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Sample records for buckwheat fagopyrum esculentum

  1. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  2. Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fagopyrum esculentum) alone or in combination with chitosan, in broiler diets, on the growth, feed intake and serum lipid profile of broilers. Starting as 10-day olds, 144 Cobb 500 broiler chicks were fed six manually prepared diets containing ...

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum.

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    Kwang-Soo Cho

    Full Text Available We report the chloroplast (cp genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats and F. esculentum (one repeat, and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  4. Dietary effects of chitosan and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sohel

    2015-11-04

    Nov 4, 2015 ... esculentum) alone or in combination with chitosan, in broiler diets, on the growth, feed intake and ..... Body weight gain was calculated by subtracting the body weight at the beginning of the week from the ..... Asian Austral.

  5. Efficiency of Different Nitrogen Forms in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Burhan Kara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with aim to determination the efficient of nitrogen forms (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea on nitrogen use efficient for buckwheat in Isparta during 2014 and 2015 years. All the examined characteristics were determined higher values in applied nitrogen forms according to non-nitrogen parcel. In compared to nitrogen forms, the highest grain yield (1456 and 1325 kg ha-1, biological yield (4873 and 4512 kg ha-1, 1000 grain weight (24.9 and 24.8 g, agronomic efficient (24.96% and 24.25%, recycling efficient (0.24% and 0.22% and utilization efficient (0.25% and 0.18% were obtained from ammonium sulfate, the highest protein content (11.37% and 12.44% and agro-physiological efficient (0.27% and 0.24% from ammonium nitrate in both years. Among the nitrogen forms weren’t significant differently in physiological efficient in both years, recycling and utilization efficient in the first year. The mineral nutrient content varied according to nitrogen forms. Generally, ammonium sulfate was positive effect to yield and some quality parameters.

  6. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

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    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  7. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

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    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  8. Effect of microbiological fertilizer and soil additive on yield of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moenchunder high altitude conditions

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    Oljača Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol and soil additives (zeolite and hydrogel on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench yield was investigated in this paper. Trial was set up in the village of Radijevići, Serbia in agroecological conditions of mountain Zlatar (altitude 1,065 m during a two-year period 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with four replications was set up. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Different combinations of the microbiological fertilizer and the soil additives gave positive results especially in the second year of the trial. The best combination in organic cropping system was Slavol+hydrogel with foliar application of the microbiological fertilizer, which resulted in the greatest yield of buckwheat and this treatment can be recommended to producers. Buckwheat performed very well under limited conditions of acidic soil on high altitude in organic cropping system and it can be recommended as a very suitable crop for organic producers.

  9. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  10. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  11. Occurence of eugenol, coniferyl alcohol and 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenol in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2011), s. 1679-1685 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Fagopyrum esculentum * Phenolic compound * Weed * GC-MS analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  12. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

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    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  13. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

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    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum

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    Jianglin Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile oils (VOs from the flowers of three buckwheat species, Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum cymosum. The VOs were obtained from the fresh buckwheat flowers by hydrodistillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nonanoic acid (7.58%, (E-3-hexen-1-ol (6.52%, and benzothiazole (5.08% were the major constituents among the 28 identified components which accounted for 92.89% of the total oil of F. esculentum. 2-Pentadecanone (18.61%, eugenol (17.18%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl ester (13.19%, and (E,E-farnesylacetone (7.15% were the major compounds among the 14 identified components which accounted for 88.48% of the total oil of F. tataricum. Eugenol (12.22%, (E-3-hexen-1-yl acetate (8.03%, linalool oxide (7.47%, 1-hexanol (7.07%, and benzothiazole (6.72% were the main compounds of the 20 identified components which accounted for 90.23% of the total oil of F. cymosum. The three VOs were screened to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranged from 100.0 μg/mL to 800.0 μg/mL against the tested bacteria, and their median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were from 68.32 μg/mL to 452.32 μg/mL. Xanthomonas vesicatoria was the most sensitive bacterium. Moreover, the flower VOs of F. esculentum, F. tataricum and F. cymosum also exhibited noteworthy antioxidant capacity with the IC50 value of 354.15 μg/mL, 210.63 μg/mL, and 264.92 μg/mL for the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and the value of 242.06 μg/mL, 184.13 μg/mL, and 206.11 μg/mL respectively for the β-carotene-linoleic bleaching test. These results suggested the volatile oils of buckwheat flowers could be potential resource of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  15. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  16. Level of Catechin, Myricetin, Quercetin and Isoquercitrin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), Changes of Their Levels during Vegetation and Their Effect on The Growth of Selected Weeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 2719-2725 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * buckwheat * catechin * quercetin * myricetin * weed Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  17. Fagopyrum esculentum Alters Its Root Exudation after Amaranthus retroflexus Recognition and Suppresses Weed Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  18. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Buckwheat: a crop from outside the major Chinese domestication centres? A review of the archaeobotanical, palynological and genetic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Harriet Vaughan; Shang, X; Jones, Martin Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The two cultivated species of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and F. tataricum (Tartary buckwheat) are Chinese domesticates whose origins are usually thought to lie in upland southwestern China, outside the major centres of agricultural origins associated with rice and millet. Synthesis of the macro- and microfossil evidence for buckwheat cultivation in China found just 26 records across all time periods, of which the majority are pollen finds. There are few or no identifyi...

  20. Transcriptomic identification of salt-related genes and de novo assembly in common buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi-Huan; Wang, Ya-Qi; Song, Jin-Nan; Yang, Hong-Bing

    2018-06-01

    Common buckwheat (F. esculentum), annually herbaceous crop, is prevalent in people's daily life with the increasing development of economics. Compared with wheat, it is highly praised with high content of rutin and flavonoid. Common buckwheat is recognized as healthy food with good taste, and the product price of which such as noodles, flour, bread and so on are higher than wheat, and the seeds of which are bigger than that of tartary buckwheat, so if common buckwheat are planted more widely, people will spend less money on this healthy and delicious food. However, soil salinity has been a giant problem for agriculture production. The cultivation of salt tolerant crop varieties is an effective way to make full use of saline alkali land, and the highest salinity that the common buckwheat can sow is at 6.0%, so we chose 100 mM as the concentration of NaCl for treatment. Then we conducted transcriptome comparison between control and treatment groups. Potential regulatory genes related salt stress in common buckwheat were identified. A total of 29.36 million clean reads were produced via an illumina sequencing approach. We de novo assembled these reads into a transcriptome dataset containing 43,772 unigenes with N50 length of 1778 bp. A total of 26,672 unigenes could be found matches in public databases. GO, KEGG and Swiss-Prot classification suggested the enrichment of these unigenes in 47 sub-categories, 25 KOG and 129 pathways, respectively. We got 385 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after comparing the transcriptome data between salt treatment and control groups. There are some genes encoded for responsing to stimulus, cell killing, metabolic process, signaling, multi-organism process, growth and cellular process might be relevant to salt stress in common buckwheat, which will provide a valuable references for the study on mechanism of salt tolerance and will be used as a genetic information for cultivating strong salt tolerant common buckwheat varieties in

  1. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

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    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  2. Biologically Active Substances in Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum L. Cul- tivated in Mongolia

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    S. Badamtsetseg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From thoroughly air-dried samples of buckwheat plant, we revealed a biochemical composition of 14 components. By thin layer chromatography and quantitative analysis methods we showed that buck- wheat has 7 kinds of alkaloids with one dominating alkaloid, and the total weight of all alkaloids equals 0.05%. We also determined the aboveground parts of buckwheat contain the following substances: rutin- 3.14%, fat-0.91%, protein-8.23%, carbohydrate-18.52%, monosaccharide-0.37%, disaccharides-1.11%, vitamin C-0.02%, ash-10.57%, acidity-0.05, carotine-15.6mg, cellulose-40.8%, tannin-1.70%, soluble pectins-0.266%, insoluble pectins-0.507%, total amount of alkaloids-0.05%.

  3. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  4. Distribution of Vitamin E, Squalen, Epicatechin, and Rutin in Common Buckwheat Plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 15 (2006), s. 5330-5335 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP521/03/D076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : α-Tocopherol * developmental changes * epicatechin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2006

  5. Initial density affects biomass – density and allometric relationships in self-thinning populations of Fagopyrum esculentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Weiner, Jacob; Zhou, Daowei

    2013-01-01

    and the biomass–density trajectory, we grew Fagopyrum esculentum populations at three high densities and measured shoot biomass, density and the height and diameter of individual plants at six harvests. * Initial density did not affect the slope of the log biomass–log density relationship, but there was a clear...... by the biomass density: the relationship between mass and volume. Initial density could affect this by altering allometric growth in a way that influences architectural compactness. An alternative hypothesis is that competition at higher initial density is more size symmetric, which has been shown to reduce...

  6. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

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    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  7. De Novo Assembly and Analysis of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Garetn. Transcriptome Discloses Key Regulators Involved in Salt-Stress Response

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    Qi Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization has been a tremendous obstacle for agriculture production. The regulatory networks underlying salinity adaption in model plants have been extensively explored. However, limited understanding of the salt response mechanisms has hindered the planting and production in Fagopyrum tataricum, an economic and health-beneficial plant mainly distributing in southwest China. In this study, we performed physiological analysis and found that salt stress of 200 mM NaCl solution significantly affected the relative water content (RWC, electrolyte leakage (EL, malondialdehyde (MDA content, peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in tartary buckwheat seedlings. Further, we conducted transcriptome comparison between control and salt treatment to identify potential regulatory components involved in F. tataricum salt responses. A total of 53.15 million clean reads from control and salt-treated libraries were produced via an Illumina sequencing approach. Then we de novo assembled these reads into a transcriptome dataset containing 57,921 unigenes with N50 length of 1400 bp and total length of 44.5 Mb. A total of 36,688 unigenes could find matches in public databases. GO, KEGG and KOG classification suggested the enrichment of these unigenes in 56 sub-categories, 25 KOG, and 273 pathways, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome expression patterns between control and salt treatment unveiled 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Further, we found the genes encoding for protein kinases, phosphatases, heat shock proteins (HSPs, ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, abiotic-related transcription factors and circadian clock might be relevant to the salinity adaption of this species. Thus, this study offers an insight into salt tolerance mechanisms, and will serve as useful genetic information for tolerant elite breeding programs in future.

  8. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 157, 15 Aug (2014), s. 380-384 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11016 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Common buckwheat * Exudates * Seeds * Germination * Phenolic compounds inhibition * Rutin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2014

  9. Effects of Sowing Date, Planting Pattern and Nitrogen Levels on Leaf and Flower Essential Oil, Yield and Component Yield Grain of Buckwheat (Fagopyroum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Sobhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Buckwheat which has been scientifically named Fagopyrum esculentum can be considered as a yearling broad-leaved plant belonging to the family of Polygonaceae which is known as false Cereal. Its seeds are in use as a nutritional and medicinal product that is due to the rutin content of them. As the population is rapidly increasing worldwide, a solution must be found to supply necessary food. What agriculture science is responsible for is to produce more products with better quality in order to meet this increasing population’s needs so that food poverty and starvation are more likely to be removed and keep food safety. Considering the fact that buckwheat is of a variety of medical, industrial and food applications and in our country and some other ones, it has not been seriously cultivated, this plant must be used as a new plant and it should be extensively applied in multiple planting systems (summer planting for commercial goals through producing seeds while its nutritional value is more than grain and it can be regarded as a rich source of high quality protein, amino acid necessary for lysine, high starch percent, minerals and vitamins for different applications involving cake flour, frumenty and soup and improving the optimal rate of rutin as a secondary metabolite having effective medical features concerning our country’s climatic conditions. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of sowing date, planting patterns and nitrogen on leaf and flower rutin, yield and yield component of Buckwheat plant, a field study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Agricultural Research Institute of Arak, Iran. The experimental design was regarded as the randomized complete block design in the form of split plot factorial with three replications. Planting treatments as the fundamental elements may be implemented at two levels including the mounds with the width of 50 cm associated with two planting rows regarding the

  10. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

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    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  11. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  12. A randomized, controlled, crossover study of appetite-related sensations after consuming snacks made from buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Danielle M; Petkau, Jay C; Gregor, Terri; Blewett, Heather

    2018-02-01

    With the rising incidence of overweight and obesity in developed countries, there is an interest in developing food products that may aid in satiety and reduce energy intake. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a gluten-free edible seed that has been previously shown to induce changes in postprandial concentrations of satiety hormones; however, subjective measures of appetite-related sensations and objective measures of energy intake at subsequent meals following buckwheat consumption have not been measured. Thirty-eight healthy adults were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial with the main objective to determine if consuming snacks made from buckwheat would increase satiety and reduce energy intake compared with snacks comparable in serving size, physical characteristics, and nutrient composition. Water was included as a no-kilocalorie control. Participants received each of the treatments once separated by at least 7 days. Appetite related sensations were assessed using visual analog scales at fasting and after consuming the snack at 30-min intervals for 180 min. Lunch was provided at the clinic and the amount of food consumed was weighed. Participants recorded food intake for the rest of the day. Consuming buckwheat groats (32 g serving; 141 kcal) or pita bread made from buckwheat flour (50 g serving; 135 kcal) was not associated with changes in appetite related sensations or energy consumption compared with reference snack products made from corn or rice flour. Sensory questionnaires revealed that snacks made from buckwheat were liked to a similar degree or more as reference snack products, which shows commercial promise for developing buckwheat-containing snacks.

  13. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  14. Time-course study and effects of drying method on concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid, flavonoids, anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine in leaves of buckwheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Watanabe, Masami; Iki, Makiko; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mukasa, Yuji; Yokota, Satoshi; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Matsuura-Endo, Chie

    2009-01-14

    Concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), rutin, minor flavonoids (such as orientin), anthocyanin, and 2''-hydroxynicotianamine (2HN) were quantified in the leaves of common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., respectively), at 14, 28, and 42 days after sowing (DAS). GABA and rutin concentrations peaked at 42 DAS, whereas anthocyain, 2HN, and minor flavonoid concentrations declined with the age of the plants. However, at 42 DAS, anthocyanin concentrations in the leaves of tartary buckwheat Hokkai T10 leaves were at least 10-fold greater than in the other buckwheats tested. In addition, the effects on target compound concentrations and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of three different drying methods (20 h at 40 degrees C, 7 h at 70 degrees C, or lyophilization) were investigated. In general, the drying method had no significant effect on the parameters tested. These results indicate that, in terms of GABA, rutin, and anthocyanin concentrations, leaf powder from 42 day old Hokkai T10 has the potential to be a useful food ingredient, such as Ao-jiru juice.

  15. The prebiotic and protective effects of buckwheat flour and oat bran on Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VASILE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.

  16. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  17. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  18. Genetic relationships among buckwheat (Fagopyrum) species from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... from southwest China based on chloroplast and nuclear. SSR markers ..... A similarity matrix was calculated separately based on. cpSSR and nSSR ... The research was supported by International Cooperation Projects from Science and ... 2003 Genetic structure and reproduction dynamics of Salix reinii.

  19. The use of Fagopyrum tataricum gaertn. whole flour to confer preventive contents of rutin to some traditional tuscany biscuits

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    Andrea BRUNORI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing interest for new foods that may be regarded as functional aliments, of particular interest appears the utilization of the grain of Fagopyrum tataricum. The high content of rutin available in the grain and whole flour of this species, in fact, offers the opportunity to introduce in the food recipes effective amounts of this bioactive compound. Rutin is credited with a growing multiplicity of health beneficial properties that can be reasonablysecured through the preventive nutrition approach. In this respect, the daily dose of rutin suggested by most dietary supplement preparations is around 50 mg/day. The use of F. tataricum whole flour, where the rutin content usually ranges between 1000 up to 2000 mg/100 g dry weight, allows to reach such an amount with a low percentage introduction of this ingredient in the original recipe. Higher contents of rutin are found in the herb of cultivated species of buckwheat (F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, the handling of this material may not be as simple as that of the grain made into whole flour. Preliminary results would indicate that an intake of 50 mg of rutin with a single meal (breakfast in this case can be feasible by adding tartary buckwheat whole flour to some traditional Tuscany biscuits without impairing texture, taste and acceptability.In spite of the presence of rutin degrading enzymes, known to be present in tartary buckwheat grain, it would appear that just a negligible degradation of rutin to quercetin occurs during the phase of dough preparation and backing process so that most of the rutin present in the whole flour can be recovered in the biscuits.

  20. Recent Progress in Perennial Buckwheat Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Fu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grains in the genus Fagopyrum have benefits to human health and are an excellent gluten-free raw material. Of all cereal foods, this genus has the highest total content of amino-acid nutrients necessary for humans; nutrients that are resistant to digestion (protein and starch resulting in their sustained release; higher dietary fiber content than key cereals, and is rich in a special healthy ingredient (flavonoids. Fagopyrum includes 24 species of which five are perennial. Among them, golden buckwheat (F.cymosum complex is the most important perennial buckwheat, which is not only used in Chinese medicine, but also has great potential in healthy food crop. In order to provide some clues for perennial crop studies and their industry development, this paper presents the state of perennial buckwheat research in terms of taxonomy; natural chemical products and pharmacological and health functions; genetics and evolution; breeding; and product development and utilization. The great advances such as successful interspecific crossing and its subsequent new perennial buckwheat varieties will speed up the development of the perennial buckwheat industry.

  1. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  2. Morphological characterization and estimation of genotype * environment interaction of indigenous buckwheat germplasm collected from Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facho, Z.H.; Tarhatullah, A.; Khalil, I.H.; Ali, S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-year study (2011 and 2012) was conducted at two locations (Skardu and Ghanche) of Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan to characterize and estimate genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for 20 buckwheat genotypes collected from 18 locations of Gilgit - Baltistan, Pakistan. The GE interaction was studied using a set of six quantitative descriptors. Wide range of variations was recorded for flowering, maturity, plant height, 1000 grain weight, grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. Significant differences in locations for all traits were recorded. Years * locations interactions was also significant (p= 0.05) for all traits except grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. Similarly, genotype * location * year interaction existed for most of the traits except plant height, grains plant-1 and grain yield ha-1. The genotype Sh-914 (29.91 g) excelled in 1000-grain weight, followed by Rd-915 (27.04 g). Maximum grains plant-1 were produced by Sh-914 (323.62) followed by the genotype Gh-918 (229.16). Maximum grain yield of 2010.27 kg ha-1 was produced by genotype Sh-914, followed by the genotype Gh-918 (1910.40 kg ha-1). Days to flowering, days to maturity, and 1000 grain weight were the major contributors towards genetic divergence among the buckwheat genotypes. Moderate to high estimates of broad-sense heritability and selection response were observed for traits at two test locations. Cluster analysis based on morphological and yield related traits classified buckwheat genotypes of two species (Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum) into three main groups. The clustering pattern revealed that genotypes collected from the same location were grouped into different clusters. Data obtained on the basis of Dendrogram showed differences for various phenological and yield traits among buckwheat genotypes. Buckwheat genotypes Sh-914 and Gh-918 performed well at Skardu and Sh-914 and Rd-915 at Ghanche. The information on the existing genetic variability for morphological and yield

  3. Morphological, physiological, cytological and phytochemical studies in diploid and colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin; Wen, Pei-Cai; Du, Jia-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. Results Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jink...

  4. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor with helical hairpin structure belongs to a new family of plant defence peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Peter B; Mineev, Konstantin S; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Arseniev, Alexander S; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2012-08-15

    A new peptide trypsin inhibitor named BWI-2c was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by sequential affinity, ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The peptide was sequenced and found to contain 41 amino acid residues, with four cysteine residues involved in two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant BWI-2c identical to the natural peptide was produced in Escherichia coli in a form of a cleavable fusion with thioredoxin. The 3D (three-dimensional) structure of the peptide in solution was determined by NMR spectroscopy, revealing two antiparallel α-helices stapled by disulfide bonds. Together with VhTI, a trypsin inhibitor from veronica (Veronica hederifolia), BWI-2c represents a new family of protease inhibitors with an unusual α-helical hairpin fold. The linker sequence between the helices represents the so-called trypsin inhibitory loop responsible for direct binding to the active site of the enzyme that cleaves BWI-2c at the functionally important residue Arg(19). The inhibition constant was determined for BWI-2c against trypsin (1.7×10(-1)0 M), and the peptide was tested on other enzymes, including those from various insect digestive systems, revealing high selectivity to trypsin-like proteases. Structural similarity shared by BWI-2c, VhTI and several other plant defence peptides leads to the acknowledgement of a new widespread family of plant peptides termed α-hairpinins.

  5. Uptake of various trace elements during germination of wheat, buckwheat and quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintschinger, J; Fuchs, N; Moser, H; Jäger, R; Hlebeina, T; Markolin, G; Gössler, W

    1997-01-01

    The practice of sprouting is widely used to improve the nutritional value of grain seeds. Several nutritive factors such as vitamin concentrations and bioavailability of trace elements and minerals increase during germination. The objective of this work was to study the enrichment of various essential trace elements during germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds in order to improve their nutritional role as a source of bioavailable trace elements. Seeds were sprouted either in distilled- or tap-water and in five different electrolyte solutions to investigate the concentration-dependent uptake. The time-dependence was investigated by analyzing aliquots of the sprouts after certain germination periods. Samples were analyzed after freeze drying for their Li, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, As and Se concentrations with inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a control for possible changes in the biochemical metabolism of the sprouts, the biosynthesis of vitamin C was also determined by using reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC. It was shown that quinoa was the most resistant to the applied electrolyte solutions and had the highest uptake rates for almost all elements, followed by buckwheat and wheat. Greatest increases were observed for Co, Sr, and Li. No significant changes in vitamin C biosynthesis were observed between sprouts grown in different electrolyte solutions. The time-dependent uptake for most elements was characterized by a significant absorption during soaking of the seeds, followed by a lag phase during the first day of germination and an increased uptake during the second and third day. Se and As showed distinctly different uptake behaviors.

  6. The influence of organic and conventional crop management, variety and year on the yield and flavonoid level in common buckwheat groats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2011), s. 602-608 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Fagopyrum esculentum * Rutin * Epicatechin * Catechin * Epicatechin gallate * Yield * TGW * Organic farming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.655, year: 2011

  7. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  8. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  9. Effects of Maillard reaction on allergenicity of buckwheat allergen Fag t 3 during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Huang; Li, Chen; Li, Yu-Ying; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Fag t 3 is a major allergenic protein in tartary buckwheat. The Maillard reaction commonly occurs in food processing, but few studies have been conducted on the influence of thermal processing on the allergenic potential of buckwheat allergen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of autologous plant polysaccharides on the immunoreactivity of buckwheat Fag t 3 (11S globulin) following the Maillard reaction. Fag t 3 and crude polysaccharides were prepared from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) flour. After heating, the polysaccharides were covalently linked to Fag t 3 via a Maillard reaction, and the IgE/IgG-binding properties of Fag t 3 decreased dramatically, with significant changes also being observed in the electrophoretic mobility, secondary structure and solubility of the glycated Fag t 3. The great influence of glycation on IgE/IgG binding to Fag t 3 was correlated with a significant change in the structure and epitopes of the allergenic protein. These data indicated that conjugation of polysaccharides to Fag t 3 markedly reduced the allergen's immunoreactivity. Glycation that occurs via the Maillard reaction during the processing of buckwheat food may be an efficient method to reduce Fag t 3 allergenicity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya-Di; Luo, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Wang, De-Zhou; Zhang, Ye-Dong; Shao, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Tang, Yu

    2013-02-01

    The rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) was isolated and purified from tartary buckwheat seeds. The RDE was purified about 11.34-fold and its final yield was 3.5%, which was very low, due to our purification strategy of giving priority to purity over yield. The RDE molecular weight was estimated to be about 60 kDa. When rutin was used as substrate, an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 5.0 and 40 °C. Strains isolation strategy characterized by the use of rutin as sole carbon source in enrichment cultures was used to isolate RDE-producing strains. Then the active strains were identified by morphology characterization and 18s rDNA-ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) gene sequencing. Three isolates coded as B3, W2, Y2 were successfully isolated from fusty Fagopyrum tataricum flour cultures. Strain B3 possessed the highest unit activity among these three strains, and its total activity reached up to 171.0 Unit. The active isolate (B3) could be assigned to Penicillium farinosum. When the Penicillium farinosum strains were added to tartary buckwheat flour cultures at pH 5.0, 30 °C after 5 days fermentation, the quercetin production raised up to 1.78 mg/l, almost 5.1 times higher than the fermentation without the above active strains. Hence, a new approach was available to utilize microorganism-aided fermentation for effective quercetin extraction from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  12. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  13. Morphological, physiological, cytological and phytochemical studies in diploid and colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin; Wen, Pei-Cai; Du, Jia-Ying

    2017-12-01

    Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jinku 2#, Chuanqiao 1#, and Liuqiao 1# were selected to experiment. The tips of seedlings with two true leaves were treated by 0.25% (w/v) colchicine solution for 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. The chromosome number of treated plants was determined by metaphase chromosome counting of root tip cells and PMCs (pollen mother cells) meiosis observation. Tetraploid induction successfully occurred in all three treatments with an efficiency ranging from 12.13 to 54.55%. The chromosome number of the diploid plants was 2n = 2x = 16, and that of the induced tetraploid plants was 2n = 4x = 32. The typical morphological and physiological qualities were compared between the control diploid and corresponding induced tetraploid plants. Results showed that the induced tetraploid plants had obviously larger leaves, flowers, and seeds. Moreover, the content of seed protein and flavonoid were also increased in the tetraploid plants. The pollen diameter and capsule size of diploid plants were significantly smaller than those of tetraploid plants. Fagopyrum tataricum can be effectively induced into tetraploids by colchicines. The tetraploid induction can produce valuable germplasm resources for breeding and is a practicable breeding way in F. tataricum.

  14. Calcium oxalate druses affect leaf optical properties in selenium-treated Fagopyrum tataricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Aleksandra; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Kreft, Ivan; Hočevar, Anja; Gaberščik, Alenka; Germ, Mateja

    2018-03-01

    Plants of the genus Fagopyrum contain high levels of crystalline calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits, or druses, that can affect the leaf optical properties. As selenium has been shown to modify the uptake and accumulation of metabolically important elements such as calcium, we hypothesised that the numbers of druses can be altered by selenium treatment, and this would affect the leaf optical properties. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) was grown outdoors in an experimental field. At the beginning of flowering, plants were foliarly sprayed with sodium selenate solution at 10 mg selenium L -1 or only with water. Plant morphological, biochemical, physiological and optical properties were examined, along with leaf elemental composition and content. Se spraying did not affect leaf biochemical and functional properties. However, it increased leaf thickness and the contents of Se in the leaves, and decreased the density of calcium oxalate druses in the leaves. Except Se content, Se spraying did not affect contents of other elements in leaves, including total calcium per dry mass of leaf tissue. Redundancy analysis showed that of all parameters tested, only the calcium oxalate druses parameters were significant in explaining the variability of the leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra. The density of CaOx druses positively correlated with the reflectance in the blue, green, yellow and UV-B regions of the spectrum, while the area of CaOx druses per mm 2 of leaf transection area positively correlated with the transmittance in the green and yellow regions of the spectrum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Ohhinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation at 0.2∼0.4 Mrad and condition for processing of buckwheat noodles on sensory quality and physical properties were investigated. The results were as follows: (1) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles, prepared with the 70 % ratio of buckwheat flour, was decreased according to an increase of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour. Hardness and adhesiveness of buckwheat noodles caused by irradiation should be given large effect to the texture. Elasticity of buckwheat noodles was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and elasticity of buckwheat noodles was decreased about 15 % by an increase of irradiation dose at 0.3 Mrad. (2) Maximum torque in Farinograph test was linearly decreased with increasing of irradiation dose of buckwheat flour, and maximum torque was decreased about 3 % by increasing of irradiation dose with 0.1 Mrad. (3) Sensory evaluation was also decreased by increasing content of irradiated buck wheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in noodles. Elasticity was increased and deflection was decreased with increasing of the ratio of irradiated buckwheat flour. (4) Sensory evaluation of buckwheat noodles was changed by water contents in buckwheat noodles. The best evaluation was obtained in the ratio of water added at 32 % and 30 % irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad in processing of buckwheat noodles. Maximum stress and elasticity at the bending test of a circular plate were decreased 20 or 10 % by increase with 2 % contents of water added. (author)

  17. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  18. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  19. Contribution to the study of rutin stability in the achenes of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová Pexová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 258, aug (2018), s. 314-320 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : hexane * lyophilisation * methanol * quercetin * rutin-degradating enzyme * temperature Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  20. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Ohhinata, Hirosi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake; Ito, Hitosi; Isigaki, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of water activity and storage temperature on the extension of shelf-life of buckwheat noodles were investigated by enumeration of microorganisms prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad. The results were as follows: (1) The number of microorganisms in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was 10 3 (cells/g). Microorganisms as in buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad showed almost the same level. (2) The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles was extended by the combination of low storage temperature and lower water activity. The shelf-life of buckwheat noodles (water activity 1.0) prepared from non-irradiated buckwheat flour was about 2 days at 5degC, and about 7 days at 0degC. When buckwheat noodles were prepared from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad, its shelf-life was extended about 7 days at 5degC, and 30 days at 0degC. At a water activity of 0.95, the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.3 Mrad was extended to about 14 days at 5degC. At a water activity of 0.9 the shelf-life of buckwheat noodles from irradiated flour at 0.3 Mrad were extended to about 30 days at 5degC. (author)

  1. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 152/2009. A modified version of Holt’s Method was used for phytic acid (phytate determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The content of crude protein in buckwheat flours was about 14%. The highest amount of phytate was found in common beans and soybeans-about 2 g/100 g of dry matter. On the other hand, the lowest phytate content was observed in buckwheat pasta (F. esculentum groats was 1.9 g per 100 g of dry matter. In vitro digestibility was determined using an incubator Daisy and pepsin enzymes and the combination of pepsin and pancreatin. The highest coefficient of crude protein digestibility was discovered to be in peels and wholemeal flour. The greatest fibre digestibility coefficients were obtained for peels, which contain about 65% of fibre in their dry matter. When pepsin was used, a higher phytic acid digestibility coefficient for G. max, Ph. vulgaris, peels, flour, groats and broken groats was observed; while when the combination of pepsin and pancreatin was used, higher phytic acid digestibility coefficients for peas, lentil and wholemeal flour were observed.

  2. Plant guide: Parsnipflower buckwheat: Eriogonum heracleoides Nutt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Dan Ogle; Loren St. John

    2007-01-01

    Parsnipflower buckwheat is a perennial forb to subshrub with a branching woody stem. Leaves are covered with dense white hairs making the herbage appear a light green to blue-grayish color. The flowers are a creamy-yellow color and have six petals which are borne in simple or compound umbels. Plants of parsnipflower buckwheat can be distinguished from other closely...

  3. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  4. Analysis of buckwheat production in the world and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2010-2011 about 2.113 million ha of buckwheat was sown annually worldwide. Average yield of buckwheat during the monitored period was 913 kg ha-1. Areas and average yield have a rising tendency. The most significant producers of buckwheat in the world are: China, Russia and Ukraine. In Serbia buckwheat is produced on small areas. The paper presents results of testing of four buckwheat varieties, produced on plots of the Institute for crops and vegetables as follows: Novosadska, Godijevo, Bamby and Češka. Analysis of average yield has shown that Novosadska variety produced statistically significant higher yield (2626 kg ha-1 compared to the other varieties tested (p <0.05. From the results shown we can see that buckwheat yield in Serbia is significantly higher compared with the world average yield, which tells us that this plant can be successfully produced in our agro-ecological conditions of growing.

  5. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Ohike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation for extension of shelf-life on buckwheat noodles was investigated from the number of microorganisms point of view by using noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour or irradiated directly to fresh noodles in nylon pouch. The shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad was extended 2∼2.5 times of compared with non-irradiated buckweat flour under the same condition of processing and storage temperature. Low temperature extended the shelf-life of noodles prepared by irradiated buckwheat flour at 0.5 Mrad for 7 to 8 days at 10deg C, which was extended 3∼5 times of shelf-life compared with storage at 25deg C. The shelf-life of direct-irradiated buckweat noodles at 1.0 Mrad was extended about 30 days at 25deg C. In the case of direct-irradiation to fresh buckwheat noodles at 0.5 Mrad, their shelf-life was extended about 30 days at 15deg C. (author)

  6. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  7. Does Lycoperscon Esculentum (Tomato) Accelerate or Retard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining the effects of Lycoperscon esculentum on the wound healing processes of wistar rats. Excisional wounds were inflicted on the upper dorsolateral trunk of 20 adult male wistar rats. The wounds were dressed every three days (experimental with methanol extract of Lycoperscon esculentum and ...

  8. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  9. Biological activity of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2005), s. 123-129 ISSN 0971-4693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biological activity, extract, Fagopyrum esculenthum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.686, year: 2005

  10. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used...... to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae...... buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per...

  11. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and buckwheat food products, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Tetsujiro; Oh-hinata, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; O-hara, Tadahiko; Itoh, Hitoshi; Saito, Makoto.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a feasible method for improving shelf-life extension of fresh 'soba' noodles, the usefulness of gamma irradiation was preliminarily investigated. Microorganism counts decreased to less than 10 2 per gram by irradiating gamma rays of 0.5 Mrad to buckwheat grains with hulls (Material I), industrially processed buckwheat flours (Material II), and uncooked 'soba' noodles packed in a plastic film bag (Material III). For Material II, the effective dose to decrease 90 % of the microorganism counts was 0.1 Mrad, and heat-resistant microorganism counts decreased to 10 or less per gram with gamma rays of 0.2 - 0.5 Mrad. Flavor in either Material II or Material III was not changed by irradiation; by contraries, enhanced 'soba'-like flavor was rarely observed. Although gamma-irradiation decreased the viscosity of Material II, it hardly exerted an effect on the process of making noodles. The texture of Material III became degraded by irradiation. The results suggest the feasibility of gamma irradiation in the use of inactivation of microorganisms. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Decreasing radioactive cesium in lodged buckwheat grain after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katashi Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed soil contamination with high radioactive cesium (R–Cs concentration in buckwheat grains by lodging, and assessed the possibility of R–Cs reduction in grain through post-harvest preparation. Analysis of buckwheat grain produced in farmers’ fields and reports from farmers indicated that grain from fields that had lodging showed higher R–Cs than grain from fields with no lodging. A field experiment demonstrated that R–Cs in grain after threshing and winnowing (TW was about six times higher in lodged plants than in nonlodged plants. In lodged plants, R–Cs in grain was decreased to about one-fourth by polishing, and was decreased to about one-seventh by ultrasonic cleaning, compared with R–Cs in grain after TW. These results demonstrate that R–Cs of buckwheat grain of lodged plants can be decreased by removing soil from the grain surface by polishing and winnowing.

  13. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  14. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  15. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  16. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  17. Use of gamma irradiation for microbial inactivation of buckwheat flour and products, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatu, Nobuyuki; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Hideyuki; Oike, Terutake; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of irradiation at 3.0-7.0 kGy with 2 MeV electron beams were investigated on the number of microorganisms and quality of buckwheat flour. Electron beams and gamma-rays were compared in terms of the effects on the quality of buckwheat flour. The results were as follows. (1) Electron beams at 3 kGy reduced the number of microorganisms almost to the same level as gamma-rays. Oxygen content in buckwheat flour had no effect on inactivation of microorganisms by irradiation with electron beams and gamma-rays. (2) Peroxide-value (POV) of lipid in buckwheat flour increased with absorbed dose of gamma-rays and electron beams. The increase of POV was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber. The color change of buckwheat flour was suppressed by the usage of oxygen absorber as well. Acid-value (AV) of lipid in buckwheat flour was not changed by irradiation at high dose with gamma-rays or electron beams. (3) Maximum torque in Farinograph test of dough prepared from irradiated buckwheat flour decreased with increase of absorbed dose of electron beams. However, oxygen absorber suppressed the change of these properties induced by irradiation. (4) The usage of oxygen absorber resulted in a high sensory score of noodles from irradiated buckwheat flour with small changes of color, flavor and texture. (author)

  18. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  19. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  20. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  1. Physicochemical and functional properties of gamma irradiated buckwheat and potato starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ruchi; Jan, Shumaila; Rani, Savita; Jan, Kulsum; Swer, Tanya L.; Prakash, Kumar S.; Dar, M. Z.; Bashir, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Starches isolated from buckwheat and potato were subject to different doses of irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. Native and irradiated starch samples were evaluated for their physicochemical and functional properties to assess the effect of gamma irradiation. Apparent amylose content decreased significantly from 26.84% to 22.12% and 27.01 to 16.11% for buckwheat and potato starch respectively as the dose increased. A significant decrease was observed in pH, swelling power and syneresis as the dose increased for both buckwheat and potato starch. pH decreased from 5.20 to 3.81 and 5.81 to 3.95 for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively. Carboxyl content, freeze thaw stability, water and oil absorption capacity and transmittance showed increasing trend with increasing irradiation dose. Carboxyl content increased from 0% to 0.23% and 0-0.22% for buckwheat and potato starch, respectively.

  2. Anaphylaxis after eating Italian pizza containing buckwheat as the hidden food allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, E; Guida, G; Badiu, I; Nebiolo, F; Rolla, G

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman developed anaphylaxis after eating pizza on 4 different occasions in 2 restaurants. Both restaurants made their pizza dough with a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flours. A prick-to-prick test with buckwheat flour was positive. Skin prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E responses to soybean and peanut were weakly positive while the response to buckwheat was negative. We ruled out a pathogenic role for peanut and soybean because the patient usually eats both with no signs of allergic reaction. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges with buckwheat flour were positive after the administration of a cumulative dose of 2.3 g of the culprit flour. To our knowledge, our report describes the first case of anaphylaxis after intake of buckwheat flour as the hidden allergen in pizza dough.

  3. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  4. Concentrated Phosphatidic Acid in Cereal Brans as Potential Protective Agents against Indomethacin-Induced Stomach Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Sheuli; Ikoma, Teru; Yagi, Ayano; Kogure, Kentaro; Tokumura, Akira; Tanaka, Tamotsu

    2016-09-21

    One of complications associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is peptic ulcer. Recently, we found that orally administered phosphatidic acid (PA) ameliorated aspirin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In this study, we identified PA-rich food sources and examined the effects of the food materials on indomethacin-induced stomach ulcer. Among examined, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) bran contained the highest level of PA (188 mg/100 g). PA was the richest phospholipid (25%) in the lipid fraction of the buckwheat bran. Administration of the lipid extracts of buckwheat bran significantly ameliorated indomethacin-induced stomach lesions in mice. In contrast, wheat (Triticum durum) bran lipids (PA, 4%) and soybean (Glycine max) lipids (PA, 3%) were not associated with ameliorative effects. These results indicated that PA-rich lipids can be used as an effective supplement for prevention of NSAID-induced stomach ulcer.

  5. An Overview: Distribution, Production, and Diversity of Local Landraces of Buckwheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Raj Luitel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, and barley in Nepal. It is considered as an alternate cereal and poor man’s crop, representing an important food supply in remote places of Himalayas. It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m asl, especially hilly and mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga. Sweet buckwheat varieties are generally grown in midhill and Terai but Tartary buckwheat varieties are grown in higher altitude. There are altogether 19 local landraces of sweat buckwheat and 37 for Tartary buckwheat listed from Nepal. The largest producers are China, USA, and Russia and Japan is principal user of global buckwheat grown in the world. In Nepal, it is cultivated in 10510 ha area with production of 10355 t/yr and yield of 0.983 t/ha. It has also medicinal value used in different forms including all its parts so the demand of buckwheat is increasing.

  6. Sensory analysis and aroma compounds of buckwheat containing products-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz, Małgorzata; Koutsidis, Georgios; Zieliński, Henryk

    2017-07-07

    Buckwheat is a rich source of starch, proteins, minerals and antioxidants, and as such has become a popular functional ingredient incorporated in diverse recipes/products with particular use in the gluten free market. Due to the absence of gluten, application of buckwheat or buckwheat derived ingredients in this particular food sector has increased significantly over recent years with many buckwheat-based products appearing globally. Sensory analysis is an integral part of the development of products that fulfill consumer expectations. Therefore, investigations on the incorporation of health promoting functional ingredients such as buckwheat into traditional recipes are often complemented by the evaluation of appearance, aroma, taste and texture as well as overall quality through standardized procedures involving trained judges or consumer panels. Aroma is of particular importance in driving consumer preference and its sensory assessment is often complemented with analytical workflows aiming to isolate and determine the concentration of volatile compounds in food and understand the effect of food components on the overall aroma intensity and/or perception of the final product. The present manuscript provides a review of recent advances and knowledge on the sensory characteristics, consumer preference and volatile compound analysis of buckwheat and buckwheat based products.

  7. Yield and Quality Features of Buckwheat-Soybean Mixtures in Organic Agricultural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sürmen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during the summer of 2014 to determine alternative quality forage sources that could be grown in the Aydın ecological conditions. In the study, effects of 3 different mixtures and 2 pure species (100% Buckwheat, 25% Buckwheat -75% Soybean, 50% Buckwheat -5 0% Soybean, 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean, 100% Soybean and 2 different harvesting times (50%-100% flowering/buckwheat on yield and quality characteristics were investigated. According to measurements, the highest average herbage yield was obtained from 75% Buckwheat-25% Soybean application (3100 kg/da at 2nd harvest time. When the average of hay yield was examined, the results were similar to herbage yield. When ADF and NDF were examined, the highest values were seen at the 2nd harvest. When the crude protein ratios were examined, it was found that they decreased at the 2nd harvesting time and the highest value was determined at 100% soybean application at the 1st harvesting time (21.08%. When Digestible Dry Matter (DDM and Relative Feed Value (RFV were examined, the highest values were determined in 100%Soybean applications at first harvest time and when the mixture applications were examined, the highest values were determined to be 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean application. As a result of the study, it was determined that the yields obtained at the 2nd harvest time were higher but the forage quality decreased. When the mixtures were examined, it was determined that the mixture having the highest roughage value was 75% buckwheat + 25% soybean application. In this study, the buckwheat which have short vegetation and good quality and the soybean, which is infront of with high quality, mixtures were examined. It has also been found that these mixtures may be important for obtaining high-quality forage in the short and intermediate periods.

  8. QUALITY OF GLUTEN-FREE BUCKWHEAT-RICE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In case of celiac disease the products containing gluten must be excluded from the nutrition. The offer of gluten-free products (especially pastry is low and in addition the gluten-free breads are typical of dry crust and crumb and higher firmness in comparison with wheat bread. This work deals with gluten-free mixtures prepared from buckwheat and rice flour and the effect of rising amount of these flours on bread quality, crumb hardness, elasticity, chewiness and gumminess. With rising portion of buckwheat flour in the mixture the bread volume, dough and bread yield increased. The biggest improvement was found for mean bread volume (30% between the samples FO 1090 (166.7 cm3 and FO 9010 (216.7 cm3. The texture analysis showed positive effect of rice flour on hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Hardness decreased from 114.5 N (F 100 to 91.3 N (FO 1090. Very similar results showed chewiness and gumminess. Chewiness of F 100 (314.0 was reduced by 32.5% to 212.2 at the sample FO 1090. Gumminess was improved almost linearly through the samples, the biggest difference (44.3% was found between the check sample F 100 (88.3 and FO 1090 (49.7.

  9. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  10. AGRO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH STIMULANTS AND MICROFERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlobaeva E. A.; Kozlobaev A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the food value of buckwheat. It is said that the achievement of its biological potential under prevailing conditions of cultivation is impossible without the introduction of modern scientific and technical progress. The authors describe variants of integrated application of growth stimulants and microfertilizers in buckwheat production technology. Recommended technologies have been tested in conditions of the Central Chernozem region. It is revealed that the best varian...

  11. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Đurendić - Brenesel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Buckwheat seedling flavonoids do not undergo rapid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margna, U.; Vainjaerv, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse-labelling with exogenous [1- 14 C]-L-phenylalanine showed that of all flavonoids of buckwheat seedling cotyledons only anthocyanins underwent a slow turnover (not more than 6-8 per cent a day) whilst the major flavonoids, rutin and four C-glycosylflavones, remained metabolically stable within at least 7 days. From excised hypocotyls pulse-labelled flavonoids (anthocyanins and rutin) began to disappear gradually beginning with the second day of incubation. As hypocotyls, however, during prolonged incubation soon began to autolyse a considerable part of that loss was obviously due to abnormal shifts in cell metabolic activities with a possibility that some microbial process was also involved. In hypocotyls of intact seedlings pulse-labelled rutin, similar to rutin in cotyledons, showed no signs of turnover. (author)

  13. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities and Phenolic Compounds of Oat and Buckwheat Vinegars During Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Yang, Mei; Dong, Jilin; Shen, Ruiling

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the dynamic changes in the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid profiles of oat and buckwheat vinegars during different production stages. The results showed that both oat and buckwheat vinegar products comparably attenuated D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in mice serum and liver, indicating no obvious dose dependence within the tested concentrations. However, oat vinegar product revealed more favorable in vitro antioxidant activities than those in buckwheat vinegar product as evaluated by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, the alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation and fumigating induced successive increase in DPPH radical scavenging abilities and phenolic acid contents of the fermentation substrates of oat and buckwheat vinegars. Importantly, the different fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars were accompanied by the dynamic migration and transformation of specific phenolic acids across bound, esterified and free fractions. Thus, the antioxidant activities of oat and buckwheat vinegars could be improved through targeted modulation of the generation of specific phenolic acid fractions during production processes. We had evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of oat and buckwheat vinegars, and further explored the dynamic changes of bound, esterified and free phenolic acid fractions during successive fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars. This study provided the theoretical guidance for obtaining minor grain vinegar with the optimal antioxidant activities through targeted modulation of fermentation processes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    mêmes sont plus performantes que la variété. Petomech. Mots clés : Performance, tomate, jaunisse en cuillère, flétrissement bactérien, nématodes, Côte d'Ivoire. Abstract. Performance of six cultivars of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mills. against ...

  16. Levels of some heavy Metals in Cocoyam (Colocasia esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CEDEN

    Dept. of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 3Dept. of Plant Science and Biotechnology. University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The levels of some heavy metals in soil samples and tubers of cocoyam. (Colocasia esculentum) grown on soil receiving paint wastes (PWS) has been investigated.

  17. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guozhu; Shen Huifang

    2012-01-01

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1#, Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60 Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  18. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  19. Study on the high flavonoids mutants of tartarian buckwheat by radiation induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guozhu; Shen Huifang

    2011-01-01

    Three different varieties of tartarian buckwheat seeds (Chuanqiao 1 # , Yu-621 and KP9920) were irradiated with various doses (100∼500 Gy) of 60 Co-γ ray and sowed. Ten, eight and six high flavonoid tartary buckwheat mutants were selected from three parent materials respectively. The flavonoid content of three parent materials were 8.33%, 10.18% and 9.80%. The range of flavonoid content of high flavonoids mutants for three parent materials 11.37%∼14.91%, 10.67%∼12.46% and 11.32%∼12.95% respectively. Cluster analysis was also carried out based on the agronomic traits and flavonoid content in the 27 tartary buckwheat materials (24 mutants and 3 parent material) The 27 materials were classified into four clusters by cluster analysis based on the agronomic traits and were classified into 5 groups based on flavonoid content. (authors)

  20. Distribution of Radioactive Cesium during Milling and Cooking of Contaminated Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Nihei, Naoto; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2018-06-01

    To clarify the behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs) in buckwheat grains during milling and cooking processes, parameters such as processing factor (Pf) and food processing retention factor (Fr) were evaluated in two lots of buckwheat grains, R1 and R2, with different concentrations of radioactive Cs. Three milling fractions, the husk, bran, and flour fractions, were obtained using a mill and electric sieve. The radioactive Cs ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) concentrations in husk and bran were higher than that in grain, whereas the concentration in flour was lower than that in grain. Pf values for the flours of R1 and R2 were 0.60 and 0.80, respectively. Fr values for the flours of R1 and R2 were 0.28 and 0.53, respectively. Raw buckwheat noodles (soba) were prepared using a mixture of buckwheat flour and wheat flour according to the typical recipe and were cooked with boiling water for 0.5, 1, and 2 min, followed by rinsing with water. Pf values for the soba boiled for 2 min (optimal for eating) made with R1 and R2 were 0.34 and 0.40, respectively. Fr values for these R1 and R2 samples were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. Pf and Fr values for soba boiled for different times for both R1 and R2 were less than 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Thus, buckwheat flour and its product, soba, cooked by boiling, are considered acceptable for human consumption according to the standard limit for radioactive Cs in buckwheat grains.

  1. Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of buckwheat seeds on anatomic structure of adult plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiseleva, N S [Gomel' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Byelorussian SSR)

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the leaves and stems of buckwheat resulting from presowing irradiation of seeds in doses of 5, 10, 20, and 30 kR were studied. It was shown that small doses of radiation caused an increase in cell dimensions and significant development of the stem parenchyma. With higher radiation doses xeromorphic changes occurred. The number of epidermal cells and orifices per unit surface area of the leaf, a decrease in the sizes of the perenchyma cells, and considerable development of mechanical tissues in the stem were observed. A 30-kR dose was lethal for buckwheat.

  2. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lee, Seung Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Inglett, George E; Lee, Suyong

    2010-10-01

    With rising consumer awareness of obesity, the food industry has a market-driven impetus to develop low-fat or fat-free foods with acceptable taste and texture. Fancy buckwheat flour was thus subjected to steam jet-cooking and the performance of the resulting product in cake-baking was evaluated as a fat replacer. Steam jet-cooking caused structural breakdown and starch gelatinization of buckwheat flour, thus increasing its water hydration properties. In the pasting measurements, steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited high initial viscosity, while no peak viscosity was observed. Also, the suspensions of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, which were well characterized by the power law model. When shortening in cakes was replaced with steam jet-cooked buckwheat gels, the specific gravity of cake batters significantly increased, consequently affecting cake volume after baking. However, shortening replacement with steam jet-cooked buckwheat up to 20% by weight appeared to be effective in producing cakes as soft as the control without volume loss. When buckwheat flour was thermomechanically modified by steam jet-cooking, it was successfully incorporated into cake formulations for shortening up to 20% by weight, producing low-fat cakes with comparable volume and textural properties to the control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  4. The Effect of Buckwheat Hull Extract on Lipid Oxidation in Frozen-Stored Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hęś, Marzanna; Szwengiel, Artur; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Górecka, Danuta

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants on lipid stability of frozen-stored meat products. Buckwheat hull extract was used to enrich fried meatballs made from ground pork. During 180-d storage of meat products, lipid oxidation (peroxide and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] value) was periodically monitored. The results were compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The addition of antioxidants decreased lipid oxidation in stored meatballs. The highest ability to control peroxide and TBARS values was demonstrated for buckwheat hull extract. Moreover, buckwheat hull extract showed a higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity as well as higher Fe(II) ion chelating ability, as compared with BHT. The total content of phenolic compounds are highly correlated to the individual polyphenols in extract of buckwheat hull, among which the following were assayed: 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, isovanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, and flavonoids: isoorientin, quercetin, quercetin 3-d-glucoside, rutin, and vitexin. These results indicate that plant extracts can be used to prolong shelf life of products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  6. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  7. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  8. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  9. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  10. Optimization of bioactive compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their effect on blood cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Yang, Ya-Lu; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-02-27

    Nutrient levels in buckwheats that were maximized in day 8 sprouts (D8SP) included total phenolics, quercetin, and l-ascorbic acid, whereas those of oxalic, malic, tartaric, and citric acids, rutin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were found to reach maximum levels on day 10. Ethanolic extract of D8SP (2.5 mg/mL) revealed potent free-radical scavenging (FRS) and antioxidative (ANO) capabilities. However, its Fe2+-chelating capability was only moderate. To further study the hypolipidemic activity of D8SP, 36 Syrian hamsters were grouped into six groups and fed for 28 days, respectively, with (i) control meal, (ii) high fat plus high cholesterol meal, (iii) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of buckwheat seeds, (iv) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of buckwheat seeds, (v) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 2.5% of D8SP, and (vi) high fat plus high cholesterol plus 25% of D8SP. High seed meal prominently enhanced body weight gain, whereas high sprout meal exhibited the highest feed efficiency. Ratios of liver/body weight (L/B) were significantly lowered by all BS meals. Although low seed meal reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (pcholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly suppressed by all buckwheat meals (pcholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased, however, insignificantly. Nutraceutically more meaningful is that both LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly lowered (p<0.01). Apparently, hepatic TC levels were significantly reduced, whereas hepatic TG levels were totally unaffected. Conclusively, sprouting triggers a variety of nutritional changes in buckwheats. Day 8 sprouts, consisting of high polyphenolic and moderate quercetin contents, are nutraceutically maximized when hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, and antioxidative activities are concerned.

  11. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Przygodzka Małgorzata; Zieliński Henryk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produc...

  12. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  13. Epitope mapping and immunological characterization of a major allergen TBa in tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuying; Wang, Zhuanhua

    2010-09-01

    Predicted by an antigenic program, full-length tartary buckwheat allergen (TBa) is divided into six fragments: E1, E2, E12, E3, E4 and E34. Immunological assays revealed that E1 has the greatest binding activity to patients' serum IgE. Five mutants of E1 gene (L39R, L42R, L47R, V52R and L54R) were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis and each protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Following purification by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography, ELISA and dot-blot were performed for wild type E1 and its mutants using sera from buckwheat allergic patients and healthy controls. Mutants L42R, L47R, and L54R had weaker IgE binding activity to patient's sera than wild-type E1 implying that Leu42, Leu47, and Leu54 might be involved in the allergic activity of TBa.

  14. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  15. LINE'S OF MANUFACTURE OF KISSELS ON THE BASIS OF BUCKWHEAT AND BARLEY STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ermolaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to development of a production line of kissels on the basis of grechishny and barley крахмалов, allowing to use their structural and mechanical and chemical properties, investigating rheological characteristics of solutions buckwheat and barley крахмалов, to receive the dry granulated drinks on the basis of vegetative raw materials which will partially solve problems of equation of a food.

  16. Buckwheat and CVD Risk Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangkui Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of buckwheat intake on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have not been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively summarize studies in humans and animals, evaluating the impact of buckwheat consumption on CVD risk markers and to conduct a meta-analysis of relevant data. Thirteen randomized, controlled human studies, two cross-sectional human studies and twenty-one animal studies were identified. Using random-effects models, the weighted mean difference of post-intervention concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased following buckwheat intervention compared with controls [differences in blood glucose: −0.85 mmol/L (95% CI: −1.31, −0.39, total cholesterol: 0.50 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.80, −0.20 and triglycerides: 0.25 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.49, −0.02]. Responses of a similar magnitude were seen in two cross-sectional studies. For animal studies, nineteen of twenty-one studies showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol of between 12% and 54%, and fourteen of twenty studies showed a significant reduction in triglycerides of between 2% and 74%. All exhibited high unexplained heterogeneity. There was inconsistency in HDL cholesterol outcomes in both human and animal studies. It remains unclear whether increased buckwheat intake significantly benefits other markers of CVD risk, such as weight, blood pressure, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol, and underlying mechanisms responsible for any effects are unclear.

  17. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P < 0.05). Egg production (9.4%), albumen weight (2.1%) and shell weight (5.8%) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in yolk weight, and total cholesterol (1.9%) and triglyceride (4.9%) in the yolk were lowered (P < 0.05). Fermented buckwheat as a feed additive has the potential to produce l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Dose response and mutation induction by ion beam irradiation in buckwheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Degi, K.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.; Tanaka, A.; Abe, T.

    2003-01-01

    The biological effects of ion beams were investigated to pursue the development of a method for breeding by mutation in buckwheat. Common buckwheat (Botansoba, Bot) and tartary buckwheat (Rotundatiem, Rot) seeds were exposed to various ions in linear energy transfer (LET) at 9-630 keV/μm. The lethal dose 50 (LD 50 ) of ion beams were 10-300 Gy (Bot) and 30-500 Gy (Rot). It was indicated that a penetrating depth in excess of 1.7 mm is necessary to thoroughly saturate the target, and ions with a penetrating depth of less than 2.2 mm were affected by the presence of hulls. The maximum values of the relative biological effectiveness were 17.7 (Rot) and 22.5 (Bot) at 305 keV/μm. The effective cross sections increased with the LET, and the maximum values were 2.7 (Rot) and 3.0 μm 2 (Bot). The mutation induction effects of He and C ions were higher than those of gamma rays

  19. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  20. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  1. Determination of heavy metals in soil and different parts of Diplazium esculentum (medicinal fern)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, Hind S.; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-09-01

    Diplazium esculentum is a widely used medicinal fern in Malaysia and other regions worldwide. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity. Hence, substantial information should be obtained from plants that grow on soils containing high concentrations of heavy metals. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of soil and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in different parts of D. esculentum and soil, which were collected from the fern garden of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Results showed that heavy metals were highly accumulated in D. esculentum roots.

  2. Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Koželj, Gordana; Družina, Branko; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-01-01

    In Slovenia, a mass poisoning incident involving 73 consumers with symptoms such as dry mouth, hot red skin, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, ataxia, speech disturbance, disorientation and visual hallucinations occurred in 2003. In all cases, consumers had eaten buckwheat flour food products within the last few hours. Investigations by responsible authorities identified the contamination of a range of buckwheat food products with thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) seeds containing toxic alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine. To ensure the safe consumption of buckwheat food products, we carried out risk characterisation and proposed provisional maximum residue levels (MRLs) of atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour. In the absence of critical "no observed adverse effect levels" for atropine and scopolamine, we based our estimation of the acute reference doses on the lowest recommended therapeutic doses. Taking into account the additive effect of the two alkaloids, we calculated acute reference doses of the mixture, that is 0.05 µg/kg of body mass for atropine and 0.03 µg/kg of body mass for scopolamine. MRLs for atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour were estimated in a worst-case scenario, that is consumption of 100 g of flour by a child weighing 10 kg and taking into account a range of atropine/scopolamine ratio in implicated food products, that is 0.85-3.3. We proposed the national MRLs for atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat food products: 4.0 µg/kg (atropine) and 2.0 µg/kg(scopolamine). However, in view of the large variability in the alkaloid content, depending on the origin of the Datura, we propose that risk assessment should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the ratio between atropine and scopolamine content in a particular sample.

  3. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  4. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) seeds: new flavonols and cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Taveira, Marcos; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-10

    In this study, seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MS(n)-ESI. Fourteen flavonoids were identified, including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin derivatives, with 13 of them being reported for the first time in tomato seeds. The major identified compounds were quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophoroside. A significant cell proliferation inhibition (>80%), against rat basophile leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, was observed with this extract (IC(50) = 5980 microg/mL). For acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a concentration-dependent effect was verified (IC(20) = 2400 microg/mL). The same behavior was noted regarding antioxidant capacity, evaluated against DPPH (IC(10) = 284 microg/mL), nitric oxide (IC(25) = 396 microg/L), and superoxide radicals (IC(25) = 3 microg/mL).

  5. Genotype dependant callogenic and morphogenic response of lycopersicon esculentum hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Sajid, G.M.; Ahmad, S.; Anwar, R.; Munir, M.

    2002-01-01

    Leaf explants from field grown F1 hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum, namely Bornia and Royesta were cultured on MS media containing 5 x 5 diallelic combinations of IAA and Kin at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 micro M/l each. Callogenesis, root and shoot regeneration potential of these hybrids were compared on these hormonal regimes. Royesta exhibited better callogenesis response (85%) than Bornia (72%). However, callogenesis on a given hormonal regime was genotype dependant. Root and shoot regeneration was better in case of Bornia than in Royesta. Hybrid Bornia produced shoots much more frequently (6-14%) on many diverse hormonal regimes than Royesta which produced shoots only rarely (5%) on a single hormonal regime. (author)

  6. Herbal complex of green buckwheat in the production technology of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using vegetable complex of green buckwheat in production technology cheesecakes. The unique chemical, rich mineral and vitamin composition buckwheat green indicates desirability of not only its use, but also th e possibility of using for cooking preventive and functional orientation. Using green buckwheat plant complex due to the hi gh water-holding ability to reduce the time of the process, eliminate some technological preparatory operations, such as pressing off. It is found that the maximum degree of swelling (2.5 g/g was observed at 40 oC and pH 4, 2. The time to reach an equilibrium state is reached after 30 minutes. On the basis of the research has been defined in a way to make plant complex curd basis, in an amount of from 10 to 70 % based on standardized physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of harmonious order to minimize-if-operation of flour to make the product functional and preventive properties. Technology of production of a pre -from adequate use of shock freezing, thus preserving the shape, color and flavor of the product. Microbiologists -cal studies analyzed frozen semi-finished products indicates that the microbiological-cal indicators remain stable throughout the shelf life. The use of herbal ingredients in the development of technology and the adjustment of the nutritional value of cheese bioproducts will solve the issue of their care-enrichment in essential micronutrients and natural way to improve the taste and increase the life -sti Useful developed products that currently is a modern and topical focus of research.

  7. Somatic hybrid plants between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L W; Nickels, R L; Cameron, M W; Moore, P P; Sink, K C

    1986-02-01

    Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Lycopersicon esculentum (2n=2x=24) were fused with suspension culture-derived protoplasts of Solanum lycopersicoides (2n=2x=24) and intergeneric somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following selective conditions. A two phase selection system was based on the inability of S. lycopersicoides protoplasts to divide in culture in modified medium 8E and the partial inhibition of L. esculentum protoplasts by the PEG/DMSO fusion solution. At the p-calli stage, putative hybrids were visually selected based on their hybrid vigor and lime-green coloration in contrast to slower growing parental calli characterized by a watery, whitish-brown coloration. Early identification of the eight hybrid plants studied was facilitated by isozyme analysis of leaf tissue samples taken from plants in vitro at the rooting stage. Regenerated plants growing in planting medium were further verified for hybridity by 5 isozymes marking 7 loci on 5 chromosomes in tomato. These included Skdh-1 mapped to chromosome 1 of tomato, Pgm-2 on chromosome 4, Got-2 and Got-3 on chromosome 7, Got-4 on chromosome 8, and Pgi-1 and Pgdh-2 both on chromosome 12. Fraction I protein small subunits further confirmed the hybrid nature of the plants with bands of both parents expressed in all hybrids. The parental chloroplasts could not be differentiated by the isoelectric points of the large subunit. Seven of the eight somatic hybrids had a chromosome number ranging from the expected 2n=4x=48 to 2n=68. Mixoploid root-tip cells containing 48, 53, 54 or 55 chromosomes for two of the hybrids were also observed.

  8. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Möller; V.R. De Oliveira; T.P. Amorim; R.U. Thoen; A. de O. Rios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and thei...

  9. Buckwheat yield and its quality as affected by laser biostimulation of its seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.; Mikos-Bielak, M.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of various doses of laser radiation applied to buckwheat seed bio stimulation on the yield, and changes of chemical composition was analysed. A 12-25 percent increase of yield was observed in bio stimulated plants. The most positive effects were achieved after seed triple radiation using a laser of 30 mW power for 0.1 s. Bio stimulation caused a slight increase of protein, fat and fiber content a large increase of soluble and reducing sugars and a decrease of starch level

  10. Bioethanol production from waste bread samples made from mixtures of wheat and buckwheat flours

    OpenAIRE

    Ačanski, Marijana; Pastor, Kristian; Razmovski, Radojka; Vučurović, Vesna; Psodorov, Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper yields of bioethanol from seven samples of bread were compared. Samples of bread were produced and prepared in a laboratory by mixing wheat and buckwheat flour in amounts of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100%. At first, the analysis of all seven samples of bread was done (dry matter, starch content and pH value of bread sample suspensions). Then the waste bread suspensions were hydrolyzed by applying commercial hydrolytic enzymes, Termamyl® SC and SAN Extra® L. The fermentation proc...

  11. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  12. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. [Purification, characterization and partial primary structure analysis of rutin-degrading enzyme in tartary buckwheat seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Jie; Yuan, Yong; Gu, Jijuan; Chen, Peng

    2017-05-25

    Rutin-degrading enzymes (RDE) can degrade rutin into poorly water soluble compound, quercetin, and cause the bitter taste in tartary buckwheat. In the present study RDE from Yu 6-21 tartary buckwheat seeds was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Cellulose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150. Purified RDE showed single band with molecular weight of 66 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of RDE were 5.0 and 50 ℃ respectively. The Km was 0.27 mmol/L, and the Vmax was 39.68 U/mg. The RDE activity could be inhibited by Cu²⁺, Zn²⁺, Mn²⁺ and EDTA, and showed tolerance to 50% methanol (V/V). The N terminal sequence (TVSRSSFPDGFLFGL) was obtained by Edman degradation method and 15 internal peptide sequences were determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). These results established the foundations for identification of the candidate gene of RDE via transcriptome data and further studying RDE biological function.

  14. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  15. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb.

  16. Phosphate Starvation Inducible Metabolism in Lycopersicon esculentum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Baertlein, Dawn A.; McDaniel, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Both tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv VF 36) plants and suspension cultured cells show phosphate starvation inducible (psi) excretion of acid phosphatase (Apase). Apase excretion in vitro was proportional to the level of exogenous orthophosphate (Pi). Intracellular Apase activity remained the same in both Pi-starved and sufficient cells, while Apase excreted by the starved cells increased by as much as six times over unstressed control cells on a dry weight basis. At peak induction, 50% of total Apase was excreted. Ten day old tomato seedlings grown without Pi showed slight growth reduction versus unstressed control plants. The Pi-depleted roots showed psi enhancement of Apase activity. Severely starved seedlings (17 days) reached only one-third of the biomass of unstressed control plants but, because of a combination of psi Apase excretion by roots and a shift in biomass to this organ, they excreted 5.5 times the Apase activity of the unstressed control. Observed psi Apase excretion may be part of a phosphate starvation rescue system in plants. The utility of the visible indicator dye 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate-p-toluidine as a phenotypic marker for plant Apase excretion is demonstrated. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16666212

  17. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M 2 seeds produced by M 1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  18. Phytochemical screening of Diplazium esculentum as medicinal plant from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannah, Fathul; Amin, Mohammad; Suwono, Hadi; Lukiati, Betty

    2017-05-01

    Diplazium esculentum is one of the ferns used by the Dayak's people in Central Kalimantan as a traditional medicine to treat tumors, asthma, and acne. This study aims to determine the content of bioactive compounds in Diplazium esculentum in Central Kalimantan. This research is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Qualitative phytochemical screening detected the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids and saponins in aqueous extracts with the boiled and brewed method, while in ethanol extract this detected polyphenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. The results show that the use of water as a solvent can be an alternative in plant extracts.

  19. Incorporation of exogenous L-phenylalanine into C-glycosylflavones in buckwheat cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margna, U.; Margna, E.

    1978-01-01

    By tracer experiments it was demonstrated that in excised buckwheat cotyledons L-phenylalanine fed exogeneously was incorporated predominantly into the luteolinic C-glycosylflavones orientin and iso-orientin, but not into their simpler apigeninic analogues vitexin and isovitexin, as it could be expected theoretically. Evidence is presented that L-phenylalanine supplied exogenously does not mix with the endogenous pool of that precursor, and that ratios of L-phenylalanine distribution between pathways of apigeninic and luteolinic C-glycosylflavones are different depending on wether the flavonoids are synthesized from endogenous or exogenous material. This phenomenon is suggested to be caused by the differences between enzyme complexes responsible for the biosynthesis of separate C-glycosylflavones in their capability of consuming common endogenous precursors. (author)

  20. Enhancement of Phenolic Production and Antioxidant Activity from Buckwheat Leaves by Subcritical Water Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Shin; Kim, Mi-Bo; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the production of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and reduce the level of phototoxic fagopyrin, buckwheat leaves were extracted with subcritical water (SW) at 100~220°C for 10~50 min. The major phenolic compounds were quercetin, gallic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds increased with increasing extraction temperature from 100°C to 180°C and did not change significantly at 200°C and 220°C. The highest yield of individual phenolic compounds was 1,632.2 μg/g dry sample at 180°C, which was 4.7-fold higher than that (348.4 μg/g dry sample) at 100°C. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content increased with increasing extraction temperature and decreased with increasing extraction time, and peaked at 41.1 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 26.9 mg quercetin equivalents/g at 180°C/10 min, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma reached 46.4 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g and 72.3 mmol Fe 2+ /100 g at 180°C/10 min, respectively. The fagopyrin contents were reduced by 92.5~95.7%. Color values L * and b * decreased, and a * increased with increasing extraction temperature. SW extraction enhanced the yield of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and reduced the fagopyrin content from buckwheat leaves.

  1. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Buckwheat Protein Isolates with Different Polyphenolic Content Modified by Limited Hydrolysis with Trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of limited hydrolysis with trypsin on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of buckwheat protein isolates (BPIs obtained with untreated and 2-propanol-extracted meal have been investigated and compared. The dephenolization treatment significantly improved the hydrolysis of BPI, which resulted in the gradual decrease in total and protein-bound polyphenolic content, but an increase in the free polyphenolic content. The hydrolysis of globulins was much easier than that of the albumins. The removal of polyphenols improved the hydrolysis of the albumin fraction. The modified BPIs with high polyphenolic content exhibited much higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, but poorer ferrous ion chelating ability than those with low polyphenolic content. These results suggest that the limited hydrolysis is suitable for modification of the properties of buckwheat proteins.

  2. Effect of thermal treatment on rutin content in selected buckwheat products using calcium as an internal tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Krejzová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was used for rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside determination in selected buckwheat products (whole meal flour, broken seeds, seed hulls, herbs and baked cereal breads. The effect of various thermal procedures on content of rutin was evaluated using calcium as an internal tracker to correct changes in mass and composition of the buckwheat products. These factors are very seldom taken into account. The results show non-significant changes in rutin levels obtained in whole meal flour and broken seed samples after thermal treatment up to 150°C. Higher temperature already caused sudden fall in the observed rutin concentrations. The evaporation of some volatile compounds and degradation products can decrease the mass of the samples and formally increase the content of rutin (35.5 ±4.7 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 10.2 ±0.4 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 150°C. Serious decrease of rutin contents at elevated temperatures (>150°C can be explained by its degradation (by breaking off the C-C bond in quercetin-3-rutinoside moiety and/or evaporation (24.3 ±1.4 mg per 100 g for whole meal flour and 3.06 ±0.3 mg per100 g for broken seeds at 180°C. In case of baked cereal breads the level of rutin changed in dependence on the ratio between buckwheat and corn flour. Longer time leaching and higher temperature implicate higher rutin content in infusions prepared from buckwheat seed hulls and herbs.

  3. Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ahmadi Ashtiani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6, were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA. Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate -induced oxidative stress.

  4. Desenvolvimento de protocolo para microenxertia do tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum Mill = Developmental of protocol for micrograffiting to tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Façanha Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é a principal doença vascular de plantas em todo o mundo. O agente causal é uma bactéria que ocorre em todas as regiões do Brasil, predominando em condições de umidade e temperatura elevadas, fatores propícios aodesenvolvimento do patógeno. Este agente causal é de difícil controle, pois sobrevive nos mais diversos hospedeiros, especialmente Solanaceas, além de outras famílias de importância alimentar, condimentar e medicinal. O uso de espécies do gênero Solanum na enxertia convencional e minienxertia em tomateiro Lycopersicon esculentum é limitada em função da incompatibilidade. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se o método da microenxertia para obtenção de plantas resistentes a doenças como a murcha bacteriana, tendo como cavalo a espécie Solanum palinacanthum Dun. Utilizaram-se dois métodos de microenxertia: convencional em T-invertido e corte em bisel. Foram testados meios de culturas para execução das duas práticas demicropropagação; para isso, realizou-se experimento em diferentes condições ambientais, com presença e ausência de luminosidade e diferentes tratamentos correspondentes a teores de açúcares e sais, submetidos a cinco avaliações com intervalos semanais. Melhor resultado foi encontrado quando se utilizou microenxertia em T-invertido e meio de cultura constituído de sais de MS1/8 de força acrescido de 30 g L-1 de sacarose.The bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is the most important vascular disease among plants in the world. The causal agent is a strain of bacteria found in all regions of Brazil, mainly in places with high humidity and temperature. This bacterium is difficult to control with chemical products, being able to survive in diverse hosts, especially in species of Solanaceae as well as other families of great food, condimental, or medicinal importance. The use of species of the genus Solanum has been attempted, but the

  5. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  6. Evaluation of In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Rye-Buckwheat Ginger Cakes with Rutin on the Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygodzka Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage baked without or with dough fermentation step on the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (AGEs, and phenolic compounds, rutin, D-chiro-inositol and antioxidant capacity were addressed. The cakes were based on rye flour substituted by light buckwheat flour or flour from roasted buckwheat groats at 30% level, and were produced with or without dough fermentation step. The inhibitory effect against AGEs formation was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO systems. The antioxidant capacity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl- -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and cyclic voltammetry (CV, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents by HPLC and total phenolics (TPC by spectrophotometric assays. The study showed the inhibitory effects of extracts from rye-buckwheat ginger cakes supplemented with low and high rutin dosage. The results of the inhibitory activity were highly correlated in two applied model systems. Enrichment of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes with rutin improved their antioxidant properties. The correlation studies showed that the inhibitory effects of rye-buckwheat ginger cakes produced with dough fermentation step and enhanced with rutin against formation of AGEs were highly correlated with TPC, rutin and D-chiro-inositol contents, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the effect of rutin enrichment was clearly seen in cakes obtained with dough fermentation step, even the inhibitory activity was slightly lower as compared to the cakes produced without dough fermentation.

  7. Desarrollo y maduraci??n de la microspora de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum M.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero G??mez, Bego??a

    1993-01-01

    Esta memoria presenta los resultados del estudio evolutivo del grano de polen de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum, M.), desde la microspora reci??n formada hasta la consecuci??n del gametofito masculino o grano de polen propiamente dicho, constituido por las c??lulas generativa y vegetativa. Se contemplan las transformaciones metab??licas que experimenta el citoplasma durante la maduraci??n del grano as?? como el posible papel de microcuerpos o glioxisomas en los estadios de m??...

  8. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-β-induced Alzheimer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Song; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Young-Ho; Lee, Sanghyun

    2013-03-01

    Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with Aβ(25-35), a fragment of the full-length Aβ protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following Aβ(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following Aβ(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of Aβ(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with Aβ(25-35)-induced AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry. Keywords: Field effect transistor biosensor, Food allergen, Signal amplification, Ionic surfactant, Intrinsic charge

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a deletion mutant of a major buckwheat allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kezuka, Yuichiro; Itagaki, Takashi; Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Nonaka, Takamasa

    2009-01-01

    A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. An immunologically active mutant of BWp16 was prepared and a three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled mutant protein. A 16 kDa buckwheat protein (BWp16) is a major allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. A deletion mutant of BWp16 (rBWp16ΔN) was overproduced and purified and was shown to be immunologically active. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected from a crystal of selenomethionine-labelled rBWp16ΔN. The crystal belonged to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 28.39, b = 31.54, c = 32.20 Å, α = 111.92, β = 108.91, γ = 98.74°. One monomer was expected to be present in the asymmetric unit based on the calculated Matthews coefficient of 1.76 Å 3 Da −1

  12. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  14. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  15. Herpetomonas spp. isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Fabre, Sandrine; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Dollet, Michel

    2007-05-01

    A flagellate of the family Trypanosomatidae was isolated from fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in southeastern Spain. The isolate was successfully adapted to in vitro culture in monophasic media. The morphology showed the kinetoplast to be positioned towards the middle of the body, and the typical opistomastigote form characteristic of members of the genus Herpetomonas. Amplification of the mini-exon gene was negative, whilst for the 5S ribosomal rRNA gene the result was positive. The DNA sequence was obtained and its alignment with other trypasomatids, obtained using the BLAST algorithm, suggested it was closely related to Herpetomonas samuelpessoai.

  16. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dewi Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa kimia yang diisolasi dari fraksi n-butanol ekstrak metanol herba lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. Ekstrak metanol diperoleh secara maserasi dan difraksinasi berturut-turut denganpetroleum eter, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi n­-butanol difraksinasidengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dihasilkan fraksi A, B, C, dan D. Fraksi B dimurnikan dengan kromatografi lapis tipis preparatif pada silika geldihasilkan isolat B1. Isolat B1 berupa padatan tidak berwarna danberfluoresensi putih di bawah lampu UV 366 nm. Panjang gelombang maksimum pada spektra UV  isolat B1 adalah 225 nm dan 272.5 nm yang menunjukkan adanya ikatan rangkap tak terkonjugasi. Spektra IR isolat B1 menunjukkan adanya gugus C=C, –OH, C=O lakton, –CO, C–H ulur, dan C–H tekuk. Spektra 1H-NMR isolat B1 menunjukkan sinyal proton pada ikatan rangkap, proton –OH, proton pada –CH2 yang terikat atom oksigen, serta proton gugus metil –CH3. Berdasarkan data spektra UV, IR, dan 1H-NMR maka isolat B1 disarankan sebagai turunan senyawa triterpenoid hopan-lakton. Kata kunci : diplazium esculentum Swartz, fraksi n-butanol, triterpenoid hopan-lakton  Abstract The research  aims to identify chemical compounds isolated fromn-butanol fraction methanol extract of lampasau herbs (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. The methanol extract was obtained by maceration and fractioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. N-butanol fraction was fractionated using column chromatography on silica gel produced fractions A, B, C, and D. Fraction B was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel produced isolate B1. Isolate B1was colorless solid and has white fluorescent under UV lamp 366 nm. The maximum wavelength on UV spectra of B1 are 225 nm and 272,5 nm indicates the unconjugated double bond. IR spectra of B1 showed the vibration of C=C, –OH, C=O lactone, –CO, C

  17. Understanding the influence of buckwheat bran on wheat dough baking performance: Mechanistic insights from molecular and material science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Miriam; Marti, Alessandra; Marengo, Mauro; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, M Ambrogina; Renzetti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    A molecular and material science approach is used to describe the influence of coarse and fine buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and bread textural quality. Focus is given on (i) gluten solvation and structural arrangements in presence of bran as studied by front-face fluorescence; (ii) thermo-mechanical behavior of dough during heating studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and (iii) texture of bread crumb analyzed in terms of a cellular solid. The thermo-mechanical behavior of dough was found to be largely related to starch phase transitions during heating. The use of thermodynamic approaches to biopolymer melting revealed that key transitions such as the onset of starch gelatinization were function of the interplay of water and bran volume fractions in the dough. Front-face fluorescence studies in wheat dough revealed that gluten solvation and structural arrangements were delayed by increasing bran addition level and reduction in particle size, as indicated by the drastic decrease in the protein surface hydrophobicity index. Variations in gluten structure could be strongly related to dough baking performance, i.e. specific volume. With regards to texture, the approach revealed that crumb texture was controlled by variations in density, moisture and bran volume fractions. Overall, this study elucidates a number of physical mechanisms describing the influence of buckwheat bran addition to dough and bread quality. These mechanisms strongly pointed at the influence of bran on water partitioning among the main polymeric components. In the future, these mechanisms should be investigated with bran material of varying source, composition and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flowering catch crops used as forage plants for dairy cows: influence on fatty acids and tocopherols in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, T; Meier, J S; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2011-03-01

    The effect of several flowering dicotyledonous catch crop plants (dicots) on milk fat quality in cows was investigated to test the hypothesis that their phenolic compounds may inhibit ruminal biohydrogenation and thus enhance the transfer to milk of intact, plant-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids. Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia) were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum; intended biomass proportion of 0.2) on 1ha. For comparison, nonflowering chicory (Cichorium intybus, also sown in mixture with ryegrass) and pure ryegrass were cultivated. Realized biomass proportions (wet weight) were 91% for berseem clover, 69% for buckwheat, 54% for phacelia, and 51% for chicory. At the start of flowering (or from d 47 after sowing onward), cultures were harvested daily and fed for 20 d ad libitum to groups of 6 midlactation cows each. Additionally, 1 kg each of energy and protein concentrate and pure ryegrass hay were fed. Individual intake and milk yield of the cows were measured daily. Milk samples were obtained twice daily 5 d before and from 11 to 20 d after the start of treatment feeding. Feed samples were drawn twice a week from the fresh feeds. Apart from standard traits, feeds and milk were analyzed for fatty acids, tocopherols, and phenolic fractions. Only a few substantial treatment effects on intake and performance were observed. All diets based on dicots increased α-linolenic acid (ALA) concentrations in milk fat compared with the ryegrass diet even though the corresponding swards were not generally richer in ALA. The highest ALA concentration in milk fat (1.3 g/100g of fatty acids) occurred with the berseem clover diet. Transfer rate of ALA from feed to milk was highest with the buckwheat diet (0.09) and lowest with ryegrass (0.05). This was congruent with the differences in total extractable phenols, being high in the buckwheat sward (2.6% of dry matter) and low in the

  19. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  20. Low concentration of sodium bicarbonate improves the bioactive compound levels and antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peiyou; Wei, Aichun; Zhao, Degang; Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Dun, Baoqing; Ren, Guixing

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on the accumulation of flavonoids, total phenolics and d-chiro-inositol (DCI), as well as the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, in tartary buckwheat sprouts. Treatment with low concentrations of NaHCO 3 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%) resulted in an increase in flavonoids, total phenolic compounds and DCI concentrations, and improved DPPH radical-scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibition activities compared with the control (0%). The highest levels of total flavonoids (26.69mg/g DW), individual flavonoids (rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol), total phenolic compounds (29.31mg/g DW), DCI (12.56mg/g DW), as well as antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, were observed in tartary buckwheat sprouts treated with 0.05% NaHCO 3 for 96h. These results indicated that appropriate treatment with NaHCO 3 could improve the healthy benefits of tartary buckwheat sprouts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial and anticandidal activity of Tylosema esculentum (marama extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Minnaar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bean and tuber extracts of Tylosema esculentum (marama – an African creeping plant – were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water. Based on information that T. esculentum is used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of tuber and bean extracts were investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 6538, Mycobacterium terrae (ATCC 15755, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (clinical and Candida albicans (ATCC 2091. We performed the broth microdilution test for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and a method to determine survival of microorganisms after in vitro co-incubation with the highest concentrations of T. esculentum extracts, followed by assessment of colony counts. Ethanol and methanol (phenolic bean extracts exhibited higher potency against bacteria and yeast than aqueous extracts. Marama bean seed coat crude ethanolic extract (MSCE and seed coat polyphenolic fractions, especially soluble-bound fraction (MSCIB, were highly antimicrobial against M. terrae, C. diphtheriae and C. albicans. All marama bean polyphenolic fractions, namely cotyledon acidified methanol fraction (MCAM, seed coat acidified methanol fraction (MSCAM, cotyledon insoluble-bound fraction (MCIB, seed coat insoluble-bound fraction (MSCIB, cotyledon-free polyphenolic fraction (MCFP and seed coat free polyphenolic fraction (MSCFP had high antimicrobial effects as shown by low respective MIC values between 0.1 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. These MIC values were comparable to those of control antimicrobials used: amphotericin B (0.5 mg/mL and cesfulodin (0.1 mg/mL against C. diphtheriae, streptomycin (1.0 mg/mL and gentamicin (0.4 mg/mL against M. terrae, and amphotericin B (0.05 mg/mL against C. albicans

  2. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  3. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed.

  4. Effect of glutathione on phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells. [Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendum, M.L.; Gupta, S.C.; Goldsbrough, P.B. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Growth of cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv VFNT-Cherry, in the presence of cadmium is inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Cell growth and phytochelatin synthesis are restored to cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine by the addition of glutathione to the medium. Glutathione stimulates the accumulation of phytochelatins in cadmium treated cells, indicating that availability of glutathione can limit synthesis of these peptides. Exogenous glutathione causes a disproportionate increase in the level of smaller phytochelatins, notably ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 2}-Gly. In the presence of buthionine sulfoximine and glutathione, phytochelatins that are produced upon exposure to cadmium incorporate little ({sup 35}S)cysteine, indicating that these peptides are probably not synthesized by sequential addition of cysteine and glutamate to glutathione.

  5. UV irradiation as a tool for obtaining asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahova, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Frulleux, F.; Claeys, M.; Atanassov, A.; Jacobs, M.

    1997-01-01

    UV-irradiated kanamycin-resistant Lycopersicon esculentum leaf protoplasts were fused with wild-type Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaf protoplasts. Hybrid calli were recovered after selection in kanamycin-containing medium and subsequently regenerated. Cytological analysis of these regenerants showed that several (2–4) tomato chromosomes, or chromosome fragments, were present in addition to a polyploid Nicotiana genome complement. All lines tested had neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) activity and the presence of the kanamycin gene was shown by Southern blotting. In two cases a different hybridization profile for the kanamycin gene, compared to the tomato donor partner, was observed, suggesting the occurence of intergenomic recombination events. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was further confirmed by Southernblotting experiments using either a ribosomal DNA sequence or a tomato-specific repeat as probes. The hybrids were partially fertile and some progeny could be obtained. Our results demonstrate that UV irradiation is a valuable alternative for asymmetric cell-hybridization experiments. (author)

  6. Acetylcholine causes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Shrish Chandra; Gupta, Rajendra

    2007-05-30

    The animal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) induces rooting and promotes secondary root formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby), cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's medium. The roots originate from the midrib of leaf explants and resemble taproot. ACh at 10(-5) M was found to be the optimum over a wide range of effective concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-3) M. The breakdown products, choline and acetate were ineffective even at 10(-3) M concentration. ACh appears to have a natural role in tomato rhizogenesis because exogenous application of neostigmine, an inhibitor of ACh hydrolysis, could mimic the effect of ACh. Neostigmine, if applied in combination with ACh, potentiated the ACh effect.

  7. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed. (author)

  8. Estudios de eficacia de trichoderma cepa G008 sobre el complejo “marchitez del tomate” (lycopersicon esculentum mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Cevallos Maridueña, Soraya Efigenia

    2010-01-01

    El tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., es uno de los cultivos de importancia económica entre las hortalizas en Ecuador. Datos estadísticos en el país del año 2006 dan a conocer que la superficie sembrada con tomate fue 677.59 ha, con una producción de 1848.123 Tm (INEC, 2006).

  9. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and b...

  10. INTENSIDAD DE LOS SABORES BÁSICOS DEL TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ INTENSITY OF BASIC TASTES OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum IN SIX MATURITY STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERIN CASTRO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, la hortaliza más sembrada en Colombia, es considerada una de las más importantes por su volumen de producción y demanda. La exigencia del consumidor en sus características organolépticas hace necesario un estudio detallado acerca de sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales. El análisis sensorial se realizó con un panel entrenado de cinco jueces y las muestras de tomate fueron escogidas de acuerdo con parámetros físicos de color (Cuadro 1 y calidad en los seis estados de madurez del fruto. Se empleó el método de perfil descriptivo, con una escala de respuesta de 0 a 10 puntos, con el fin de cuantificar la intensidad de los sabores básicos (dulce, ácido, amargo, salado y umami. Se realizó un diseño aleatorizado en bloques con seis réplicas por cada tratamiento y un nivel de significancia del 5%. Este indicó la inexistencia de diferencias significativas en las intensidades para cada estado de madurez (p≤ 0,05, y la existencia de diferencias significativas en las intensidades para cada sabor básico evaluado (p>0,05. Mediante el perfil sensorial, se logró establecer que en los estados de madurez 1 y 2, el atributo de mayor intensidad fue el ácido, en los estados de madurez 3, 4 y 5, el atributo que sobresalió fue el dulce y en el estado 6, el atributo percibido en mayor grado fue el umami. Los sabores amargo y salado, se percibieron en una baja intensidad, en los diferentes estados de madurez.The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, the vegetable more seeding in the country, is considered one of most important by its volume of production and demand. The exigency of the consumer in sensory characteristics makes necessary a detailed study about its physicochemistry and sensory properties. The sensory analysis was made with a trained panel of five judges and the tomato samples were chosen according to parameters of color and quality in the six ripeness stages of the fruit. Was made using the

  11. Inhibition of Cholinesterases and Some Pro-Oxidant induced Oxidative Stress in Rats Brain by Two Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, G.; Bakare, O.O.; Ademosun, A.O.; Akinyemi, A.J.; Olasehinde, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of two tomato varieties [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. esculentum (ESC) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (CER)] on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in vitro. Phenolics content, carotenoids characterisation, inhibition of Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats brain homogenate and NO* scavenging abilities were also assesed in addition to the AChE and BChE inhibition assays. There was no significant difference in the AChE inhibitory ability of the samples, while CER had significantly higher BChE inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the tomatoes inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid-induced MDA production and further exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO* scavenging abilities. There was no significant difference in the phenolic content of the samples, while significantly high amounts of lycopene were detected in the tomatoes. The cholinesterase-inhibition and antioxidant properties of the “tomatoes” could make them good dietary means for the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Tylosema esculentum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jean-Emmery Ngabo

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(1), pp. 32-37, 2 ... Two fungi with different cultural conidial morphology were isolated. Single spores from the ... on species with an economic or commercial value which may be more sus- ..... pigmented cell walls of Alternaria tenuissima. Current ... David Philip Publishers. Cape Town.

  13. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  15. Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible coating on the storage quality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Huijun; Jin, Wengang; Li, Lirong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5, 10 and 15 g kg -1 ) combined with nisin and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated. TBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent compared to the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC and sensory scores, the shelf life of the control tilapia fillets was 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8-10 days. Edible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Development and characterization of bacterial cellulose reinforced biocomposite films based on protein from buckwheat distiller's dried grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Xuchun; Guo, Yan; Chen, Lin; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-03-01

    Biocomposite films were manufactured by combining protein extracted from buckwheat distiller's dried grains with bacterial cellulose (BC). The film microstructures showed that BC is compatible with protein matrix and endows the film with high rigidity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that BC can promote thermal stability of the composite films. BC promoted the transition from a Newtonian to a non-Newtonian fluid and the shear thinning behavior of protein-BC solution. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the main functional groups' absorption peaks shifted to lower wavenumbers. Results of both FTIR and viscosity analysis proved the formation of intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds. These bonds affected film characteristics such as moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS), and water vapor permeability (WVP), which decreased with addition of BC. The WVP (6.68±0.78-5.95±0.54×10 -10 gm/Pasm 2 ) of the films were lower than other protein films. Tensile strength (TS) values of films containing 1.8% and 2.0% BC (14.98±0.97 and 15.03±2.04MPa) were significantly higher than that of pure protein films (4.26±0.66MPa). Combination of proteins extracted from a waste product and BC led to composite films with low water vapor permeability and excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  18. Specific IgE for Fag e 3 Predicts Oral Buckwheat Food Challenge Test Results and Anaphylaxis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kyohei; Nagakura, Ken-Ichi; Ogura, Kiyotake; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    Buckwheat (BW) is the source of a life-threatening allergen. Fag e 3-specific serum IgE (sIgE) is more useful than BW-sIgE for diagnosis; however, it is unknown whether Fag e 3-sIgE can predict oral food challenge (OFC) results and anaphylaxis. This study aimed to clarify the efficacy of Fag e 3-sIgE in predicting OFC results and anaphylaxis. We conducted a retrospective review of BW- and Fag e 3-sIgE data obtained using the ImmunoCAP® assay system and fluorescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from children who underwent OFC using 3,072 mg of BW protein between July 2006 and March 2014 at Sagamihara National Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan. We analyzed 60 patients aged 1.9-13.4 years (median 6.0 years); 20 (33%) showed objective symptoms upon BW OFC. The patients without symptoms had significantly lower Fag e 3-sIgE than those with non-anaphylactic (p tested factor that significantly predicted positive OFC results (odds ratio 8.93, 95% confidence interval 3.10-25.73, p < 0.001) and OFC-induced anaphylaxis (2.67, 1.12-6.35, p = 0.027). We suggest that a threshold Fag e 3-sIgE level of 18.0 kUE/L has 95% probability of provoking a positive reaction to BW. Fag e 3-sIgE predicted OFC results and OFC-induced anaphylaxis. We further emphasize paying careful attention to the risk of BW OFC-induced anaphylaxis. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  20. Nitrogen management in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 15N-enriched fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivananda, T.N.; Iyengar, B.R.V.; Kotur, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1991 to study nitrogen management using 15 N-enriched fertilizer, to achieve economy in fertilizer N input by reduction and postponement of the basal dose in Arka Vikas tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller nom. cons). Application of 90 kg N/ha in 3 equal splits at 10, 30 and 50 days after transplanting did not show any reduction in total N uptake, dry-matter and fruit yields compared with 120 kg N/ha applied in 3 splits (60 kg N/ha basal and 30 kg top-dressed 20 and 40 days after transplanting). Band application of the basal dose and top-dressing at 20 days after transplanting resulted in higher N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), its uptake and utilization. Top-dressing of 30 or 40 kg N/ha at 10 days after transplanting resulted in better utilization than broadcasting the basal dose of 60 kg N/ha. Application at 40-50 days after transplanting showed poor uptake and utilization of applied N. The succeeding Arka Kalyan onion (Allium cepa L.) utilized 2.95-6.37% residual N, the highest being from the split application at 40 days after transplanting. Thus there was economy in fertilizer N input and higher carry-over of residual N for determinate cultivar of tomato be delaying as well as reducing the basal dose and confining the top-dressing to 30 days after transplanting. (author)

  1. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  3. Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jogendra; Sastry, E V Divakar; Singh, Vijayata

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted using ten genetically diverse genotypes along with their 45F1 (generated by diallel mating) under normal and salt stress conditions. Although, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is moderately sensitive to salinity but more attention to salinity is yet to be required in the production of tomato. In present study, germination rate, speed of germination, dry weight ratio and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in root and shoot, were the parameters assayed on three salinity levels; control, 1.0 % NaCl and 3.0 % NaCl with Hoagland's solution. Increasing salt stress negatively affected growth and development of tomato. When salt concentration increased, germination of tomato seed was reduced and the time needed to complete germination lengthened, root/shoot dry weight ratio was higher and Na(+) content increased but K(+) content decreased. Among the varieties, Sel-7 followed by Arka Vikas and crosses involving them as a parent were found to be the more tolerant genotypes in the present study on the basis of studied parameters.

  4. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  5. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  6. The Control of Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirdel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape would have irreversible effects on tomatoes in all growth stages and the damage would be unrecoverable. In order to chemically control Orobanche spp with consumption of bio-fertilizer in tomato cultivation, an experiment as factorial based on complete randomized blocks design in three replications and 12 plots was carried out at a farm which is located in Mahabad city (Iran. In this experiment, the experimental factors were including: A- sulfosulfuron 35 g/ha in three levels (application, at 40 days after transplanting of seedlings, application at 60 days and after sample transplanting without any chemical spraying, B and C: bio- fertilizers, Barvar -2 and Nitrajin in two levels (application and non-application of bio-fertilizer, were taken place. The results showed that Sulfosulfuron treatment at the rate of 35 gr/ha, with- twice application of 40 and 60 days after transplanting of seedlings decreased the biomass of Orobanche aegyptiaca in surface level and also it was possible to decrease the biomass per tomato bush and Orobanche aegyptiaca biomass to amount of 75%, 57% and 60% respectively compare to the main treatment without applying any kind of spray application. The applied bio-fertilizer-2 decreased the amount of fruit and economical function of tomato. The applying phosphate biofertilizer-2 resulted in a decrease in economical function of Lycopersicum esculentum and number of ripen fruits. However none of the applied treatment was influential on diameter and weight of ripen fruits.

  7. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  8. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  9. Morphogenetic Potential of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. ‘Arka Ahuti’ to Plant Growth Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura K. NAMITHA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly reproducible in vitro regeneration method for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar ‘Arka Ahuti’ was established by using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon explants from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones 6-Benzylamino purine (2 to 4 mg/L and Indole-3-acetic acid (0.1 to 1 mg/L. The medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine and 0.1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid was found to be the best for inducing direct shoot regeneration and multiple shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants. Callus induction was observed in all the explants and regeneration of shoots was also promoted by all these combinations. Shoots were transferred to the elongation medium which also induced 100% rooting. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established for ‘Arka Ahuti’ cultivar of tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl, leaf and cotyledon as explants.

  10. Increase in the rate of recombinants in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) after in vitro regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, M; Biglary, M; Demarly, Y

    1984-07-01

    Modification to the cross-over (C. O.) rate of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was attempted by using in vitro plant regeneration. F1 hybrids with the same genetical homozygous background were compared at two loci: "bs-ms32" on chromosome I, and "aa-d" on chromosome II. For each, the genetic distance separating the two markers was about 20 to 30 map units. One cotyledon of each F2 hybrid seedling was used as in vitro tissue culture material, while the rest of the plantlet was grown as a control. Recombination rates of the selfed progenies from each regenerated and matched control couple were compared. For the first set of markers 59,000 seeds were analysed (5 controls' and 7 regenerated progenies), and for the second, 11,000 (5 controls' and 8 regenerated progenies). There were significant increases in the genetic distance between markers in about half the regenerated individuals. For the first set the increases ranged from 6.07 to 6.91 units out of a control distance of the 19.84 to 25.65, corresponding to lengthenings of 30.59 to 35.29%. For the second set they ranged from 4.92 to 6.04 out of a control distance of 25.05 to 26.57, representing increases of 19.64 to 22.75%. Such a phenomenon can be important either from a fundamental or practical viewpoint, regarding selection efficiency in plants, and potential for gene reassortment.

  11. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  12. Diversity and pollination value of insects visiting the flowers of a rare buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum: Polygonaceae in disturbed and “natural” areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griswold, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared flower-visitors of the endangered plant Eriogonum pelinophilum, at relatively undisturbed and highly disturbed sites. We found no difference between sites in flower visitation rate or species richness of flower-visitors; species diversity of flower-visitors was higher at disturbed than at undisturbed sites but there was no difference in equitability. We found significant differences in total E. pelinophilum pollen carried on the body among 14 abundant bee species; eight abundant wasp species; and 12 abundant fly species. Both bee and wasp species carried significantly more pollen on the ventral compared to dorsal segments of the body; pollen on the body of fly species was more equally distributed across body surfaces. Total pollen carried on flower-visitor bodies was significantly related to visitor length, suggesting that larger visitors were more effective pollinators. Total Pollination Value, a measure combining both visitor abundance and body pollen was greater at the disturbed site than the undisturbed site, further suggesting that pollination in fragments of this rare species is not a major concern. We conclude that the high diversity of insect flower-visitors and the generalized nature of E. pelinophilum flowers make a special management programme to conserve pollinators unnecessary. Conservation of this buckwheat is best achieved by simple habitat preservation, together with a program to enlist private citizens to include buckwheat plants in their backyard gardens.

  13. Induction of multiple shoots from leaf segments, in vitro-flowering and fruiting of a dwarf tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kokkirala Venugopal; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Pavan, Umate; Sree, Telakalapalli Jaya; Rao, Alleni V; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2005-08-01

    Multiple shoots were induced from leaf explants of Lycopersicon esculentum cultivar MicroTom, within 20-25d, on MS medium supplemented with 8.9 microM benzylaminopurine (BAP)+1.14 microM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). For rooting, elongated microshoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 4.9 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Well-developed roots and flower raceme were obtained on d 7 and 13, respectively, upon transfer of the microshoots onto rooting medium. The flowers self-fertilized in vitro and produced mature fruits in additional 15-17d of culture.

  14. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 2...

  15. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  16. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  17. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  18. Padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sila Mary Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O valor comercial do tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., é definido pelas características de identidade e qualidade presentes no fruto que podem ser avaliadas pela classificação do produto. A presente revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever o padrão de identidade e qualidade do tomate de mesa, através da classificação. O tomate de mesa é classificado em grupos, subgrupos, classes e tipos. De acordo com o formato do fruto, o tomate é classificado em dois grupos: oblongo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é maior que o transversal e redondo, quando o diâmetro longitudinal é menor ou igual ao transversal. Em função do estádio de maturação, o tomate é classificado em cinco subgrupos: verde maduro, pintado, rosado, vermelho e vermelho maduro. A classe é definida em função do maior diâmetro transversal do fruto em relação ao grupo a que pertença. O tomate oblongo é classificado em três classes: grande, médio e pequeno. O tomate redondo é classificado em quatro classes: gigante, grande, médio e pequeno. De acordo com os índices de ocorrência de defeitos graves e leves presentes nos frutos, o tomate é classificado também em tipo: extra, especial ou selecionado e comercial. São considerados defeitos graves: podridão, passado, queimado, dano por geada, podridão apical, e defeitos leves: dano, mancha, ocado, deformado e imaturo. A amostra de tomate que ultrapasse os índices de defeitos previstos pela legislação do Ministério da Agricultura é classificada como fora do padrão.

  19. Analysis of low-temperature tolerance of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cybrid with chloroplasts from a more chilling-tolerant L-hirsutum accession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, JH; Eekhof, M; van Hasselt, PR

    Growth and photosynthesis of an alloplasmic tomato (cybrid), i.e. line AH47, containing the nuclear genome of the chilling-sensitive cytoplasmic albino mutant of L. esculentum Mill. 'Large Red Cherry' (LRC) and the plastome of a more chilling-tolerant high-altitude accession of the related wild

  20. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  2. Optimised synthesis of ZnO-nano-fertiliser through green chemistry: boosted growth dynamics of economically important L. esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Maqbool, Qaisar; Bibi, Tahira; Nazar, Mudassar; Hussain, Syed Z; Hussain, Talib; Jan, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishaq; Maaza, Malik; Anwaar, Sadaf

    2018-06-01

    Mounting-up economic losses to annual crops yield due to micronutrient deficiency, fertiliser inefficiency and increasing microbial invasions (e.g. Xanthomonas cempestri attack on tomatoes) are needed to be solved via nano-biotechnology. So keeping this in view, the authors' current study presents the new horizon in the field of nano-fertiliser with highly nutritive and preservative effect of green fabricated zinc oxide-nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) during Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) growth dynamics. ZnO-NS prepared via green chemistry possesses highly homogenous crystalline structures well-characterised through ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The ZnO-NS average size was found as small as 18 nm having a crystallite size of 5 nm. L. esculentum were grown in different concentrations of ZnO-NS to examine the different morphological parameters includes time of seed germination, germination percentage, the number of plant leaves, the height of the plant, average number of branches, days count for flowering and fruiting time period along with fruit quantity. Promising results clearly predict that bio-fabricated ZnO-NS at optimum concentration resulted as growth booster and dramatically triggered the plant yield.

  3. Effect of VS organic loads and buckwheat husk on methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Andres, Yaves; Blel, Walid; Gad, Ali; Ahmed, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion of PS, WS, and BH was conducted to evaluate different VS organic loads for an optimal methane production. • Co-digestion of PS and WS was optimized using buckwheat husk as a new waste material. • Combination of PS, WS, and BH produced higher methane yields than the individual digestion of PS, WS, and BH. • The highest CMYs and VS removal rate were achieved at C/N ratios of 10 and 7.50 gVS/L, respectively. • The purification process increased the methane content from 58.91–63.05% to 92.46–95.30%. - Abstract: An environmentally acceptable disposal of sewage sludge and agro-wastes presents an urgent problem facing many countries. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a robust and suitable technique for producing renewable energy from wastes. This study aims to improve methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge (PS) and wheat straw (WS) depending on their volatile solids (VS) organic load and by adding a proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) based on their carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Mesophilic anaerobic batch tests were carried out in 500-mL digesters. Individual and six mixtures of PS and WS at different VS organic loads were anaerobically digested to optimize VS load for the greatest gas production. The highest cumulative methane yield (CMYs) occurred with combined substrates at a VS load of 7.50 gVS/L. In general, the optimized organic loads that gave the highest cumulative biogas yield (CBYs) and CMYs were in the range of 6–8 gVS/L. In addition, AD of individual substrates of PS, WS, and BH and of their mixture at different C/N ratios was investigated regarding to the methane yields. Multi-component substrates produced the greatest CMY at a C/N ratio of 10.07. The CMYs was increased by 39.26% when the proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) was added to the different mixtures of PS and WS compared to the co-digestion of PS and WS. Experimental results were approved using statistical

  4. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  5. Nectar Attracts Foraging Honey Bees with Components of Their Queen Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; Gao, Jie; Di, Nayan; Adler, Lynn S

    2015-11-01

    Floral nectar often contains chemicals that are deterrent to pollinators, presenting potential challenges to outcrossing plant species. Plants may be able to co-opt pollinator chemical signals to mitigate the negative effects of nectar deterrent compounds on pollination services. We found that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) produce nectar with abundant phenolics, including three components of the Apis honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP). In addition, these nectars contain a non-pheromonal phenolic, chlorogenic acid (CA), which was toxic to honeybees, and T. diversifolia nectar also contained isochlorogenic acid (IA). Fresh nectar or solutions containing nectar phenolics reduced Apis individual feeding compared to sucrose solutions. However, freely foraging bees preferred solutions with QMP components to control solutions, and QMP components over-rode or reversed avoidance of CA and IA. Furthermore, prior exposure to the presence or just the odor of QMP components removed the deterrent effects of CA and IA. By mimicking the honey bee pheromone blend, nectar may maintain pollinator attraction in spite of deterrent nectar compounds.

  6. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  7. Cultivo de embriões de tomate in vitro visando a introgressão de genes de Lycopersicon peruvianum em L. esculentum Tomato embryo culture for introgression of genes of Lycopersicon peruvianum in L. esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. S. Aragão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se diferentes protocolos de germinação e manutenção de híbridos interespecíficos (Lycopersicon esculentum X L. peruvianum pela melhoria das condições de cultura in vitro bem como da aclimatação das plantas germinadas. Quanto à regeneração dos embriões, três formulações de meios de cultura para resgate de embrião foram avaliadas, em combinação com distintos períodos de tempo. A recuperação de híbridos interespecíficos foi influenciada pelo meio de cultura utilizado para o plaqueamento das sementes e pelo intervalo entre a polinização artificial e o plaqueamento. O meio HLH proporcionou os melhores resultados. O intervalo entre 25 e 35 dias após a polinização foi determinado como sendo o período ideal para recuperação. Para aclimatização, foram avaliadas plantas de L. esculentum, L. peruvianum, híbridos interespecíficos (F1 e das gerações RC1 e RC2. O processo de aclimatização foi influenciado pelo tamanho das gemas utilizadas na repicagem anterior à aclimatização, pelos materiais genéticos utilizados e pelo tempo de manutencão das plântulas em tubo de ensaio. A geracão F1 apresentou a melhor capacidade de aclimatização. O período ideal para aclimatização variou entre 26 e 35 dias após a repicagem em tubo de ensaio. As aclimatizações realizadas sob condições ambientais amenas, alcançaram êxito total quanto à sobrevivência das plântulas.Three culture media in combination with distinct accessions, crossing generations and periods of time after artificial pollination were evaluated in order to identify more efficient protocols to recover interspecific hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. peruvianum. Both type of media for seed plating and the interval time for fruit harvest after artificial pollination had significant influence on the recovery of interspecific hybrids. The HLH medium gave the best results. The interval between 25 and 35 days after the artificial

  8. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  9. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  11. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  12. and black cumin (Nigella sativa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Feed additive antibiotics reduce the cost and improve the quantity of food production through more ... similar antibiotics used in human medicine as the result of food chain ... The main active components of black cumin ... Another plant of nutritional and medicinal importance is buckwheat (Fagopyrum ...

  13. Characterization and evaluation of some lines from cherry tomatoes lycopersicon esculentum mill. Var. Cerasiforme (dunal) and their ability for micropropagation in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Tomato production in the Republic of Macedonia is present on more than 5700 hectares, being the leading vegetable crop in the region of Strumica. Cherry tomato however, is poorly present at our fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, with different shapes and colors and it is used ma...

  14. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN CaCO3 DAN WAKTU PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN C PADA PROSES PENGHAMBATAN PEMATANGAN BUAH TOMAT (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kartika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know the influence of CaCO3 addition and storage duration to vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Calcium carbonate(CaCO3 which is added 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8 percent of weight and storage duration were 0; 2; 4; 6; 8; 10 and 12 days. Vitamine C was determined by using iodometric titration method. The data obtained were then analized by ANOVA test and LSD test. The result showed that CaCO3 addition could influence vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill on standard 5% and 1% with  Ftest > Ftabel (5% and 1% or F(7.6667 > F(2.50 and 3.60 and storage duration could influence vitamine C concentrate in ripe obstruction process of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill on standard 5% and 1% with Ftest > Ftabel (5% and 1% or F(1204.2222 > F(2.32 and 3.07. Based on the result LSD test on significant standard 5% (0.0143 and 1% (0.0190, optimum vitamine C concentrate were 0.8589 mg/10 g on 0.2% of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 addition and 10 days of storage duration. Keywords : ANOVA, CaCO3, LSD, tomato, vitamine C, storage duration

  15. Shelf-life extension of semi-dried buckwheat noodles by the combination of aqueous ozone treatment and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yi-Peng; Guo, Xiao-Nao; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-12-15

    The present study investigated the combined effects of aqueous ozone treatment and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on prolonging the shelf-life of semi-dried buckwheat noodles [SBWN; moisture content (22.5±0.5%)] at 25°C. Firstly, the different concentrations of ozonated water were used to make SBWN. Subsequently, SBWN prepared with ozonated water were packaged under six different conditions and stored for 11days. Changes in microbial, chemical-physical, textural properties and sensorial qualities of SWBN were monitored during storage. Microbiological results indicated that adopting 2.21mg/L of ozonated water resulted in a 1.8 log 10 CFU/g reduction of the initial microbial loads in SBWN. In addition, MAP suppressed the microbial growth with a concomitant reduction in the rates of acidification and quality deteriorations of SBWN. Finally, the shelf-life of sample packed under N 2 :CO 2 =30:70 was extended to 9days, meanwhile textural and sensorial characteristics were maintained during the whole storage period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tartary buckwheat flavonoids ameliorate high fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress associated with the insulin signaling and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Hou, Zuoxu; Yi, Ruokun; Wang, Zhongming; Sun, Peng; Li, Guijie; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of a purified tartary buckwheat flavonoid fraction (TBF) on insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress in mice fed high fructose in drinking water (20%) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that continuous administration of TBF dose-dependently improved the insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in high fructose-fed mice. TBF treatment also reversed the reduced level of insulin action on the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the insulin-resistant liver. Furthermore, TBF was found to exert high antioxidant capacity as it acts as a shield against oxidative stress induced by high fructose by restoring the antioxidant status, and modulating nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation to the nucleus with subsequently up-regulated antioxidative enzyme protein expression. Histopathological examinations revealed that impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues were effectively restored in high fructose-fed mice following TBF treatment. Our results show that TBF intake is effective in preventing the conversion of high fructose-induced insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress in mice by improving the insulin signaling molecules and the Nrf2 signal pathway in the liver.

  17. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Chávez-Murillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

  18. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  19. Comparative analysis on the effect of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in reducing cadmium, mercury and lead accumulation in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Aneto, Imaria; Obi, Joshua; Udekweleze, Damian C; Olatunde, Bukola; Owu, Daniel U; Iwuala, Moses O

    2012-06-01

    L. esculentum (tomato) contain compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, able to synthesize metal chelating proteins. We examined the ability of fruit extract to protect against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Rats were fed on tomato mixed with rat chow (10% w/w), while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Tomato was administered together with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure (group 3) or a week before metal exposure (group 4) for a period of six weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. There was a significant (Ptomato to Cd and Hg accumulation but not to Pb (PTomato reduces uptake while enhancing the elimination of these metals in a time dependent manner. The highest hepatoprotective effect was to Cd followed by Hg and least to Pb. Its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth and development of tomato plants Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. under different saline conditions by fertirrigation with pretreated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-01-01

    Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has been used at different salinity levels: 1.75, 2.22, 3.22, 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) and compared with fresh water (1.44 dS m(-1)). Two cultivars (cv.) of the tomato plant Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill. (Roma and Rio Grande) were exposed to saline conditions for 72 days. Salinity level (treatment) had no significant effects on the fresh weight and dry matter of the leaves, stems and roots. Similar results were found when specific leaf area, leaflet area, ramifications number of 1st order/plant, stem diameter and length, nodes number/stem and primary root length were considered. Conversely, the salinity level significantly influenced the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index and the distance between nodes in the plant stem. In the first case, an increase of 21% was obtained in the salinity levels of 5.02 and 10.02 dS m(-1) for cv. Rio Grande, compared with the control run. The results showed that the pretreated CWW can be a source of nutrients for tomato plants, with reduced effects on growth and development.

  1. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  2. 24-Epibrassinoslide enhances plant tolerance to stress from low temperatures and poor light intensities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lirong; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yanyan; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (Brs) are a newly recognized group of active steroidal hormones that occur at low concentrations in all plant parts and one of the active and stable forms is 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). We investigated the effect of EBR on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and its mechanism when seedlings were exposed to low temperature and poor light stress conditions. Leaves of stress-tolerant 'Zhongza9' and stress-sensitive 'Zhongshu4' cultivars were pre-treated with spray solutions containing either 0.1 μM EBR or no EBR (control). The plants were then transferred to chambers where they were exposed to low temperatures of 12 °C/6 °C (day/night) under a low light (LL) level of 80 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1). Exogenous application of EBR significantly increased the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the rate of O2 · (-) formation and H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents. Additionally, the ATP synthase β subunit content was increased by exogenous hormone application. Based on these results, we conclude that exogenous EBR can elicit synergism between the antioxidant enzyme systems and the ATP synthase β subunit so that scavenging of reactive oxygen species becomes more efficient. These activities enable plants to cope better under combined low temperature and poor light stresses.

  3. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  4. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On-line anti-acetylcholine esterase activity of extracts of oxystelma esculentum, aerva javanica and zanthoxylum armatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, S.; Ullah, R. S.; Abbas, A.; Riaz, T.; Ghous, T.; Altaf, Y.; Khan, M.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease of brain, resulting in memory impairment and the loss of thinking. The main reason of Alzheimer's disease is firmly associated with some impairment in cholinergic transmission. This impairment may be improved by diminishing the breakdown of acetylcholine at the synaptic site in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this work, extracts of three different plants Oxystelma esculentum (OEM), Aerva javanica (AJM) and Zanthoxylum armatum (ZAA) have been screened for their anti-AchE activity. Results of the study demonstrate that of the studied extracts, ZAA (IC/sub 50/ 55.5 micro g/ml) acquired stronger anti-AChE activity. While OEM with IC/sub 50/ 107.2 micro g/ml showed moderate and ZAE and AJM showed weaker action (IC/sub 50/ 182.5 and 275.2 micro g/ml). Galanthamine was used as a positive control (IC/sub 50/ 1.47 micro g/ml). (author)

  6. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. © 2013.

  8. The effect of active forms of silicon on the biomass of agricultural crops during their growth period on technogenically altered soils of the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V. Wagner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recovery of technogenically affected soils remains unsolved. Silicon which moves in the “soil – plant” system has been insufficiently studied, though this element takes part in many processes. For assessing the role of silicon compounds, we selected samples of technogenically affected soils of different types in the territory of the research station for land reclamation of Dnіpro State Agrarian-Economic University in the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin. We conducted a vegetative experiment and a series of laboratory tests with adding SiO2. We chose the following crops: buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, 1794, vetch (Vicia sativa Linnaeus, 1753 and sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, 1753. The рН of the studied soils fluctuated between 7.1 to 7.8. The content of available nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils was low, except the content of phosphorus in pedozems. We analyzed 240 samples of plants and measured their biomass. Vetch grew best on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like lomy soils, buckwheat and sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. The variant of experiment with 0.2% solution of SiO2 was most the efficient during growing all chosen crops on all types of studied soils. After adding amphoteric silicon, the best biomass indicators of vetch and buckwheat were observed on sod-lithogenous soils on forest-like loam, and indicators for sunflower – on sod-lithogenous soils on grey-green clays. After using 0.3% and 0.4% solution of SiO2, a gel film forms, which the seeds have no energy to penetrate and run out. Thus it slows the plant’s growth. An exception was an experiment with pedozems with adding 0.4% solution of SiO2, when the biomass of vetch was 1.5 times greater than in the experiment with 0.2% solution. We observed no similar positive effect in other variants of the experiment. All chosen crops on technogenically affected soils reacted to addition of silicon compounds by increasing

  9. Genetical and ultrastructural aspects of self and cross incompatibility in interspecific hybrids between self-compatible Lycopersicum esculentum and self-incompatible L. peruvianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nettancourt, D; Devreux, M; Laneri, U; Cresti, M; Pacini, E; Sarfatti, G

    1974-01-01

    Cytological and genetical analyses were made of the breeding system of embryo-cultured interspecific tomato hybrids between L. esculentum and L. peruvianum. It was found that fluorescence techniques and electron microscopy allowed a distinction to be made between pollen tubes inhibited by a unilateral incompatibility reaction and pollen tubes inhibited by a self-incompatibility reaction, after self-pollination of the hybrids or after reciprocal crossing between the hybrid and the parental species. The observed differences, if real and reliable, demonstrate that unilateral incompatibility in esculentum pollen tubes is governed by a single gametophytic factor which is either linked or allelic to the S-locus. This finding is discussed with reference to recent reports that unilateral incompatibility is controlled, in peruvianum styles, by a number of different dominant genes and it is concluded that these dominant genes, the S-locus of self-incompatibility and the gametophytic factor regulating the unilateral reaction in esculentum pollen belong to the same linkage group. The strong sterility barriers which prevent practically all backcrosses between the hybrid and the parental species were shown to be independent of the factors regulating stylar incompatibility. L. peruvianum is heterozygous for the sterility genes which prevent fertilization or embryo formation when the interspecific hybrid is crossed, as pistillate parent, to different accessions of L. peruvianum. One peruvianum stock was found which, as a pollinator, was highly cross-fertile with the hybrids.The presence of a concentric endoplasmic reticulum in inhibited pollen tubes was observed to be a constant feature of both the self- and the unilateral incompatibility reactions and was interpreted as an indication that incompatibility might lead to a general cessation of protein synthesis. Although incompatible tubes very much resemble, in this respect, the pollen tubes cultured in vitro, it seems probable, on

  10. Chernobyl Doses. Volume 3. Habitat and Vegetation Near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Beta vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Linum usitatissimum , Cannabis satii, Humulus lupulus, Daucus carota... USITATISSIMUM flax It is grown for fiber. Fine-quality fiber can be obtained from plants grown on podzolic and gley soils with considerable fertilizing. In the

  11. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  12. Effects of Different Sources of Nutrition on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Lycopersicon esculentum under Ecological Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Amiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing usage of chemical fertilizers imposes irreparable damages to the environment. Disadvantages of chemical fertilizers has led to more attention to the application of organic fertilizers and manures. The use of organic fertilizers and livestock, especially in nutrient poor soils, it is necessary to maintain soil quality. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR occupy the rhizosphere of many plant species and have beneficial effects on the host plant. They may influence the plant in a direct or indirect manner. A direct mechanism would be to increase plant growth by supplying the plant with nutrients and hormones. Indirect mechanisms on the otherhand, include, reduced susceptibility to diseases, and activing a form of defese referred to as induces systematic resistance. Examples of bacteria which have been found to enhance plant growth, include Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Arthrobacter. Biofertilizers contain organic compounds that increase soil fertility either directly or as a result of their decay (9, 10. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The plant typically grow 1-3 meters in height and a weak stem. It is a perennial in its native habitat, although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams. Tomatoes contain the carotene lycopene, one of the most powerful natural antioxidants. In some studies, lycopene, especially in cooked tomatoes, has been found to help prevent prostate cancer. Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin’s ability to protect against harmful UV rays. Tomatoes might help in managing human neurodegenerative diseases. The lycopene has no effect on the risk of developing diabetes, but may help relieve the oxidative stress of people who already have diabetes. The purpose of this study was the possibility of replacing chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers, reducing production

  13. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  14. The effect of the lenght of storage on the amount of lycopene in the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on tomatoes for industrial processing due to its economical importance for its lycopene content. The objective of our research is to find the variation of lycopene content in tomato fruits depending upon the length of after harvest storage and thermic treatment, which is inevitable when being industrialy processed. From the point of view of nutritional qualities the most relevant contentual substance of tomatos are carotenoids, included lycopene.At average for tree following experimental years we learnt significant differences regarding the content of lycopene and the length of storage of tomato fruits. Immediately after the harvest and proccesing tomato fruits contained, at average for tree years, 103.24 mg of lycopene. After 14 days the content of lycopene declined to 46.76 mg . kg−1 of fresh mass. After 30 days the average value dropped to 29.26 mg . kg−1. This fact comfirms that boiling respectively thermic treatment increases the content of lycopene in tomato fruits, particulary in our experiment to the value 83.33 mg . kg−1. At varieties Ladislav, Peto 86, Prémium, Salus the content of lycopene has even risen in comparison with its content up to 48 hours after the harvest. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the most signifficant vegetable varieties either for its exploitation in processing industry as well as for its nutritional value with extraordinary beneficial effect for human organism.Although the content of lycopene is genetically stable attribute, its content in our experiment ranged from 45.39 mg . kg−1 (Prémium variety to 77.98 mg . kg−1 (Zámčan variety, which are significant differences.

  15. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  16. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv `Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots. Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium. Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed. PMID:16664467

  17. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-11-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv ;Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots.Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium.Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed.

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

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    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  19. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Germination, Growth, Elements, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Contents in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

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    M. Askary

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and the transport sector has led to an increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and their derivatives and ozone (O3. In addition to dry and wet deposition of these gases has been the major route of influx in ionic form into the ecosystem. This investigation was evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR with different pH (6.8 as control, 6.5, 6, 5.5, 5, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 on germination, growth, elements, protein, photosynthetic pigments contents of Lycopersicon esculentum in hydroponic culture. Experiments were conducted at research laboratory of arak university in summer of 1391. Results were showed that from pH=6.8 until pH=5/5 significantly increased P and K and protein content, root and shoot dry and wet weight. SAR exposure with high acidity (pH=5/5 until pH=2.5 significantly suppressed germination, growth index, measured elements as P and K, protein and photosynthetic pigments, while significant increased sulphur contect from 150% to 550% compared to controls. Maximal amounts sulphur were measured in pH=2/5. Acid rain in low pH were decrease plant growth and make protein and incearsed sulphur content in leaf. As regards, low acidity promoted the growth of tomato plants and high acidity inhibit, Therefore, it is recommended that tomato plants cultures in soils with low acidity.

  20. The behaviour of Bombus impatiens (Apidae, Bombini on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanaceae flowers: pollination and reward perception

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    Peter Kevan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The foraging behaviour of pollinators can influence their efficiency in pollinating certain plant species. Improving our understanding of this behaviour can contribute to an improvement of management techniques to avoid pollination deficits. We investigated the relationship between the number of visits of bumble bees (Bombus impatiensto tomato flowers (Lycopersicon esculentum and two variables related to the quality of the resulting fruits (weight, number of seeds, as well as the relationship between foragers’ thoracic weights, physical characteristics of thoracic vibrations (main frequency, velocity amplitude, amount of pollen removed from flowers, and the quality-related variables. In addition, we studied the capability of foragers to assess the availability of pollen in flowers. Tomato weight and seed number did not increase with the number of bee visits, neither were they correlated with the foragers’ thorax weight. Thorax weight also did not correlate with the amount of pollen removed from the flowers nor with the physical characteristics of vibration. Vibration characteristics did not change in response to the amount of pollen available on tomato flowers. Instead, foragers adjusted the time spent visiting the flowers, spending fewer time on flowers from which some pollen had already been removed on previous visits. The quantity and the production-related variables of tomatoes are not dependent on the number of bee visits (usually one visit suffices for full pollination; bigger foragers are not more efficient in pollinating tomato flowers than smaller ones; and B. impatiens foragers are capable of evaluating the amount of pollen on a flower while foraging and during pollination.

  1. Purification of extensin from cell walls of tomato (hybrid of Lycopersicon esculentum and L. peruvianum) cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownleader, M D; Dey, P M

    1993-01-01

    Extensin, a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein comprising substantial amounts of beta-L-arabinose-hydroxyproline glycosidic linkages is believed to be insolubilized in the cell wall during host-pathogen interaction by a peroxidase/hydroperoxide-mediated cross-linking process. Both extensin precursor and extensin peroxidase were ionically eluted from intact water-washed tomato (hybrid of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and L. peruvianum L. (Mill.) cells in suspension cultures and purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple procedure under mild and non-destructive experimental conditions. The molecular weight of native extensin precursor was estimated to be greater than 240-300 kDa by Superose-12 gel-filtration chromatography. Extensin monomers have previously been designated a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. Our results indicate that salt-eluted extensin precursor is not monomeric. Agarose-gel electrophoresis, Superose-12-gel-filtration, extensin-peroxidase-catalysed cross-linking, Mono-S ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), and peptide-sequencing data confirmed the homogeneity of the extensin preparation. Evidence that the purified protein was extensin is attributed to the presence of the putative sequence motif--Ser (Hyp)4--within the N-terminal end of the protein. Treatment of extensin with trifluoroacetic acid demonstrated that arabinose was the principal carbohydrate. The amino-acid composition of the purified extensin was similar to those reported in the literature. The cross-linking of extensin in vitro upon incubation with extensin peroxidase and exogenous H2O2 was characteristic of other reported extensins. Furthermore, Mono-S ion-exchange FPLC of native extensin precursor resolved it into two isoforms, A (90%) and B (10%). The amino-acid compositions of extensin A and extensin B were found to be similar to each other and both extensins were cross-linked in vitro by extensin peroxidase.

  2. The life cycle and yielding of Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Mill) pretreated with deuterium depleted water and nano magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Butnariu, Horia; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to reveal the effect of deuterium depleted water (DDW) upon the first (germination) and the last one (yield) life cycle of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomatoes) in water stress condition. Specifically, growth methods were applied. The obtained data were statistically processed (Ceapoiu, 1968). There were pointed out the differences and proportionality in germination dynamics when the seeds were pretreated with DDW and a mixture of DDW with NMP (Nano Magnetic Particles). The descendants of different fruits/plants were analyzed. In comparison to Control (H 2 O-d) in DDW the germination was repressed in one descendant (4.4%) or contrary it was stimulated on other descendant (12.7%). In presence of NMP suspended in DDW, the seed indices were higher: 13.1% for the basal fruit and 22% for the upper one. In the plants cultivated in water well supplied or under water stress conditions the yield was higher i.e. 94.68 t/ha and 62.76 t/ha, respectively. The difference of 31.92 t/ha emphasizes the favorable effect of initial treatment. The DDW pretreatment induced favorable biological effects expressed in a high yield in both groups (normal and stressed). The average yield/surface unit was the highest. The life cycle was prolonged in high yielding descendants. In their case after 105 days only 2% of total yield was gathered. Short phenophases developed the stressed plants. The maturity took place earlier on stressed plants yielding 8% from total production after 105 days.The pretreatment with DDW or DDW and NMPs is useful for practical purposes in case of tomatoes varieties in which technology nursery transplant is an important stage in cultivation. (authors)

  3. Investigation of the effects of aluminum stress on some macro and micro-nutrient contents of the seedlings of lycopersicon esculentum mill. by using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, G.; Catak, E.; Baykul, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study was planned to see the affect of aluminum stress on plant nutrition and metabolism. The effects of aluminum stress on uptake level of some macro- and micro-nutrients from the nutrition solution into the seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and on mobilization of some nutrient elements in the seedlings were examined at the level of epidermal cells. The elemental structure of root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells were determined by Energy Dispersive Xray Microanalysis (EDX) performed in a local area 50 nm in diameter at the level of a single epidermal cell cytoplasm by using low vacuum (24 pascal ) Scanning Electron Microscope. EDX analysis revealed that aluminum content of the cells was increasing with the increased concentrations of aluminum in the nutrient solution and that aluminum largelyaccumulated in the roots. Aluminum concentration was much higher in the root epidermal cells of the seedlings incubated in aluminum containing media for 17 days without adding any nutrient solution; it was also true for the local EDX analysis of radicle epidermal cells from the same series. Aluminum stress was found to tend to modify the plant nutritional element content of the cells and this was particularly of critical importance in terms of some macro- and micro-nutrients. The assessments performed at the level of epidermal cells of young seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum suggest that aluminum stress leads to an absolute change in the plant nutritional element composition of the cells and in the mobilization of some nutritional elements in the seedlings. (author)

  4. Age estimates for the buckwheat family Polygonaceae based on sequence data calibrated by fossils and with a focus on the amphi-Pacific Muehlenbeckia.

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    Tanja M Schuster

    Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.

  5. Een vondst van Franse boekweit (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink-Meijerink, Corry G.

    1998-01-01

    In september 1996, tijdens een van mijn vele plantenstrooptochten door het FLORON-district Twente, kwam ik in een landbouwgebied bij Dedemsvaart terecht. Landbouwgebieden met veel sloten en leidingen hebben een grote aantrekkingskracht op mij, daar ze soms schatten aan informatie opleveren. Door

  6. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauich, Orlando; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Macias-Macias, José Octavio; Reyes-Oregel, Vicente; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Parra-Tabla, Victor

    2004-04-01

    The acclimation, foraging behavior, and pollination efficiency of stingless bees of the species Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants cultivated in two greenhouses. The greenhouses were divided into three areas of 16 m2, and one of the following treatments was used for pollination: stingless bees (SB), mechanical vibration (MV), and no pollination (NP). Observations were conducted once a week from 0800 to 1600 hours during 2 mo. The acclimation of the bees to the greenhouses was estimated by the number of bees that did not return to the hive (lost bees) and by comparing the population of the colonies (brood and adults). The foraging activity of the bees across the day was evaluated by comparing the number of foragers per hour. The influence of environmental variables on the foraging activity was also analyzed. The pollination efficiency was compared among treatments through the percentage of fruit set, weight of individual fruit, kilograms of fruit produced per square meter, and the number of seed per fruit. The bees started foraging on the flowers approximately 7 d after the colonies were introduced to the greenhouse. There was a decline in the population of the colonies across the experiment, but colonies did not die out. Correlations of environmental variables with the foraging activity of the bees showed that none of them had a significant influence on pollen foraging. However, water collection was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the humidity inside the greenhouse. The estimation of the pollination efficiency per treatment showed that there were significant differences in fruit set in SB (83 +/- 4.2) and MV (78.5 +/- 6.4) compared with NP (52.6 +/- 7.6). However, the average weight of the fruit was similar for the three treatments (65 g). There were significant differences for seed number in SB (200 +/- 15.3) and MV (232 +/- 21.4) compared with NP (120 +/- 16

  7. Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Bacterial Colonization

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    H. Makarian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental problems such as water resource pollution and decrease in soil fertility. Organic matters are excellent sources of plant-available nutrients and their addition to soil could maintain high microbial populations and activities. In crop studies, Prabha et al. (2007 reported that there was excellent plant growth as well as yield in garlic plants that received vermicompost as nutrient in the field (28. Recent studies confirmed that, a number of bacterial species mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere, are found to be beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the growth promoting effects of organic and bio-fertilizers on tomato growth and yield. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood in 2011. Geographically, the site is located in Bastam (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l..The climate of this region is semi-arid. Treatments included three levels of organic fertilizers: vermicompost (1300 kgha-1, cow manure (3350 kgha-1, and control, biological fertilizer in four levels (Pseudomonas putyda, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chrococcum and control. The bacterial suspension for each species was applied at a rate of 3 liters per hectare. Metribuzin herbicide (wettable 80% powder was used at a rate of 1000 gr. ha-1. Petopride No. 2' variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was used in the present experiment. At the time of harvesting, the plant characteristics namely lengths and diameter of stem, number and weight of fruit, weight of stem and leaf were also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software Mstatc. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results

  8. Interaction of Polyamines, Abscisic Acid, Nitric Oxide, and Hydrogen Peroxide under Chilling Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qiannan; Song, Yongjun; Shi, Dongmei; Qi, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) play a vital role in the responses of higher plants to abiotic stresses. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the interplay between PAs and signal molecules. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cross-talk among PAs, abscisic acid (ABA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) under chilling stress conditions using tomato seedlings [( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Moneymaker]. The study showed that during chilling stress (4°C; 0, 12, and 24 h), the application of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) elevated NO and H 2 O 2 levels, enhanced nitrite reductase (NR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like, and polyamine oxidase activities, and upregulated LeNR relative expression, but did not influence LeNOS1 expression. In contrast, putrescine (Put) treatment had no obvious impact. During the recovery period (25/15°C, 10 h), the above-mentioned parameters induced by the application of PAs were restored to their control levels. Seedlings pretreated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) showed elevated Put and Spd levels throughout the treatment period, consistent with increased expression in leaves of genes encoding arginine decarboxylase ( LeADC. LeADC1 ), ornithine decarboxylase ( LeODC ), and Spd synthase ( LeSPDS ) expressions in tomato leaves throughout the treatment period. Under chilling stress, the Put content increased first, followed by a rise in the Spd content. Exogenously applied SNP did not increase the expression of genes encoding S -adenosylmethionine decarboxylase ( LeSAMDC ) and Spm synthase ( LeSPMS ), consistent with the observation that Spm levels remained constant under chilling stress and during the recovery period. In contrast, exogenous Put significantly increased the ABA content and the 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase ( LeNCED1 ) transcript level. Treatment with ABA could alleviate the electrolyte leakage (EL) induced by D-Arg (an inhibitor of Put). Taken together, it is

  9. The suitability of non-legume cover crops for inorganic soil nitrogen immobilisation in the transition period to an organic no-till system

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    Lars Rühlemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate non-legume cover crops for growing no-till grain legumes in organic farming systems. Evaluated cover crops should be able to suppress weed growth, reduce plant available nitrogen in the soil and produce large amounts of biomass with slow N mineralisation. Six non-legume species; spring rye (Secale cereale L., black oat (Avena sativa L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. were tested. Plots with organic fertiliser (50 kg N ha−1 and without fertiliser incorporation at three locations in south-east Germany were trialled and the cover crops’ ability to produce biomass and accumulate N in plant compartments was evaluated. The N mineralisation from stem and leaf material was simulated using the STICS model. The biomass production ranged from 0.95 to 7.73 Mg ha−1, with fertiliser increasing the total biomass at locations with low-N status. Sunflower consistently displayed large biomass and N accumulation at all locations and fertiliser variations, although not always significantly more than other species. Most N was stored in sunflower leaf material, which can be easily mineralised making it less suited as cover crop before no-till sown spring grain legumes. Rye, which produced slightly less biomass, but accumulated more N in the stem biomass, would be better suited than sunflower in this type of system. The N mineralisation simulation from rye biomass indicated long N immobilisation periods potentially improving weed suppression within no-till sown legume cash crops.

  10. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  11. Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

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    Barbara Gabara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

  12. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  13. Accumulation of New Polypeptides in Ri T-DNA-Transformed Roots of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during the Development of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, P; Louisy-Louis, N; Plenchette, C; Strullu, D G

    1994-06-01

    Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors.

  14. Study of Androgenesis Ability and Callus Induction in Four Varieties of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill by Anther Culture

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    R. Najib

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill is one of the most important vegetables which in addition of its importance as a food, is utilized as a model plant for cytological and cytogenetic studies. Tomato breeding programs are often based on the production and selection of hybrid plants. Producing hybrid plants and application of features that is needed to breed pure lines with high specific combining abilities, is highly required.New technologies such as doubled haploid can be an effective strategy to provide pure lines in tomato. Generation of homozygous doubled haploid lines through induction of androgenesis is a promising alternative method to the classical breeding programs. However, this technology is poorly developed in tomato so that some improvements in methodology are required. Genotype and stages of microspore development are critical factors for induction of androgenesis in tomato. Among them, the genotype is more important than other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of callus induction from anthers in some tomato genotypes. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the androgenic response and callus induction through anther culture in tomato, four varieties including Mobil-Netherlands, Baker, U. S. Agriseed and Khoram were chosen. To determine the appropriate stage of microspore development for anther culture, cytologycal studies were accomplished at different size length of flower buds (2-7.9 mm. Flower buds were incubated at 4oC for 15 minutes and stained in acetocarmin %4 solution. Based on cytological studies in four tested cultivars, flower buds with size length 4-4.9 mm were chosen, as they had the highest frequency of meiotic microspores to microspores mid uninucleate. Pretreatments were colchicine solution (250 mgr/L at 4 °C for 48 h. The anthers were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mgr/L IAA and 1 mgr/L 2ip. All changes in frequency of callus induction and diameter of

  15. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Glomus intraradice on Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in Cultivated Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    mojtaba zafarian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the most popular and highest symbiotic relationship in plant kingdom. Most plants (about 80% of vascular plant species have at least one type of mycorrhiza. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungies are the most important endomycorhiza fungi that play an important role in agriculture. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradice symbiosis to control Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca. Pers in cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. growth, a glasshouse experiment was conducted in CRD design with four replications in Shahrekord university in summer 2014. Treatments consisted of four arbuscular mycorrhizal levels (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 and two control treatments of weed free and weed infested treatments, respectively. In this experiment, seeds of speedy tomato cultivar planted in the bed that consisted of coco peat and peat moss were transplanted to the pots. Pots with diameter 20 and height 15 cm were filled with soil in the ratio 4: 1: 1 manure, sand and clay respectively and with 50 mg of Orobanche seeds that were collected in the previous year. It should be noted that the soil combination was disinfected at a temperature of 80OC for 72 h to reduce the potential effects of soil microbial population in reducing Orobanche germination. The fungal inoculation, containing sandy soil fungal body parts and organs fungal root was then added to each pot. Fungi strain was provided from the plant protection clinic located in Hamadan. Also, nutrition of tomato after being transplanted to pots was carried out with foliar application of complete micronutrient of 20-20-20 every 7 days under glasshouse condition. At the end of the season, were measured number of stems, number of nodules on the roots of tomato, time of emergence of orobanche flower on the soil surface, orobanche dry weight and tomato root and shoot dry weight. Statistical analysis of

  16. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  17. Stable carbon isotope composition (δ{sup 13}C), water use efficiency, and biomass productivity of Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon pennellii, and the F{sub 1} hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.; Thorstenson, Y. R.

    1988-09-01

    Three tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv UC82B, a droughttolerant wild related species, Lycopersicon pennellii (Cor.) D'Arcy, and their F{sub 1}, hybrid, were grown in containers maintained at three levels of soil moisture. Season-long water use was obtained by summing over the season daily weight losses of each container corrected for soil evaporation. Plant biomass was determined by harvesting and weighing entire dried plants. Season-long water use efficiency (gram dry weight/kilogram H{sub 2}O) was calculated by dividing the dry biomass by the season-long water use. The season-long water use efficiency was greatest in the wild parent, poorest in the domestic parent, and intermediate (but closer to the wild parent) in the F, hybrid. Instantaneous water-use efficiency (micromole CO{sub 2}/millimole H{sub 2}O) determined by gas exchange measurements on individual leaves was poorly correlated with season-long water use efficiency. However, the relative abundance of stable carbon isotopes of leaf tissue samples was strongly correlated with the season-long water use efficiency. Also, the isotopic composition and the season-long water use efficiency of each genotype alone were strongly negatively correlated with plant dry weight when the dry weight varied as a function of soil moisture. (author)

  18. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of genomic DNA from in vitro grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars before and after plant cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Leopold, Nicolae; Tripon, Carmen; Coste, Ana; Halmagyi, Adela

    2015-06-05

    In this work the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of five genomic DNAs from non-cryopreserved control tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Siriana, Darsirius, Kristin, Pontica and Capriciu) respectively, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). Structural changes induced in genomic DNAs upon cryopreservation were discussed in detail for four of the above mentioned tomato cultivars. The surface-enhanced Raman vibrational modes for each of these cases, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of genomic DNAs are reported. We have found, that DNA isolated from Siriana cultivar leaf tissues suffers the weakest structural changes upon cryogenic storage of tomato shoot apices. On the contrary, genomic DNA extracted from Pontica cultivar is the most responsive system to cryopreservation process. Particularly, both C2'-endo-anti and C3'-endo-anti conformations have been detected. As a general observation, the wavenumber range 1511-1652 cm(-1), being due to dA, dG and dT residues seems to be influenced by cryopreservation process. These changes could reflect unstacking of DNA bases. However, not significant structural changes of genomic DNAs from Siriana, Darsirius and Kristin have been found upon cryopreservation process of tomato cultivars. Based on this work, specific plant DNA-ligand interactions or accurate local structure of DNA in the proximity of a metallic surface, might be further investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant-enzyme reaction to the oxidative stress due to alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Karim; Laglaoui, Amin; Zantar, Said; Ennabili, Abdeslam

    2015-11-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) becomes one of the world's foremost vegetables, and its world production and consumption have increased fairly quickly. The capacity to induce oxidative stress in tomato plant, exposed to three xenobiotics such as alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos, and pirimicarb, was investigated by the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) rate; also, we studied the response of tomato to this stress by assessing the response of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). The effect of the insecticides was observed using four concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) for germinating seeds and only the recommended concentration in agriculture (100%) for growing plants. Our results show an important accumulation of MDA, demonstrating the increase of lipid peroxidation in consequence of the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to insecticide treatment. In response to this oxidative stress in tomato seedlings and plants, the activities of antioxidant-enzyme system were generally enhanced. The electrophoretic analysis showed also the apparition of new isoenzymes as the case for CAT and POD.

  20. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  1. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  2. Polyhydroxyalcanoates of strains of Azospirillum spp. isolated of roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomato” and Oryza sativa L. “rice” in Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work was determined the concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs of Azospirillum strains isolated from roots of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill "tomato" and Oryza sativa L. "rice" as an alternative to accumulation of petroleum-based plastics. Previously disinfected root were plated in Nfb semisolid medium where nitrogen-fixing bacteria were recognized by a whitish film on the surface and turn from green to blue. The genus Azospirillum was identified in Congo red agar medium, obtained 96 isolates of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense on tomato and rice. Batch fermentation was performed with broth Azotobacter modified feeding a saturated solution of malic acid every 12 hours and were stained with Sudan Black B. Strains were selected with the greatest number of PHAs granules (in tomato, 18 of A. lipoferum and 2 of A. brasilense; in rice, 10 of A. lipoferum and 10 of A. brasilense and quantified the biomass and PHAs. PHAs concentration reached 0.661 gL-1 in A. lipoferum KM(T-73 and 0.738 gL-1 in A. brasilense KM(T-19, both isolated from tomato. Strains of A. lipoferum and A. brasilense isolated from tomato reached a higher concentration of biomass and PHAs against the strains of rice.

  3. Biosynthesis of 14C-phytoene from tomato cell suspension cultures (Lycopersicon esculentum) for utilization in prostate cancer cell culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2006-02-08

    This work describes the development and utilization of a plant cell culture production approach to biosynthesize and radiolabel phytoene and phytofluene for prostate cancer cell culture studies. The herbicide norflurazon was added to established cell suspension cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry), to induce the biosynthesis and accumulation of the lycopene precursors, phytoene and phytofluene, in their natural isomeric forms (15-cis-phytoene and two cis-phytofluene isomers). Norflurazon concentrations, solvent carrier type and concentration, and duration of culture exposure to norflurazon were screened to optimize phytoene and phytofluene synthesis. Maximum yields of both phytoene and phytofluene were achieved after 7 days of treatment with 0.03 mg norflurazon/40 mL fresh medium, provided in 0.07% solvent carrier. Introduction of 14C-sucrose to the tomato cell culture medium enabled the production of 14C-labeled phytoene for subsequent prostate tumor cell uptake studies. In DU 145 prostate tumor cells, it was determined that 15-cis-phytoene and an oxidized product of phytoene were taken up and partially metabolized by the cells. The ability to biosynthesize, radiolabel, and isolate these carotenoids from tomato cell cultures is a novel, valuable methodology for further in vitro and in vivo investigations into the roles of phytoene and phytofluene in cancer chemoprevention.

  4. Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Fernandez-Becerra, C; Mascaro, C; Rosales, M J; Dollet, M; Osuna, A

    1995-01-01

    Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia) and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia, but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.

  5. A genome or a memome? : the cause of the rise of Pteridium esculentum at c. 700 BP in pollen/spore records from Aotearoa/New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flenley, J.; Todd, A.

    2001-01-01

    In New Zealand palynology, a strong increase in abundance of the spores of Pteridium esculentum (the bracken fern) about 700 BP has been taken by some authors to be an indication of first colonisation by people. Earlier dates for this phenomenon have been rejected by these authors. In this paper we argue that rejection of these dates may be inappropriate. A preliminary statistical analysis shows that early dates tend to be near sea level, in climatically favourable areas, close to the coast or to navigable rivers, and in the north. This does not conflict with an early arrival of people and progressive spread later. To explain the fact that most inland, upland, climatically unfavourable and southern dates cluster around 700 BP, an alternative hypothesis is advanced: that it represents the establishment of the use of the bracken fern rhizome as a staple diet, allowing rapid expansion into areas virtually uninhabitable previously because of lack of a suitable crop. On this hypothesis it was the spread through an existing population of the memome (set of ideas) about fern use which caused the palynological change, not the spread of the genome (the human species). An analogy is drawn with the spread of agriculture into Western Europe in Neolithic times. (author). 41 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Lectin conjugates as biospecific contrast agents for MRI. Coupling of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin to linear water-soluble DTPA-loaded oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkunova-Martic, Irena; Kremser, Christian; Galanski, Markus; Schluga, Petra; Arion, Vladimir; Debbage, Paul; Jaschke, Werner; Keppler, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires synthesis of contrast media bearing targeting groups and numerous gadolinium chelating groups generating high relaxivity. This paper explores the results of linking the gadolinium chelates to the targeting group, a protein molecule, via various types of linkers. Polycondensates of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with either diols or diamines were synthesised and coupled to the targeting group, a lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin, tomato lectin) which binds with high affinity to specific oligosaccharide configurations in the endothelial glycocalyx. The polycondensates bear up to four carboxylic groups per constitutive unit. Gd-chelate bonds are created through dative interactions with the unshared pair of electrons on each oxygen and nitrogen atom on DTPA. This is mandatory for complexation of Gd(III) and avoidance of the severe toxicity of free gadolinium ions. The polymer-DTPA compounds were characterised by (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. The final lectin-DTPA-polycondensate conjugates were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The capacity for specific binding was assessed, and the MRI properties were examined in order to evaluate the use of these oligomers as components of selective perfusional contrast agents.

  7. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    (Setaria italica with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum with oat (Avena sativa, and with perennial fescue (Fetusca sp.. Cover crop managements consisted of transferring or not crop residues from the row to the between rows. Grape yield were higher in vines intercropped with the annual plants, in comparison to the control treatment or to fescue. The management of the cover crops did not affect the evaluated variables. Intercropping did not consistently influence N contents of grapes and wine composition; however, soluble solid contents of must were greater with intercropping treatments compared to control, in the last season. Moreover, vines intercropped with fescue can enable wine with greater content of anthocyanins and total polyphenols.

  8. Use of phytoindication methods for biomonitoring of urbanized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, Z.; Lackovicova, A.

    1992-01-01

    At the model region in the industrial agglomeration of the town Bratislava the usability of some phytoindication methods for biomonitoring of urban areas has been tested. Following methods there were found as useful: 1. Chemical analyses of the leaves of freely growing ruderal species (Artemisia vulgaris). 2. Using of transplanted and for a certain time exposed lower plants (Hypogymnia physodes, Sphagnum capillifolium). 3. Use of changing the biological parameters of planted pot plants (Fagopyrum esculentum). (orig.)

  9. Polihidroxialcanoatos de cepas de Azospirillum spp. aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la concentración de polihidroxialcanoatos (PH As de cepas de Azospirillum aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz”, como una alternativa ante la acumulación de plásticos derivados del petróleo. R aíces previamente desinfectadas se sembraron en medio Nfb se misólido, donde las bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno se reconocieron por una película blanquecina bajo la superficie y el viraje del indicador al azul. El género Azospirillum se identificó en medio rojo de Congo, obteniéndose 96 cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense en tomate y arroz. Se realizó una fermentación discontinua con caldo Azotobacter modificado, alimentando con una solución saturada de ácido málico cada 12 horas y se realizaron tinciones con Sudán Negro B. Se seleccionaron las cepas con mayor nú mero de gránulos de PHAs (en tomate , 18 de A. lipoferum y 2 de A. brasilense y en arroz, 10 de A. lipoferum y 10 de A. brasilense y se cuantificó la biomasa y PHAs. La concentración de PHAs alcanzó 0 . 661 gL - 1 en A. lipoferum KM(T - 73 y 0 . 738 gL - 1 en A. br asilense KM(T - 19. Las cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense aisladas de tomate alcanzaron una mayor concentración de biomasa y PHAs frente a las cepas aisladas de arroz.

  10. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  11. Caracterización de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. y su efecto en el desarrollo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracterizar y determinar el efecto de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. en el desarrollo vegetativo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate”, como una alternativa al uso indiscriminado de fertilizantes químicos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico de hortalizas con las que se realizaron diluciones (10-4 en caldo Ashby-Sacarosa y se incubaron a 30 ºC hasta observar un color amarillo, turbidez y película superficial. El género Azotobacter se identificó en agar mineral sin nitrógeno y Ashby-Benzoato, obteniéndose 96 cepas con una producción de 7.10 a 57.99 mgL-1 de ácido indolacético, 0.13 a 1.64 mgL-1 de nitrógeno fijado como amonio y hasta 1.61 % de eficiencia en la solubilización de roca fosfórica de Bayóvar. Se obtuvo una suspensión celular (108 de cada una de las cuatro cepas con los mayores valores y se inocularon independientemente y en consorcio, así como una combinación con 50 % de urea-100 % de roca fosfórica, en la rizósfera de tomate cv. Río Grande, en un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Todas las cepas nativas incrementaron la altura, volumen radicular, materia seca total, parte aérea y radicular frente al testigo absoluto.

  12. β(1,3 GLUCANASAS DE LOS ESPACIOS INTERCELULARES DE HOJAS DE TOMATE LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM CERACIFORME DESPUES DE INFECCIÓN CON PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto M. Zamora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis en líquido de lavado intercelular de Lycopersicon esculentum ceraciforme L1568 perteneciente al germoplasma nacional con resistencia en campo a P. infestans mostró la presencia de cuatro   β (1,3 glucanasas después de infección con el patógeno. Las plantas se inocularon con el patógeno para inducir aumento en la concentración de las proteínas PR. Después de 15 días de inoculadas, se extrajo el líquido de lavado intercelular de los foliolos de la planta utilizando agua destilada. Las proteínas extraídas se liofilizaron, se  resuspendieron en buffer, se purificaron utilizando cromatografía de intercambio iónico y electroforesis preparativa,  esto permitió la  caracterización parcial de una β (1,3  glucanasa básica con peso molecular  de 36,8 kDa y PI  9,2 y tres ácidas de  35.4, 30.1 y 7.2 kDa  con puntos isoeléctricos de 3.8; 3.6 y 5.0 respectivamente. Además se determinaron las propiedades cinéticas de cada enzima, KM, Vmax, Eo y K3 encontrando que la proteína básica no ha sido reportada en la literatura hasta ahora.

  13. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Gao Peng; Gao Ya; Yang Zhirong; Sun Qun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 10 4 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  14. Yields of Selected Catch Crops in Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Handlířová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch crops mainly reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients as well as enrich the soil organic matter. The aim of this research is to evaluate the yields of catch crops of Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, Carthamus tinctorius and Secale cereale v. multicaule, and thus determine the possible applicability of catch crops in areas with high average annual temperature and low precipitation totals. The small-plot field experiment was performed on clay-loam gleyic fluvisol at the Field Experimental Station in Žabčice, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, within the period of 2006-2014. The catch crops were set up after winter wheat in mid-August. The results have shown a statistically significant difference among different catch crops in yield of dry matter and even among years. The yield of catch crops is mainly dependent on a sufficient supply of water in the soil and the appropriate amount and distribution of rainfall over the growing season. Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia regularly reached the highest yields. High yields were also achieved with Fagopyrum esculentum. Due to the method of crop rotation in the Czech Republic, with a predominance of Brassica napus var. napus, it is inappropriate to include Sinapis alba. It is the best to grow Phacelia tanacetifolia and even Fagopyrum esculentum, or a mixture thereof, depending on the use of catch crops.

  15. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  16. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  17. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  18. Intensity of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae attacks on Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Leaves Intensidade de ataque de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae e de Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae em folhas de Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of height of leaves in the canopy of plants, leaf organic compounds, concentrations of leaf nitrogen and potassium, leaf trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the attack intensity of three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara crops by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae, under field conditions. The experimental design was arranged in randomized blocks, with three replications, each being one tomato crop. Analysis of variance and the Tukey’s multiple range test (5% significance were used to test the effect of canopy height, trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities on the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and on the number of T. absoluta eggs. Pearson’s correlation (5% significance was used to evaluate the relationships between leaf organic compounds, leaf N and K concentrations, leaf trichome and cristalliferous idioblasts densities and the number of mines produced by T. absoluta and Liriomyza spp. and the number of T. absoluta eggs. Highest insect attack occurred in the final stage of the culture. A higher number of Liriomyza spp. mines/leaf was recorded in the lower (1.50 than in the upper (0.02 level of the tomato plants, the opposite was observed for the number of T. absoluta eggs/leaf (0.13 and 0.57, respectively. The number of T. absoluta mines/leaf concentrated more on the median (10.23 and apical regions (8.63 than on the basal (4.93. No significant effect of the trichomes and cristalliferous idioblasts densities of leaves was noted on T. absoluta and Liriomyza ssp. populations. Apparently, the terpenes affected oviposition of T. absoluta while leaf potassium affected Liriomyza spp. attack.Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar as influências da posição das folhas no dossel das plantas, dos compostos orgânicos foliares, das concentrações de nitrogênio e

  19. Regeneração de plantas híbridas entre Lycopersicon esculentum e L. peruvianum a partir de calos com dois anos de cultura in vitro Regeneration of Lycopersicon esculentum X L. peruvianum hybrid plants from two year old callus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Siqueira

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Calos obtidos da cultura in vitro de embrião imaturo do cruzamento interespecífico L. esculentum x L. peruvianum, praticamente perderam a capacidade morfogenética, após dois anos de subcultura. Na tentativa de recuperação do processo de organogênese desses calos, realizaram-se dois experimentos, utilizando-se os fitorreguladores ácido indolacético (IAA e 6-benziladenina (6-BA, cujas concentrações foram combinadas em dialélicos de 5 x 5 e 3 x 3. A composição de sais minerais e vitaminas baseou-se no meio de Murashige e Skoog, adicionando-se sacarose a 3% e ágar a 0,8%, e ajustando-se o pH final dos meios de cultura para 5,5. As condições para o dialélico 5 x 5 foram fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz a 600 lux e temperatura de 25 ± 3°C. No dialélico 3 x 3, os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara de crescimento a 2.000 lux, sob a mesma variação de temperatura e fotoperíodo. Em cada frasco, inoculou-se um calo com cerca de 1 cm³, totalizando quinze repetições. Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento de calos, atribuindo-se uma escala de notas de 1 a 5, e a presença de plantas (organogênese após 30 dias de cultura. Observou-se o número total de plantas por tratamento, bem como o desenvolvimento das plantas em centímetro. No dialélico 5 x 5, a organogênese foi apenas incipiente em três tratamentos, porém as melhores combinações para o desenvolvimento dos calos foram de 0,5, 2,5 e 5,0µM de IAA com 2,5µM de 6-BA. No dialélico 3 x 3, houve a indução de plantas em sete tratamentos, sendo mais eficientes 25 e 50µM de 6-BA, sem auxina. O tratamento de 0,5 e 10,0µM de IAA e 6-BA, respectivamente, permitiu simultaneamente o crescimento de calos e a regeneração de plantas. Nota-se a influência das condições ambientais de manutenção das culturas, principalmente da intensidade de luz.Callus from Lycopersicon esculentum x L. peruvianum interespecific hybrids cultured in vitro lost their morphogenetic abilities after two

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA, NUTRICIONAL E INSTRUMENTAL DE QUATRO ACESSOS DE TOMATE ITALIANO (LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM Mill DO TIPO ‘HEIRLOOM’ PRODUZIDO SOB MANEJO ORGÂNICO PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE POLPA CONCENTRADA

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    Cintia Leticia da Silva ROSA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O tomate é uma planta pertencente à família das solanáceas, denominada cientificamente Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, potencialmente perene e com facilidade de adaptação a uma grande variedade de climas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo, caracterizar quanto às características físico-químicas, nutricionais e instrumentais de cor e textura quatro acessos de tomate italiano (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill do tipo ‘heirloom’, produzidos sob manejo orgânico para elaboração de polpa concentrada. Foram utilizados os tomates não híbridos (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill San Marzano, Chico Grande, Amish Paste e o denominado EUA 05. Os frutos foram produzidos no período de maio a setembro de 2010, no setor de Horticultura do Departamento de Fitotecnia, da UFRRJ. Foram realizadas as análises de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, pH, quantificação e identificação dos carotenoides, cor da casca e da polpa, textura instrumental e quantificação de pesticidas. O teor médio de sólidos solúveis, de grande importância para o rendimento na indústria de produtos de tomate, foi de 5,2ºBrix nos acessos Chico Grande e San Marzano, seguido pelos acessos Amish Paste e EUA 05 com os valores médios de 4,7ºBrix. O balanço entre acidez e o teor de açúcar no fruto, estabelecido pela relação SS/AT (°Brix/% foram de 12,7, 19,2, 15,5, 15,7 para os acessos San Marzano, Chico Grande, Amish Paste e EUA 05, respectivamente. Frutos de alta qualidade contêm a relação SS/ AT maior que 10. Tomates com boa coloração apresentam teores de licopeno na faixa de 5 a 8mg/100 gramas (5000 a 8000μg/100g de polpa. O acesso San Marzano apresentou maior teor médio deste carotenoide (6029μg/100g, seguido do acesso EUA 05 (4073μg /100g, não diferentes signi- ficativamente (p>0,05. Os acessos com maiores teores de licopeno também se destacaram por apresentar coloração mais vermelha. O acesso San Marzano apresentou casca com colora

  1. Métodos de remoção da mucilagem e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. Methods of mucilage remotion and physiological quality of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum Mill. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavariani

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estudar diferentes métodos de remoção da mucilagem e a qualidade de sementes de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., conduziu-se um experimento, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Após extração manual, sementes e mucilagens foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos de remoção: lavagem imediata, fermentação por três dias, ácido clorídrico a 2,5% (25 ml/kg, durante 2 horas, ácido acético a 10% (25 ml/kg de material e hidróxido de amônia a 2,5% (25 ml/kg, durante 2 horas. Seguiu-se a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes através das determinações de porcentagem de germinação e vigor, pela porcentagem de emergência em areia, condutividade elétrica e pesos das matérias verde e seca de plântulas. Os resultados permitiram concluir que os métodos de remoção por lavagem imediata, fermentação, ácido clorídrico e ácido acético comercial não afetaram a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de tomate; a porcentagem de germinação não foi afetada pelos diferentes métodos de remoção e o método hidróxido de amônia prejudica o vigor das sementes.Different methods of mucilage remotion and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. seeds were studied, in a complete randomized design experiment with four replications. After manual extraction, seeds and slimes were submitted to the following remotion treatments: immediate washing, three-day fermentation, hydrochloric acid at 2,5% (25 mg/kg for 2 hrs., acetic acid at 10% (25 ml/kg of material, and ammonia hydroxide at 2,5% (25 ml/kg, for 2 hrs.. A physiological quality evaluation of seeds was carried out through the percentage of germination and vigor, percentage of in-sand emergence, electrical conductivity, and weight of fresh and dry matters of seedlings. The results showed that the methods of immediate washing, fermentation, commercial hydrochloric and acetic acids do not affect the physiological quality of

  2. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Efecto de la concentración y presión sobre la elevación del punto de ebullición de pasta de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Ortega Quintana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades térmicas de las pulpas concentradas juegan un papel importante en el diseño y optimización de evaporadores de múltiple efecto, entre estas propiedades se encuentra la elevación del punto de ebullición. En esta investigación se determinó la elevación del punto de ebullición de pastas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. de las variedades colombianas Chonto, Milano y Río Grande variando las concentraciones de sólidos solubles desde 5 hasta 35ºBrix y las presiones de vacío desde 49,33 hasta 949,26mbar. Cada tratamiento fue realizado por triplicado para cada variedad de tomate y se evaluó el ajuste de los datos obtenidos a los modelos matemáticos: Dühring, Antoine y Crapiste-Lozano. La concentración, la presión, la variedad de tomate y las diferentes interacciones de estas variables tuvieron efecto estadísticamente signifi cativo al 5% de signifi cancia en la temperatura de ebullición de las pastas de tomate. Finalmente, para las tres variedades de tomate se encontró un buen ajuste de los datos experimentales a los diferentes modelos matemáticos.

  4. Análisis de la heterosis y de la habilidad combinatoria entre diferentes cultivares de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a partir de un cruzamiento dialélico

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis de la heterosis y de la habilidad combinatoria entre 21 cultivares de tomate, para el carácter producción por planta y sus componentes a partir de un cruzamiento dialélico (6 progenitores, 15 híbridos F1, sin incluir los recíprocos: utilizando el método experimental 2, modelo I propuesto por Griffing (1956. Se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas para los efectos de hcg y de hce para todos los caracteres a excepción del carácter producción de frutos de primera (frutos de más de 180 g. Los híbridos Motelle x Ángela I 5100, Motelle x Zambao y Licapal 21 x Zambao presentaron altos efectos de h c e para el carácter producción por planta. Los anteriores efectos asociados con altas heterobeltiosis hacen que estos híbridos sean promisorios para una posterior comercialización.An analysis of heterosis and combining ability of traits related with per plant production was carried out using a diallele crossing between different tomate cultivars, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (six parent and 15 F1 hybrids from as possible crossing in one direction, according to the methodology proposed by Griffing (1956, selecting experimental method 2, and model 1. In the genetic variation of all traits related to per plant production, except in first class fruit trait, the general combining ability (gen non addite action effects participate jointly and in highly significant manner. Hybrids Motelle x Angela I 5100, Motelle x Zambao y Licapal21 x Zambao, exhibited high s c a effects for the trait per plant production. Former effects related to high heterobeltyosis make these hybrids promising for later marketing.

  5. Capítulo VI: evaluación de la resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Gueneé en materiales L. hirsutum Humb y Bonpl y L. pimpinellifolium (Just mill y su transferencia a materiales cultivados de tomate L. esculentum Mill

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    Salinas Helbert

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el ciclo de vida del pasador  del fruto del tomate, N. elegantalis y evaluar la resistencia genética en diferentes accesiones de Lycopersicon y en poblaciones derivadas de cruzamientos interespecíficos entre L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum. La evaluación se realizó en condiciones de campo, utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Se midieron los siguientes caracteres: estados del ciclo de vida, número de posturas, cantidad de frutos dañados, número de perforaciones de entrada, número de larvas por fruto e intensidad del daño. Se determinó el ciclo de vida del insecto plaga. Las especies silvestres fueron calificadas como muy resistentes o resistentes. Las variedades comerciales fueron calificadas como susceptible o medianamente susceptibles. Las poblaciones segregantes provenientes de los cruzamientos interespecíficos fueron calificados como resistentes o ligeramente susceptibles, indicando la posibilidad de introgresión genética de la resistencia. El insecto plaga  tiene mayor preferencia por fenotipos con frutos de mayor peso promedio y pericarpio duro.

    The research was carried out to study the life cicle of N. elegantalis, and the identification of resistence to the insect among Lycopersicon accessions and derivated populations from crossing between L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium and L. hirsutum. The life cicle of N. elegantalis was determinated. The wild species L. hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium were very resistant and resistant, respectively. The Lycopersicon cultivars were susceptibles and derivated populationes from interspecific crossing were resistant or intermedium susceptible. There were associations between the fruit size, fruit firmness, fruit weight and susceptible expression in the plants from crossing between L. hirsutum, L. pimpinellifolium and commercial cultivars.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... in fructose content between 6 and 9°C. Under low night temperature, sucrose phosphate synthase ..... between 9 and 6°C throughout the experiment; exclusive .... grade and composite index of deformed fruits and the types of ...

  7. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of a new method based on color image analysis and the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for the diagnosis of nitrogen deficiencies of tomato seedlings, a field experiment was conducted. In this study, five levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen ...

  8. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considered to be less attacked by fungal diseases and use ... In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced ... Results show that, the average of 9 fruits/plant harvested in the plots applied with of ...

  9. Estudios genéticos básicos para la creación de nuevos cultivares de tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., adaptados a las condiciones de Colombia: interpretación in6tegral de la investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El Programa de investigación: "Mejoramiento Genético y Producción de Semillas de Hortalizas" se viene desarrollando en la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de Palmira, desde 1985. Busca crear y seleccionar cultivares (variedades o híbridos adaptados a las condiciones, necesidades y recursos del horticultor colombiano y a la formación de investigadores en la carrera de Agronomía y en sus diferentes Programas de Posgrados, en las áreas de Producción Vegetal, Mejoramiento Genético, Sistemas de Semillas y Suelos y Aguas. El Programa involucra cuatro hortalizas (tomate, pimentón, zapallo y cilantro las cuales se  consideran importantes y/o promisorias para la  agricultura colombiana. No se descarta que, en el futuro, el programa incluya otras especies. En el presente trabajo se entregan los resultados de la investigación relacionados, con la especie tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

  10. Potentiel infectieux des sols de cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sous abri et incidence de l'âge de repiquage sur la vigueur des plants vis-à-vis de Pythium sp. à Songon-Dabou en Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koné, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiel Infectious of Soils Fields of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Greenhouse and the Age Incidence Facing Pythium sp. on the Plants at Songon-Dabou in Ivory Coast. Songon-Dabou area represents one of the spheres activities of tomato in Ivory Coast. The production of tomato is strongly influenced by some of viruses, bacteria and soil born fungi. A study was conducted on the soils of different fields with three varieties of tomato (Caraïbo, Mongal and Tropimech to identify the most susceptible variety to soil born fungi at Songon-Dabou. By baiting with 20 days old seedlings, 4 genus fungi of Pythium, Fusarium, Sclerotium and Macrophomina have been isolated. Pythium sp. presented the greatest attack (32% while Macrophomina phaseoli was isolated for the first time on market gardening in Ivory Coast. Tomato plants have been inoculated by Pythium at different stages obtained from seedling to 25 days old nursery seedlings. That experiment was repeated three times. This work was conducted in greenhouse during 26 days after transplantation of the plants in the pots. These results confirm that Pythium sp. is a fungus of damping off (100% and that age of transplantation reduces the rate of mortality (less than 20%.

  11. Mycorrhizal fungi in tomatoplantless Lycopersicon esculentum Miller Efecto de hongos micorrizogenos en tomate Lycopersicon esculentum Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Prager Marina

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Two soils from Cauca Department (Colombia were pasteurized; soil analysis showed that they contained 3.0 and 9.0 ppm P, pH 4.8 and 6.2, respectively. They were fertilized with 0, 30 and 60 kg P/ha. Tomato plantlets var. Chonto Santa Cruz were inoculated with 11 VAM isolates of the CIAT VAM fungal germplasm and one VAM native fungi. Plantlets were grown in pots. Fifty two days after plants were harvested and height, dry matter, tissue analysis tor N, P, K, Ca, Mg and B was performed; fungus infection and health were determined. The statistical analysis showed that the major differences in this bioassay were due to a type of soils and their nutritional conditions. Plant dry matter and height increased with the increased levels of fertilizer. Best grow results were obtained with 60 kg P/ha. Dry matter, heigth and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca and B were significantly different between introduced VAM and the native fungi. VAM fungi isolates had different behavior in each soil. This confirmed the soil influence in the symbiosis effectiveness.

    En condiciones de invernadero, en dos suelos del Departamento del Cauca (Colombia, previamente pasteurizados, con contenidos de P de 3.0 y 9.0 ppm y pH de 4.8 y 6.2 respectivamente, sujetos a fertilización con O, 30 y 60 kg de P/ha, se probaron 11 cepas de hongos micorrizógenos provenientes de diferentes regiones del país y con la flora nativa de cada suelo. Las plantas se cosecharon a los 52 días de transplante y se les determinó altura, materia seca, análisis foliar de N, P, K. Ca, Mg y B, infección por hongos micorrizógenos y sanidad del cultivo. Las mayores diferencias en este ensayo se debieron al tipo de suelo y sus condiciones nutricionales. La materia seca y altura de las plantas aumentaron en ambos suelos, al incrementarse la fertilización, los mejores resultados en desarrollo vegetativo y reproductivo ocurrieron con 60 kg de P/ha. En materia seca, altura y absorción de N, P, K, Ca, y B, hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre cepas introducidas y flora nativa. Las cepas variaron en su comportamiento en los 2 suelos, lo cual corrobora la alta influencia de este factor en la efectividad de la simbiosis.

  12. Effect of soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in overground plant organs and their harm in emmission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navara, J; Horvath, I; Hauskrecht, I

    1972-01-01

    The effect of different soil moisture on sulphur accumulation in the overground organs of Fagopyrum esculentum, moench in immission conditions is dealt with in this paper. The results obtained have shown that even under equal soil conditions, equal nutrient supply and age evenness of the analyzed material the total sulphur content of leaves grown in immission conditions (sulphur oxides, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, etc.) at equal soil moisture was essentially higher when compared with unirrigated plants and corresponded also to the degree of harm and crop reduction of the experimental plants. Therefore it is necessary when utilizing sulphur content of indicating plants, which serves for a large-area diagnosis of vegetation harm with immissions, to take into consideration, in addition to other factors (soil, nutrition, age of plants), the soil moisture as well.

  13. Feeding habits of Carabidae (Coleoptera associated with herbaceous plants and the phenology of coloured cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Henrique da Matta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae are recognized as polyphagous predators and important natural enemies of insect pests. However, little is known about the feeding habits of these beetles. In this work, we determine the types of food content in the digestive tracts of nine species of Carabidae associated with herbaceous plants and different growth stages of coloured cotton. The food contents were evaluated for beetles associated with the coloured cotton cv. BRS verde, Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch., adjacent to weed plants and the flowering herbaceous plants (FHPs Lobularia maritima (L., Tagetes erecta L., and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. The digestive tract analysis indicated various types of diets and related arthropods for Abaris basistriata, Galerita brasiliensis, Scarites sp., Selenophorus alternans, Selenophorus discopunctatus and Tetracha brasiliensis. The carabids were considered to be polyphagous predators, feeding on different types of prey.

  14. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  15. MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN TOMAT (Lycopersicon esculentum DENGAN SISTEM BUDIDAYA HIDROPONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is vegetable that has high economic and nutritional value. Hydroponics is the cultivation of plants without soil but using rice husk charcoal, rockwool, pumice, sand, gravel, perlite water and air media. This research aims to study the effect of nutrients and polybag size on growth and yield of hydroponic tomatoes. The experiment was conducted in Kassa House of Agroekoteknologi Departement Faculty of Agriculture Trunojoyo University. Fertilizers used were Hidrogroup and Greentonik while polybag size are 30x30 cm, 30x40 cm and 40x40 cm. The design of this study using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The result showed that this research affect to the vegetative phase. No interaction between type of nutrition and polybag size on plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, number of flowers, flowering time of tomato. Type of nutrition significantly affect plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, flower number and wet and dry weight of stems and leaves, whereas the size of polybags significantly affects in the number of leaves, wet and dry weight of stems and leaves of tomato.

  16. Characterization of LeCOP1 gene in Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    mechanisms of stress tolerance (Yamaguchi and. Shinozaki, 2005 .... reverse transcribed in the presence of Oligo(dT) and 9-mer random primer in a volume ..... Engineering drought tolerance in plants: discovering and tailoring genes to unlock ...

  17. Antitumor activity od apoptotic nuclease TBN1 from L. esculentum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Podzimek, Tomáš; Poučková, P.; Stehlík, Jan; Škvor, J.; Lipovová, P.; Matoušek, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 339-348 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/1149; GA ČR GA521/09/1214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : anticancerogenic and antiproliferative nuclease * dsRNase * human solid malignant tumors Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2010

  18. The incorporation gene of tomato fruit firmness (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit firmness is a polygenetic trait and depends on firmness components pericarp thickness, firmness of epidermis and firmness of flash. The accumulation of favourable traits ratio for each component (towards the increase of expression the fruit firmness can be increased. This paper deals with aspects of increasing fruit firmness by increasing firmness of epidermis and thickness of pericarp. By using genotypes with rin (ripening inhibitor gene, we were able to accomplish great firmness of fruits, especially firmness of flash. The expression of these traits cause the asynchronization of maturing process so the fruits do not over mature or soften. Genetic effects have been evaluated by researching the average values of fruit firmness in six diallel parent lines (D-150, S-49, S-35, H-52, Kg-z and SP-109 and progeny (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 by applying additive dominant model with three and six parameters (Mather and Jinks, 1982. Mean values of fruit firmness for parents and progeny were significantly different. Firmness of fruits is a trait influenced first of all by additive gene since they were found in all researched combinations. Epystatic gene effect was important in inheriting process for all three two-gene interactions. The stabile duplicate type of epystsase was found, which in this case reduces the unfavourable effects of dominant genes of parents with soft fruits. .

  19. Genetic diversity in 14 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... 1Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State,PMB 21244, Ikeja,. Nigeria. 2Department of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 6 ...

  20. YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) IN MUBI, ADAMAWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fruits and can be taken raw or cooked (Adams et al.,. 1978). It was believed to have been originated from ... European literatures appeared as herbal swelling fruit used for cooking (Olayinka and Adebayo, 1985). Over ... largest consumers of tomato paste all over the world. Production indices of tomato in Nigeria as reported ...

  1. Regulation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dandena

    2012-06-26

    dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) ... disease and insect pest complex, heat stress) are solved ... among which light, temperature, nutrition, hormonal .... Interaction effects of variety and 2, 4-D on number of fruits per flower cluster of tomato plants.

  2. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Chňapek; Marián Tomka; Želmíra Gregáňová; Zdenka Gálová

    2014-01-01

    Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease i...

  3. Electron transfer and photophosphorylation in mitochondria of buckwheat after irradiation of seeds with. gamma. -rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, V A; Kurganova, L N; Gorlanova, T M [Gor' kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1974-11-01

    Pre-sowing irradiation of seeds at 500 R activates the transfer of electrons by photosynthetic electron transfer path of isolated buchwheat chloroplasts in the ontogenesis and stimulates the conjugated photosynthetic phosphorilation. An increased content of NADPxH/sub 2/ is observed along with an elevated level of ATP production. Intensification of oxidative phosphorilation and growth of the P/O ratio of mitochondria has been shown in the ''irradiated'' plants, together with a concomitant increase of ATPhase activity in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  4. Metode de atracţie şi localizare a faunei utile în agrocenoza culturii de piersic ca factor biologic de control al densităţii speciilor dăunătoare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai BATCO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of such biorational means as nectariferous plants (Eruca sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Satureja hortensis, Lobulalaria maritima, Dracocephalum moldavica and lawn grasses, protein-carbohydrate compositions and methyl salicylate as factors influencing the beneficial fauna in peach orchard agrocenosis has contributed to the attraction and location of 26 species of Encyrtidae belonging to 19 genera. The species capable to influence the numeric dynamics of economically important species such as oriental moth (Grapholita molesta Busck, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella Z, San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comst., fruit apple scale (Eulecanium coryli L. were nominated. Encyrtidae species whose hosts are potential pests of peach trees, as well as hyperparasite species and parasites of beneficial predatory insects were registered. The stages for timely application of biorational means for useful fauna in the peach orchard agrocenosis during the vegetation period were established. Rezumat. Aplicarea mijloacelor bioraţionale precum culturile nectarifere (Eruca sativa, Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Satureja hortensis, Lobulalaria maritima, Dracocephalum moldavica şi iarba de gazon, compoziţiile proteico-glucidice şi metilsalicilatul ca factori de influenţă asupra faunei benefice în agrocenoza culturii de piersic au contribuit la atracţia şi localizarea a 26 specii de Encyrtidae, care se atribuie la 19 genuri. Sunt nominalizate speciile capabile de a influenţa dinamica numerică a speciilor economic importante, aşa ca molia orientală (Grapholita molesta Busck, molia vărgată (Anarsia lineatella Z, păduchele din San Jose (Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comst., păduchele ţestos fals al mărului (Eulecanium coryli L.. Au fost semnalate specii de Encyrtidae ale căror gazde sunt dăunători potenţiali ai piersicului şi de asemenea specii hiperparazite şi paraziţi ai insectelor pr

  5. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  6. Transformation of Food Habits through Promotion of Under-Utilized Cereals in High Hills of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Pramod; Bajracharya, Keshari; Chalise, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition is a persistent social setback in Nepal. High hills in Nepal is considered as the headquarter of the malnourished people as it holds almost the twice of stunted children than the national average. Food insecurity is the major causes of malnutrition as there is low agriculture production followed by difficult terrain and poor road connectivity. Nevertheless, there are several types of locally produced cereals that are under-utilized because of the traditional food-habit of eating rice. In order to bring a change in local food habit by the high-hill residents, attempts were made in processing of under-utilized cereals. Six different cereals were processed into super flour, porridge, cookies, flakes and traditional sweets for which locally accessible home level processing technology was used. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Porso Millet (Panicum miliaceum), Buck Wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Amaranth (Amaranth caudatus) and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) were processed into diverse products that suit to the local taste. The processing steps were standardized and laboratory analysis was carried out. It was then distributed to local development partners through trainers' training. Now, local people have started processing and consuming these products. It is anticipated that processed products promotion helps in solving food insecurity to some extent, and contributes in reducing malnutrition for the children below two. (author)

  7. Microorganismos benéficos como biofertilizantes eficientes para el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill Beneficial microorganisms as efficient biofertilisers for tomato crops (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Annia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el uso y manejo de biofertilizantes en la agricultura, uno de los principales problemas es el desconocimiento de las especies presentes en los agroecosistemas y en la rizosfera de los cultivos, para su posible utilización eficiente. Desde el punto de vista ecológico, es importante conocer los integrantes de la comunidad bacteriana que favorecen su aplicación como inoculantes y propician un efecto agrobiológico positivo en los cultivos agrícolas. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad agrobiológica de Azospirillum sp, en el crecimiento, desarrollo y rendimiento en el cultivo del tomate. Para ello, se partió de seleccionar el género microbiano predominante en la rizosfera del cultivo y posteriormente se evaluó el efecto de su inoculación a partir de la respuesta del cultivo. Los resultados demostraron que los géneros Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus y Streptomyces, forman parte de la comunidad microbiana de la rizosfera del tomate, en las condiciones estudiadas, y que Azospirillum es el género dominante. La inoculación artificial de esta rizobacteria causó un efecto positivo sobre el crecimiento de las plántulas, así como en el estado nutricional de las plantas, con un rendimiento agrícola superior a un 11 % con respecto a las plantas testigo. Se obtuvo un alto nivel poblacional en la rizosfera de las plantas inoculadas. Palabras clave: rizosfera, inoculante, crecimiento, rendimiento.One of the main problems regarding the efficient use and management of biofertilizers in agriculture lies in the unknown species present in agro-ecosystems and crop rhizospheres. From the ecological point of view, it is important to know the members of the bacterial population allowing them to be applied as inoculants and enable a positive agro-biological effect on agricultural crops. This investigation was aimed at evaluating the agro-biological effectiveness of Azospirillum sp. on tomato growth, development and yield. The predominating microbial genus in the crop rhizosphere was thus selected and the effect of inoculating it was then evaluated, judging by the crop's response. Results showed that Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Streptomyces belonged to the microbial population of the tomato rhizosphere under the studied conditions, Azospirillum being the most prominent genus. Artificial inoculation of this rhizobacteria caused a positive effect on seedling growth as well as on plant nutritional stage, the agricultural yield being higher in 11% compared to control plants. A high microbial population level was recorded in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants. Key words: rhizosphere, inoculant, growth, yield.

  8. RESISTÊNCIA DE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum AO PATÓGENO Alternaria solani RESISTANCE OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum TO Alternaria solani PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de resistência de variedades comerciais de tomateiro ao patógeno Alternaria solani. Os genótipos são pertencentes ao banco de germoplasma do CNPH-Embrapa, compreendendo híbridos F1, que foram avaliados em condições de campo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia-GO, a uma altitude de 730 m, latitude de 16° 41'S e longitude de 49° 17'W. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 e 85 dias após o transplantio, combinando-se escala diagramática e de notas. As variedades Ohio 4013 e CNPH 738 foram as mais resistentes entre os materiais tutorados. Entre os materiais rasteiros os mais resistentes foram o híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense e Rotam 4. O genótipo Ohio 4013 e híbrido F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense foram os que mais se destacaram para resistência a este patógeno, podendo ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomateiro; resistência; Alternaria solani.

    The main objective of this study was to test levels of resistance of commercial varieties, genotypes belonging to the germoplasm bank of CNPH-Embrapa and hibrids F1 of tomat to Alternaria solani, in field condition. The trials were conduced at the experimental fields of the Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brasil. It is located at an altitude of 730 m, latitude of 16° 41'S and longitude of 49° 17'W. The evaluations were accomplished at the 36, 43, 50, 57, 64, 71, 78 and 85 days after the seedlings planting, combining diagramatic scale and grades. Among indeterminate cultivars Ohio 4013 and CNPH 738 were the most resistants. Among determined ones the most resistant were F1 hibrid Hawaii 7998 x Monense and Rotam 4. The genotypes Ohio 4013 and the F1 Hawaii 7998 x Monense hibrid were the ones that more stood out for resistance to these pathogen and could be suitable for future breeding programs.

    KEY-WORDS: Tomato; resistance; Alternaria solani.

  9. Farelo de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais = Tomato meal (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riviana Roberta de Souza Loureiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis do farelo de tomate (FT sobre o desempenho zootécnico e características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram alojadas em gaiolas 200 aves da linhagem Dekalb White, com 30 semanas de idade, durante três períodos de 21 dias cada um. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% do (FT. Para o consumo de ração, houve aumento à medida que se aumentou o nível de inclusão do farelo. Para a conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, percentagem de postura e massa de ovos produzida, 5% foi o nível de inclusão que proporcionou os melhores resultados. O FT provocou diminuição linear no peso e percentagem de gema, no entanto, até 15% de inclusão, obtiveram-se gemas mais pesadas quando comparadas com as da ração-referência. O farelo de tomate pode ser utilizado como ingrediente alternativo nas rações para poedeiras comerciais. O nível recomendado seria de até 5% de inclusão, para melhores resultados de desempenho zootécnico. Utilizando-se até15%, não houve interferência no rendimento das partes dos ovos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of tomato meal (TM on performance and egg quality. Two hundred Dekalb White birds, 30 weeks old, were allocated in cages during three periods of 21 days each. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and five repetitions of eight birds each. The treatments were: a control diet, and four diets with different inclusion levels of TM (5, 10, 15 and 20%. The birds’ feed consumption increased as the inclusion level of tomato meal in the diet was raised. For egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and dozen of eggs, the level of 5% was the best. TM inclusion caused reduction on yolk weight and yolk percentage, with linear effect. However, when 15% TM was included in the diets, the yolks were heavier than those obtained with the control diet. The results obtained in this work suggest that the inclusion of 5% TM can be implemented for better performance results. When 15% TM was used, there was no effect on the yield of egg parts.

  10. Recent Advances in Processing and Development of Buckwheat Derived Bakery and Non-Bakery Products - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giménez-Bastida Juan Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a successful intra-arterial thrombolysis performed in the second trimester of pregnancy (21 weeks. The intervention resulted in complete recanalization of the occluded right middle cerebral artery and favourable clinical and gestational outcome. Together with cases described in respective medical literature our report affirms that in pregnancy acute ischemic stroke could be treated effectively applying intra-arterial thrombolysis (using rt-PA. This therapy could provide opportunity to help in such desperate situations.

  11. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  12. ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND LYCOPENE IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. AND THEIR RETENTION IN TOMATO JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In this work we investigated the effect of variety and processing on the content of carotenoids and lycopene in fruits and Tomato juice from the fruit after heat treatment. The experiment included four varieties are edible tomato for industrial processing (Báb, Žiara PK, Šampion and Roti PK. The concentration of total carotenoids and lycopene were determined spectrophotometrically on UV-VIS spectrophotometer Jenway at a wavelength of 445 and 472 nm. The highest average content of carotenoids in fruits were recorded at a variety Roti PK (7.0 mg/100 g-1 and lowest in variety Báb (4.8 mg/100 g-1. Heat treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the lycopene content, changes in carotenoid content were not significant. Effect of genotype (variety for the content of the endpoint was significantly important.doi:10.5219/195 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Characterization of an ethylene-related small multigene family from Lycopersicon esculentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, M

    1987-01-01

    cDNA clones derived from a tomato ripening-related cDNA library were used in RNA dot-blot experiments to investigate changes in the abundance of ripening related mRNAs during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening. Accumulation of the ripening-related mRNAs during natural ripening began at the time of autocatalytic ethylene production by the fruit, reached a maximum in orange fruit and declined as they became red. Analysis of the induction kinetics of these mRNAs revealed several patterns of expression as tomatoes ripened. The pTOM 13 cDNA insert was sequenced and used to identify related sequences in a tomato genomic library. 21 hybridizing genomic clones were isolated and divided into three groups of similar sequences based on their restriction maps. The DNA sequences of two of these groups of genomic clones that hybridized to pTOM 13 were determined. This allowed the identification of an incomplete pTOM 13-homologous gene, and a closely related complete gene. Nuclei were isolated from unwounded and wounded leaves and were used in run-off transcription experiments in the presence of (..cap alpha../sup 32/P)UTP. (/sup 32/P)-labelled RNA obtained from transcription experiments was used in dot-blot experiments against pTOM 13 and related genomic subclones. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the accumulation of pTOM 13-related genes in leaves may be controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  14. Heat tolerance in Field Grown Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Semi Arid Conditions of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K

    2013-01-01

    One major reason for extremely low production of tomato in Ghana is that the length of the growing season last only for a few months due to the high temperature influx during the remaining months. The temperatures recorded during these months are above the optimum for tomato flowering and fruiting...... and this consequently affects yield. To solve this problem a number management practices may be undertaken such has growing heat tolerant tomato varieties or providing shade to mitigate the devastating effect of high temperatures. Therefore the present study was conducted outside the normal growing season from June...... to October, which has a mean temperature of 23°C. Heat tolerant tomato cultivars were grown from April to July with a mean temperature of 25°C to evaluate their performance under these conditions and to assess the effect of shading on the production of one of the genotypes. Fruiting percentage...

  15. Evaluación de densidades de siembra en tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Cruz Carrillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó de junio a diciembre del 2001 en el módulo de horticultura protegida del Instituto Tecnológico Agropecuario de Oaxaca No. 23 ubicado en la ex Hacienda de Nazareno, Xoxocotlan, Oax., con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tres densidades de plantación en el desarrollo vegetativo y producci ón de diferentes híbridos de tomate con crecimiento indeterminado cultivados bajo invernadero. Los híbridos de tomate fueron el SXT, DRW3410 y SXT0289. No hubo diferencia estad ística para los híbridos, sólo para densidades de plantación, obteniendo los mejores rendimientos 5,3 plantas/m2 y 4 plantas/ m2 con 17,52 y 17,37 kg/m2, respectivamente, lo que represent ó en promedio un rendimiento de 151,6 t/ha.

  16. Organically grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.): bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Afrah E; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Keutgen, Anna J; Horneburg, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    Tomato fruits are characterized by a good nutritional profile, including different bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid. The objective of this study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds in the fruit and the infection by Phytophthora infestans of 28 tomato genotypes from organic outdoor production. The relationship between bioactive compounds in the fruit and infection with P. infestans was estimated. Field experiments were carried out in 2004 and 2005 at two locations in central Germany. Significant variation among genotypes, locations and years was observed for the content of lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and the infection level of P. infestans. Antioxidant capacity seemed to be influenced mainly by the phenolics and was highest in small fruits, which were less infected with P. infestans. The large genetic variation among tomato genotypes for the content of bioactive compounds in their fruit allows for selection gains. None of the investigated bioactive compounds can be recommended for the indirect selection for increased field resistance against P. infestans. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Pre-meal tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) intake can have anti-obesity effects in young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pre-meal tomato intake in the anthropometric indices and blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid of a young women population (n = 35, 19.6 ± 1.3 years) was evaluated. During 4 weeks, daily, participants ingested a raw ripe tomato (∼90 g) before lunch. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured repeatedly during the follow-up time. At the end of the 4 weeks, significant reductions were observed on body weight (-1.09 ± 0.12 kg on average), % fat (-1.54 ± 0.52%), fasting blood glucose (-5.29 ± 0.80 mg/dl), triglycerides (-8.31 ± 1.34 mg/dl), cholesterol (-10.17 ± 1.21 mg/dl), and uric acid (-0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dl) of the participants. The tomato pre-meal ingestion seemed to interfere positively in body weight, fat percentage, and blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid of the young adult women that participated in this study.

  18. Effect of drought stress on growth, yield and seed quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayub, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth is seriously affected by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity or temperature. Drought is one of the most important limiting factors for agricultural crops and vegetable production in particular all around the world. Drought stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds, seed size and seed quality. To assess the effect of drought stress on seed yield, seed quality and growth of tomato, the experiment was conducted in green house in plastic pots at Pen-y-Fridd field station, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K. during 2003-2004. Tomato cv. Moneymaker was used as a test crop. There were four treatments i.e. early stress (when first truss has set the fruits), middle stress (when fruits in first truss were fully matured and started changing their colour), late stress (when fruits on first truss were ripened fully), whereas in control no stress was imposed. Analysis of data regarding various attributes (fruit weight and shoot dry weight per plant, number of seeds per fruit, total number of seeds and seed weight per plant and vigour of seed) showed that drought stress had non-significant effect on vigour, quality and yield of tomato seed. Plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits per plant showed significant results toward drought stress signifying drought effects on growth of tomato. (author)

  19. Dissipation and decontamination of bifenthrin residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Reena; Monga, Samriti; Kumari, Beena

    2012-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of CCS HAU, Hisar to study the dissipation and decontamination behavior of bifenthrin on tomato crop following the application of 25 g a.i ha(-1) (T(1)) and 50 g a.i ha(-1) (T(2)). Samples were collected periodically on the sampling days after applications. Residues were reached below detectable level of 0.005 mg kg(-1) on 10(th) day after application showing half-life period of 1.83 and 2.05 days at room temperature and 2.02 and 2.32 days under refrigerated condition for single and double dose, respectively. Processing was found effective in reducing the residues of bifenthrin in tomato fruits. Maximum reduction (42.10-45.23 %) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (16.66-19.04 %). Reduction was slightly less when samples were stored under refrigerated conditions as compared to room temperature conditions.

  20. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  1. Changes in antioxidant and phyto chemical properties of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under ambient condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.K.; Kumar, R.; Rai, P.K.; Rai, M.; Rai, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Duration of storage increased TSS and pH of tomato juice, while ascorbic acid content decreased gradually during storage. Carotenoids content increased approximately 3.5 times during storage in tomato because of advancement of ripening stage. During ripening chlorophyll gradually degrades and the carotenoid synthesis is enhanced. Increased levels of lycopene in tomato during storage might also be due to ripening of tomato fruits. The spoilage in fruits gradually increased in all cultivars with the advancement of storage period. Spoilage of fruits started on sixth day of storage in all cultivars except Avinash-2. The average shelf life of tomato fruits ranged from 6-12 days among cultivars based on 40% spoilage. The lowest shelf life of 6 days was noted in H-86 and highest of 12 days in Avinash-2. It was concluded that the tomato harvested at breaker stage may be utilized for almost one week along with increased contents of carotenoids and lycopene compensated for the decreased levels of acidity and ascorbic acid contents. (author)

  2. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  3. Detection and molecular characterization of tomato yellow leaf curl virus naturally infecting Lycopersicon esculentum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, M; Ratti, C; Abdel Aleem, E; Fattouh, F

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infections of tomato crops in Egypt were widely spread in 2014. Infected symptomatic tomato plants from different governorates were sampled. TYLCV strains Israel and Mild (TYLCV-IL, TYLCV-Mild) were identified by multiplex and real-time PCR. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the V1 and V2 protein genes, revealed ten TYLCV Egyptian isolates (TYLCV from TY1 to 10). Phylogenetic analysis showed their high degree of relatedness with TYLCV-IL Jordan isolate (98%). Here we have showed the complete nucleotide sequence of the TYLCV Egyptian isolate TY10, sampled from El Beheira. A high degree of similarity to other previously reported Egyptian isolates and isolates from Jordan and Japan reflect the importance of phylogenetic analysis in monitoring virus genetic diversity and possibilities for divergence of more virulent strains or genotypes.

  4. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or lycopene supplementation attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction through different mechanistic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Reis, Patrícia P; Severino, Fábio E; Felix, Tainara F; Braz, Mariana G; Nogueira, Flávia R; Silva, Renata A C; Cardoso, Ana C; Lourenço, Maria A M; Figueiredo, Amanda M; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tomato or lycopene supplementation on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: the sham group (animals that underwent simulated surgery) that received a standard chow (S; n=18), the infarcted group that received a standard chow (MI; n=13), the infarcted group supplemented with lycopene (1 mg of lycopene/kg body weight/day) (MIL; n=16) and the infarcted group supplemented with tomato (MIT; n=16). After 3 months, morphological, functional and biochemical analyses were performed. The groups MIL and MIT showed decreased interstitial fibrosis induced by infarction. Tomato supplementation attenuated the hypertrophy induced by MI. In addition, tomato and lycopene improved diastolic dysfunction evaluated by echocardiographic and isolated heart studies, respectively. The MI group showed higher levels of cardiac TNF-α compared to the MIL and MIT groups. Decreased nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 was measured in the MIL group. Lipid hydroperoxide levels were higher in the infarcted groups; however, the MIT group had a lower concentration than did the MI group [S=223±20.8, MI=298±19.5, MIL=277±26.6, MIT=261±28.8 (nmol/g); n=8; Ptomato or lycopene supplementation attenuated the cardiac remodeling process and improved diastolic function after MI. However, the effect of lycopene and tomato supplementation occurred through different mechanistic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Secagem de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) para conserva : estudo de parametros com base na qualidade final

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Anne Camargo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: o tomate seco tem apresentado crescente aplicação na culinária brasileira, principalmente, como ingrediente de massas, pizzas e também no consumo imediato. Com a finalidade de estudar a influência de parâmetros de secagem sobre a eficiência do processo e sobre a qualidade do produto final, foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa utilizando tomates de duas variedades: uma variedade industrial (Rio Grande) e outra de tomate de mesa (Debora Plus). Cada uma das variedades foi analisada quanto ao co...

  6. Mode of inheritance for fruit firmness in tomato hybrids of F1 generation (Lycoperscum esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Zoran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day program for tomato selection are aimed at creating the genotypes with firm fruit. The fruits with this quality surfer from minor injuries while being harvested and transported, which directly affects their better consumption purpose. By crossing seven divergent tomato genotypes that differed among themselves in fruit firmness, and by applying the method of full diallel without reciprocal crossings, we obtained 21 hybrids of F1 generation. Upon analyzing the components of the genetic variance we found out that dominant genes prevailed in inheriting this feature. Considering all the crossing combinations together, it could be concluded that super dominance was the mode of inheritance recorded in Fl generation. The hybrid combination obtained by crossing the two hybrids with the best general combining ability (V-100 x No-10 was characterized by the best specific combining ability. .

  7. Mode of inheritance of irradiation induced dwarfism and male sterility in the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Seedlings of the Louisiana tomato cultivar ''Pelican'' were irradiated in the cotyledonary stage with 10,000 roentgen (R) of gamma radiation from 60 Co at 1.67 R/min by Dr. Milton J. Constantin, Comparative Animal Research Laboratory operated by the University of Tennessee for the Atomic Energy Commission. From these irradiated plants one dwarf and six stamenless mutants were selected and propagated. In 1973 to 1974 a genetic study was conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of these mutant characters. Also a combining ability study was conducted to determine the potential value of the dwarf mutant as a parent in the production of F 1 hybrid seed. The results of the genetic study showed that the induced dwarf character was simply inherited and recessive. Results indicate that this gene is probably located at a locus different from that of genes controlling dwarfism in other tomato lines. The combining ability study showed that this dwarf mutant is of little value as a breeding parent. The genetic study of the stamenless lines showed this character to be simply inherited and recessive. It was also shown that the gene controlling male sterility is located at the same locus in the lines L 39 and L 43, and it is assumed that the same locus is involved in all six lines. The stamenless lines have, as far as has been observed, retained the good combining ability of the original parent cultivar ''Pelican''

  8. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  9. The effect of water stress and salinity on growth and physiology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids like lycopene are important pigments found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants. They are responsible for the bright colors of fruits and vegetables and perform various functions in photosynthesis. Our research has shown that the application of moderate salt stress on tomato plants can enhance lycopene and potentially other antioxidant concentrations in fruits. The increase in lycopene in response to salt stress in the tomato fruits varied from 20% to 80%. Although the specific biological mechanisms involved in increasing fruit lycopene deposition has not been clearly elucidated, evidence suggests that increasing antioxidant concentrations is a primary physiological response of the plant to salt stress. Additionally drought stress during cultivation increased the antioxidant capacity of tomato fruit while maintaining the lycopene concentration. In addition, the effects of silicium were investigated, added to the nutrient solution either at low concentration or at an increased concentration. The present study clearly indicates that an enhanced silicium supply to tomato increases markedly the lycopene contents, irrespective of the salinity status in the tomato fruit.

  10. Quality perception of organically grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Vienna, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PK Ng’ang’a

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Austria is one of the major organic tomato producing countries for local and export marketing. These tomatoes are produced in parts of Austria especially around Vienna where their production system has to meet stringent organic quality standards in both local and international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and are normally formulated without famers’ participation so may not be wholly representative of the farmers’ quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore to determine the Austrian organic tomatoes growers’ perception and practice of quality and challenges. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic tomatoes farmers in Vienna, Austria. Findings suggest that quality of organic tomatoes is mainly perceived in terms of both informal values (big fruit size, long shelf life, food security and amount of income received from tomato sales as well as formal norms (non- application of chemicals, human health, damage free, sweet taste, red colour, and juiciness. There were no gendered differences in quality perception among the growers. High costs of production inputs were identified as the main challenge to attaining quality in organic tomatoes. Following these findings, there is need for effective participation of growers in formulation of standards as well as subsidizing of production inputs by the government. The Austrian tomato growers as well as local and international retailers should work closely to increase the price received by the Austrian organic tomato growers so that it more adequately covers their production costs.

  11. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZOUBEL Patricia Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w at room temperature (25°C was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  12. Mitotic and meiotic irregularities in somatic hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Schoenmakers, H C; Kamstra, S; Eden, J; Koornneef, M; Jong, J H

    1994-10-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined in metaphase complements of root-tip meristems of 107 tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids, obtained from five different combinations of parental genotypes. Of these hybrids 79% were aneuploid, lacking one or two chromosomes in most cases. All four hybrids that were studied at mitotic anaphase of root tips showed laggards and bridges, the three aneuploids in a higher frequency than the single euploid. Hybrid K2H2-1C, which showed the highest percentage of aberrant anaphases, possessed 46 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with total genomic DNA showed that this hybrid contained 23 tomato, 22 potato, and 1 recombinant chromosome consisting of a tomato chromosome arm and a potato chromosome arm. The potato parent of K2H2-1C was aneusomatic in its root tips with a high frequency of monosomic and trisomic cells and a relatively high frequency of cells with one fragment or telosome. Meiotic analyses of three tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids revealed laggards, which occurred most frequently in the triploid hybrids, and bridges, which were frequently present in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at anaphase I of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C. We observed putative trivalents in PMCs at diakinesis and metaphase I of eutriploid A7-82A and quadrivalents in part of the PMCs of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C, suggesting that homoeologous recombination between tomato and potato chromosomes occurred in these hybrids. All three hybrids showed a high percentage of first division restitution, giving rise to unreduced gametes. However, shortly after the tetrad stage all microspores completely degenerated, resulting in exclusively sterile pollen.

  13. Co-infection of Tylosema esculentum (Marama bean) seed pods by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic fungal DNA was extracted from fresh mycelium using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and was used as a template in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR amplification. Based on the sequence analysis of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA and the ITS, the two isolates associated with necrotic Marama ...

  14. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  15. Lycopersicum esculentum Roots: A model system for arsenic phyto remediation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J.; Araiza-Arvilla, J.; Hernandez-Barnum, N.; Jauregui-Rincon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic polluted soil is one of the most serious problems in Mexico, and a feasible option to this could be the phyto remediation with important advantages over many related clean up technologies, then is necessary to study the mechanisms such as physicochemical and biochemical involved in soil remediation. (Author)

  16. Methodology for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growth and plant productivity stimulation, thought seeds irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Camejo Serrano, Yanelis; Licea Castro, Luis; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Porras Leon, Elia; Perez Espinosa, Anabel

    2001-01-01

    Based in the obtained results by several authors and the experience accumulated by the group of Nuclear Techniques of the Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov about the irradiation techniques; the methodology for tomato growth and productivity stimulation through the seeds irradiation was established. This methodology includes the preparation, irradiation and material selection to irradiate; as well as the sows of the material under field conditions. With her application the seedlings of good quality is guaranteed, what facilitates its transplant from the nursery to field conditions with 7 days in advance comparing to the control treatment, that contributes to the saving of material and human resources. Their fundamental contribution is given in the increment of the agricultural yield that reaches maximum values about 30% for some of the applied treatments. It is also recommended, the application of response- surface analysis among the plant yield (dependent variable) and the irradiation doses (independent variable) for determine the better stimulation doses in each one of the four varieties, as well as the time repeatability parameter of the growth and productivity were calculated, that which endorses the practical application of the proposed methodology

  17. Pemanfaatan Buah Pepaya (Carica Papaya L.,) dan Tomat (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.,) dalam Pembuatan Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Redi; Hamzah, Faizah

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed was to got exact formulation of combination of papaya fruit puree and tomato puree in the manufacture of fruit leather. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used against fruit leather were PT1 (papaya fruit puree 65%, tomato puree 35%), PT2 (papaya fruit puree 55%, tomato puree 45%), PT3 (papaya fruit puree 50%, tomato puree 50%), PT4 (45% papaya fruit puree, tomato puree 55%) and PT5 (35% papaya fruit puree...

  18. Effect of Rimsulfuron, Imazapic and Imazamox Herbicides on Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kazerooni Monfared

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments, in Petri dish and greenhouse, were carried out to investigate the efficiency of three herbicides (rimsulfuron, imazapic and imazamox in controling broomrape. In Petri dish study, herbicides were applied at 0.05, 0.25, 1.25, 6.25 and 31.25 micro-mole doses to broomrape seeds at germination stage without a host plant and adding GR24 as stimulator. In the greenhouse experiments, the efficiency of these herbicides to control broomrape in two varieties of tomato (Viva and Hyb.Petopride II was investigated. Treatments were four doses of rimsulfuron (25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha, imazapic (5, 10, 15 and 20 g ai/ha and imazamox (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g ai/ha at one, two and three applications. Results of Petri-dish experiments showed that rimsulfuron and imazapic significantly reduced radicle elongation of seedlings as compared to the control, while, imazamox did not have any effect on broomrape seed. Each dose was applied for one, two and three times with in 15, 29 and 43 days after within transplanting tomato seedlings. Results of pot experiments indicated that the responses of two tomato varieties herbicides were different. Viva was responsive to herbicidal effect and produced higher biomass than Hyb.Petopride II. Rimsulfuron was a suitable herbicide in tomato to control broomrape. Rimsulfuron at doses of 25, 50 and 75 g ai/ha (three times of application were the best doses, specially in viva were the best treatments for broomrape control and producing tomato biomass. Imazapic also, at 5 g ai/ha (two times of application and 10 g ai/ha (single application was an effective treatments in variety of viva. Imazamox treatments did not appear to be suitable herbicides in this study.

  19. Evaluation of uptake and systemicity of 14C - fosthiazate in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Srivastava, Anjana; Kumar, Surendra; Srivastava, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nematodes are round worm species that are found in almost all habitats. Beneficial species are usually referred to free living nematodes, other nematode species are parasitic and harmful to plants, animals and humans. Soil provides an excellent habitat for nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes may live within plant roots or inhabit in the rhizosphere. The percent yield loss due to root knot nematodes in vegetable crops has been studied under All India Co-ordinated Research Project (Nematodes). The fosthiazate is a new compound incorporated in the market. The uptake and systemicity of fosthiazate in intact tomato plants was studied through 14 C-labeled fosthiazate in presence and absence of DNP. It was found that fosthiazate function as a systemic nematicide in tomato, the accumulation rate of fosthiazate was found higher in roots and shoots part upto 15 hrs. uptake period and after that accumulation slowly becomes saturated in the absence of DNP. In the presence of DNP (10 -2 mM) the amount of fosthiazate in roots as well as shoots was found to be decreased with respect to the uptake time.There was more inhibition on the uptake of fosthiazate in shoots than roots by DNP. (author)

  20. Evaluación agronómica de tomate (licopersicon esculentum m en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Borrego

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la adaptación de genotipos de tomate, bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los genotipos fueron: híbridos: Contessa, Summer Flavor 5000, Summer Flavor 6000, Celebrity, Bonita, Shady Lady, Sunbolt, Sunny, Heat Wave y Olympic; y la variedad FloraDade como testigo. Se evaluaron variables fisiológicas y de rendimiento. Las variables fisiológicas se determinaron en tres evaluaciones en el ciclo del cultivo, en tres horas del día y dos posiciones de hoja en cada evaluación. Se encontraron correlaciones significativas (p≤0,05 entre rendimiento en t/ha, y rendimiento promedio/ planta/corte, frutos/planta/corte y rendimiento/planta, y entre fotosíntesis y uso eficiente del agua. En el análisis de componentes principales, se encontró que los primeros cinco componentes tuvieron un Eigenvalor mayor a uno, explicando los tres primeros un 72% de la varianza total. El primer componente, con un 36% de la variación total, se debió a las “características de rendimiento”, el segundo componente, con un 23% de la variación total, se debió a las “características de regulación interna de temperatura” y el componente cinco, con un 7,4 % de la variación, a la “producción eficiente de fotosintatos”. El análisis de regresión lineal múltiple fue significativo (p≤0,01. El rendimiento en t/ha, se explica por una ecuación lineal múltiple (r2= 0,98 de cuatro variables

  1. Nondestructive detection of water stress in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] plants using microwave sensing, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomachi, T.; Takemasa, T.; Kurata, K.; Takakura, T.

    2004-01-01

    The physiological accommodation response to environmental stress of a plant can induce changes in physiological and physical conditions of the plant. These changes influence the dielectric properties of the plant, which can be detected by measuring microwave complex dielectric properties of plant materials such as leaves and stems. The objective of this research was to detect these responses of plants to water deficiency stress nondestructively. The complex dielectric properties of tomato leaves during water stress were measured with an Open-ended Coaxial Probe from 0.3 to 3 GHz, as well as changes in gravimetric moisture, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and water potential which reflect the physiological condition of the plants. Experimental results showed that the complex permittivity (both permittivity and loss factor) of tomato leaves increased during water stress. Of the parameters measured the highest correlation was observed between complex permittivity and water potential. In order to confirm these results, control and water deficient tomato leaves were crushed, and the complex permittivity was measured and compared. The results showed quite similar tendencies compared with the results from the nondestructive microwave measurements. A physiochemical model to describe the complex permittivity of crushed non-stressed and stressed tomato leaves was constructed with pure water, pulp, glycine, and KN03, and the complex dielectric measurements of crushed tomato leaves were reproduced quite accurately from 0.3 to 3 GHz

  2. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. protoplast yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kuźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to transfer to enzyme mixture increased 4-fold the number of isolated protoplasts. Glycine and bovine serum albumin in the isolation medium did not significantly influence the protoplast yield.

  3. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) protoplast yield

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Kuźniak; Marzena Wielanek; Urszula Małolepsza; Henryk Urbaniak

    2013-01-01

    The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to t...

  4. Selection of tomato mutants (lycopersicon esculentum mill) under conditions of drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria Caridad; Mansoor, Ali; Suarez, Lorenzo; Mukandama, Jean P.; Rodriguez, Yanet

    2001-01-01

    At the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences were evaluated under conditions of drought estres an M5 population obtained starting from the irradiation of seeds of the Amalia and INCA 9-1varieties with dose of 300 and 500 Gy of rays gamma of 60 Co. The number of clusters for plant, mass average of the fruits, number of fruits for plant and yield for plant, the content of total soluble solids and the acidity of the fruits was evaluated observing differ highly significant among the different ones lines and the respective donating studied. Promissory genotipos of high productive potential was selected under this condition

  5. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

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    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  6. Influence of γ-Ray on Residues Dimethoate Insecticides in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofnie M Chairul; Elida Djabir; I Wayan Reja; Yusleha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of γ-ray influence on residues dimethoate insecticides in tomato, was carried out. Tomatoes were soaked into solution of dimethoate insecticides, at concentration of 100; 200; 300; and 400 ppm for 3 minutes. Then the tomatoes were dried at room temperature, after, drying the tomatoes were packed using aluminium foil, and kept for 1 week. Pack, of tomatoes the irradiated with γ-ray at 0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kGy dose. The residues of insecticide dimethoate was determined by extracting of tomatoes using ethyl acetate solvent and analyzed by Chromatography Gas using Flame Photo Detector. The result showed that dimethoate insecticide residues decreased from 9.74 ppm - 30.56 ppm ranges to become 0.0096 ppm-0.0294 ppm at irradiation of 0.5 kGy dose; 0.0049 ppm - 0.0202 ppm at irradiation of 1.0 kGy; 0.0072 ppm - 0.0152 ppm at irradiation of 1.5 kGy dose, while due a 7 days storage a decrease of only 8.24 ppm - 24.19 ppm occurred. (author)

  7. Weed control in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) through mulching and herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, T.; Khan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012 and 2013 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.). Variety 'Roma' was planted on a plot size of 4.8m x 3m using a randomized complete block (RCB) design in split plot arrangements, having four replications. The experiment comprised of row spacing in main plots and ten treatments in the subplots that included five mulches viz., white polyethylene, black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust; three herbicide treatments i.e. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, s-metolachlor along with a hand weeding treatment and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m-2 at 20 days after treatments, plant height, fruit yield (kg ha-1). All the studied parameters were significantly affected by the row spacing (factor A) and weed management treatments (factor B); however, the interaction effects were non-significant. An increase in weed density was observed with increase in row spacing, having weed density of 3.39, 4.19 and 4.53 weeds m-2 for 40, 60 and 80 row spacing, respectively. The overall weed density m-2 ranged between 3.24 to 4.30 m-2. A maximum plant height of 62.44cm was recorded in weedy check and minimum 53.31cm plant height was observed in hand weeding treatments. As regards the fruit yield, a highest yield of 2.51 t ha-1 was recorded at row spacing of 60 cm (factor A) and the application of poly ethylene black plastic resulted in significantly highest fruit yield (4.04 t ha-1) among factor B treatments. (author)

  8. Gynogenesis with high doses of gamma radiation in tomatoes -Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryanovska, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The behaviour of male chromatin at the germination of gamma irradiated pollen from the stigma to the embrio sac in tomatoes was investigated in connection with the induced gynogenesis and the transfer of genetic information from one species to another. Two male-sterile longistil varieties of Deva and Hera were used as mothers, while mixed pollen from cultivated varieties and Lycopersicum peruvianum (L.) was irradiated at doses of 1, 5, 10 and 200 Kr with a dose rate of up to 1500 R/min. The experiment was carried out in 6 replications, with between 3 and 15 flowers for each variant and variety. The irradiated male chromatin of L. peruvianum remains in the pollen tube that has grown close to the embryo sac and stimulates the development of the embryo and endosperm. The absense of anthocyanin and the normal diploid chromosome count were the two markers for characterizing the plants obtained at high doses of gamma radiation as secondarily diploidized gynogenetic diplo-haploids during embryogenesis. It is assumed that the highly damaged male chromatin and the cytoplasm of the pollen tube retain their stimulating function under the influence of the high doses. A decisive role may be placed by certain fragments with genes from the male chromatin. The mitochondria which retain their respirative capacity and are promptly restored even after irradiation may have a stimmulating influence at the induced haploidy. The secondary diploidization normalizes the development of the organism of haploid origin and makes it possible to overcome the poor viability and the higher sterility. The genes responsible for the synthesis of anthocyanin in the irradiated male chromatin are restroyed by the high radiation doses, and this is the reason for the absence of anthocyanin in the diplo-haploid plants

  9. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Prevention of Chilling Injury of Cherry Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. Messina(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanifeh seyed hajizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables play a major role in providing vitamins and minerals that are essential in the metabolism. In addition to providing vitamins and minerals compounds, they are called secondary metabolites. Tomatoes are one of the most vegetables in diets of people around the world. Low temperature stress associated with the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage can occur before or after harvest, farm, transportation, storage and marketing. Today, a greater emphasis is placed on post-harvest storage of agricultural products to increase productivity and make better use of labor resources, worker, energy and money, rather than an increase in production. One of the most promising treatments is the use of salicylic acid for prevention of the frost damage of post-harvest fruits and vegetables with different mechanisms such as increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system activity. Salicylic acid is known as a signal molecule in the induction defense mechanisms in plants. SA is a well-known phenol that can prevent ACO activity that is the direct precursor of ethylene and decreases Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS with increasing enzyme antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid is a natural phenolic compound known as a plant hormone having positive effect on storage life and quality of fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid on antioxidant properties and quality of tomato and its effect was evaluated on prevention of chilling injury of cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a greenhouse of Horticulture Department of University of Maragheh. Treatments were included before harvest at fruit set stage with the control (distilled water and 0.75 mM salicylic acid spraying and after harvest, red ripened fruits were used for treatments control and immersion in 0.75 mM salicylic acid. Then all the treated fruits were transferred to 1 °C. Sampling of fruits was done weekly and continued five weeks. In the last week of the experiment, fruits were kept for three days at room temperature (24-25°C to evaluate the effects of frost on the whole period. To determine the effect of salicylic acid on percentage of cherry tomatoes injury, analysis of variance for a completely randomized design with three replications was used. For other traits factorial experiment with completely randomized design was applied. The treatments included salicylic acid treatment and six periods of storage. Duncan test was used for comparison of means. Results and discussions: The results showed that the effect of salicylic acid significantly reduced frost damage in cherry tomato fruits during the storage period (P≤0/01. Treated fruit with salicylic acid before harvest showed the lowest damage of chilling in comparison with controls. Titratable acidity is directly related to the concentration of organic acids present in the fruit which is an important parameter in maintaining the quality of fruits. Titratable acidity increased gradually in all treatments except control and it seems to be influenced by the postharvest SA. Cell membrane of injured tissue was exposed to transform from a crystal liquid phase to a solid gel together and thus membrane permeability and ion membrane leak were increased (Wang et al., 2006. Salicylic acid may be used in the pre-harvest cherry tomatoes had a large role in the stability of the membrane and prevention of chilling injury. Salicylic acid was used before conception and chilling injury (Wang et al., 2006. Salicylic acid may be used in the pre-harvest cherry tomatoes that had a large role in the stability of the membrane and prevention of chilling injury.. . Application of salicylic acid before harvest on cherry tomatoes was more effective in maintaining the quality of the fruit and preventing of chilling injury. Organic acids reduce the consumption of sugars that occur during breathing and are directly related to metabolic activities (Jalili Marandi, 1383; Rahemi, 1384. It seems that spraying with 0.75 mM salicylic acid before conception, had a greater impact on the accumulation of proline and resistance in the plants and so the fruit had the lowest percentage of frost and high levels of proline matches. The maximum amount of proline in fruits at low temperature was obtained by increasing the exposure time after fifth week. Conclusion: The results of the percentage of chilling injury, proline, carbohydrate and indicators related to quality of tomato fruits cherry tomato showed that treatment with salicylic acid can be effective on chilling tolerance during storage. Compared with the control treatments before harvesting frost cherry tomato had the greatest influence on stability by increasing the number of applications of salicylic acid that also reduced the effectiveness of this treatment.

  10. Comparative evaluation of tomato varieties (Licopersicum esculentum Mill. in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Comparative evaluation of varieties of tomato bred by Kyiv experimental station of the Institute of vege­tables and melons (IVM NAAS of Ukraine with allowance for different fruit shapes. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical ones. Results. Since varietal characteristics can greatly influence the course of the growth process, the experiment included phenological observations of plants growth and development, biometric measurements of plants and fruits, productivity records, besides, biochemical values of fruits with various shape were defined (flat-round and plum-shaped fruits. Varieties with the highest yield, best biochemical values and earlier fruit ripening were identified. Conclusions. Among the samples of tomato with flat-round fruits, Zoren variety had the shortest time interval from mass germination up to early ripening of fruits, Myroliubivskyi variety – in the group of plum-shaped fruits. In the first group Atlasnyi variety had the highest yield, in the se­cond – Khoriv variety. Atlasnyi (flat-round fruits and Oberig (plum-shaped fruits varieties had the best biochemical values. Varieties with plum-shaped fruits excelled samples with flat-round fruits at biochemical composition.

  11. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  12. Effect of EC and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Stanghellini, C.; Challa, H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that manipulating water out-flow of a plant through the shoot environment (potential transpiration, ET0) in a glasshouse could modulate the effect of salinity/osmotic potential in the root environment upon yield of tomatoes. Contrasting root-zone salinity treatments

  13. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  14. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.

  15. Emissão e expansão foliar em três genótipos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Leaf emergence and expansion in three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Rejane Pivetta

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o filocrono na haste principal e em hastes laterais de primeira ordem e estimar a área foliar a partir do número de folhas em três genótipos de tomateiro cultivados em estufa plástica. Um experimento foi conduzido em estufa plástica na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. Foram utilizados três genótipos de tomate: "Kátia", "Durino" e "Emperor". O transplante das mudas com 3-4 folhas definitivas foi realizado em 31/10/2005. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, compostas de duas fileiras de oito plantas. Em seis plantas de cada repetição foram realizadas observações do número de folhas na haste principal e em hastes laterais de primeira ordem e em duas plantas de cada repetição foram medidos o comprimento e a largura das folhas na haste principal. O filocrono foi estimado pelo inverso do coeficiente angular da regressão linear entre o número de folhas acumuladas na haste e a soma térmica acumulada após o transplante. O filocrono da haste principal foi menor do que o filocrono das hastes laterais de primeira ordem. A área foliar do tomateiro em uma haste pode ser estimada através do número de folhas acumuladas nesta haste.This study was aimed at estimating the phyllochron on the main stem and on first order lateral branches, and estimate leaf area from leaf number in three tomato genotypes grown inside a plastic green-house. An experiment was conducted inside a plastic greenhouse at the experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Three tomato genotypes were used: 'Kátia', 'Durino', and 'Emperor'. Three to four-leaf seedlings were transplanted on 10/31/2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications composed of two 8-plants rows. The number of leaves on the main stem and on first order lateral branches was counted in six plants of each replication. Leaf length and width were measured on two plants per replication. The phyllochron was estimated as the inverse of the slope of the linear regression of leaf number against accumulated thermal time from transplanting. The phyllochron on the main stem was greater than on the first order lateral branches. Leaf area on a stem of the tomato plant can be estimated from the number of accumulated lateral leaves on this stem.

  16. APLICACIÓN FOLIAR DE ÁCIDO GLUTÁMICO EN PLANTAS DE JITOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reynaldo Serna-Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ácido glutámico es un aminoácido que participa en diversos procesos metabólicos en la planta. El objetivo fue determinar si la aplicación foliar de ácido glutámico produce mejor desarrollo de la planta de jitomate y un incremento en la producción de frutos. El experimento fue desarrollado bajo condiciones de invernadero e hidroponia. Las variables en las cuales hubo respuesta positiva a la aplicación de ácido glutámico fueron: contenido de clorofila b, peso de frutos frescos, peso de frutos secos y actividad de la enzima glutamina sintetasa.

  17. A system for fertigation management in soilless culture of tomato to reduce water consumption and nitrogen discharge [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, L.; Battista, P.; Rapi, B.; Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Carmassi, G.

    2005-01-01

    In Italy, most greenhouse growers apply fertigation in open-loop system (free drainage), but recent laws on environmental pollution are forcing them to introduce new management approaches, namely the recirculation of drain water (closed-loop). The development of a specific support system (SGx) is in progress in order to aid the growers in selecting low impact growing systems and in reducing water use. Currently, the software integrates three models for the simulation of tomato growth, transpiration and nutrient concentration in the fertigation water. The system can run both in real time, using meteorological and water consumption data automatically collected by sensors located in the greenhouse, and off-line, using data sets archived in the database. Choosing real time option, SGx follows plant growth and the modifications of nutrients in the recycling solution, suggesting the most effective practices for water and nutrient management. The off-line option allows the comparison between different productive strategies from different viewpoints: production, water and nutrient consumption, radiation and water use efficiency, environmental impact [it

  18. Thin-layer drying of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Rio Grande) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya [Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    The effects of different drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of tomato slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 1.015 x 10{sup -9} to 2.650 x 10{sup -9} m {sup 2} s {sup -1}over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 22.981 kJ mol {sup -1}. (orig.)

  19. TÉ DE COMPOSTA COMO FERTILIZANTE ORGÁNICO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. EN INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ochoa-Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la aportación de nitrógeno (N y otros nutrimentos en el té de composta para producir tomate en invernadero. Se evaluaron cuatro tipos de fertilización en tres genotipos. Los tipos de fertilización fueron: solución nutritiva, té de composta, té de composta diluido y aplicación fraccionada de composta. Los genotipos fueron Bosky, Romina y PX01636262. La evaluación se realizó hasta el octavo racimo cosechado. El efecto del tipo de fertilización y del genotipo fue significativo en el rendimiento, en tanto que la interacción de ambos factores no fue significativa. Las plantas con solución nutritiva obtuvieron el mayor rendimiento con 21.8 kg·m-2, mientras que el té de composta rindió 17 % menos; esta reducción se relacionó con una mayor conductividad eléctrica (CE en la solución del sustrato. El té de composta también redujo 21 % el peso por fruto y aumentó 19 % los sólidos solubles. Las variedades Bosky y PX01636262 rindieron cerca de 20 kg·m-2, en tanto Romina rindió significativamente menos, debido a un menor peso por fruto. La concentración de N foliar al inicio de floración e inicio de cosecha fue similar con solución nutritiva y con té de composta; además, no se observaron síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos, lo que significa que el té de composta abasteció las necesidades de N y otros nutrimentos, logrando producir más de 18 kg·m-2 de fruto extra grande con más de 4 oBrix de sólidos solubles, a un menor costo de fertilización.

  20. Evapotranspiration modelling of horticultural crops grown with soilless culture [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Adlam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, L.; Carmassi, G.; Malorgio, F.; Pardossi, A.; Tognoni, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work aims at validating the evapotranspiration model developed by Baille (1994) on tomato and gerbera grown with different concentration of NaCl. Relevant to tomato, the original Baille model was adapted on daily scale and a Boltzman equation for estimating the LAI as a function of thermal day degrees was used. The model was calibrated on data collected in Spring 2004 from a soilless closed-loop tomato culture and validated on datasets collected in 2001 and 2002. Hourly data collected in Spring and Autumn 2005 from a soilless closed-loop gerbera culture grown with different irrigation water quality (0 and 10 meq lE-1 NaCl) were used. Evapotranspiration in gerbera was influenced by different water quality and by radiation levels, while in tomato those factors were negligible. In both crops a good correspondence between estimated and measured data was observed. The developed models will be implemented in a Decision Support System in order to help growers to manage the soilless closed-loop cultivation [it

  1. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  2. Accumulation of cell wall-bound phenolic metabolites and their upliftment in hairy root cultures of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2008-07-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of cell wall material of tomato hairy roots yielded ferulic acid as the major phenolic compound. Other phenolics were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and 4-coumaric acid. The content of phenolics was much higher at the early stage of hairy root growth. The ferulic acid content decreased up to 30 days and then sharply increased to 360 microg/g at 60 days of growth. Elicitation of hairy root cultures with Fusarium mat extract (FME) increased ferulic acid content 4-fold after 24 h. As the pathogen-derived elicitors have specific receptors in plants, FME may thus be used for inducing resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

  3. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H 2 O 2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  4. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.

  7. Evaluation of Low Pressure Fogging System for Improving Crop Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.: Grown under Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Shilo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions, many tomato plants are grown throughout the hot summer period (May–September in sheltered cultivation, mainly for plant protection reasons. Most of the shelters that are used are low cost net houses covered with 50 mesh insect proof net. In most cases these net houses have a flat roof and no ventilation or climate control measures. This insufficient ventilation during the hot summer leads to above optimal air temperatures and causes moderate heat stress inside the shelters, which leads to yield reduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a simple and inexpensive low pressure fogging system installed in a naturally ventilated net house to lower temperatures and improve the yield during the summer. The study showed that in areas where relative air humidity (RH during the daytime is less than 60%, tomato plants improved their performance when grown through the summer in net houses under moderate heat stress. Under fogging conditions pollen grain viability and fruit set were significantly improved. This improvement influenced the yield picked during September (104–136 DAP. However, total seasonal yield was not affected by the fogging treatment.

  8. Biochar filters reduced the toxic effects of nickel on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) grown in nutrient film technique hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Ahmed; El-Banna, Mostafa F; Gao, Bin

    2016-04-01

    This work used the nutrient film technique to evaluate the role of biochar filtration in reducing the toxic effects of nickel (Ni(2+)) on tomato growth. Three hydroponic treatments: T1 (control), T2 (with Ni(2+)), and T3 (with Ni(2+) and biochar) were used in the experiments. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy was used to characterize the pre- and post-treatment biochar samples. The results illustrated that precipitation, ion exchange, and complexation with surface functional groups were the potential mechanisms of Ni(2+) removal by biochar. In comparison to the control, the T2 treatment showed severe Ni-stress with alterations in cell wall structure, distortions in cell nucleus, disturbances in mitochondrial system, malformations in stomatal structure, and abnormalities in chloroplast structure. The biochar filters in T3 treatment reduced dysfunctions of cell organelles in root and shoot cells. Total chlorophyll concentration decreased by 41.6% in T2 treatment. This reduction, however, was only 20.8% due to the protective effect of the biochar filters. The presence of Ni(2+) in the systems reduced the tomato fruit yield 58.5% and 31.9% in T2 and T3, respectively. Nickel concentrations reached the toxic limit in roots, shoots, and fruits in T2, which were not observed in T3. Biochar filters in T3 also minimized the dramatic reductions in nutrients concentration in roots, shoots, and fruits, which occurred in T2 treatment due to the severe Ni-stress. Findings from this work suggested that biochar filters can be used on farms as a safeguard for wastewater irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  10. Influence of simulated Quinclorac drift on the accumulation and movement of herbicide in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Michael L; Hoagland, Robert E; Talbert, Ronald E; Scherder, Eric F

    2009-07-22

    Quinclorac (3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid) is a herbicide commonly used in rice, and its drift has been suspected of causing injury to off-target tomato fields throughout Arkansas. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of single and multiple simulated quinclorac drift applications on tomato plant growth and development. Residues extracted from tomato plants treated with 0.42 g of ai ha(-1) were below the detection limit of liquid chromatography-double mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Quinclorac residue levels and half-lives in tomato tissue increased as the application rate and number of applications increased. From 3 to 72 h after (14)C-quinclorac treatment of plants, most of the absorbed (14)C was retained in the treated leaf, and translocations of (14)C out of the treated leaf of vegetative and flowering tomato plant tissues were similar. Of the (14)C that translocated out of the treated leaf, the greatest movement was acropetally. The flower cluster contained 1% of the total absorbed (14)C, which suggests the potential for quinclorac translocation into tomato fruit. More extensive research will be required to understand the impact that quinclorac may have on tomato production in the area.

  11. Folate content in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ). influence of cultivar, ripeness, year of harvest, and pasteurization and storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, M Dolores; Pérez-Conesa, Darío; García-Alonso, Javier; Ros, Gaspar; Periago, M Jesús

    2009-06-10

    The effects of cultivar, on-vine ripening, and year of harvest on the folate content of raw tomatoes were studied. Folate content in hot-break tomato puree (HTP) subjected to pasteurization at different temperatures and its evolution during the shelf life of tomato juice were also investigated. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate) was the only folate compound identified in raw tomatoes and HTP, but tetrahydrofolate (H(4)-folate) was 10% of the folate detected in tomato juice. The content of folates in raw tomatoes ranged from 4.1 to 35.3 microg/100 g of fresh weight and was highly influenced by all of the factors studied. No clear trend of folate content with ripening stage was observed. The extractability of 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate from HTP increased significantly after pasteurization at 98 degrees C for 40 s, but higher temperatures decreased its content. Tomato juice showed folate losses during storage independent of the storage temperature. Folate losses were higher when tomato juice was packed in glass bottles than in Tetra Pak.

  12. Effects of exogenous epibrassinolide on photosynthetic characteristics in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) seedlings under weak light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jiang, Weijie; Yu, Hongjun

    2010-03-24

    The effects of three concentrations (0.1, 0.01, 0.001 mg/kg) of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and parameters of light response curve in tomato seedlings under 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) weak light stress were studied, with two tomato cultivars, 'Zhongza9', tolerant, and 'Zhongshu6', sensitive to weak light stress. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximal photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), light saturation point (LSP), and dark respiration rate (Rd) decreased remarkably under weak light, but the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b (chlb) content, increased obviously compared with normal light intensity control. However, exogenous 24-epibrassinolide alleviated the decrease of leaf Pn and Fv/Fm and induced the further increase of chlb content as well as the further decrease of Rd and chla/chlb under weak light stress, which indicated that exogenous 24-epibrassinolide could enhance plant tolerance to weak light and diminish damage from weak light. However, the optimum concentrations were different between the two cultivars; 0.1 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide showed the best induction effects in 'Zhongshu6', and the best level for 'Zhongza9' was 0.01 mg/kg 24-epibrassinolide.

  13. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-03-01

    The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer' varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values≤1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), α-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer' varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the Northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as cancer and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. BAJO ESTRESES ABIÓTICOS EN DIFERENTES FOTOPERIODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar y seleccionar genotipos de tomate capaces de germinar bajo estreses abióticos. El experimento se realizó, en el laboratorio del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena (UPSE, donde se probaron semillas de tomate provenientes del agricultor y certificadas, la germinación se realizó en varios días y en diferentes concentraciones de Manitol; 0 (Control, 125, 175, 225, 275 y 325mM y NaCl 0 (Control, 75, 125 y 175 mM, con dos fotoperiodos diferentes, considerando 8 y 24 horas de oscuridad, la variable evaluada fue porcentaje de germinación, cuyos datos fueron transformados a raíz de equis más uno, para luego ser procesados mediante un análisis combinado. En lo que respecta a los resultados, en las pruebas con Manitol, el Análisis de Varianza (ANDEVA, muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas al nivel del 1% de probabilidades para localidades (Días a germinación, Factor A (Concentraciones y para la Interacción AxB, pero no para Factor B (Fotoperiodos, que fue no significativo. En cuanto al porcentaje de germinación, cuando se probó la solución de manitol, a los días 6, 10, 13 y 15 los resultados fueron similares, tanto para la semilla certificada como la proveniente del agricultor, pues en ambos casos respondieron con porcentajes superiores al 7% en bajas concentraciones, mientras que en altas concentraciones de manitol fue la semilla proveniente del agricultor la que tuvo una germinación de hasta el 3%. Así también, cuando se analizó la influencia de los fotoperiodos, se encontró que el mayor porcentaje de germinación se dio para semilla proveniente del agricultor con el 6% y en la certificada con el 4%, a 24 horas de oscuridad en ambos casos, encontrándose un aumento del 2% de germinación entre el primer y último día de la evaluación. En lo que se refiere a las pruebas realizadas con la solución NaCl, los resultados del ANDEVA, muestran que el Factor A (concentraciones, fue diferente estadísticamente al nivel del 1% de probabilidad, es decir que los genotipos de tomate se comportaron de manera diferente, bajo el efecto de distintas concentraciones, donde la semilla certificada con el 8% de germinación respondió mejor en bajas concentraciones 0 y 75mM, mientras que, altas concentraciones con 125mM, sobresalió la semilla proveniente de agricultor con una germinación inferior al 3%. Además, la diferencia en germinación a los 10, 12 y 14 días en que fueron evaluados los genotipos, solamente se observó el 1% entre días y no se vio un incremento significativo en el porcentaje de germinación. Por lo tanto, queda demostrado que la germinación más eficiente se presenta al día 14, en donde la semilla proveniente del agricultor tiene la capacidad de germinar en altas concentraciones de Manitol y NaCl a 24 horas de oscuridad.

  15. Caracterización de 14 genotipos de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivados bajo invernadero en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eladio Monge-Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 14 genotipos de tomate producidos bajo invernadero, tanto a nivel cualitativo como cuantitativo. Los datos muestran una amplia variabilidad entre genotipos y brindan información útil a los productores en el proceso de selección del genotipo a utilizar en su sistema productivo, según el nicho de mercado de interés. Se destacan varios genotipos de tomate tipo “cherry! y “uva” por su alto contenido de sólidos solubles, que pueden ser opciones para los consumidores que demandan un producto de alta calidad.

  16. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  17. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  18. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Intensity and Exposure Duration of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

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    Hassan FEIZI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of seed hydro priming and magnetic field on tomato seed germination an experiment was conducted in laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. The experimental treatments were all combinations of two levels of hydro priming (use of dry seed and soaked seed for five h in distilled water and eight levels of magnetic field treatments (pretreatment of seeds in 15 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, pretreatment of seeds in 25 mT for 5, 15 and 25 minutes, continuous magnetic field with 3 mT and control with four replications. Results indicated that hydro priming of seeds reduced mean germination time significantly. Root length increased by 14 percent in seed hydro priming treatment in comparison with dry seed treatment. Shoot length, seedling length and vigor index of hydro primed seeds increased by 7, 12 and 13 percent, respectively compared with dry seeds. Exposure of seeds with 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min increased root length by 29 and 25 percents, respectively in comparison with control. The highest shoot length, seedling length and vigor index were obtained in 3 mT continuous magnetic field and 25 mT for 5 min.

  20. Seguimiento del proceso de maduración del tomate (licopersicum esculentum mili) y desarrollo de normas preliminares de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo C., Rosalba; Mahecha, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe los cambios de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos, durante la maduración del tomate a temperatura ambiente, en las dos variedades más consumidas en Colombia como son el Chonto y el Milano. Se encontraron coeficientes de correlación significativos entre el tiempo de madurez y los siguientes parámetros: Pérdida de peso, viscosidad de la pulpa, dureza, índice de madurez, acidez, y vitamina C en las dos variedades. El pH sólo presentó correlación significativa para el ...

  1. Clay pot irrigation for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in the north east semiarid region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Woldetsadik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is one of the major constraints for production of horticultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. A field experiment was conducted to determine irrigation water and fertilizer use efficiency, growth and yield of tomato under clay pot irrigation at the experimental site of Sekota Dryland Agricultural Research Center, Lalibela, Ethiopia in 2009/10. The experiment comprised of five treatments including furrow irrigated control and clay pot irrigation with different plant population and fertilization methods, which were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The highest total and marketable fruit yields were obtained from clay pot irrigation combined with application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water irrespective of difference in plant population. The clay pot irrigation had seasonal water use of up to 143.71 mm, which resulted in significantly higher water use efficiency (33.62 kg m-3 as compared to the furrow irrigation, which had a seasonal water use of 485.50 mm, and a water use efficiency of 6.67 kg m-3. Application of nitrogen fertilizer with irrigation water in clay pots improved fertilizer use efficiency of tomato by up to 52% than band application with furrow or clay pot irrigation. Thus, clay pot irrigation with 33,333 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilizer application with irrigation water in clay pots was the best method for increasing the yield of tomato while economizing the use of water and nitrogen fertilizer in a semiarid environment.

  2. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2010-04-01

    effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  3. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Maria Tur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be efined as any stimulatory or inhibitory effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and leaf lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  4. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Carnés, Jerónimo; García-Abujeta, José Luís; García-Endrino, Ana; Muñoz-Palomino, Elena; Huertas, Angel Julio; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Ferrer, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown. To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. sativa and to characterize the C. sativa leaf extract. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: group A, 10 individuals sensitized to tomato, reporting reactions by contact or inhalation to Cannabis; group B, 14 individuals sensitized to tomato, without reactions to Cannabis; group C, 8 individuals not sensitized to tomato and without reactions to Cannabis. Sensitivity to Cannabis, tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE. Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects (and 1 negative) had positive skin tests to C. sativa leaves and hashish. Specific IgE to C. sativa and peach peel was more common than to tomato. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. vulgaris extracts inhibited most of the bands present in C. sativa. P. hybrida inhibited only the high-molecular-weight bands. Sensitization to C. sativa with or without symptoms is frequent among patients in Spain sensitized to tomato. C. sativa leaves are a potential allergenic source and their allergens may cross-react with other allergenic sources from plants (fruit peels and pollen). (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. CROPPING SYSTEM IN THE STATE OF JALISCO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Rosana Cih Dzul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems of tomatoes in the State of Jalisco, Mexico, were characterized variables useful to explain the technical and economic problems of these systems were prioritized. Five producing regions were identified: Sayula, La Cienega, Sierra de Amula, Costa Sur, and Zapotlan El Grande. A stratified random sampling was performed and face to face structured interviews with tomato producers were applied. The questionnaire included sections to record the sociodemographic characteristics, production performance, technology, food safety and production marketing system. The characterization of production systems was performed using the technological variables: Type of protection, cultivated surface, type of irrigation system, wadding (mulch, input use, yield, production costs, market and food safety. Systems were classified in three groups: open field, greenhouse and mesh shade production system, whit two subsystem organic production with mesh shade and greenhouse without mulch. 84% of producers use an open field system, 8% produce in greenhouse, 4% use the mesh shade system and the remaining 4% produce with any combination of the above systems. The main cultivated variety is Saladette. Productivity of each system is determined by the level and type of technology. All producers use drip irrigation systems and 96% use plastic mulching (wadding. 90% of producers allocate its production through a broker and 10% sell directly to wholesale markets; the main broker usually is the person who owns the warehouse. Weather conditions, pests and diseases are the main factors affecting negatively the productivity and yield of the crop, with negative economic impact on farmers.Â

  6. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spanning the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped on

  7. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spannig the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.J.F.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternaria in stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped

  8. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.R. Damaiyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to study the effect mycorrhiza on growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was conducted in screen house 14 m x 10.5 m, in Pasuruan on November 2013 until March 2014, The experiment was conducted as a factorial randomized complete design. The first factor was dose of mycorrhiza (without mycorrhiza, 5 g mycorrhiza, 10 g mycorrhiza, and 20 g mycorrhiza. The second factor was the salinity stress level (without NaCl, 2500 ppm NaCl, 5000 ppm NaCl, and 7500 ppm NaCl. The results showed that salinity stress at the level 7500 ppm decreased the amount of fruit by 30.84% and fresh weight per hectare decreased by 51.72%. Mycorrhizal application was not able to increase the growth and yield in saline stress conditions; it was shown by the level of infection and the number of spores on the roots of tomato plants lower the salinity level 5000 ppm and 7500 ppm. But separately, application of 20 g mycorrhiza enhanced plant growth, such as plant height, leaf area, leaf number and proline. Application of 20 g mycorrhiza increased the yield by 35.99%.

  9. An in vitro method for screening for the presence of thepat-2 gene in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T E; Juvik, J A; Sullivan, J G; Skirvin, R M

    1990-01-01

    Under field conditions,pat-2, the gene which conditions parthenocarpy in tomatoes, is recessive. A simple method has been devised for distinguishing the heterozygote from the two homozygotes using tissue culture. Ovaries of plants segregating for thepat-2 gene were excised and cultured on a medium containing 100 ppm gibberellic acid. After three weeks in culture, three distinct ovary sizes could be seen. It was shown, using F 3 progeny tests, that the largest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for thepat-2 gene, the smallest ovaries corresponded to those plants homozygous for the wild type allele, and the intermediate sized ovaries were the heterozygotes. The ability to identify the heterozygote would greatly simplify a backcross breeding program aimed at incorporating thepat-2 gene into commercial cultivars by eliminating the need for an F 3 progeny test to determine the genotype of a plant.

  10. Effect of Shoot Pruning and Flower Thinning on Quality and Quantity of Semi-Determinate Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali HESAMI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many constraints of space, light and availability of fruits to harvest in tomatoes greenhouse. Therefore, two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of shoot pruning and flower thinning on quality and quantity of fruits of semi-determinate tomato in a greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Experimental design was randomized complete block designs in which the effect of shoot pruning (single branch pruning, double branch pruning, pyramidal pruning and control or flower thinning (Cluster with 4 and 5 remained flowers and control were studied separately. Results showed that, leaf area and plants yield were higher in treatments which were pruned than control. Yields from pyramidal pruning and cluster thinning with 5 remaining flowers were significantly higher than other treatments. On the other hand, qualitative study identified that pyramidal pruning increases vitamin C in fruits, but had no significant effect on total soluble solids.

  11. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Pos-graduation program in Energetics and Nuclear Tecnologies; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Lab. of Chromatographic Analysis and Flavor; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Antibiotics; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting counts higher (10{sup 5-6} CFU/g) than the limit recommended for commercialization (10{sup 4} CFU/g) and significantly larger than those in irradiated samples. Also, only samples irradiated with 2 kGy had number of counts below such limit. Thus, it can be concluded that appropriate decontamination of tomatoes can be achieved by using a 2.0 kGy dose. (author)

  12. Hormonal control of seed development in gibberellin- and ABA-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Developing seeds of tomato gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib1 and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient sitw mutants enabled us to analyze the role of GA in the regulation of embryo histo-differentiation, and the role of ABA in the regulation of maturation and quiescence. Our data show that DNA synthesis and

  13. RESPUESTA DIFERENCIAL A LA SALINIDAD DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. EN PRIMERAS ETAPAS FENOLÓGICAS

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    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La salinidad afecta tanto el crecimiento vegetativo como el desarrollo reproductivo de las plantas: puede reducir el número de flores, incrementar la esterilidad y alterar la duración de la floración y la maduración. En México, el tomate es una de las especies hortícolas de mayor importancia económica y social, en virtud del valor de su producción y por la demanda de mano de obra que genera, por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en variables morfológicas, en dos etapas fenológicas (germinación y crecimiento vegetativo inicial, de ocho genotipos de tomate, “Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Río Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita y Floradade”, los cuales fueron expuestos a estrés salino mediante la adición de NaCl en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 mM, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones. En la etapa de germinación se midieron las variables morfométricas: porcentaje de germinación, peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, peso fresco de raíces. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se midieron: longitud de tallo, peso fresco de tallo, numero de hojas y área foliar. Los resultados de la etapa de germinación muestran que conforme se incrementó la concentración salina, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó, siendo “Tropic y Yaqui” los que mostraron valores superiores. Por su parte, “Tropic y Missouri” mostraron el mayor peso fresco y seco de parte aérea, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia en esta etapa fueron “Feroz, Vita y Ace”. En la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial se determinó que los cultivares que presentaron mejor respuesta o mayor tolerancia al estrés salino fueron “Missouri, Tropic, Feroz y Vita”, mientras que los genotipos con menor tolerancia a la salinidad en esta etapa fueron “Floradade y Ace”. Se concluye que en ambas etapas fenológicas existe un diferencial potencial entre los genotipos de tomate como respuesta al estrés por salinidad (NaCl, lo que permite observar que la tolerancia a la salinidad en el cultivo de tomate se encuentra asociada a la etapa fenológica de la planta, dado que algunos genotipos evaluados, mostraron menor tolerancia a la salinidad en la etapa de germinación, sin embargo, incrementaron su tolerancia en la etapa de crecimiento vegetativo inicial.

  14. Fungi colonizing the soil and roots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plants treated with biological control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants, cv. Rumba Ożarowska, grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury, were protected in the form of alternate spraying (twice and watering (twice with 5% aqueous extracts of the following plant species: Aloe vulgaris Lam., Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita L., Polygonum aviculare L., Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L. and Urtica dioica L. Plants not treated with the extracts served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of roots and soil were collected. The roots were disinfected and next placed on PDA medium. Soil-colonizing fungi were cultured on Martin medium. Fungi were identified microscopically after incubation. Pathogenic fungal species, Colletotrichum coccodes, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum and F. poae, accounted for over 60% of all isolates obtained from the roots of tomato plants. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (75.4%, whereas pathogenic fungi were present in low numbers. The applied 5% aqueous plant extracts effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, colonizing tomato plants and soil. The extract from P. aviculare showed the highest efficacy, while the extract from J. regia was least effective. Fungi showing antagonistic activity against pathogens (Paecilomyces roseum and species of the genus Trichoderma were isolated in greatest abundance from the soil and the roots of tomato plants treated with A. millefolium, M. piperita and U. dioica extracts.

  15. Essential Oils as Biocides for the Control of Fungal Infections and Devastating Pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad Alam, Samira; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Tabti, Boufeldja; Gaouar Benyelles, Nassira; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and Al. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of Al. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55% to 80% with essential oil of Th. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while Te. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against Al. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0.4 μl/l air. The insecticidal activity of Th. capitatus and Te. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μl/ml air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of Th. capitatus, Te. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Direct determination of lycopene content in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Yuwana; Schwartz, Steven J; Francis, David; Baldauf, Nathan A; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2006-01-01

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to play critical roles in disease prevention. Efficient assays for detection and quantification of lycopene are desirable as alternatives to time- and labor-intensive methods. Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was used for quantification of lycopene in tomato varieties. Calibration models were developed by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using quantitative measures of lycopene concentration from liquid chromatography as reference method. IR spectra showed a distinct marker band at 957 cm(-1) for trans Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) deformation vibration of lycopene. PLSR models predicted the lycopene content accurately and reproducibly with a correlation coefficient (sigma) of 0.96 and standard error of cross-validation ATR-IR spectroscopy allowed for rapid, simple, and accurate determination of lycopene in tomatoes with minimal sample preparation. Results suggest that the ATR-IR method is applicable for high-throughput quantitative analysis and screening for lycopene in tomatoes.

  17. Evaluation of the use of radiation in microbiological control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) sold in the CEASA, Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V.; Solidonio, Evelyne G.; Silva, Marcio de Albuquerque; Costa Junior, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira; Alcantara, Moacir Paulo; Miranda, Rita de Cassia M. de; Sena, Kesia Xisto F.R. de; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2011-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most consumed fruits in the world and also one of the agricultural products with most losses due to its high perishability. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies on the post-harvest life of tomatoes and therefore are still many undefined parameters related to the treatment and shelf life of different cultivars of that fruit. Its contamination occurs from the pre-to post-harvest crop. The diseases caused by food borne pathogenic microorganisms are a serious public health problem. The bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae are responsible for large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans that may occur due to bacteria per se or by toxins produced by them. Thus, the development of technologies that make the food safe for human consumption has been growing in recent years. Preservation methods employ physical or chemical processes. Among such methods, irradiation is a preventive treatment for food safety. Irradiation can reduce post-harvest losses by killing insect pests in fruits, grains, spices, or by reducing food spoilage organisms by inhibiting the sprouting of plants and delaying the ripening of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of using different doses of gamma radiation to treat tomatoes sold in CEASA-PE and to perform the overall count of microorganisms in control and irradiated samples. The study used two lots containing 60 tomatoes such that 15 of them were used as the control group and 45 were irradiated with one of 3 different doses (1.0 kGy, 1.5 kGy and 2.0 kGy). For microbiological analysis, the tomatoes were sliced, and weighed (after removal of peel) in order to obtain samples weighing 25g. Each sample was added to an Erlenmeyer containing sterile water by agitation for 15 minutes. Aliquots of the washings were sown for exhaustion in sheep blood agar. After growth, colony counting was performed. The results revealed contamination in all tomato groups analyzed with the control groups exhibiting counts higher (10 5-6 CFU/g) than the limit recommended for commercialization (10 4 CFU/g) and significantly larger than those in irradiated samples. Also, only samples irradiated with 2 kGy had number of counts below such limit. Thus, it can be concluded that appropriate decontamination of tomatoes can be achieved by using a 2.0 kGy dose. (author)

  18. Development of mutation techniques for farm product ingredients and production of new raw materials by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, T.

    2004-01-01

    An increase of mutation for anti-oxidization competence of buckwheat was investigated by gamma-ray irradiation. An individual and a family of the buckwheat which showed an excellent anti-oxidization competence was selected. Survival rate of irradiated buckwheat decreased at acute irradiation dose of >200 Gy. The divergence of anti-oxidization competence on the irradiated buckwheat showed large value in comparison with untreated buckwheat. The average value of anti-oxidization competence on the irradiated buckwheat was higher than the one on the untreated buckwheat. The relations between anti-oxidization competence and total irradiation dose, however, were not clear. The relations between the anti-oxidization competence and total polyphenol contents in the backwheat showed clearly a positive correlation. (M. Suetake)

  19. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  20. Estado nutricional, vigor e produção em videiras cultivadas com plantas de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies perenes ou anuais de plantas de cobertura podem ser cultivadas em vinhedos para proteger a superfície do solo e também controlar a disponibilidade de água e nutrientes à videira. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o estado nutricional, o vigor e a produção de uva em videiras consorciadas com espécies anuais e perenes de plantas de cobertura submetidas a dois manejos. O experimento foi conduzido nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, em vinhedo da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, em São Joaquim (SC, sobre um Cambissolo Húmico Distrófico. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha, caracterizado pela presença de plantas espontâneas controladas por dessecação na linha e por roçadas nas entrelinhas; a espécie perene de planta de cobertura, festuca (Festuca arundinacea; duas sucessões de espécies anuais, azevém-moha (Lolium multiflorum-Setaria italica e aveia-branca trigo-mourisco (Avena sativa-Fagopyrum esculentum; e dois tipos de manejo das plantas, com e sem transferência do resíduo produzido na linha para a entrelinha das videiras. Foram coletadas folhas completas no pleno florescimento e na mudança da cor das bagas para análise dos teores totais de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Determinaram-se o comprimento dos ramos e de seus entrenós, a massa dos ramos podados e calculou-se o índice de Ravaz. Na colheita, foram determinados o comprimento, largura e massa de cachos, a produção de uva por planta e a massa de 100 bagas. As videiras consorciadas com espécies de plantas de cobertura anuais apresentaram maior teor de N total nas folhas na floração, maior vigor e produção de uva. O manejo das plantas de cobertura, mediante transferência dos resíduos culturais da linha de videiras para a entrelinha, não afetou o vigor da videira nem a produção de uva, mas diminuiu o teor total de N nas folhas, na fase da floração. O cultivo da festuca como cobertura do solo do vinhedo pode ser uma alternativa eficaz para se diminuir o vigor da videira.

  1. The salicylic acid effect on the tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill. germination, growth and photosynthetic pigment under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahba Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research tomato seeds planted in pots containing perlite in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27±2°c and 23±2°c temperature , 16h lightness and 8h darkness respectively, 15 Klux light intensity and 75% humidity; NaCl concentration of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and salicylic acid concentration of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. Results show that germination was decreased with salinity increasing. At low levels of salinity, SA leads to decrease in germination and had no effect in high levels of salinity. The length of shoot were not effected by salinity but decrease with increase in SA concentration. Low salinity concentrations led to significant increase in root length and high concentrations don’t have significant difference with control. SA also had no effect on it. The highest amount of a, b, c and total chlorophyll and carotenoid was show in 50 mM salinity levels.

  2. Influencia del nitrógeno en la producción del tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum L sembrado en sustrato en Sutamarchán (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Natalia Cuadrado-García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El nitrógeno es necesario para las plantas, pero debido a la ineficacia de estas para absorberlo, tan solo un bajo porcentaje es asimilado, y el restante es liberado al ambiente. El trabajo que aquí se presenta se enfocó en determinar la dinámica del nitrógeno en la producción de tomate hidropónico con sistema de drenaje abierto y bajo condiciones de invernadero en la finca Hortifresh S.A., ubicada en el municipio de Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se realizaron semanalmente muestreos de la solución nutritiva, del sustrato utilizado, del agua de drenaje y del material vegetal (tallo, hojas y frutos, con el fin de determinar la concentración de nitrógeno aprovechable por la planta en el cultivo de tomate hidropónico. Los contenidos de N aplicados a la planta, expresados en relación con la acumulación total, fueron de 37,93 g, que equivalen al 100% del N aplicado. Del N total aplicado, el 0,6% (0,22051 g es drenado, el 36% (13,665 g es absorbido por la planta y el restante 63,4% (24,049 g se acumula en el sustrato. Que solo el 36% del N aplicado sea asimilado por la planta, según la investigación, indica que se debe reducir la aplicación de fertilizantes nitrogenados y hacer uso racional del suministro de nutrientes que el cultivo de tomate necesita, con el propósito de reducir el impacto ambiental y optimizar el aprovechamiento de los recursos; en este sentido, la investigación sobre el mejor manejo de la fertirrigación en sistemas hidropónicos con recirculación contribuirá a un desarrollo más sostenible de estos.

  3. Root and leaf abscisic acid concentration impact on gas exchange in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants subjected to partial root-zone drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valerio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a deficit irrigation technique with great potential for water saving. A split-root experiment was conducted on tomato in controlled environment in order to test the response of two long-time storage cultivars to PRD. Ponderosa tomato, a cultivar with yellow fruits, was compared to Giallo tondo di Auletta, a local cultivar from southern Campania (Italy. Plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments: plants receiving an amount of water equivalent to 100% of plant evapotranspiration (V100; plants in which 50% of the amount of water given to V100 was supplied (V50; and plants where one root compartment was irrigated at 50% of water requirements and the other compartment was allowed to dry, and thereafter every side was rewetted alternatively (PRD. The highest levels of leaf abscisic acid (ABA [on average equal to 104 ng g–1 fresh weight FW] were measured in PRD and V50, at 70 days after transplantation. Root ABA concentration in both PRD and V50 reached mean values of 149 ng g–1 FW. There were differences for the irrigation regime in root ABA biosynthesis and accumulation under partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation (V50. Assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in relation to the irrigation regime by 22, 36 and 12%, respectively, in PRD, V50 and V100 at 50 days after transplantation. Ponderosa variety accumulated 20% more dry matter than Auletta and significant differences were observed in leaf area. In both PRD and V50 of the two varieties, it was possible to save on average 46% of water. Our results indicate that there is still space to optimise the PRD strategy, to further improve the cumulative physiological effects of the root-sourced signaling system.

  4. Ventomod: a dynamic model for leaf to fruit transfer of radionuclides in processing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) following a direct contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Strebl, F.; Carini, F.; Gerzabek, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results on the calibration and validation of a model (Ventomod) for leaf to fruit transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 65 Zn in processing tomato plants after leaf contamination. Several models (e.g FARMLAND) that deal specifically with the transfer of radionuclides to fruits are adaptations of models that were developed for agricultural crops such as leafy green vegetables. 'Ventomod' represents a dynamic evaluation model exclusively built for the short-term behaviour of radionuclide depositions. It forecasts the level of radionuclide contamination in ripe processing tomato fruits following an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. A validation of the developed model by data sets from an independent experiment showed that the model successfully reproduced the observed radionuclide distribution and dynamics in tomato fruits. The level of uncertainty was within the normal range of similar assessment models. Fo a more general use of this model further testing with independent data sets from experiments obtained under different environmental conditions and data from other horticulturally important plant species would be desirable

  5. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. B. Pereira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16, in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415–539; T group: 273 (258–297 µm2; p = 0.004. Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039 in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  6. Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov., a nitrogen fixing species isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to effectively nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Salazar-Salazar, Corelly; Méndez, Rafael Díaz; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Hirsch, Ann M; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Estrada-de los Santos, Paulina

    2013-12-01

    During a survey of Burkholderia species with potential use in agrobiotechnology, a group of 12 strains was isolated from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato plants growing in Mexico (Nepantla, Mexico State). A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strains are related to Burkholderia kururiensis and Burkholderia mimosarum (97.4 and 97.1 %, respectively). However, they induced effective nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots of Phaseolus vulgaris. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the group of strains represents a novel species for which the name Burkholderia caballeronis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is TNe-841(T) (= LMG 26416(T) = CIP 110324(T)).

  7. Three-year comparative study of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities in fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars grown under organic and conventional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Dea; Matt, Darja; Pedastsaar, Priit; Bender, Ingrid; Kazimierczak, Renata; Roasto, Mati; Kaart, Tanel; Luik, Anne; Püssa, Tõnu

    2014-06-04

    In the present study, four tomato cultivars were grown under organic and conventional conditions in separate unheated greenhouses in three consecutive years. The objective was to assess the influence of the cultivation system on the content of individual polyphenols, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes. The fruits were analyzed for total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant capacity by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Individual phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Among 30 identified and quantified polyphenols, significantly higher contents of apigenin acetylhexoside, caffeic acid hexoside I, and phloretin dihexoside were found in all organic samples. The content of polyphenols was more dependent on year and cultivar than on cultivation conditions. Generally, the cultivation system had minor impact on polyphenols content, and only a few compounds were influenced by the mode of cultivation in all tested cultivars during all three years.

  8. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Jun Kang, Yi; Li Wang, Huan; Sheng Zhang, Xiang; Xin Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of three PGPRs on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato under simulated seawater irrigation, a two consecutive seasons' field experiment was conducted in Yancheng Teachers University plot from April to June and August to October, 2011. The results showed that Erwinia persicinus RA2 containing ACC deaminase exhibited the best ability compared with Bacillus pumilus WP8 and Pseudomonas putida RBP1 which had no ACC deaminase activity to enhance marketable yields of fresh and dried fruits in tomato under simulated seawater irrigation especially under HS condition. B. pumilus WP8 had significant effects on improving tomato fruit quality under the conditions of irrigating with 1.0% NaCl solution (MS) and with 2.0% NaCl solution (HS). Na(+) contents were generally accumulated much more in tomato plant mid-shoot leaves than in fruits whatever the salt concentration. More sodium accumulation in leaves of E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 treatments under HS condition were found than in control. E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 can promote tomato growth, improve fruit quality more firmly than P. putida RBP1 during two consecutive seasons. Our study suggested that E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 are considered to be promising PGPR strains which are suited for application in salt marsh planting, ACC deaminase activity was not unique index on screening for PGPRs with the aim of salt stress tolerance, and plant growth promoting activities may be relevant to different growth indices and different stress conditions.

  9. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Infected by Alternaria alternata and Its Toxic Metabolites (TeA, AOH, and AME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh; Zehra, Andleeb; Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Gupta, Vijai K; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the comparative biochemical defense response generated against Alternaria alternata and its purified toxins viz. alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA). The necrotic lesions developed due to treatment with toxins were almost similar as those produced by the pathogen, indicating the crucial role of these toxins in plant pathogenesis. An oxidative burst reaction characterized by the rapid and transient production of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs following the pathogen infection/toxin exposure. The maximum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced was reported in the pathogen infected samples (22.2-fold) at 24 h post inoculation followed by TeA (18.2-fold), AOH (15.9-fold), and AME (14.1-fold) in treated tissues. 3,3'- Diaminobenzidine staining predicted the possible sites of H 2 O 2 accumulation while the extent of cell death was measured by Evans blue dye. The extent of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was higher (15.8-fold) at 48 h in the sample of inoculated leaves of the pathogen when compared to control. The cellular damages were observed as increased MDA content and reduced chlorophyll. The activities of antioxidative defense enzymes increased in both the pathogen infected as well as toxin treated samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was 5.9-fold higher at 24 h post inoculation in leaves followed by TeA (5.0-fold), AOH (4.1-fold) and AME (2.3-fold) treated leaves than control. Catalase (CAT) activity was found to be increased upto 48 h post inoculation and maximum in the pathogen challenged samples followed by other toxins. The native PAGE results showed the variations in the intensities of isozyme (SOD and CAT) bands in the pathogen infected and toxin treated samples. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities followed the similar trend to scavenge the excess H 2 O 2 . The reduction in CAT activities after 48 h post inoculation demonstrate that the biochemical defense programming shown by the host against the pathogen is not well efficient resulting in the compatible host-pathogen interaction. The elicitor (toxins) induced biochemical changes depends on the potential toxic effects (extent of ROS accumulation, amount of H 2 O 2 produced). Thus, a fine tuning occurs for the defense related antioxidative enzymes against detoxification of key ROS molecules and effectively regulated in tomato plant against the pathogen infected/toxin treated oxidative stress. The study well demonstrates the acute pathological effects of A. alternata in tomato over its phytotoxic metabolites.

  11. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (Ptomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  12. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluation of salt tolerance in ectoine-transgenic tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in terms of photosynthesis, osmotic adjustment, and carbon partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Nakamura, Akiko; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-01-01

    Ectoine is a common compatible solute in halophilic bacteria. Its biosynthesis originates from L-aspartate β-semialdehyde and requires three enzymes: L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (gene: ect B), L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyl transferase (gene: ect A) and L-ectoine synthase (gene: ect C). Genetically engineered tomato plants expressing the three H. elongata genes (ectA, ectB, and ectC) generated showed no phenotypic abnormality. Expression of the ectoine biosynthetic genes was detected in the T3 transgenic plants by Northern blot analysis. The ectoine accumulating T3 plants were evaluated for salt tolerance by examining their photosynthestic activity, osmotic adjustment and carbon partitioning. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected the accumulation of ectoine. The concentration of ectoine increased with increasing salinity. The transgenic lines showed higher activities of peroxidase, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased under salinity stress condition. In addition, preservation of higher rates of photosynthesis and turgor values as compared to control was evident. Within a week of ( 13) CO 2 feeding, salt application led to increases in the partitioning of ( 13) C into roots at the expense of ( 13) C in the other plant parts. These results suggest that under saline conditions ectoine synthesis is promoted in the roots of transgenic plants, leading to an acceleration of sink activity for photosynthate in the roots. Subsequently, root function such as water uptake is improved, compared with wild-type plants. In this way, the photosynthetic rate is increased through enhancement of cell membrane stability in oxidative conditions under salt stress.

  14. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  15. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  16. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypersensitivity to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Peach-Allergic Patients: rPrup 3 and rPrup 1 Are Predictive of Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheri, A; Farioli, L; Pravettoni, V; Piantanida, M; Stafylaraki, C; Scibilia, J; Mirone, C; Preziosi, D; Nichelatti, M; Pastorello, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of allergens in the severity of tomato allergy symptoms has not yet been studied. To evaluate the relationship between severe allergic reactions to peach and tomato and between tomato allergy symptoms and the pattern of IgE positivity for rPru p 1, rPru p 3, rPru p 4, rBetv 1, rBetv 2, rBetv4, rPhl p 1, and rPhl p 12 in order to identify the role of recombinant allergens in the severity of reactions to tomato. We studied peach-allergic patients with clinical reactions to tomato by performing an open food challenge, skin prick test, and determination of serum specific IgE to tomato and to recombinant peach, birch, and grass allergens. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the severity of tomato symptoms and IgE positivity to the different allergens and to peach-induced symptoms. We found a significant association between severe reactions to tomato and severe reactions to peach (P = .01 7) and levels of IgE to rPru p3 (P = .029) and between mild tomato allergy symptoms and levels of IgE to rPru p1 (P = .047), anti-rBetv 1 (P = .0414), anti-rBetv 2 (P = .0457), and Phleum pratense (P = .0022). We observed a significant relationship between peach and symptoms of tomato allergy. IgE positivity for rPru p3 seems to be a surrogate biochemical marker for severe tomato allergy, whereas the presence of anti-rPru p 1 IgE may be an indicator of mild tomato allergy.

  18. The influence of al-madinah al-munawwara treated and untreated domestic wastewater on growth and physiology of three tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhkha, A.; Boutraa, T.; Shoaibi, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of irrigation with Al-Madinah Al-Munawwara domestic wastewater on three tomato genotypes (AL, P and VF) was investigated. Five treatments including Tap water, untreated (TN), primary (T1), secondary (T2) and tertiary (T3) treated wastewaters were used for irrigation. The physico-chemical characteristics of wastewater were determined. Leaves were analysed for N, P, K and heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Nickel). The growth parameters assessed were % germination, plant height, shoot and root dry weights, and total leaf dry weight. Some physiological parameters such as photosynthetic light response curve, maximum gross photosynthesis (Amax), dark respiration (DR), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm and Fv / Fm), chlorophyll content index and stomatal conductance were detected. % germination was decreased in both A1 and P genotype, with no effect on VF genotype. Most growth parameters were increased in genotype A1, followed by VF then P genotype which had a sensitive leaf dry weight to T2 and T3. Photosynthesis was mainly increased in A1 genotype with a decrease in VF genotype. DR was negatively affected in VF genotype with no response of A1 genotype. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed an increase in Fo in VF genotype but a decrease in Fv / Fm in both A1 and VF genotypes. Chlorophyll content index was decreased but only in A1 and VF genotypes under TN. Treatment with TN and / or T1 decreased stomatal conductance in all genotypes. The levels of heavy metals in wastewaters used were lower than the standard limits; however, plant chemical analysis showed that the leaves of the three tomato genotypes accumulated heavy metals but differently with higher levels at TN and lower levels at T3. (author)

  19. The reorganization of root anatomy and ultrastructure of syncytial cells in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected with potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of anatomical and ultrastructural events leading to the syncytium development in tomato roots infected with Globodera rostochiensis was examined. The syncytia were preferentially induced in cortical or pericyclic cells in the elongation zone of root. They developed towards the vascular cylinder by incorporation of new cells via local cell wall breakdown. After surrounding primary phloem bundle and reaching xylem tracheary elements syncytia spread along vascular cylinder. Roots in primary state of growth seemed to be the best place for syncytium induction as syncytia formed in the zone of secondary growth were less hypertrophied. At the ultrastructural level syncytial elements were characterized by strong hypertrophy, breakdown of central vacuole, increased volume of cytoplasm, proliferation of organelles, and enlargement of nuclei. On the syncytial wall adjoining vessels the cell wall ingrowths were formed, while the syncytial walls at interface of phloem were considerably thickened. They lacked of functional plasmodesmata and did not form any ingrowths. Using immunofluorescent-labelling and immunogold-labelling methods tomato expansin 5 protein was localized in nematode infected roots. The distribution of LeEXP A5 was restricted only to the walls of syncytia. The protein distribution pattern indicated that LeEXP A5 could mediates cell wall expansion during hypertrophy of syncytial elements.

  20. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  1. Capítulo VIII: heredabilidad del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate, Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.; correlaciones genéticas y ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Arias Mario

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se desarrolló con el fin de determinar la heredabilidad, en sentido amplio, del rendimiento y sus componentes en tomate y a la vez describir las relaciones genotípicas y ambientales para dichos componentes en una población constituida por tres líneas endocriadas (Ponderosa Red, Chonto y Red Cherry como progenitores y las F1 provenientes de los cruzamientos entre los progenitores en una sola dirección. La heredabilidad se estimó en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y las correlaciones genotípicas y ambientales en base a los cuadrados medios esperados del análisis de varianza y productos cruzados medios del análisis de covarianza. Para el rendimiento se estimó una heredabilidad de 79.3%, para el número total de frutos de 93.107%, para peso promedio de de fruto de 4.25%. Los coeficientes de correlación genotípicos estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.985; para número de inflorescencias por planta y número de frutos por inflorescencia de 0,541; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de 0.826. Los coeficientes de correlación ambiental estimados fueron: para número de frutos por planta y peso promedio de frutos de -0.512; para rendimiento y número de frutos por planta de -0.065; para rendimiento y peso promedio de frutos de 0.613; para número de inflorescencias y número de frutos por inflorescencias de -0.878; para número de lóculos por fruto y peso promedio de lóculos de -0.779. Lo anterior indica que el método de mejoramiento para rendimiento, dentro de la población estudiada, seria la selección, tomando como índice de selección apropiado el peso promedio de frutos pero sin descuidar el número de frutos. Se debe maximizar las condiciones favorables de suelo y manejo de cultivo para permitir una adecuada manifestación de los dos componentes primarios del rendimiento.

    This study intended to determine heritability, in the wide sense, of tomato yield and its components and their genotypic and environmental correlations in a population composed of three inbred lines (Ponderosa Red, Chonto y Red Cherry and the F1 from one direction crosses. Heritability was estimated from the expected mean squares and genotypic and environmental correlations were calculated from E.M.S. and cross products from the analysis of covariance. For total yield, number of fruits per plant and mean fruit weight calculated heritability were 79.3%, 93.107% and 94.25%, respectively. Genotypic correlation coefficients were: between number of fruits per plant and mean fruit weight -0.985; between number of clusters and fruits per cluster 0.541; between locules por fruit and mean weight of locule 0.826. Environmental correlations were: between number of fruits per plant and mean weight of fruits 0.512; between yield and number of fruits per plant 0.065; between yield and mean weight of fruits 0.613; between number of clusters and fruits per cluster 0.878; between number of locules per fruit and mean locule weight 0.779. The results indicate that the best method to improve yields would be a selection index considering mean weight of fruits and giving some consideration to number of fruits per plant. In order to let these characteristics to express themselves maximum soil and crop management should be provided.

  2. Modelamiento de la cinética de desinfección superficial de tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum frescos usando soluciones de cloro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Solano Cornejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomates frescos variedad italiana fueron sometidos a procesos de desinfección superficial utilizando soluciones de h ipoclorito de c alcio para determinar su eficiencia germicida y la cinética que gobierna el proceso de inactivación superficial en gérmenes a erobios mesófilos, levaduras y mohos. El cloro como desinfectante superficial fue eficaz contra bacterias aerobias mesófilas, levaduras y mohos en ese orden, la resistencia de los gérmenes aerobios mesófilos, de las levaduras y de los mohos expresados en s us valores z cloro fue de 455, 500 y 625 ppm respectivamente. Los gérmenes aerobios mesófilos presentes en la superficie del tomate muestran una mayor resistencia a la desinfección por c loro conforme el tiempo de contacto germen - cáscara es mayor, debido a u na mayor adherencia a la cáscara lo que dificulta la acción de c loro sobre los gérmenes; esté efecto no se presentó en el caso de l evaduras ni de m ohos . Los valores D cloro 20ºC experimentales y los valores D cloro 20ºC predichos por el P rimer M odelo de Bige low se ajustaron con una correlación de entre 0 , 91 y 0 , 99. Los valores z cloro experimentales y los v alores z cloro predichos por el S egundo Modelo de Bigelow se ajustaron con una correlación de 0 , 72 a 0 , 86. La variabilidad en los valores z cloro se debió a que los gérmenes analizados para validar el m odelo propuesto estuvieron compuestos por diversos géneros. Así , el Método de Bigelow aplicado a la cinética de inactivación superficial con c loro fue validado.

  3. Depth of dormancy in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds is related to the progression of the cell cycle prior to the induction of dormancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Bino, R.J.; Jing, H.C.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell cycle activities are initiated following imbibition of non-dormant seeds. However, it is not known whether cell cycle related events other than DNA replication also remain suppressed in imbibed dormant seeds. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the transitions between the

  4. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  5. Effects of fruit thinning, covering of the fruit truss and CO2 enrichment on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] production under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nomura, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2009-01-01

    Radial fruit cracking (RFC) can contribute to serious economic losses in tomato production under rain shelter in cool uplands. In order to investigate the effects of translocation and distribution of photosynthate to the fruits during the occurrence of RFC, tomato plants were grown under treatments with fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, which regulate the strength of sink and source, and treatments with covering of the fruit truss, which decreases solar radiation incident on the fruit surface. The occurrence of RFC was increased by fruit thinning and CO2 enrichment, and decreased by covering of fruit truss. Time course of the percentage of RFC to total harvest showed a remarkable rise toward the end of August and toward the end of October in 2004, when harvested fruit weight was increasing. These finding suggest that RFC is attributed to excessive enlargement of the fruit by promotion of translocation and distribution of photosynthate from leaves (source) to fruits (sink) and the solar radiation incident on the fruits. In addition, the relation between RFC and the generation of a cork layer is considered

  6. EFFECT OF Trichoderma harzianum AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON GROWTH IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum MILL SEEDLINGS, NAPIER (Pennisetum purpureum L AND TEA (Camellia sinensis L CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Mwangi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A green-house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in enhancing growth in tomato seedlings, tea and napier grass cuttings. The effect of these bio-inoculants on growth was compared with the influence of Diammonium phosphate (DAP fertilizer and the interactions of these three factors (P52, AMF and DAP. The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements taken on height shoot and root dry weights.  It was observed that isolate P52 and DAP fertilizer individually enhanced growth in tomatoes, tea and napier while AMF only enhanced growth in tomatoes. Combinations of P52 and DAP; P52, AMF and DAP enhanced growth significantly (P

  7. Parámetros genéticos y heredabilidad en calidad fisiológica de semilla de jitomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar los parámetros genéticos y heredabilidad en caracteres de calidad fisiológica de semilla de jitomate, se generó un dialélico completo con 10 líneas experimentales; con la semilla obtenida se realizaron: prueba de germinación estándar a 25 oC y 24 horas de luz en germinadora, y prueba de emergencia en almácigo bajo invernadero. Los componentes de varianza se obtuvieron considerando endogamia de 7/8 en las líneas. Los efectos genéticos fueron principalmente dominantes, excepto en germinación inicial y semillas muertas donde fueron aditivos y dominantes. Los valores de heredabilidad en sentido estrecho fueron bajos. Además se presentaron efectos maternos en germinación total y semillas muertas; y efectos recíprocos en velocidad de emergencia y en todas las variables de germinación, excepto plántulas anormales. Las mejores líneas por aptitud combinatoria general fueron CPJL-1-2-1 y CPJL-24-5-4; y por sus efectos maternos fueron CPJL-1-2-1, CPJL-3-2-1, CPJL-7-8-4 y CPJL-25-8-4. Por su aptitud combinatoria específica, en germinación los mejores híbridos fueron CPJL-7-8-4 X CPJL-22-4-4, y CPJL-1-2-1 X CPJL-2-2-1; y en emergencia CPJL-2-2-1 X CPJL-21-1-4 y CPJL-2-2-1X CPJL-22-4-4. Por los efectos recíprocos en germinación, las mejores cruzas fueron CPJL-25-8-4 X CPJL-10-1-4 y CPJL-22-4-4 X CPJL-7-8-4; y en emergencia CPJL- 24-5-4 X CPJL-10-1-4 y CPJL-10-1-4 X CPJL-2-2-1.

  8. Effects of Various Substrates and Foliar Application of Humic Acid ‎on Growth and some Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Pourghasemian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Successful greenhouse and nursery production of plants is largely dependent on the chemical and physical properties of the growing substrate. An ideal potting substrate should be free of weeds and diseases, heavy enough to avoid frequent tipping over and yet light enough to facilitate handling and shipping. The substrate should also be well drained and yet retain sufficient water to reduce the frequency of watering. Other parameters to consider include cost, availability, consistency between batches and stability in the media over time. Greenhouse crops in general, have higher nutrient demands than field grown crops. Therefore, in order to optimize production it is essential to focus on the growing substrate and fertilization. The physical properties of the growing medium are important parameters for successful plant growth, as these are related to the ability to adequately store and supply air and water to plants. Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus, peat and coal. It is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water. It is produced by biodegradation of dead organic matter. It is not a single acid, but it is a complex mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups so that the mixture behaves functionally as a dibasic acid or occasionally as a tribasic acid. Humic acids can form complexes with ions that are commonly found in the environment creating humic colloids. Humic and fulvic acids (fulvic acids are humic acids with lower molecular weight and higher oxygen content than other humic acids are commonly used as a soil supplement in agriculture. Humic Plus contains humic acid, fulvic acid, macro micro nutrients and proprietary constituents essential for plant growth. Organic matter soil amendments have been known by farmers to be beneficial to plant growth for longer than recorded history. However, the chemistry and function of the organic matter have been a subject of controversy since humans began their postulating about it in the 18th century. Selection of the proper media components is critical to the successful production of plants. So, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of humic acid foliar application and various substrate on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tomato seedling. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Bardsir Faculty of Agriculture , Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2015, as a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with five replications. The experimental treatments were substrate in 7 levels (peat, coco-peat, leaf-soil, compost, vermi-compost, manure and clay soil, humic acid in two levels (foliar application and non- foliar application. After preparation of substrates, plastic boxes with 12 cm diameter and 10 cm height were chosen. After extracting gravity water, tomato (cv. Canyon seeds were sown in pots. Rain irrigation was done daily. Foliar application of humic acid with concentration of 0.001 liter was performed from seedling emergence to transplanting every two days. The germinated seeds was daily counted and number and rate of seed emergence was estimated. Plant height, stem diameter, number of internodes, leaf area, shoot and root dry matter and chlorophyll contents were calculated at transplanting time of seedling. Results and Discussion: The substrate treatment had a significant effect on rate and percent of germination, plant height, shoot dry matter, leaf area, number of internodes and, chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents. According to the results, the greatest and smallest rate and percent of germination ‎was found in peat and manure treatments, respectively. Also the greatest shoot dry matter (1.17 g, leaf area (125.9 ‎cm plant-1, number of internodes (6.19, plant height (13.51 cm and chlorophyll a concentration (2.55 µg/ml ‎were observed for peat substrate. Manure and clay soil substrates showed the smallest of ‎these measurements and carotenoid contents. It seems that physical characteristics of peat was better than other substrates. Plant height, shoot dry matter, leaf area, number of internodes, chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents showed a significant effect by humic acid application. Foliar application of humic acid significantly increased the mentioned traits. Conclusion: The results illustrated that between substrates in this study, peat was the best for seedling production of tomato. Foliar application of humic acid had a positive effect in improving growth characteristics of tomato seedling.

  9. NUTRICIÓN MINERAL CON N, P Y K EN LA SIMBIOSIS HONGOS MICORRIZÓGENOS-TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) EN FERRALSOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Desirée Llonín; N. Medina

    2002-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes relaciones de nutrientes con N, P y K y la inoculación con dos cepas de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares-HMA- (G. clarum y G. fasciculatum), como fuentes de suministro de nutrientes aplicadas solas o en combinación, en fase de campo, sobre los incrementos de los rendimientos y la absorción de nutrientes. Para ello se determinaron el rendimiento del cultivo, la absorción de nutrientes y la colonización por HMA. Los resultados indican que la inoculación con hon...

  10. Reúso del tezontle: efecto en sus características físicas y en la producción de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los cambios en las propiedades físicas del Tezontle por efecto de su reúso como sustrato para el cultivo de tomate (primer uso T0, primer reúso T1 y segundo reúso T2, así como la influencia de dichos cambios en la producción. La investigación se realizó en Tlajomulco, Jalisco bajo invernadero, en un sistema hidropónico, de agosto de 2009 a septiembre de 2010. La variedad de tomate fue la SUN 7705. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar y se evaluaron las propiedades físicas del sustrato (granulometría, densidad aparente, retención de humedad y aireación al inicio y al final de cada ciclo de cultivo; asimismo, la redistribución del tamaño de partículas, así como algunas variables de respuesta del cultivo (peso de fruto, grados Brix, altura de planta y diámetro de tallo. Se observó un aumento en la capacidad de retención de humedad del tezontle de 43% en T0, 46% en T1 y 48% en T2, una disminución de la capacidad de aireación de 12% en T0, 9% en T1 y 8% en T2, debido a cambios en la distribución del tamaño de partícula por el reúso; dichos cambios no afectaron agronómicamente las variables de peso de fruto y grados Brix; las diferencias estadísticas, solo fueron significativas en altura de planta y diámetro de tallo. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el tezontle como sustrato puede utilizarse durante tres ciclos consecutivos de cultivo de tomate hidropónico sin demeritar su productividad, permitiendo un ahorro aproximado de ciento sesenta mil pesos por hectárea por cada reúso.

  11. {8-14C}-Adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate - precursors for root-produced cytokinins in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Following the detection of reasonable levels of biologically active cytokinin-like compounds in one-month-old tomato plants, the possible involvement of {8- 14 C}-adenine and {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives, was studied. Intact tomato plants were used for a time-course study involving the uptake of {8- 14 C}-adenine and the tentative identification of compounds into which the 14 C became incorporated. Using high performance liquid chromatography, radioactive trans-zeatin was identified as being present in the Dowex 50 root extract. The 12-hour time interval was used and the roots of the tomato plants were immersed in a more heavily radiolabelled medium. Modified separation techniques were used to achieve enhanced radioactivity recovery rates. This experiment demonstrated the presence of relatively high levels of tentatively identified radioactive zeatin in the Dowex 50 root and stem extracts. Radioactivity in the aqueous extracts was found not to be contributed by cytokinin nucleotides. A final experiment was carried out using decapitated root systems to determine if the root tissue alone could be implicated in the synthesis of cytokinins. Decapitated tomato root systems were supplied with either {8- 14 C}-adenine or {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The ratio of incorporation of {1- 14 C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate into identified cytokinins was higher than for {8- 14 C}-adenine. It was concluded that both adenine and isopentenyl pyrophosphate are involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives in tomato roots

  12. DETERMINACIÓN DEL COLOR EN EPICARPIO DE TOMATES (LYCOPERSICUM ESCULENTUM MILL. CON SISTEMA DE VISIÓN COMPUTARIZADA DURANTE LA MADURACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la evolución del color de muestras de tomates durante la maduración a temperatura ambiente y otras en refrigeración, mediante Sistema de Visión Computarizada (SVC. El SVC lo constituye un escenario iluminado, una cámara digital CCD y un computador (Laptop ambos calibrados. El procesamiento digital de las imágenes se llevó a cabo con el software Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Extended, con los cuales generaron imágenes promediadas en coordenadas L*, a* y b*. La relación a*/b* y las coordenadas polares c* y hº, que presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre las muestras determinadas (p<0,05.

  13. Metabolite profiling of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR spectroscopy as a tool to detect potential unintended effects following a genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Colquhoun, Ian J; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E

    2003-04-23

    The maize transcription factors LC and C1 were simultaneously overexpressed in tomato with the aim of producing lines with increased amounts of flavonols. The metabolite composition of these genetically modified tomatoes has been compared with that of azygous (nonmodified) controls grown side-by-side under the same conditions. It has been possible to observe metabolic changes in both types at different stages of maturity. (1)H NMR spectra showed that the levels of glutamic acid, fructose, and some nucleosides and nucleotides gradually increase from the immature to the ripe stage, whereas some amino acids such as valine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were present in higher amounts in unripe tomatoes. Apart from the significantly increased content of six main flavonoid glycosides (mainly kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, with additional increases in kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, a dihydrokaempferol-O-hexoside (3), and naringenin-7-O-glucoside), the levels of at least 15 other metabolites were found to be different between the two types of red tomato. Among them were citric acid, sucrose, phenylalanine, and trigonelline. However, although statistically significant, these changes in mean values were relatively minor (less than 3-fold) and within the natural variation that would be observed in a field-grown crop. Nevertheless, this study clearly showed that NMR combined with chemometrics and univariate statistics can successfully trace even small differences in metabolite levels between plants and therefore represents a powerful tool to detect potential unintended effects in genetically modified crops.

  14. Acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide attenuate decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents and membrane thermo- stability in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) under heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Hui, C.Z.; Ghazanfar, B.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exogenous application of varying levels of 24-epibrassinolide (0.75, 1.5 and 3 micro M) and acetyl salicylic acid (0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 micro M) for induction of heat tolerance in terms of their effect on photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, membrane integrity and survival in four weeks old tomato (cultivar: Mei Jie Lo) seedlings under high temperature stress (46 degree C/4 h daily) for 21 days was investigated. The daily heat stress treatment had deleterious effects on seedlings but chemical treatments significantly reduced the magnitude of losses to different extents. 24-epibrassinolide (3 micro M) was over all the best treatment to improve survival (86.11%), photosynthesis (39.4%) and chlorophyll contents (26.12%) accompanied with initiation of flower buds and improved vegetative growth. Whereas acetyl salicylic acid (1.25 mM) best improved photosynthetic activity (40.6%) as compared to the untreated heat stressed control seedlings. Moreover, 3 micro M 24-epibrassinolide and 0.75 micro M acetyl salicylic acid reduced cell membrane injury to 8.3 and 6.9% respectively as compared with 22.4% in heat stressed control seedlings. However lower doses of acetyl salicylic acid (0.25 and 0.75 micro M) had slight (5.6 and 12.8%) inhibition effect on the photosynthesis than the heat stressed controls. Overall both acetyl salicylic acid and 24-epibrassinolide up regulated basal heat tolerance in tomato seedlings and studied concentrations demonstrated signature affect upon different parameters. Thus both chemical agents can be potential candidates for further investigations for exogenous application aiming at extension of tomato growth season in summer. (author)

  15. Effect of different fertilization and irrigation methods on nitrogen uptake, intercepted radiation and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L.) grown in the Keta Sand Spit of Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danso, E. Oppong; Abenney-Mickson, S.; Sabi, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    spread, (ii) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with localized manure, (iii) irrigation by drip, fertilized with localized manure, (iv) irrigation by drip, fertigated with N-K chemical fertilizers (twice during the crop season in the first experiment, weekly in the second and third experiment). Nitrogen...... uptake, crop interception of solar radiation, yield and water productivity were compared among treatments. The crop did not respond well when fertigation was done only twice, probably due to N-leaching. However, in the second and third experiments, when fertigation was done weekly for eight weeks......Three seasons' experiments were conducted in the Keta Sand Spit to test if current use of sprinkler irrigation and animal manure can be substituted by water saving drip fertigation with reduced P supply to okra. The treatments compared were: (i) irrigation by sprinkler, fertilized with manure...

  16. The Effects of Planting Distances and Different Stages of Maturity on the Quality of Three Cultivars of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh TABASI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the effects of cultivar, row spacing and different stages of maturity on qualitative characteristics of tomato (ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS, β-carotene and lycopene have been evaluated. Experiment was performed by factorial analysis with 3 replicates in completely randomized design (CRD. First treatment was three cultivars of tomato, second treatment was four planting distances and third treatment was different stages of maturity. The results showed that all treatments had significant influence on the levels of ascorbic acid, soluble solids, β-carotene and lycopene. Generally, wider spacing and deep red fruits had the highest quality. Therefore, choosing appropriate cultivars, special planting distances and suitable stage of maturity can increase fruit quality of tomato.

  17. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  18. The Effect of MethyI Jasmonate on Ethylene Production, ACC Oxidase Activity and Carbon Dioxide Evolution in the Yellowish-Tangerine Tomato Fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yellowish-tangerine tomato (cv. Bursztyn in the green, light yellow and yellow stages of ripening were treated with 0.1% and 1.0% of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me in lanolin paste and kept for several days and then they were evaluated for production of ethylene, ACC oxidase activity and CO2 evolution. Production of endogenous ethylene in mature green fruits was low and increased during ripening. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity in all investigated stages of fruit ripening. Slices excised from mature green fruits produced highest amount of carbon dioxide as compared to more advanced stages of ripening. JA-Me in O,1 % and 1,0% concentrations increased significantly CO2 evolution in green fruits, while in light yellow and yellow fruits only higher concentration of JA-Me stimulated carbon dioxide production.

  19. results of Breeding Tomato Programme (lycopesicon esculentum mill) for the obtaining of new Tolerant varieties to low inputs hidric through the employment of the Radioinduced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Maria C.; Caballero, Alberto; Mukandama, Jean Pierre; Mohamed Ali, Mansoor; Suarez, Lorenzo; Fuentes, Jorge L

    1999-01-01

    Induced mutation have been mostly used in the improvement of different crops. This papers shows the main results of Breeding Tomato Programme. It was possible to select some promising lines with a good behavior under hidric stress

  20. Utilização do Ozônio no Tratamento Pós-Colheita do Tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Simão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento de hortaliças no período pós-colheita é fator preocupante na logística de produtos perecíveis no ramo do agronegócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo mostrar o emprego do gás Ozônio (O3 para o aumento de vida de prateleira de frutos de tomate a fim de mantê-los adequados por mais tempo para a comercialização. Exemplares da cultivar Débora foram tratados com 1 ppm (vol/vol de Ozônio durante 24 horas a 25°C e 65% de umidade relativa. Qualidades físicas como perda de massa, estádio de maturação, injúria e senescência foram avaliadas após 15 dias de armazenamento. Comparados com uma amostra de controle, os frutos tratados com Ozônio apresentaram menos perda de massa, menor porcentagem de injúrias causada por fungos e maior retardamento no apodrecimento, mas pouca diferença quanto ao nível de maturação.

  1. Simultaneous and individual quantitative estimation of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pyriforme) and Serrano peppers (Capsicum annuum) using an MPN technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Díaz, E; Martínez-Chávez, L; Sánchez-Camarena, J; Muñiz-Flores, J A; Castillo, A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; González-Aguilar, D G; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2018-08-01

    Simultaneous and individual enumeration of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes was compared on inoculated Roma tomatoes and Serrano peppers using an Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Samples consisting of tomatoes (4 units) or peppers (8 units) were individually inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella, Shigella or L. monocytogenes, or by simultaneous inoculation of three strains of each pathogen, at low (1.2-1.7 log CFU/sample) and high (2.2-2.7 log CFU/sample) inocula. Samples were analyzed by an MPN technique using universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth at 35 °C for 24 ± 2 h. The UP tubes from each MPN series were transferred to enrichment and plating media following adequate conventional methods for isolating each pathogen. Data were analyzed using multifactorial analysis of variance (p  simultaneous), type of bacteria (Salmonella > Shigella and L. monocytogenes), type of sample (UP broth > pepper and tomato), and inoculum level (high > low). The MPN technique was effective for Salmonella on both commodities. Shigella counts were higher on tomatoes compared to peppers, (p < 0.05), and for L. monocytogenes on peppers (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  3. Reaction of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum], cucumber [Cucumis sativus] and eggplant [Solanum melongena] cultured under the film altered the ratio of red and far-red photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Y.; Hayashi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of covering films which altered the ratio of red (R 600-700nm) and far-red (FR 700-800nm) photon flux to control succulent growth of seedlings on character of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings Were determined. Also the effects on growth and yield of eggplant cultured in plastic greenhouse covered with the same films were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) The stem length of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film which intercepted far-red photon flux in the greenhouse got shorter than for cheesecloth (1.00) which had sane level of photosynthetic photon flux transmittance, especially evident on eggplant. There was no difference in the number of leaves on these seedlings between tested film and the cheesecloth, but the top and root dry weight of these seedlings cultured under tested film got lighter than the one using cheesecloth. The leaves got smaller in eggplant too. 2) The stem of eggplant cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film got shorter and thicker than the control PVC film; but there was no difference on the yield. But eggplant cultured under the low R/FR ratio (0.66) film which intercepted red photon flux grew similarly as control, but its yield decreased

  4. Evaluación del crecimiento y productividad del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill bajo cultivo protegido en tres localidades de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un experimento, se evaluó el crecimien- to y la productividad de tres genotipos de tomate en tres localidades de Costa Rica con un sistema de cultivo protegido (San Blas de Carrillo en la pro- vincia de Guanacaste; Santa Clara de San Carlos en la Provincia de alajuela y también en Zapote de Zarcero en la provincia de alajuela. Se evaluaron 19 variables fisiológicas de crecimiento y produc- tividad para nueve tratamientos o interacciones. A los datos obtenidos se les hizo un análisis de com- ponentes principales y como resultado de este aná- lisis se seleccionaron los dos primeros componentes que explican más del 70% de la variabilidad total, también se determinó que el componente princi- pal 1 explica el crecimiento del cultivo, y su variable representativa fue el peso seco de tallos; mientras que el componente 2 representa el rendimiento, y su variable representativa fue el peso seco de frutos. Se encontró también interacción de los genotipos con los ambientes pese a ser cultivados en inverna- dero, lo que demuestra una adaptación específica de los genotipos a las localidades que mostraron datos climáticos diferentes. La productividad de los geno- tipos también fue influenciada por los ambientes, sin embargo, no superaron los diez kilogramos de fruta fresca por planta.

  5. Application of a LED-based reflectance sensor for the assessing in situ the lycopene content of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Tuccio, Lorenza; Agati, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Nondestructive in situ determination of the antioxidant lycopene of fresh tomato fruits is of large interest for the growers, willing to optimize the harvest time for high quality products. For this, we developed a portable LED-based colorimeter which was able to measure reflectance spectra of whole tomatoes in the 400-750 nm range. The tomato skins from the same samples were then frozen in liquid nitrogen, extracted with an acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture and analyzed by means of a spectrophotometer for their lycopene content. Concentration of lycopene was varying between 70 and 550 mg/Kg fresh weight skin. Partial Least Square regression was used to correlate spectral data to the tomato lycopene content. The multivariate processing of the reflectance data showed that lycopene content could be nicely predicted with a coefficient of determination R2=0.945 and a root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=57 mg/Kg skin fresh weight. These results suggest that portable, low-cost and compact LED-based sensors appear to be promising instruments for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene even in the field.

  6. Callus induction and plant regeneration of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5 via anther culture Indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir do cultivo in vitro de anteras de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. IPA 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rabello Brasileiro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Different growth regulators combinations were tested on the production of anther callus in tomato cultivar IPA 5. Calli were induced on media supplemented with 1.0mgL-1 gibberellic acid (GA3, 0.05mgL-1 alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA plus 0.1mgL-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, or with 1.0mgL-1 BAP plus 1.0mgL-1 NAA. The medium containing 1.0mgL-1 BAP and 1.0mgL-1 NAA produced the highest calli frequency, and promoted plant regeneration by indirect organogenesis, when calli were transferred to 0.01mgL-1 BAP and 0.001mgL-1 NAA. Plants regenerated presented tetraploid cells and rare diploid cells. These tetraploid plants could be used as source for further obtainment of trisomic lines, for the purpose of genic localization studies and protein compounds analysis.Diferentes combinações de reguladores de crescimento foram testadas na produção de calos a partir do cultivo de anteras de tomate cultivar IPA 5. Calos foram induzidos no meio suplementado com 1,0mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 + 0,05mgL-1 de alfa-ácido naftalenoacético (ANA + 0,1mgL-1 de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, ou com 1,0mgL-1 de BAP + 1,0mgL-1 de ANA. O meio contendo 1,0mgL-1 de BAP e 1,0mgL-1 de ANA produziu a maior freqüência de calos e promoveu a regeneração de plantas através de organogênese indireta, quando os calos foram transferidos para 0,01mgL-1 de BAP e 0,001mgL-1 de ANA. As plantas regeneradas apresentaram células tetraplóides e, raramente, células diplóides. Estas plantas tetraplóides podem servir como fonte para posterior obtenção de linhagens trissômicas, para serem utilizadas em estudos de localização gênica e em análises de compostos protéicos.

  7. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the parasitoid in different phases of development (egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa were treated by immersion in aqueous dilutions of the products. The insecticides triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, deltamethrin, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacyalothrin, abamectin, cartap and methamidophos, did not decrease the longevity of females T. pretiosum in F1 generation independently of the parasitoid strain. Abamectin, cartap, methamidophos and lambdacyalothrin affected the sexual ratio in F1, and did not decrease the emergence of parasitoids in F2 generation, independently of stage of development and origin. The L10 strain was more susceptible to all pesticides as compared to L9. The pupal stage of T. pretiosum was more tolerant to the products, independently of its origin. It is recommended new tests with other strains of this parasitoid which may respond differently to the products used, before field recomendations are made.

  8. Farelo de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.997 Tomato meal (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. in the diet of laying hens - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Moreira Dutra Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis do farelo de tomate (FT sobre o desempenho zootécnico e características dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram alojadas em gaiolas 200 aves da linhagem Dekalb White, com 30 semanas de idade, durante três períodos de 21 dias cada um. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e inclusões de 5, 10, 15 e 20% do (FT. Para o consumo de ração, houve aumento à medida que se aumentou o nível de inclusão do farelo. Para a conversão alimentar por dúzia de ovos, conversão alimentar por massa de ovos, percentagem de postura e massa de ovos produzida, 5% foi o nível de inclusão que proporcionou os melhores resultados. O FT provocou diminuição linear no peso e percentagem de gema, no entanto, até 15% de inclusão, obtiveram-se gemas mais pesadas quando comparadas com as da ração-referência. O farelo de tomate pode ser utilizado como ingrediente alternativo nas rações para poedeiras comerciais. O nível recomendado seria de até 5% de inclusão, para melhores resultados de desempenho zootécnico. Utilizando-se até 15%, não houve interferência no rendimento das partes dos ovos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of tomato meal (TM on performance and egg quality. Two hundred Dekalb White birds, 30 weeks old, were allocated in cages during three periods of 21 days each. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and five repetitions of eight birds each. The treatments were: a control diet, and four diets with different inclusion levels of TM (5, 10, 15 and 20%. The birds’ feed consumption increased as the inclusion level of tomato meal in the diet was raised. For egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and dozen of eggs, the level of 5% was the best. TM inclusion caused reduction on yolk weight and yolk percentage, with linear effect. However, when 15% TM was included in the diets, the yolks were heavier than those obtained with the control diet. The results obtained in this work suggest that the inclusion of 5% TM can be implemented for better performance results. When 15% TM was used, there was no effect on the yield of egg parts.

  9. EFICIÊNCIA DE NOVO INSETICIDA CARBAMATO NO CONTROLE QUÍMICO DA TRAÇA (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Meyric1917 SOBRE TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill THE EFFICIENCY OF NEW INSECTICIDE CARBAMATE IN CHEMICAL CONTROL OF TOMATO LEAFMINER (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta MEYRIC, 1917 IN TOMATO PLANTS (Lycopersicon esculentum, MILL

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    Leonardo Barros de Macêdo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O experimento foi realizado na área de horticultura da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, visando ao controle químico da traça do tomateiro (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta Meyric, 1917, no período de setembro a dezembro de 1995, para avaliar a eficiência do inseticida Onic 300 (Alanycarb nas dosagens de 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0 litros do produto formulado por ha, comparando-o com Cartap 500 BR (Cartap na dosagem de 2,4 kg/ha, Vertimec 18 CE (Abamectin na dosagem de 1,0 l/ha misturado a um óleo mineral e uma testemunha. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que todos os inseticidas utilizados controlaram eficientemente a traça em tomateiro até 8 dias após aplicação e que todos os tratamentos promoveram aumento de produtividade.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Traça; Scrobipalpuloides absoluta; controle químico; tomateiro.

    The tomato leafminer (Scrobipalpuloides absoluta, a common pest of tomato plants, is known in many regions in Brazil. In order to determine the efficiency of new insecticide alanycarb, to control the tomato leafminer a field experiment was carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The treatments and dosage of the insecticides per hectare were: alanycarb 300: 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l; cartap 500 BR: 2.0 kg; abamectin 18 CE: 1.0 1 plus an untreated check. The results obtained in this experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the tomato leafminer until 8 days after treatment application and they were able to increase productivity.

    KEY-WORDS: Scrobipalpuloides absoluta; tomato leafminer; chemical control.

  10. Fotossensibilização primária em eqüídeos e ruminantes no semi-árido causada por Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae Primary photosensitization in equidae and ruminants in the Brazilian semi-arid caused by Froelichia humboldtiana (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    colocados na mesma pastagem com F. humboldtiana por um período de 44 dias. A égua, que não tinha áreas de pele despigmentadas não apresentou lesões, no entanto o potro desenvolveu dermatite nas áreas brancas de pele 25 dias após o início do pastejo. Após serem retirados da pastagem o potro recuperou-se totalmente em 15 dias. Estes experimentos indicam que F. humboldtiana causa fotossensibilização primária em animais domésticos. A ausência de lesões nos animais que ingeriram a planta após ser coletada e mantida em geladeira sugere que a planta perde sua toxicidade depois da coleta. A ausência de lesões oculares características da intoxicação por furocumarinas sugere que F. humboldtiana contém derivados da naftodiantrona, similares aos encontrados em Fagopyrum esculentum e Hypericum perforatum que não causam lesões oculares.Photosensitization is common in the Brazilian semiarid, affecting mainly horses, but also donkeys, mules, sheep and cattle. The dermatitis affects mainly non pigmented skin, and the animals recover after being withdrawn from the pastures. To demonstrate the etiology of the disease, Froelichia humboldtiana (Roem. et Schult. Seub., collected in the field one or two times a week and kept in the refrigerator for 1-4 days, was administered for 30 or more days as the only food ad libitum to 2 donkeys and one white sheep, and as the only forage ad libitum, to one white horse. No clinical signs were observed in those animals, and serum activities of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST, alanine-aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT were within normal ranges. In another experiment, one sheep was tied by a rope, during the day, in a pasture of exclusively F. humboldtiana for a 26 days period. Skin lesions characteristic of photosensitization appeared 4-5 days after the start of the experiment and became severe until day 26. After the withdrawal of the animal from the pasture on day 26 it fully recovered within 30 days. In

  11. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  12. そば粉がスポンジケーキの性状に及ぼす影響

    OpenAIRE

    齋藤, 寛子; 松本, 時子

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT : In this paper we describe an experimental study of qualities of sponge cakes made by mixing a quantity of buckwheat flour (dewakaori) with a quantity of flour at a ratio of 10-30-50-70-100%. The results are as follows: 1. The specific gravity of butter was not different among each sample. 2. Crumb of sponge cakes were harder and rougher by adding buckwheat flour at a ratio of 50-100%. 3. In color of sponge cakes, a specific difference was observed comparing buckwheat flour at a ...

  13. Efecto de Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae sobre la productividad de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

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    Cure José Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En varios países se utilizan con éxito especies de abejorros del género Bombus para la polinización de tomate, reportándose incrementos de productividad hasta del 40%. En la Sabana de Bogotá existen varias especies nativas del género, por lo que se planteó examinar su potencial, desde el punto de vista de su cría en cautiverio y de su utilización como polinizadores de tomate y otras solanáceas. En este trabajo se evaluó el potencial de la especie nativa Bombus atratus como polinizador de tomate, mediante la introducción al cultivo de colonias criadas en cautiverio. Se comparó la autopolinización espontánea de la planta, frente a la obtenida con ayuda de las obreras de B. atratus. Los frutos visitados por ellas presentaron incrementos significativos para las variables ‘peso fresco del fruto’ (40,9%, ‘número de semillas’ (103,3%, ‘diámetro ecuatorial’ (14,3% y ‘proporción de lóculos bien desarrollados’ (42,2%. La relativa facilidad para la cría de esta especie en cautiverio, y el potencial demostrado en el aumento de productividad del tomate bajo invernadero, muestran la necesidad de profundizar en estos estudios en Colombia.

  14. Métodos étodos de controle de lepidópteros na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. = Methods for caterpillars’ control in the culture of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Lebedenco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 5 métodos de controle das lagartas que atacam a cultura do tomateiro: método convencional de aplicação de produtos fitossanitários; manejo integrado de pragas (MIP com produtos sintéticos; MIP com o emprego de extrato de Azadirachta indica (Nim à 5%; ensacamento das pencas de tomate e testemunha. Os métodos queutilizaram produtos fitossanitários (convencional e MIP foram eficientes no controle das lagartas do tomateiro e, em conseqüência, promoveram um aumento na produtividade da cultura em 156 e 165% respectivamente, em comparação à testemunha. O número de pulverizações foi reduzido em até 66,7%, quando se adotou o MIP comparado ao convencional. O tratamento MIP-Nim foi significativamente igual à testemunha, denotando não ser eficiente no controle das lagartas broqueadoras. O ensacamento das pencas de frutos de tomate consistiu em uma alternativa promissora na produção de frutos sem a presença de inseticidas.Five methods for the control of caterpillars, which attack the culture of tomato, were analyzed: the conventional method of application of phytosanitary products; the integrated pest management (IPM; the IPM with the use of Azadirachta indica extract at 5% (Neem; the sacking of the tomato fruit immediately after flowering, and the control plants (without any treatment against pest. The methods that used phytosanitary products (conventional and IPM efficiently controlled the caterpillars on the tomato plants and, as a consequence, promoted an increase in the productivity of the culture of 156 and 165% respectively, if compared with the control plants. The number of pulverizations had a reduction of 66.7% when the IPM was used compared to the conventional. The performance of the IPMNeem treatment was significantly the same as the control, denoting poor efficiency in controlling the borer caterpillars. The method of sacking the tomato fruit consisted of a promising alternative in the production without the presence of insecticides.

  15. Re-evaluation of traditional Mediterranean foods. The local landraces of 'Cipolla di Giarratana' (Allium cepa L.) and long-storage tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.): quality traits and polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Avola, Giovanni; Patanè, Cristina; Riggi, Ezio; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The heightened consumer awareness for food safety is reflected in the demand for products with well-defined individual characteristics due to specific production methods, composition and origin. In this context, of pivotal importance is the re-evaluation of folk/traditional foods by properly characterizing them in terms of peculiarity and nutritional value. The subjects of this study are two typical Mediterranean edible products. The main morphological, biometrical and productive traits and polyphenol contents of three onion genotypes ('Cipolla di Giarratana', 'Iblea' and 'Tonda Musona') and three long-storage tomato landraces ('Montallegro', 'Filicudi' and 'Principe Borghese') were investigated. Sicilian onion landraces were characterized by large bulbs, with 'Cipolla di Giarratana' showing the highest bulb weight (605 g), yield (151 t ha(-1)) and total polyphenol content (123.5 mg kg(-1)). Landraces of long-storage tomato were characterized by low productivity (up to 20 t ha(-1)), but more than 70% of the total production was obtained with the first harvest, allowing harvest costs to be reduced. High contents of polyphenols were found, probably related to the typical small fruit size and thick skin characterizing these landraces. The present study overviews some of the most important traits that could support traditional landrace characterization and their nutritional value assessment. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Antinematicidal Efficacy Of Root Exudates Of Some Crotalaria Species On Meloidogyne Incognita Root-Knot Nematode Kofoid And White Chitwood Isolated From Infected Lycopersicum Esculentum L.Tomato Plant

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    L.S Danahap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora Crotalaria juncea Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates P0.05 using analysis of variance ANOVA. The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.

  17. Photomorphogenic responses to UV radiation III: a comparative study of UVB effects on anthocyanin and flavonoid accumulation in wild-type and aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.; Giannini, A.; Lercari, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-mediated induction of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds was characterized in etiolated hypocotyls of wild-type and aurea (au) mutant tomato seedlings. Ultraviolet radiation induced significant increases of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds in hypocotyls of the au mutant and of its isogenic wild-type, but the differences in the time courses of UV-induced pigment accumulation indicate that different photoregulatory mechanisms are involved for each of these two groups of pigments. It appears that prolonged presence of adequate levels of UVB (290-320 nm) energy and consequently the action of a specific UVB photoreceptor are indispensable for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in UV-irradiated hypocotyl of the au mutant that is missing the labile phytochrome pool. The large difference found between the wild-type and the au mutant strongly indicate the involvement of labile phytochrome as the primary functional photoreceptor for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type tomato hypocotyls. (author)

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives against pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum: a structure-activity evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaya, K; Kavitha, R; Ananda Kumar, C S; Benaka Prasad, S B; Chandrappa, S; Deepak, S A; Nanjunda Swamy, S; Umesha, S; Rangappa, K S

    2009-01-01

    Several 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine derivatives 8(a-j) were prepared by the treatment of substituted benzhydryl chlorides with 4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine followed by N-sulfonation with sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of dry methylene dichloride and triethyl amine. The synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents by artificial inoculation technique against standard strains of two important bacterial viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and Ralstonia solanacearum as well as and two fungal pathogens namely Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani of tomato plants. We have briefly investigated the structure-activity relation studies and reveal that the nature of substitutions on benzhydryl ring and sulfonamide ring influences the antibacterial activity. Among the synthesized new compounds 8b, 8d, 8g, 8h, 8i, and 8j were showed significant potent antimicrobial activities compared to the standard drugs chloramphenicol, mancozeb.

  19. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from kantong, a condiment produced from the fermentation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seeds and cassava (Manihot esculentum) flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Glover, Richard L.K.; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl

    2010-01-01

    in the initial pH from 6.9 before fermentation to 4.9 after fermentation with change in color of the product from grayish to dark brown as well as the development of a more desirable flavor. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with counts between 106 and 109 cfu/g were isolated on MRS agar and subjected to Gram, catalase...

  20. İn Vitro Koşullarda Domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Bitkisinde Hipokotil ve Kotiledon Eksplantlarından Kallus ve Sürgün Oluşumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of various plant growth regulators and culture conditions on the callus induction and shoot regeneration in M-28 hybrid cultivar of tomato have been evaluated. The seeds were germinated in half strength (½ Murashige-Skoog (MS medium and the cotyledon (5x5 mm and hypocotyl (5 mm segments of the 10 day old seedlings were cultured on semi-solide MS medium containing different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The best result on callus formation, both explants (cotyledon and hypocotyl and both culture conditions (photoperiodic condition at 16 hours light8 hours dark ve 25 days dark condition after photoperiodic condition, was found MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP+1 mg/l NAA (%100 callus formation. At the adventitious shoot induction, under dark condition after photoperiodic condition, the best results were obtained from MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l Kin+0.2 mg/l IAA, only 2 mg/l BAP and only 3 mg/l TDZ and both explants (regenerated explant from %72 to %100. The highest number of shoots regenerated per explant (17.30±5.72 number, was found under dark condition after photoperiodic condition at MS medium supplemented with TDZ of cotyledon explants. The highest adventitious shoot length (33.00±0.57 mm and the number of leaf in shoot (3.00±0.00 number were obtained at MS supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP+1 mg/l NAA of hypocotyl explants and photoperiodic conditions

  1. Effects of cell suspension and cell·free culture filtrate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the control of root rot-root kont disease complex of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IE-6 was tested for antagonistic activity towards Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode and soilbome root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Cell-free culture filtrate of the bacterium caused significant reduction in egg hatching of M.javanica and inhibited radial growth of fungi in vitro. Cell-free culture filtrate also caused lyses in mycelium of F.solani. Under greenhouse conditions, soil drenches with the aqueous cell suspension or cell-free culture resulted in a considerable reduction in nematode population densities in soil and subsequent root-knot development due to M.javanica. In addition to nematode control, rhizobacterium application also inhibited root-infection caused by soilborne root~infecting fungi with significant enhancement of growth of tomato seedlings.

  2. The alteration of mRNA expression of SOD and GPX genes, and proteins in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill under stress of NaCl and/or ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham F. Alharby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of tomato having different levels of salt stress tolerance were exposed to different treatments of NaCl (0, 3 and 6 g L−1 and ZnO-NPs (0, 15 and 30 mg L−1. Treatments with NaCl at both 3 and 6 g L−1 suppressed the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX genes in all cultivars while plants treated with ZnO-NPs in the presence of NaCl, showed increments in the mRNA expression levels. This indicated that ZnO-NPs had a positive response on plant metabolism under salt stress. Superior expression levels of mRNA were observed in the salt tolerant cultivars, Sandpoint and Edkawy while the lowest level was detected in the salt sensitive cultivar, Anna Aasa. SDS–PAGE showed clear differences in patterns of protein expression among the cultivars. A negative protein marker for salt sensitivity and ZnO-NPs was detected in cv. Anna Aasa at a molecular weight of 19.162 kDa, while the tolerant cultivar Edkawy had two positive markers at molecular weights of 74.991 and 79.735 kDa. Keywords: Tomato, Salt stress, Nanoparticles, Gene expression, Real-time PCR, Polymorphism

  3. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from ¤Lycopersicon esculentum¤ and ¤Solanum tuberosum¤ uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, F.; Karandashov, V.; Chague, W.

    2005-01-01

    , is the transfer of phosphate (Pi) from the AM fungus to the plant, facilitated by plasma membrane-spanning Pi transporter proteins. The first mycorrhiza-specific plant Pi transporter to be identified, was StPT3 from potato [Nature 414 (2004) 462]. Here, we describe novel Pi transporters from the solanaceous...... species tomato, LePT4, and its orthologue StPT4 from potato, both being members of the Pht1 family of plant Pi transporters. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrates clustering of both LePT4 and StPT4 with the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter from Medicago truncatula [Plant Cell, 14 (2002) 2413] and rice......Solanaceous species are among the >200 000 plant species worldwide forming a mycorrhiza, that is, a root living in symbiosis with soil-borne arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. An important parameter of this symbiosis, which is vital for ecosystem productivity, agriculture, and horticulture...

  4. Anti-transpirant activity in xylem sap from flooded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants is not due to pH-mediated redistributions of root- or shoot-sourced ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Taylor, June M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    In flooded soils, the rapid effects of decreasing oxygen availability on root metabolic activity are likely to generate many potential chemical signals that may impact on stomatal apertures. Detached leaf transpiration tests showed that filtered xylem sap, collected at realistic flow rates from plants flooded for 2 h and 4 h, contained one or more factors that reduced stomatal apertures. The closure could not be attributed to increased root output of the glucose ester of abscisic acid (ABA-GE), since concentrations and deliveries of ABA conjugates were unaffected by soil flooding. Although xylem sap collected from the shoot base of detopped flooded plants became more alkaline within 2 h of flooding, this rapid pH change of 0.5 units did not alter partitioning of root-sourced ABA sufficiently to prompt a transient increase in xylem ABA delivery. More shoot-sourced ABA was detected in the xylem when excised petiole sections were perfused with pH 7 buffer, compared with pH 6 buffer. Sap collected from the fifth oldest leaf of "intact" well-drained plants and plants flooded for 3 h was more alkaline, by approximately 0.4 pH units, than sap collected from the shoot base. Accordingly, xylem [ABA] was increased 2-fold in sap collected from the fifth oldest petiole compared with the shoot base of flooded plants. However, water loss from transpiring, detached leaves was not reduced when the pH of the feeding solution containing 3-h-flooded [ABA] was increased from 6.7 to 7.1 Thus, the extent of the pH-mediated, shoot-sourced ABA redistribution was not sufficient to raise xylem [ABA] to physiologically active levels. Using a detached epidermis bioassay, significant non-ABA anti-transpirant activity was also detected in xylem sap collected at intervals during the first 24 h of soil flooding.

  5. Drug: D09146 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available niaca[TAX:36596], Artemisia apiacea [TAX:262982], Xanthium strumarium [TAX:318068], Persicaria hydropiper [T...eae (daisy family) Xanthium strumarium juice, and Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Persicaria hydropiper juice (dried) ... PubChem: 96025826 ...

  6. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kernel. Examples are whole-wheat flour, oatmeal, whole cornmeal, amaranth, barley, brown and wild rice, buckwheat, and ... and germ. Examples are white flour, de-germed cornmeal, white bread, and white rice. Grains have starch, ...

  7. Chemsearch Journal Volume 4 Number 1, June, 2013

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magashi

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... present investigation revealed that buckwheat species from the four sampling sites (Abor, Obinagu and Umuagu .... ceramics crucibles that had been previously heated .... beneficial effects on heart health when eaten in.

  8. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  9. Environ: E00127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00127 Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome Crude drug ... Rheum palmatum [TAX:137221], Rheum tangut...icum [TAX:137226] Same as: D06756 Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome ...

  10. Efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 nas gerações F1 e F2 em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 Effect of pesticides used on tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 in F1 and F2 generations on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas populações de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, provenientes de Alegre, ES = L9 e Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10, foram submetidas aos principais produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro, após serem multiplicadas em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller. Os ovos desse hospedeiro foram tratados e oferecidos ao parasitismo decorridas 0, 24 e 48 horas após o tratamento, e mantidos em câmaras climáticas a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os inseticidas deltametrina, abamectin e metamidofós, independentemente da linhagem de T. pretiosum, reduziram a longevidade de fêmeas da geração maternal. Triflumuron, clorfluazuron, benomil, clorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarbe, iprodiona, metamidofós e ciromazina não afetaram a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum na geração F1, independentemente da origem da população, e não afetaram a porcentagem de emergência dos indivíduos da geração F2, das duas linhagens.Two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 populations from Alegre ES = L9 and Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10 (Brazil were treated with the main pesticides used on tomato crop after reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller eggs. The eggs were treated and submitted to parasitism on 0, 24 and 48 hours and kept in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The longevity of T. pretiosum (mother females, independently of strain, was decreased for insecticides deltamethrin, abamectin and methamidophos. No influence was detected in the parasitism capacity in F1 generation of T. pretiosum with the products triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, benomyl, chlorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefate, pirimicarb, iprodione, methamidophos and ciromazine, and these compounds did not effected the emergence in F2 generation of this parasitoid, independently of the strain.

  11. QRLs for tomato powdery mildew resisance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 colocalize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Bonnema, A.B.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the powdery mildew Oidium lycopersici, but several wild relatives such as Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 are completely resistant. An F-2 population from a cross of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker x Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 was used

  12. Effect of pruning and trellising of tomatoes on red spider mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Arthropod pest, Lycopersicon esculentum, Tetranychus evansi. RÉSUMÉ La petite araignée rouge, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Prichard accidentellement introduite en Afrique Australe vers 1980 est une peste relativement nouvelle pour la tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) de l'Afrique. Depuis lors l'espèce ...

  13. Molecular Reassessment Of Relationships Within Vicieae Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serologically, the legumins of V. faba and L. esculentum gave a total identity with P. sativum legumin antiserum under non-reducing conditions, whereas the ... et albumines des protéines des graines de petit pois (Pisum sativum), haricot (Vicia faba), lentille (Lens esculentum) et culin (Cicer arientinum) pour limiter les ...

  14. Application of ISSR markers in the genus Lycopersicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikunov, Y.M.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Karlov, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    The level of polymorphism in tomato was studied using ISSR-PCR. Five tomato species: Lycopersicon esculentum, Lycopersicon pennellii, Lycopersicon cheesmanii, Lycopersicon humboldtii, Lycopersicon hirsutum and two Lycopersicon esculentum substitution lines IL 6-3 and WSL 6 were analyzed. ISSR-PCR

  15. Capítulo IV: caracterización morfo-agronómica de especies y variedades botánicas del genero Lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango Angel Pedro A.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de invernadero se renovó la semilla de 58 introducciones del género Lycopersicon. En condiciones de campo se evaluaron cerca de 30 plantas de cada una de las introducciones viables. Además, se realizaron 5 cruzamientos, incluyendo los recíprocos, entre cada una de las introducciones viables y las variedades experimentales Chonto-109 y Napoli-1457. De 58 introducciones solo 16 produjeron semilla viable (L. hirsutum-1408, L. glandulusum   1403 y 1404, L. peruvianum-613 y 1409, L. pimpinellifolium-615, L. esculentum-633, L. pennelli- 632, L. esculentum var. ceraciforme- 183, 616. 923, 1140, 1506 Y 1508, L. esculentum varo grandifolium -1217, L. esculentum validum- 1110. Hubo gran variabilidad en emergencia, precocidad, duración de cosecha, cuajamiento de flores, rendimiento y sus componentes, análisis físico-químico de frutos entre las diferentes introducciones. L. peruvianum- 613 y 1409, L. glandulosum- 1403 y 1404 y L. pimpinellifolium 615 presentaron poco ataque de Scrobipalpula absoluta. Las variedades botánicas de L. esculentum presentaron mayores eficiencias de cruzamiento (84.3 % que las especies de Lycopersicon (27.7 %, cuyas eficiencias fueron: L. esculentum (75%, L. pimpinellifolium (50%, L. hirsutum (40%, L. glandulosum (5% y L. peruvianum (2.5%.

    The seeds from 58 introductions of the genus Lycopersicon were multiplied in the glasshouse. Thirty seeding of each introductions producing germinated seed were planted for to observe the characteristics of agronomical interest. Five reciprocal crosses were made with two experimental varieties (Chonto-1091 and Napoli-1457 with the purpose of to study the crossing efficiency of the introductions. From 58 introductions planted on1y 16 produced germinated seeds (L. hirsutum- 1408, L. g1andulosum- 1403 y 1404, L. peruvianum-613 y 1409 L. pimpinellifolium- 615, L. esculentum-633 S. pennelli- 632 L. esculentum var. ceraciforme- 183, 616. 923, 1140, 1506 y 1508 L

  16. Colour change of bakery products influenced by used additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Čáslavková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effects of selected additions of vegetable origin on the colour of whole grain breads. The colour was assessed using model samples which were made of mixtures containing various wholemeal flour types (wheat, spelt, and rye flour and increasing amounts of additions in the form of buckwheat, oat, and barley flour. The additions were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent. Colour measurement was performed instrumentally, using an image analysis method which was modified for the purposes of this study. It was found out that, regardless of the flour/addition ratio, both factors in the form of wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour, and barley, oat and buckwheat flour additions and their interactions exhibited a significant influence on the colour of the bakery products (P P < 0.05 were found for the following combinations: mixture of wheat flour with buckwheat, barley, and oat; mixture of spelt flour with buckwheat and oat; and mixture of rye flour with buckwheat and barley. The proposed general regression model which was created using the data obtained in the experiment, showed colour variability of more than 95 per cent.

  17. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  18. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  19. Screening for Total Carotenoids and β-Carotene in Some Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machinery and protect them against photo-damage. (Alexander, 1999). Carotenoids are notable for their wide distribution, structural diversity, and of various ... Squash (Curcurbita moschata), Spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus), Tomatoe (Lycopersicon esculentum) and. Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) were purchased from.

  20. The role of ethylene and wound signaling in resistance of tomato to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, J.; Have, ten A.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative

  1. Bioethanol production from cassava peels using different microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collynz

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... (Manihot esculentum), corn (Zea mays) and sweet potato ... Ethanol concentration (v/v) was determined by extrapolation using ... carbohydrate composition can also lead to increase in the ... with the work of Sulfahri et al.

  2. The days anthesis in relation to the floral shapes, pollen size, and S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... ontogeny of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. sweet cherry) flowers was ... ment schedule can be used to analyse self-incompatibility of wild species ..... Brukhin V, Hernould M, Gonzalez N, Chevalier C, Mouras A. (2003).

  3. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  4. 78 FR 14771 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Termination of Suspension Agreement, Termination of Five-Year Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Lycopersicon esculentum. Important commercial varieties of fresh tomatoes include common round, cherry, grape... publishing this determination under section 733(f) and 734(i) of the Act. Dated: March 1, 2013. Paul Piquado...

  5. Paper on Arsenic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hiren

    The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of arsenic on ... concentration caused reduction in plant growth along with induction of few antioxidants. ... esculentum, a herbaceous monocot plant, towards reactive oxygen species.

  6. Drifting bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers in commercial greenhouses may be social parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birmingham, A.L.; Hoover, S.E.; Winston, M.L.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial greenhouses require high densities of managed bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis Greene, 1858 and Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863) colonies to pollinate crops such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller). We examined drifting, a behavioural consequence of introducing closely aggregated

  7. [Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Chaĭkina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts.

  8. Caracterización de los ácidos húmicos extraídos de cuatro lombricompuestos y su efecto sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz Zea mays L., algodón Gossypium hirsutum y tomate Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Zambrano Jairo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The work perfomed to characterize the elemental composition and functional groups of humic acids extracted from four lombricompost cow dung, filter press cake of sugar cane, coffee pulp and grass residue the total content of essential elements and its distribution in the humic and no humic fractions were determined. It was evalued the effect of two concentrations of humic acids (150 and 300 ppm upon seed germination of maize, cotton and tomat. There were found differences in the elemental composition (CHON and functional groups (COOH, OH phedic and carbony of the humic acids atributed to variations in composition of the original substrates. The lombricompost of cow dung showed higher oxidation values (O/H = 0.49 than the lombricompost of filter press cake of sugar cane (0.40 sugering a higher grade of humification of the first. The grass residue showed higher contribution to the CIC (COOH + OH = 9. O me/g than the coffe pulp (7. 1 me/g the total essential elements were concentrated in the remanent residue, with lower content in the water and 0.1M HCL solutions; the fulvic and humic fractions had very low content of these elements. The humic acid at the concentrations tested did not have any effect on the germination of maize and cotton, and depressed the germination of tomato seeds.

    El trabajo se realizó con el fin de caracterizar por su composición elemental y contenido de grupos funcionales, los acidos húmicos extraídos de cuatro lombricompuestos (bovinaza, cachaza, pulpa de café y residuo de prado. Se determinó el contenido y distribución de los elementos esenciales totales en las fracciones húmicas y no de acidos húmicas. Se evaluó el efecto de dos concentraciones de acidos húmicos (150 y 300 ppm sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz, algodón y tomate. Se encontraron diferencias en el contenido elemental (CHON y grupos funcionales (COOH, OH fenólico y carbonilo atribuido a variaciones en la composición de los materiales de origen. La bovinaza (O/H = 0.49 mostró mayor oxidación que la cachaza (0.40 sugiriendo mayor grado de humificación de la primera. El residuo de prado mostró la mayor contribución a la CIC (COOH + OH = 9. O m.e/g y la pulpa de café la menor (7.1 m.e/g. Los elementos esenciales totales se distribuyeron con preferencia en el residuo remanente y en las fracciones solubles en agua y HCL 0.1M, con muy bajos contenidos en los fulvatos yacidos húmicos. No se encontró respuesta a la acción de los acidos húmicos sobre la germinación de semillas de maíz y algodón y se produjo efectos depresivos en los de tomate.

  9. Evaluación de alternativas al uso del polietileno como cubierta del suelo para el manejo de malas hierbas y otros aspectos agronómicos en el cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill.) en España y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Anzalone Graci, Alvaro Luciano; Zaragoza Larios, Carlos; Aibar Lete, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    Se llevaron a cabo ensayos durante tres años en Zaragoza (España) y Quíbor (Venezuela) con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial uso de diferentes restos vegetales, plástico biodegradable y papel como cubiertas de suelo para el control de malas hierbas como alternativa al uso de polietileno no degradable, utilizando al tomate como cultivo modelo. Las cubiertas evaluadas en Zaragoza fueron paja de arroz, paja de cebada, restos de cosecha de maíz, restos frescos Artemisia absinthium, plástico bio...

  10. Coleopterofauna epígea de importancia agrícola en cultivos de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) y tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), con diferente manejo sanitario, en el Cinturón Flori-Hortícola Platense

    OpenAIRE

    Rouaux, Julia

    2015-01-01

    El Cinturón Flori-Hortícola Platense (CFHP) (NE prov. Buenos Aires) representa la región más importante de la Argentina en la producción de hortalizas. La producción hortícola convencional implica el cultivo de especies de ciclos en general cortos y repetitivos, la práctica de laboreos intensivos y la aplicación de agroquímicos de síntesis (plaguicidas, herbicidas y fertilizantes). El elevado uso de estos últimos compuestos es visto como un problema socio-ambiental. Como alternativa de produc...

  11. The study of quality beer with the use of statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft waffle were developed on the basis of a mix of a chick-pea and buckwheat flour and pumpkin puree. Waffle have a soft structure, pleasant aroma and taste; contents all irreplaceable amino acids, protein, vitamins, macro - and microcells, food fibers.

  12. Mile-A-Minute (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise Binion; William Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, formerly Polygonum perfoliatum, L.) is an annual vine in the Polygonaceae or Buckwheat family. It is native to eastern Asia including India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Burma, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Siberia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Malay peninsula and the...

  13. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    primarily sesquiterpene lactones [4,5], diterpenes, coumarins [1], polyacetylenes [6] and flavonoids [1,7,8] as the main metabolites. Biological activity...liver injuries, Gen. Pharmacol. 32(6), 661-667. [62] B. Oomah and G. Mazza (1996). Flavonoids and antioxidative activities in buckwheat, J. Agric. Food

  14. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-18

    1986 buckwheat, millet and other grain groups also more than doubled in size. Total acreage for grain cultivation shows that since 1980 there was...in interview with Jean Edward Smith: "Germany Beyond the Wall. People, Politics... and Prosperity." Boston-Toronto 1969, p 68. 58. See Herrmann

  15. Environmental Assessment for Increasing Routine Flightline Activities, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    wire lettuce (Stephanomeria pauciflora), desert buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum ssp. polifolium), Indian rice grass (Achnatherum hymenoides...in the area are dormant with no record of seismic activity or surface displacement in recent geologic history . 4.8.1.1 Fill Material Fill

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-11 - Knotweed family, Polygonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-11 Knotweed family, Polygonaceae. Kinds of seed: Buckwheat, rhubarb, and sorrel. (a) General description. (1...

  17. Preparation of culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii-fermented products with high ergothioneine content and their taste quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Ho, Kung-Jui; Liang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Huang, Ling-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii (DC. : Fr.) Ouel. was used in solid-state fermentation to develop novel mushroom products with a high amount of ergothioneine. The correlation coefficients between ergothioneine content and biomass were 0.8878 and 0.9206 for fermented adlay and buckwheat, respectively. Using optimal conditions, Pleurotus-fermented adlay and buckwheat (PFA and PFB) with the ergothioneine contents of 795.5 and 786.1 mg/ kg, respectively, were prepared. However, mycelia contained the highest ergothioneine content of 1514.6 mg/kg. As a result of SSF by P. eryngii, PFA and PFB contained more taste components than adlay and buckwheat, as evidenced by higher contents of total sugars and polyols, total free amino acids and monosodium glutamate-like components, and total and flavor 5'-nucleotides. In addition, PFB and buckwheat showed comparable equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values, whereas PFA showed a higher EUC value than adlay. Overall, Pleurotus-fermented products with a high amount of ergothioneine will be a novel functional food.

  18. Discrimination of Polish unifloral honeys using overall PTR-MS and HPLC fingerprints combined with chemometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kus, P.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 62 honey samples of six floral origins (rapeseed, lime, heather, cornflower, buckwheat and black locust) were analysed by means of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and HPLC-DAD. The data were evaluated by principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbours

  19. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35 S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35 S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  20. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in