抑制活性最大(IC 50=2.09 μg/mL),作用效果明显高于槲皮素(IC50=2.57 μg/mL)、芦丁标准品(IC50=4.90 μg/mL).所以萌发的荞麦芽均有一定的抗氧化作用,且对rAR有明显的抑制作用,可以作为醛糖还原酶抑制剂的良好来源.%The contents of rutin in the powders of buckwheat sprouts and tartary buckwheat sprouts ( Heifeng NO. 1, Bashang tartary buckwheat) germinated for 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 days were determined u-sing High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Meanwhile, observed the scavenging effects of ABTS free radical and the inhibi-tive effects of aldose reductase on rat lens (rAR). The results indicated that regardless of buckwheat sprouts and tartary buckwheat sprouts, the contents of rutin were increased with increasing the germination time. When Heifeng NO. 1 germination l0thd reaches the maximum value (IC50 = 12. 18 μg/mL) to the ABTS free radical scavenging action, the function effects is higher than rutin (IC50 = 21. 10 μg/mL) , but less than Trolox ( IC50 = 3. 89 μg/mL). When Bashang tartary buckwheat germination lOthd reaches the maximum value (IC50 = 2.09 μg/mL) on rAR inhibitory activity, the reduction energy is higher than quercetin ( IC50 = 2. 57 μg/mL) and rutin (/C50 = 4. 90 μg/mL). Therefore the germination of buckwheat sprouts has certain antioxidant effects, and

  12. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H2O2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (LeADC. LeADC1), ornithine decarboxylase (LeODC), and Spd synthase (LeSPDS) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (LeSAMDC) and Spm synthase (LeSPMS), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LeNCED1) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is concluded that, under chilling

  13. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Ppod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and

  14. Polyuronides in Avocado (Persea americana) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits Exhibit Markedly Different Patterns of Molecular Weight Downshifts during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D. J.; O'Donoghue, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruit experience a rapid and extensive loss of firmness during ripening. In this study, we examined whether the chelator solubility and molecular weight of avocado polyuronides paralleled the accumulation of polygalacturonase (PG) activity and loss in fruit firmness. Polyuronides were derived from ethanolic precipitates of avocado mesocarp prepared using a procedure to rapidly inactivate endogenous enzymes. During ripening, chelator (cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetic acid [CDTA])-soluble polyuronides increased from approximately 30 to 40 [mu]g of galacturonic acid equivalents (mg alcohol-insoluble solids)-1 in preripe fruit to 150 to 170 [mu]g mg-1 in postclimacteric fruit. In preripe fruit, chelator-extractable polyuronides were of high molecular weight and were partially excluded from Sepharose CL- 2B-300 gel filtration media. Avocado polyuronides exhibited marked downshifts in molecular weight during ripening. At the postclimacteric stage, nearly all chelator-extractable polyuronides, which constituted from 75 to 90% of total cell wall uronic acid content, eluted near the total volume of the filtration media. Rechromatography of low molecular weight polyuronides on Bio-Gel P-4 disclosed that oligomeric uronic acids are produced in vivo during avocado ripening. The gel filtration behavior and pattern of depolymerization of avocado polyuronides were not influenced by the polyuronide extraction protocol (imidazole versus CDTA) or by chromatographic conditions designed to minimize interpolymeric aggregation. Polyuronides from ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit extracted and chromatographed under conditions identical with those used for avocado polyuronides exhibited markedly less rapid and less extensive downshifts in molecular weight during the transition from mature-green to fully ripe. Even during a 9-d period beyond the fully ripe stage, tomato fruit polyuronides exhibited limited additional depolymerization and

  15. Study on GIS Based Ecological Zonation of Buckwheat Rutin Content%基于GIS的荞麦芦丁含量生态区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the correlation of buckwheat rutin content and meteorological factors were analyzed and combining with the geographical distribution information the major meteorological factors influencing rutin content were screened. The ecological zonation was evaluated using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technique. The results showed that the effect of varieties and ecological factors on rutin content was obvious, and temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours were the main ecological factors. The rutin content had positive correlation with rain fall in August and growing period sunshine hours and had the negative correlation with the mean temperature of middle ten days in August and the days of T > 30 t in July. Jinzhong city was divided into high, mid and low rutin content three planting zones using GIS, and the zonation was largely in line with the actual condition. The results could provide a reference for determining bases and regionalization, large-scale planting the high rutin content of buckwheat in Shanxi.%分析了荞麦芦丁含量与气象因子的关系,结合荞麦地理分布信息,筛选出影响芦丁含量的主要气象因子,利用Arc GIS软件的空间分析功能,对荞麦芦丁含量进行生态区划,并进行评述.结果表明,品种和生态区域对芦丁含量具有明显的影响,而温度、降水、日照时数是影响芦丁含量的主要生态因子.芦丁含量与8月上旬均温、7月大于30℃天数具有负相关性,与8月降水量、生育期日照时数具有正相关性.利用GIS对芦丁含量进行区划,将晋中市分为3个区,即高、中、低芦丁含量荞麦种植区,与实际状况基本符合.研究结果可为高芦丁含量养麦生产基地的确定和区域化、规模化种植提供参考.

  16. 荞麦边缘细胞对铝毒害的响应%Response of Root Border Cells to Aluminum Toxicity in Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑娜; 李诗佩; 毛玲玲; 郑怡; 徐根娣; 羊滨

    2011-01-01

    以江西荞麦(耐铝基因型)和内蒙荞麦(铝敏感基因型)为材料,采用悬空气培养法,研究Al3+时荞麦相对根长、原位和离体边缘细胞活性、黏液分泌量的影响.结果表明,AP"降低荞麦相对根长和边缘细胞活性.相同Al3+浓度处理下,附着于根尖的边缘细胞活性要大于离体边缘细胞.细胞黏液层厚度与Al3+浓度相关,且离体边缘细胞黏液层厚度要大于原位边缘细胞,耐铝品种中表现的更为明显.由此说明,荞麦边缘细胞在一定程度上能通过改变细胞活性和黏液层厚度对铝毒害做出适应性的反应.%The effect of Al toxicity on the reletive root length, the viability of the attached and detached root border cells and the production of mucilage of two buckwheat cultivars(Jiangxi and Neimeng) was studied using aeroponic culture method.Al stress could suppress root growth and the viability of root border cells of buckwheat.The viability of the root border cells clinging to the root tip was higher than that detached at same Al concentration.The thickness of mucilage layer was related to the Al concentration.and the layer of the attached root boeder cells was thicker than that of detached, especially in Altolerant cultivar (Jiangxi).These results indicated that border cells could make adaptive reaction to Al toxicitv by changingcell viability and producing of mucilage.

  17. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  18. 新型苦荞格瓦斯饮品的开发研究%Development of New-type Buckwheat Kvass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周剑丽; 张振; 杨国华; 覃引; 娄咏; 刘海林

    2015-01-01

    以贵州产苦荞为主要原料研究发酵格瓦斯饮料的生产工艺,最佳工艺参数为:发酵液最佳糖度为10°Bé,采用异步发酵法,乳酸菌最佳接种量为4%,37℃下发酵24 h,冷却至28℃,酵母菌最佳接种量为4%,28℃下发酵24 h。%Tartary buckwheat planted in Guizhou was used as raw materials to produce kvass. The best technical parameters were summed up as follows:sugar content of fermenting liquid was 10 °Bé, asynchronous fermentation method was adopted, the inoculation quantity of lactoba-cillus was 4%, 24 h fermentation at 37℃, then cooled to 28℃, the inoculation quantity of yeast was 4%, and finally 24 h fermentation at 28℃.

  19. 色选机在苦荞清理中的应用及研究%Application and Study of Color Sorter on Cleaning of Tartary Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽; 程江华; 闫晓明; 彭镰心

    2015-01-01

    介绍了ZK4型光电色选机的结构及工作原理,并探讨了对苦荞麦的色选效果。以色选机的色选精度和带出比作为评价指标,对色选机的工作参素进行了优化。色选精度达到100%,带出比随着含杂率的增大而增大,最终带出比达到1∶0.05。%This paper introduced the structure and working principle of ZK4 photoelectricity color sorting machine, and discussed the color sorting effect of tartary buckwheat. The working parameters of color sorting machine were optimized with color accuracy and color sorting out ratio as evalution indexes. The sorting accuracy reached 100%and the color sorting out ratio was increasing as the increase of trash content , the final color sorting out ratio could acheived 1∶0.05.

  20. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  1. Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

  2. Evaluation of biological nematicides on the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood at protected crops house in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fidel Fuentes Chaviano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. variety HA 3105 at the protected crops houses in Empresa Azucarera Melanio Hernández of Sancti Spiritus, located at the southwest of Tuinucú, from November 2009 to May 2010 with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of biological nematicides on the control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood. Three treatments were used: Agrocelhone, biological nematicide HeberNem and HeberNem + Trichoderma. Biological nematicides showed better results than Agrocelhone regarding the length of the leaf, the height of the plant, the yield of tomato and the control of nematodes HeberNem showed the best results in the control of the nematode, decreasing the infestation from degree V to degree II.

  3. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells.

  4. Modelo de producción de tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Mill usando como sustrato la mezcla cachaza-carbonilla en diferentes dosis de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial subproducts filter cake press and botton fly ash were used in mixtures (3:1 like sustratum for the tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Celebrity HF1 production. The trial constituted six treatments each one repeated three times. Half of treatments were sowed in the mixture and the other half in the soil, using three fertilization levels: 0, 300 and 600 kg/ha 18-18*-18. There were productions of 140, 158 and 178 ton/ha for the three fertilization levels using the filter press cake substate and 140, 143 and 160 t/ha tor the three fertilization levels in the soil. Such results are showing the excellent quality of the mixture filter cake press: coal dust (3:1 because of the similar results, which were obtained in one soil with excellent physics and chemical properties.

    Los subproductos industriales cachaza y carbonilla se utilizaron en mezcla (3:1 como sustrato para producción de tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Mili, Celebrity HF1. El experimento se diseñó en bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial; constó de seis tratamientos y tres repeticiones cada uno, la mitad de los tratamientos se sembró en la mezcla y la otra mitad en suelo, utilizándose tres niveles de fertilización: 0, 300 y 600 kg/Ha 18-18-18. Se obtuvieron producciones de 140, 158 y 178 ton/ha de tomate para los tres niveles de fertilización en el sustrato cachaza y 140, 143 y 160 para los tres niveles de fertilización en el suelo, lo que demuestra la excelente calidad de la mezcla cachaza: carbonilla (3:1, al obtenerse resultados similares al suelo de excelentes propiedades físicas y químicas.

     

  5. Optimization of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Increasing Technology in Buckwheat Seed by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化萌发荞麦γ-氨基丁酸含量的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 胡俊君; 李红梅; 陕方; 边俊生

    2013-01-01

    Germination can increase the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in buckwheat seed.After 60 h germination,soaking with a solution of ethanol and sodium glutamate increased more GABA content in buckwheat seed.The optimal concentration of ethanol,sodium glutamate and soaking time for GABA accumulation were determined by response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimal condition for GABA accumulation during soaking were a sodium glutamate concentration of 1.3 g/100 mL,ethanol concentration of 0.9% and treatment time of 61.3 h.Under these conditions the maximal observed value of GABA was 127.96 mg/100 g,which was 12.7 times of buckwheat seed.It was shown by a indicated that the quadratic polynomial regression model was extremely significant (P<0.0001) with the R2 of 0.9665 by ANOVA analysis.This study provided theoretical basis for high GABA buckwheat food further more.%萌发处理可提高荞麦籽粒中γ-氨基丁酸含量水平.将荞麦萌发60 h,用乙醇和谷氨酸钠混合溶液浸泡处理,可进一步提高荞麦中GABA含量.采用响应面分析法优化混合溶液的浓度、处理时间等条件,结果表明,最优条件:谷氨酸钠1.3%,乙醇0.9%,处理时间61.3 h,此时萌发荞麦的γ-氨基丁酸含量达127.96 mg/100g,是萌发前的12.7倍.ANOVA分析证实了该方程的预测值与实际值之间具有较好的拟和度(R2 =0.9665).本研究为开发高GABA含量的荞麦食品提供了理论依据.

  6. Response of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) during thermo-acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, Daymi; Martí, María del C; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Jiménez, Ana; Sevilla, Francisca

    2007-11-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Amalia were grown in a growth chamber under a photoperiod of 16 h light at 25 degrees C and 8 h dark at 20 degrees C. Five different treatments were applied to 30-day-old plants: Control treatment (plants maintained in the normal growth conditions throughout the experimental time), heat acclimation (plants exposed to 35 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), dark treatment (plants exposed to 25 degrees C for 4 h in dark for 3 days), heat acclimation plus heat shock (plants that previously received the heat acclimation treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light) and dark treatment plus heat shock (plants that previously received the dark treatment were exposed to 45 degrees C air temperature for 3 h in the light). Only the heat acclimation treatment increased the thermotolerance of the photosynthesis apparatus when the heat shock (45 degrees C) was imposed. In these plants, the CO(2) assimilation rate was not affected by heat shock and there was a slight and non-significant reduction in maximum carboxylation velocity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate contributing to Rubisco regeneration (J(max)). However, the plants exposed to dark treatment plus heat shock showed a significant reduction in the CO(2) assimilation rate and also in the values of V(cmax) and J(max). Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed increased thermotolerance in heat-acclimated plants. The values of maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (F(m)) were not modified by heat shock in these plants, while in the dark-treated plants that received the heat shock, the F(m) values were reduced, which provoked a significant reduction in the efficiency of photosystem II. A slight rise in the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found in the plants that had been subjected to both heat acclimation and heat shock, and this SOD activity was significantly higher than that found in the plants subjected to

  7. 渗透胁迫和盐胁迫对荞麦硝酸还原酶及亚硝酸还原酶活性的影响%Effects of Osmotic and Salt Stress on Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase Activities of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2013-01-01

    以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808和耐盐荞麦品种川荞1号为试验材料,采用NaCl和等渗PEG-6000处理,研究渗透胁迫和盐胁迫对不同耐盐性荞麦品种硝酸还原酶(NR)及亚硝酸还原酶(NiR)活性的影响.结果表明,高浓度盐胁迫下盐敏感荞麦品种叶片NR及NiR活性显著降低,而耐盐荞麦品种降低幅度相对较小,且高浓度盐胁迫下盐敏感荞麦品种叶片NR及NiR活性的降低幅度明显大于渗透胁迫的,说明Na+毒害效应发挥了主要作用.另外,两个荞麦品种叶片NR活性高低与其叶片硝酸盐含量呈正相关.%The salt-sensitive buckwheat variety (TQ-0808) and salt-tolerant buckwheat variety (Chuanqiao No.1)were used as experimental materials,which were treated with NaCl and iso-osmotic PEG-6000.The effects of osmotic and salt stress on nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity of buckwheat varieties with different salt tolerance were studied.The results showed that the nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity of leaves in salt-sensitive buckwheat variety were decreased significantly under the salt stress of high concentration,while that in salt-tolerant buckwheat variety were decreased relatively small,and that in salt-sensitive buckwheat variety under the salt stress of high concentration were obviously more than those under the osmotic stress.It indicated that ion toxicity effects of Na + play the major role.In addition,the level of nitrate reductase activity of leaves in two buckwheat varieties was positively correlated with the nitrate content of leaves.

  8. Breeding Report of A New Buckwheat Variety Dingtianqiao 2%优质荞麦新品种定甜荞2号选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 贾瑞玲; 魏立萍; 陈富

    2011-01-01

    Dingtianqiao 2 was a new buckwheat variety selected from mixed strains among the introduction of Japanese buckwheat grain varietie by Inner Mongolia.In 2005 — 2007,the average yield of Dingtianqiao 2 was 2 205.0 kg/hm2 and 12.8% higher than of the check Dingtianqiao 1 in three years 18 points(times) in region test of Dingxi city.The results showed that plant height was 80.8 cm,the number of branches was 4.4,grain weight per plant was 2.8 g,1000-grain weight was 30.2 g,growth period was 80 d.The results also indicationed that seed crude protein,crude starch,lysine,fat,rutin,moisture content were 136.6 g/kg,599.6 g/kg,14.3 g/kg,29.6 g/kg,30.3 g/kg,12.3%,respectively.In addition,it was resistance drought,barren,lodging,resistance to leaf spot.It is suitable to plant in the region of semi-arid areas of precipitation 350~600 mm,the district of 2 500 m above sea level in Dingxi,silver,Tianshui,Gansu and other cities,and mountainous areas in southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and other similar ecological areas.%荞麦新品种定甜荞2号是定西市旱作农业科研推广中心于2000年从内蒙古引进的日本大粒荞品种中经多年株选而成。2005—2007年在定西市区域试验中,3 a 18点(次)折合平均产量2 205.0 kg/hm2,较对照品种定甜荞1号增产12.8%。该品种株高80.8 cm,分枝数4.4个,单株粒重2.8 g,千粒重30.2 g,生育期80 d。籽粒含粗蛋白136.6 g/kg、粗淀粉599.6 g/kg、赖氨酸14.3 g/kg、粗脂肪29.6 g/kg、芦丁30.3 g/kg、水分12.3%。表现抗旱、耐瘠薄、抗倒伏、耐褐斑病。适宜在甘肃省中东部的定西、白银、天水、陇南等市降水量350~600 mm、海拔2 500 m以下的半干旱区及宁夏回族自治区南部山区同类生态区种植。

  9. Gamma radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) stored at room temperature and under refrigerated conditions; Efeito da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 em tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) armazenados em temperatura ambiente e refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Raquel Medeiros de Almeida

    1994-07-01

    This work was carried out in two distinct experiments. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) of the variety 'Santa Clara in the 'turning' stage (first experiment) and of the variety 'Santa Cruz' in the 'mature-green' stage (second experiment), were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source with doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 e 2.0 kGy, and stored at room temperature (20{+-}2 deg C) and under refrigeration (9 deg C). The aim of the experiments was to verify the effects of the gamma-radiation on the extension of the market life of tomatoes stored under two different temperatures. The following types of analysis were carried out: physical (weight and skin resistance), chemical (brix, pH), sensorial (general appearance, external coloration and firmness) and organoleptic (aroma and flavor), during 30 days of storage, with four evaluations. At the end of the experiment microbiologic and microscopic analyses of histological sections were also performed. In both experiments, occurred a greater loss of weight in the irradiated tomatoes in relation to the controls proportional to the increase in the period of storage, but not to the increase of doses. This effect was more pronounced in fruits stored at room temperature. Concerning the resistance, the fruits of the first experiment showed that irradiation causes softening of the fruit skin. This softening was proportional to the increase of doses, in the 1, 10 e 30th day, and also the fruits irradiated with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy showed a higher softening on both temperatures. In the second experiment, on both temperatures, the fruits showed an increase of skin resistance until the 10th day, which diminished until the 30th day. The content of soluble solids was altered by irradiation in the first experiment, and this resulted in a decrease of Brix proportional to the increase of dose. In the second experiment, the radiation induced a maximum Brix value at the 10th day in the fruits maintained under

  10. 荞麦皮粉中膳食纤维的制备工艺研究%Study on Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Buckwheat Brans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 郭翠翠

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber was extracted from buckwheat brans by alkaline hydrolysis method. The optimum extraction condition was found by single-factor and orthogonal experiment, and the properties of dietary fiber were also studied. The results showed that the optimum extraction condition was as follows: the temperature of alkaline hydrolysis 80 ℃, the concentration of NaOH 1.0%, the ratio of material to solution 1:16 (g/mL), and the time of alkaline hydrolysis 80 min. Under these conditions, the yield of dietary fiber was 20.39%. The water holding capacity of insoluble dietary fiber, swelling capacity, and solubility of soluble dietary fiber were 5.97 g/g, 7.4 mL/g and 96%, respectively.%以荞麦皮粉为原料,采用碱法提取膳食纤维,通过单因素及正交试验得出最佳提取工艺条件,并对所得膳食纤维进行性质测定.结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:碱解温度80℃,氢氧化钠质量分数1.0%,料液比1∶16(g/mL),碱解时间80 min.在此条件下膳食纤维得率为20.39%,水不溶性膳食纤维持水力为5.97 g/g,膨胀力为7.4 mL/g,水溶性膳食纤维溶解率为96%.

  11. On Vegetarian Noodles,Udon Noodles and Buckwheat Noodles of Japan%略说日本的素面、乌冬面和荞麦面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波

    2014-01-01

    面条类的食物大约在8世纪初随佛教从中国传入日本,起初的名称曰,索饼或麦绳,镰仓时代的后期出现了索面的名称,以后逐渐改写为素面。约在16世纪末,在西部和东部分别产生了乌冬面和荞麦面,在江户中期,随着酱油的普及,这两种面类逐渐演变成具有浓郁东瀛色彩的传统日本食物。本文依据文献和作者的个人体验,对传统日本面类的发生和发展作了较为详尽的叙述。%Noodles came to Japan from China in the earth 8th century with Buddhism. First there were only vegetarian noodles. Then in the late 16 th century,people in wes