WorldWideScience

Sample records for buckwheat case study

  1. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  2. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  3. A Study on the Flavone Content of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangYu; ZhaoGang

    1999-01-01

    The highest flavone content of buckwheat is in its flowers,the mean value is as high as 7.4%.After flowering,the value will decrease gradually.The flavone content of buckwheat leaves is lower,its mean value is 5.3%,its highest peak appears at the stage of flowering,then decreasing slowly.The flavone content of buckwheat stems is the lowest, its mean value is 1.0%,no obvious change in the whole growth of the plant.Among the buckwheat grains,tatary buckwheat grains contain the highest flavone content,the mean value is 2.02%.The mean flavone content value of common buckwheat is only 0.23%.Radiative treatment-s can increase the flavone content of buckwheat.The formation of flavonid compounds of buckwheat is mainly controlled by PAL activity.

  4. Study on tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain processing%苦荞米及萌动苦荞米加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 胡俊君; 李云龙; 陕方; 边俊生

    2011-01-01

    研究了苦荞米及萌动苦荞米加工过程中浸泡和蒸煮时间对熟化度,以及熟化后苦荞含水量对脱壳率和整米率的影响。结果表明:苦荞浸泡时间≥4h,蒸煮≥30min和浸泡时间≥5h,蒸煮≥20min的各处理,熟化度都能达到100%;当熟化后的苦荞水分含量在24.0%~26.0%时,脱壳率达到100%,整米率〉90%。萌动苦荞米与苦荞米的加工工艺,可以采用相同的熟化条件和脱壳条件。苦荞及萌动苦荞脱壳工艺条件的研究为苦荞米及萌动苦荞米的加工提供了一定的科学依据。%The effect of soaking time and steaming time on maturation degree and tartary buckwheat moisture on hulling rate and the rate of whole rice after maturation in tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat processing were conducted. The results showed that the maturation degree could reach 100% under the condition of above 4h soaking time with over 30min steaming time or above 5h soaking time with over 20min steaming time. When matured tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat moisture was in the range of 24. 0% to 26. 0%,the hulling rate and the rate of whole rice could reach 100% and 90. 0%,respectively. Tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain can use the same maturation and hulling processing. This study on tartary buckwheat and germinated tartary buckwheat hulling process provided scientific basis for tartary buckwheat grain and germinated tartary buckwheat grain production.

  5. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10–15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, ...

  6. 荞麦芽的抗氧化活性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 桂英; 刘笑笑; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the antioxidant activity of buckwheat buds, the experiment with different growth stages of buckwheat buds as the object of study by 70% ethanol solvent extracting total flavonoids of the different growth stages of sweet buckwheat buds and bitter buckwheat buds were studied. The effect on eliminating DPPH from the extract of buckwheat buds were determined by colorimetry. The results indicated that the different varieties of buckwheat buds had certain antioxidant capacity. And the antioxidant capacity of bitter buckwheat was significantly higher than sweet buckwheat. The ability of buckwheat buds on DPPH free radical clearance was the highest on the 14th d of growing period. Bitter buckwheat buds achieved 80% above, sweet buckwheat buds in more than 50%, after a few days it gadually declined within a narrow range.%为了研究荞麦芽的抗氧化活性,以不同生长阶段的荞麦芽为研究对象,采用70%乙醇为溶剂提取了不同生长阶段甜荞麦芽和苦荞麦芽的总黄酮,利用比色法测定了荞麦芽提取物对DPPH自由基的清除率。结果表明,不同品种的荞麦芽苗均有一定的抗氧化能力,且苦荞的抗氧化能力明显高于甜荞。并在第14d时荞麦芽提取物对DPPH自由基的清除能力最高,苦荞麦芽达到80%以上,甜荞麦芽在50%以上,以后几天略有下降。

  7. 荞麦的理化特性研究%Study on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 宋毓雪; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选保健功能较好的荞麦资源.[方法]以前期得到的营养保健成分较高的荞麦材料T330和T429及荞麦壳为试验材料,研究其膨胀力、持水率和束缚重金属离子能力的差异.[结果]荞麦材料间的膨胀力和持水率存在差异.膨胀力在不同荞麦材料间表现为荞麦壳>T429>T330,差异达显著水平;持水力表现为T330>荞麦壳>T429.荞麦壳对Pb和Cu的最大束缚浓度及最小束缚浓度均高于其他2份荞麦资源.[结论]荞麦壳具有较好的理化特性.%[ Objective ] To sift out fine buckwheat resources. [ Method ] Change of physical and chemical properties of buckwheat were studied on the material which based on the former study which we had higher nutritive component T330 and T429. At the same time, their buckwheat shell was also used. [ Result] The buckwheat had differences in expansion ability and water preservation ability. The expansion capacity in different kinds of buckwheat was Buckwheat > T429 > T330, reaching significance level; water holding capacity of these buckwheat would be T330 > buckwheat > T429. [Conclusion] The buckwheat shell has the better physical and chemical properties.

  8. Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Gyu; Lee, Sun Mi; Park, Ji-Hae; Kim, Dae-Ok; Baek, Nam-in; Eom, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.

  9. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  10. Study on Thermal Analysis for the Distinguish of Black Buckwheat Tea and Raw Buckwheat%黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的热分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静平

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of black buckwheat teas and raw buckwheat were studied by TG-DTG method in the static air. To understand the distinguish of the black buckwheat tea and the raw black buckwheat , then discuss if the nutrition of raw black buckwheat flowed away by industrial processing. By setting experimental conditions, we can get the DTA curves. By the analyses of the articulation and the weightless rate of the curves, the optimum conditions can be got. The analysis shows that the DTA curves were similar, and the tea's wave crest had one more peak than the raw black buckwheat. The industrial processing had few influence on the nutrition. The decomposition temperature of black buckwheat tea was 292.97 ℃,The decomposition temperature of raw black buckwheat was 303.65 ℃,The better experimental condition was 15 ℃/min for the heating rate, the mass of the samples are about 2 mg.%用差热-热重分析对黑苦荞茶和黑苦荞原料进行热分析.目的在于对比黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料的区别,探讨加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失是否严重.通过实验确定其最佳条件.结果表明,黑苦荞茶与黑苦荞原料热分解曲线相似, 且比黑苦荞原料多一个峰. 加工过程对黑苦荞原料的营养流失影响不大. 黑苦荞茶开始分解的温度为292.97℃,黑苦荞原料开始分解的温度为303.65℃.以上材料在静态空气气氛下热分析实验条件均为:升温速率为15℃/min,样品质量2 mg左右.

  11. Study on the optimized formula of buckwheat milk tea%苦荞奶茶的配方优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永; 肖诗明; 张忠

    2012-01-01

    The formula of buckwheat milk tea was studied by using ultra-fine grinding, mixing, and packaging process and adding different proportions of puffed buckwheat flour, white sugar, creamer, the vanillin fine, skim sugar-free milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose sodiuml. The results showed that: the optimal proportion of buckwheat milk tea for puffed buckwheat powder 25%, 35% of white sugar, creamer 19%, vanillin fine 6%, 14% skim sugar-free milk powder, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 1%.%以经气流膨化后的苦荞米花为原料,采用超微粉碎、搅拌、包装等工艺流程,通过设置不同比例的膨化苦荞粉、白砂糖、植脂末、香兰素精、脱脂无糖奶粉、羧甲基纤维素钠,对苦荞奶茶的配方进行研究.试验结果表明:苦荞奶茶的最佳配方为膨化苦荞粉25%、白砂糖35%、植脂末19%、香兰素精6%、脱脂无糖奶粉14%、羧甲基纤维素钠1%.

  12. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  13. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  14. 苦荞的膳食纤维含量研究%Study on Dietary Fiber Content of Taratry Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 宋毓雪; 韩承华; 黄凯丰; 陈庆富

    2011-01-01

    The author used 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat as experimental material to determine the total dietary fiber content, insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber content. The results showed that, total dietary fiber of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 4.61%-40.95%, with an average of 17.18%.The insoluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat changed between 3.36%-31.08%, with an average of 9.65%. The soluble dietary fiber content of 30 kinds of tartary buckwheat was change between 0.92%-17.51%, with an average of 7.53%. The dietary fiber content was higher, mainly with insoluble dietary fiber. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. This study had important significance for further study on the genetic and variation law of dietary fiber content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同产地的30份苦荞资源为试验材料,测定其籽粒中的总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维及可溶性膳食纤维的含量.结果表明:30份苦荞资源的总膳食纤维含量变化的幅度为4.61%~40.95%,平均.值为17.18%;不可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为3.36%~31.08%,平均值为9.65%;可溶性膳食纤维含量的变异幅度为0.92%~17.51%,平均值为7.53%.苦荞中膳食纤维含量较高,以不可溶性膳食纤维为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总膳食纤维、不可溶性膳食纤维、可溶性膳食纤维含量存在差异.此研究结果对进一步研究膳食纤维含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律具有重要意义.

  15. Hypolipidemic activity of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-08-15

    Buckwheat grain has well-balanced nutritional value, whereas its digestibility is relatively low. This review summarizes recent advances in studies on the hypolipidemic activity of buckwheat. The most remarkable function is a powerful hypocholesterolemic activity of buckwheat protein in rats, which is far stronger than that of soy protein. The cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by mechanisms involving higher excretion of fecal sterols and lower digestibility of buckwheat protein. The insoluble fraction of buckwheat protein associates with cholesterol and reduces micelle cholesterol uptake in caco-2 cells. Furthermore, consumption of buckwheat protein suppresses cholesterol-induced gallstones and body fat in rodents. Buckwheat sprouts also have hypolipidemic activity in rats or type 2 diabetic mice. Tartary buckwheat bran extract reduced the serum level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in hyperlipidemic rats. The consumption of buckwheat seed reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the pastureland Mongolian population. Taken together, buckwheat may be beneficial for prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  16. 荞麦薄饼加工工艺研究%Study on buckwheat pancakes processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武奕宏; 牛晓峰

    2015-01-01

    With sensory evaluation as the scoring criteria, by single factor and orthogonal test to optimize a product of the formula, the processing technology of buckwheat pancakes was studied,. The results show that the optimum formula of buckwheat pancakes of buckwheat powder 60%, oil 15%, salt 1.5%, 1.27 times of water, sodium bicarbonate 1%, egg 6%. According to the formula,the make pancakes appearance is complete, with uniform thickness, crispy and delicious.%研究了荞麦薄饼的加工工艺,以感官评价为评分标准,通过单因素和正交试验对产品的配方进行优化.试验结果表明,荞麦薄饼的最佳工艺配比为:荞麦粉60%,食用油15%,食用盐1.5%,水1.27倍,小苏打1%,鸡蛋6%,按此配方制作的薄饼外形完整,厚薄均匀,酥脆可口.

  17. Changes in phenols contents from buckwheat sprouts during growth stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chiho; Nakamura, Kozo

    2013-02-01

    Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption.

  18. Study on Amylum Content of Different Tartary Buckwheat Genotypes%苦荞种子中淀粉含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    Thirty five portions of tartary buckwheat resource from different origin were used as experimental material to determine the total amylum content,amylose and amylopectin content. The amylum content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied from 40. 70% to 86. 41% with an average of 62. 80% ; The amylose content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 12. 24%-32. 18% with an average of 19. 32% ;The amylopectin content of 35 portions of tartary buckwheat varied between 13. 31% -68 78% with an average of 43. 48%. The amylum content is higher,amylopectin content is the highest. There was difference among different origin of tartary buckwheat. The results of this study had important significance for further study on the genetic variation law of amylum content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%以不同原产地的35份苦养资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉的含量.结果表明,35份苦养资源的总淀粉含量变化幅度为40.70%~86.41%,平均值为62.80%;直链淀粉含量的变异幅度为12.24%~32.18%,平均值为19.32%;支链淀粉含量的变异幅度为13.31%~68.78%,平均值为43.48%.苦荞中淀粉含量较高,以支链淀粉为主.不同产地的苦荞种子中总淀粉、直链淀粉、支链淀粉含量存在差异.

  19. Study on Scavenging DPPH Radical Activity with Polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat%苦荞麦多糖清除DPPH自由基的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭萍; 方玉梅; 王毅红; 张春生

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the further exploration of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat resource, a study of the antioxidant action of polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat is made. The activity component is extracted with water. Using the assay system of DPPH, the antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buck-wheat were studied and compared with those of VE and assorbic acid. Results shows that the extracts of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat could inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenge active oxygen free radi-cals. The elimination of the density of the polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat (21.764µg/mL) was attained by 24.85%, and remarkable exceeded the same density VE and assorbic acid. The polysaccharide in Tartary Buckwheat extracts showed strongest inhibitory effect on the antioxidation of superoxidized anionic and lipid peroxidantion.%以水为溶剂提取苦荞麦多糖类化合物,并以抗坏血酸( VC)和VE为对照品,采用DPPH法探究了苦荞麦多糖提取物对自由基的清除作用。结果表明:苦荞麦多糖具有一定的抗氧化作用,在其浓度为21.764µg/mL时其清除率可达24.85%,显著高于相同浓度下的VC和VE的清除率。认为苦荞麦多糖是一种有前途的天然抗氧化剂。

  20. 荞麦纳豆制作4艺研究%Study on Production Process of Buckwheat Natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Natto has good health functions,but the variety is single.In order to enrich the varieties of natto,this study starts with the process and adds buckwheat as materials.The optimal production technology of natto is determined through single factor experiment and orthogonal test.The results are as follows:the soaked buckwheat and soybean that being broken into four pieces is mixed as 1∶4 at 121 ℃ for 40 min,the inoculation amount of seed liquid is 12%,being fermented for 21 h at 37 ℃. After ripening,the sensory score and physiochemical indexes of buckwheat natto are excellent.%纳豆具有很好的保健功能,但品种较单一。为丰富纳豆的品种,从纳豆的工艺入手,原料上添加了荞麦,通过单因素试验及正交试验,确定纳豆的最佳制作工艺。结果为浸泡后的荞麦和四瓣大豆1∶4混合,在121℃蒸煮40 min,晾凉后接种12%种子液,37℃发酵21 h,经后熟后制作出的荞麦纳豆感官评分和理化指标极佳。

  1. Chemical composition and health effects of Tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2016-07-15

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) contains a range of nutrients including bioactive carbohydrates and proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, vitamins, carotenoids, and minerals. The unique composition of Tartary buckwheat contributes to their various health benefits such as anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and cognition-improving. Compared with the more widely cultivated and utilised common buckwheat (F. esculentum), Tartary buckwheat tends to contain higher amounts of certain bioactive components such as rutin, therefore, showing higher efficiency in preventing/treating various disorders. This review summarises the current knowledge of the chemical composition of Tartary buckwheat, and their bio-functions as studied by both in vitro and in vivo models. Tartary buckwheat can be further developed as a sustainable crop for functional food production to improve human health.

  2. Rutin, quercetin, and free amino acid analysis in buckwheat (Fagopyrum) seeds from different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, C Z; Feng, M L; Hao, X L; Zhong, Q M; Tong, L G; Wang, Z H

    2015-12-29

    In this study, five common buckwheats and nine tartary buckwheats grown at different locations were analyzed for the contents of rutin, quercetin, and amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The rutin content was higher than quercetin in buckwheat seeds. Rutin content was in the range from 0.05 (0.05 g per 100 g dry seeds) to 1.35% of buckwheat seeds. Quercetin content varied from 0.01 to 0.17% and in some common buckwheats it was even difficult to detect. Comparatively, tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin and quercetin than common buckwheat seeds. Meanwhile, the bran has higher rutin content than the farina in tartary buckwheat seeds, with a respective content of 0.45 to 1.19% and 0.14 to 0.67%. It was found that amino acid contents were around 1.79 to 12.65% (farina) and 5.74 to 7.89% (bran) in common buckwheats, and 1.73 to 5.63% (farina) and 2.64 to 16.78% (bran) in tartary buckwheat seeds. The highest total rutin content was found to be 1.35% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Sichuan, China. The highest total amounts of amino acid were detected to be 20.13% in tartary buckwheat seeds from Changzhi, Shanxi Province (China). Our results suggested that food products made of whole-buckwheat flour are healthier than those made of fine white flour.

  3. Study of evapotranspiration and evaporation beneath the canopy in a buckwheat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Zhang, Chuan; Oue, Hiroki; Wang, Guoqing; He, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The determination of evaporation and transpiration separately is very important in improving water use efficiency and developing exact irrigation scheduling. Hourly crop evapotranspiration ( ET c) and soil evaporation ( E g) beneath the buckwheat canopy were measured using Bowen ratio energy balance method and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The total ET c and E g in the whole growth season of buckwheat were 187.4 and 72.1 mm, respectively. Crop coefficient of buckwheat plant was simulated by days after sowing (DAS) and leaf area index (LAI), the average values for four growth stages were 0.58, 0.59, 1.10, and 0.74; and soil evaporation coefficient (the ratio of soil evaporation to reference evapotranspiration) was modeled by soil water content at 5-cm depth by dividing the LAI into two stages. The relationship between the ratio of soil evaporation to actual evapotranspiration ( E g/ ET c) and LAI was decided. It was found that E g/ ET c decreased from 1 to 0.3 with the increase in LAI.

  4. Buckwheat in Tibet (TAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Scheucher

    2004-01-01

    The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is one of the poorest provinces in China. Buckwheat is mostly cultivated in areas with sloping infertile land on which other crops cannot be grown. It is a valuable crop in remote and food deficient mountain areas, and the potential of enhanced buckwheat utilization in TAR is high and diverse.

  5. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  6. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  7. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  8. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and quercitrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabjan, Nina; Rode, Janko; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Wang, Zhuanhua; Zhang, Zheng; Kreft, Ivan

    2003-10-22

    Two samples of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) from China and one from Luxembourg were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal the possibilities of growing tartary buckwheat herb as a possible source of rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The content of rutin was determined as up to 3% dry weight (DW) in tartary buckwheat herb. Quercitrin values were in the range of 0.01-0.05% DW. Only traces of quercetin were detected in just some of the samples. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained more rutin (about 0.8-1.7% DW) than common buckwheat seeds (0.01% DW). Rutin and quercetin content in seeds depends on variety and growing conditions. Tartary buckwheat seeds contained traces of quercitrin and quercetin, which were not found in common buckwheat seeds.

  9. Antioxidant activity of tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum moench) buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the differences of two types of buckwheat sprouts, namely, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), in general composition, functional components, and antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of tartary buckwheat sprouts (TBS) had higher reducing power, free radical scavenging activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity than those of common buckwheat sprouts (CBS). As for chelating effects on ferrous ions, CBS had higher values than TBS. Rutin was the major flavonoid found in these two types of buckwheat sprouts, and TBS was 5 fold higher in rutin than CBS. The antioxidant effects of buckwheat sprouts on human hepatoma HepG2 cells revealed that both of TBS and CBS could decrease the production of intracellular peroxide and remove the intracellular superoxide anions in HepG2 cells, but TBS reduced the cellular oxidative stress more effectively than CBS, possibly because of its higher rutin (and quercetin) content.

  10. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  11. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  12. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  13. Conformational study of globulin from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Siu-Mei; Ma, Ching-Yung

    2005-10-05

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study changes in the conformation of globulin from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) (BWG) under various environmental conditions. The IR spectrum of the native BWG showed several major bands from 1691 to 1636 cm(-1) in the amide I' region, and the secondary structure composition was estimated as 34.5% beta-sheets, 20.0% beta-turns, 16.0% alpha-helices, and 14.4% random coils. Highly acidic and alkaline pH conditions induced decreases in beta-sheet and alpha-helical contents, as well as in denaturation temperature (Td) and enthalpy of denaturation (DeltaH), as shown in the DSC thermograms. Addition of chaotropic salts (1.0 M) caused progressive decreases in ordered structures and thermal stability following the lyotropic series of anions. The presence of several protein structure perturbants also led to changes in IR band intensities and DSC thermal stabilities, suggesting protein unfolding. Intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheet (1620 and 1681 cm(-1)) band intensities started to increase when BWG was heated to 90 degrees C, suggesting the initiation of protein aggregation. Increasing the time of the preheat treatment (at 100 degrees C) caused progressive increases in Td and pronounced decreases in DeltaH, suggesting partial denaturation and reassociation of protein molecules.

  14. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  15. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  16. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Jianbin; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26508989

  17. Buckwheat Honey Attenuates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver and DNA Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat honey, which is widely consumed in China, has a characteristic dark color. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of buckwheat honey on liver and DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. The results revealed that buckwheat honey had high total phenolic content, and rutin, hesperetin, and p-coumaric acid were the main phenolic compounds present. Buckwheat honey possesses super DPPH radical scavenging activity and strong ferric reducing antioxidant power. Administration of buckwheat honey for 10 weeks significantly inhibited serum lipoprotein oxidation and increased serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Moreover, buckwheat honey significantly inhibited aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, which are enhanced by carbon tetrachloride. Hepatic malondialdehyde decreased and hepatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased in the presence of buckwheat honey. In a comet assay, lymphocyte DNA damage induced by carbon tetrachloride was significantly inhibited by buckwheat honey. Therefore, buckwheat honey has a hepatoprotective effect and inhibits DNA damage, activities that are primarily attributable to its high antioxidant capacity.

  18. Study on Saccharification of Buckwheat Healthcare Wine%荞麦保健酒糖化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海文; 周文美

    2011-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of buckwheat and the alcoholicity of buckwheat healthcare wine, the saccharifying process of buckwheat healthcare wine had been optimized. The effects of temperature, pH, glucoamylase addition level and saccharifying time were investigated. The relative technical parameters were optimized as follows by orthogonal experiments: the addition level of glucoamylase was 4 %, saccharifying time was 50 min, temperature was at 65 ℃, and pH value was 3.5.%为提高荞麦原料的利用率和荞麦保健酒的酒精度,对荞麦保健酒生产过程中的糖化工艺进行探讨优化。研究糖化过程中温度、pH值、糖化酶添加量、时间对糖化效果的影响。利用正交试验对糖化过程中的工艺参数进行优化。结果表明,糖化最优工艺参数为:酶添加量4%,时间50min,温度65℃,pH值3.5。

  19. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  20. Characterization of millet and buckwheat sourdoughs fermenting with autochthonous Pediococcus pentosaceus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata CHOIŃSKA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus pentosacues strains, isolates from naturally fermenting millet and buckwheat sourdoughs, were used as starters for millet and buckwheat sourdoughs fermentation in order to evaluate their metabolic activity in native sourdough environment. For comparison, fermentation of studied non-wheat sourdoughs with a wheat isolate was done. Generally, sourdoughs fermented with autochthonous isolates are characterized by higher value of TTA and lactic acid compared to sourdoughs fermented with wheat isolates. The observed differences in TTA value between the sourdoughs prepared with autochthonous pediococci and the ones with wheat isolate were more pronounced in the case of millet sourdoughs. Glucose concentration and lactic acid production varied depending on the used pediococci strains and fermentation time.

  1. Contents of selected bioactive components in buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Górecka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritive value of food is determined by its content of basic nutrients essential for the proper functioning of the human organism. Buckwheat grain is one of the most valuable raw materials for production of groats as well as functional food. It is characterized by high contents of starch, protein as well as dietary fibre. Apart from the above mentioned nutrients, buckwheat groats contain flavonoid compounds, playing the role of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine contents of dietary fibre and its fraction composition, thiamine and phenolic compounds in roasted buckwheat groats, as well as antioxidant properties of ethanol buckwheat groats extracts. Material and methods. Experimental material comprised roasted buckwheat groats purchased at a grocery shop. Contents of neutral detergent dietary fibre (NDF and its fractions were determined by the detergent method according to Van Soest. Thermostable a-amylase (Termamyl 120 L was used in the digestion of starch. Contents of total dietary fibre (TDF, soluble dietary fibre (SDF and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF were determined according to Asp et al. The content of thiamine was determined by the thiochrome method. Total polyphenol content was determined by colorimetry according to the Folina-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant properties of extracts were estimated based on the capacity of extracts to scavenge the DPPH• radical (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl and towards linolic acid. The capacity to inhibit self-oxidation of linolic acid was determined according to Lingnert et al. Results. The NDF and TDF contents in buckwheat groats, amounting to 5.63 and 8.4%, respectively. The fraction found in biggest amounts was the hemicellulose fraction (3.42%. The level of the IDF fraction was much higher (5.94% than that of SDF (2.46%. Thiamine content was 0.519 mg/100 g product, while the total content of phenolic compounds extracted from buckwheat groats was 30

  2. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  3. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  4. 荞麦芽提取物抗突变和抑制肿瘤作用的实验研究%Study on antimutangenic andantitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李善姬; 崔泰花; 崔承弼

    2013-01-01

    对荞麦芽提取物的抗突变和抗肿瘤作用进行研究,为开发荞麦的保健作用提供依据.实验以小鼠骨髓细胞微核实验观察荞麦芽提取物的抗突变作用,以小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤观察荞麦芽提取物的抗肿瘤效果.结果显示,荞麦芽提取物对N-甲基-N-硝基-N-亚硝基胍(MNNG)诱发的小鼠骨髓细胞微核的发生有明显的抑制效果,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物、正丁醇提取物在80mg/kg度下,对小鼠骨髓微核的抑制率达73.4%、75.8%、74.2%;对小鼠S-180移植性肿瘤生长也有明显的抑制作用,其中荞麦芽乙醇提取物、乙酸乙酯提取物的抑瘤率达39.5%、38.0%.说明荞麦芽对体细胞DNA损伤有保护作用,对肿瘤也有一定的预防作用.%The antimutangenic and antitumor effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were studied to provide scientific basis for exploiting health function of buckwheat sprout.Antimutangenic effect of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on the mice bone marrow cell micronuclei test.Antitumor effects of buckwheat sprout extracts were testified based on S-180 tumor cell transplanting test.The micronuclei frequency induced by MNNG in mouse bone marrow cells was inhibited significantly by buckwheat sprout extracts.Under 80mg/kg,buckwheat ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract and butanol extract on mouse bone marrow micronucleus inhibition rate reached to 73.4%,75.8%,74.2%.Buckwheat sprout extracts on the growth of transplanted tumor of mouse S-180 also had the obvious inhibitory action,including buckwheat sprout ethanol extract,ethyl acetate extract tumor inhibition rate reached to 39.5%,38.0%.Buckwheat sprouts had preventive effect on DNA damage in body cell,and had inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

  5. Ancient whole grain gluten-free buckwheat snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain Buckwheat snacks (gluten-free, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. The snacks were Buckwheat, Buckwheat-Turmeric, Buckwheat-Pepper and Buckwheat-Ginger. Turmeric and Ginger are very common ingredients of Asian cuisines. Turmeric and ginger have been reported to have heal...

  6. Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity.

  7. Plantlet Regeneration of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) in Vitro Tissue Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Long; Dong, Xue-Ni; Ding, Meng-Qi; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Wu, Yan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Shao, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat is an ancient annual dicotyledonous herb, which is widely distributed around the world, specifically in the high altitude area of southwestern China and in the hill region of Himalayan. The plantlet regeneration of tartary buckwheat via somatic embryogenesis or multiple shoot induction was investigated in two different tartary buckwheats, Yuanzi and Xichang. The regeneration ability of Yuanzi was better than Xichang tartary buckwheat, and the hypocotyls were better than cotyledons as tartary buckwheat plantlet regeneration explants via somatic embryogenesis. The most suitable medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog basal medium added 2 mg/L 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L Kinetin, which could reach up to 98.96% callus induction percentage. The plantlet regeneration percentage from callus of tartary buckwheat could reach up to 55.77%, which induced on 2.0 mg/L Benzyladenine and 1.0 mg/L KT in MS basal medium. In addition, maximum of multiple shoot induction percentage was 69.05%, which was observed in case of Yuanzi tartary buckwheat in MS basal medium with added 3.0 mg/L 6-BA and 1.0 mg/L Thidiazuron. Roots induction of regenerated plants were achieved on 1/2 MS basal medium with added 1mg/L Indole-3-Butytric acid, which has 75% survival after transferred regenerated plants to soil under field conditions.

  8. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too.doi:10.5219/206

  9. 菊粉对苦荞麦流变学特性改善作用的研究%A Study of the Improvement Effect of Inulin on Rheological Properties of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马越; 谢国莉; 陈红梅; 苑函

    2013-01-01

      苦荞麦具有降血脂、降糖等多种生理功能,但其加工性能较差。本文重点研究菊粉对于苦荞麦流变学特性的影响,并通过添加适量的菊粉改善苦荞粉的粉质特性,进而改善其加工性能。%Buckwheat has many physiological functions such as reducing blood lipids, lowering blood sugar and so on, but its processing performance is worse. Dough rheological properties of buckwheat influenced by adding inulin was studied. The results showed that farinograms properties and processing performance of buckwheat can be improved by adding appropriate inulin.

  10. Study on GIS Based Ecological Zonation of Buckwheat Rutin Content%基于GIS的荞麦芦丁含量生态区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the correlation of buckwheat rutin content and meteorological factors were analyzed and combining with the geographical distribution information the major meteorological factors influencing rutin content were screened. The ecological zonation was evaluated using the ArcGIS spatial analysis technique. The results showed that the effect of varieties and ecological factors on rutin content was obvious, and temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours were the main ecological factors. The rutin content had positive correlation with rain fall in August and growing period sunshine hours and had the negative correlation with the mean temperature of middle ten days in August and the days of T > 30 t in July. Jinzhong city was divided into high, mid and low rutin content three planting zones using GIS, and the zonation was largely in line with the actual condition. The results could provide a reference for determining bases and regionalization, large-scale planting the high rutin content of buckwheat in Shanxi.%分析了荞麦芦丁含量与气象因子的关系,结合荞麦地理分布信息,筛选出影响芦丁含量的主要气象因子,利用Arc GIS软件的空间分析功能,对荞麦芦丁含量进行生态区划,并进行评述.结果表明,品种和生态区域对芦丁含量具有明显的影响,而温度、降水、日照时数是影响芦丁含量的主要生态因子.芦丁含量与8月上旬均温、7月大于30℃天数具有负相关性,与8月降水量、生育期日照时数具有正相关性.利用GIS对芦丁含量进行区划,将晋中市分为3个区,即高、中、低芦丁含量荞麦种植区,与实际状况基本符合.研究结果可为高芦丁含量养麦生产基地的确定和区域化、规模化种植提供参考.

  11. 苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用的研究%Study on Antioxidant Effect of Tartary Buckwheat Flavonoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 肖刚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat showed different antioxidanteffects in lard and linoleic acid. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with high quercetin content made a good antioxidant result in lard system. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with different components proved to be an excellent cooperative result in linoleic acid system.%苦荞黄酮对猪油和亚油酸的抗氧化效果不同.在猪油体系中,含槲皮素较多的苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用较强;在亚油酸体系中,苦荞黄酮各组分协同抗氧化效果较好.

  12. 苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用的研究%Study on Antioxidant Effcets of Tartary BuckwheatFlavonoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    苦荞黄酮对猪油和亚油酸所起的抗氧化效果不同。在猪油体系中,含槲皮素较多的苦荞黄酮抗氧化作用强;在亚油酸体系中,苦荞黄酮各组分协同抗氧化效果好。%The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat showed different antioxidant effects in lard and linoleic acid. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with high quercetin content showed good antioxidant results in lard system. The flavonoid of tartary buckwheat with different components proved to be an excellent synergistic antioxidant in linoleic acid system.

  13. Effect of Proteolysis with Alkaline Protease Following High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on IgE Binding of Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaeyoon; Lee, Wonhui; Han, Youngshin; Oh, Sangsuk

    2017-03-01

    Buckwheat is a popular food material in many Asian countries and it contains major allergenic proteins. This study was performed to analyze the effects of hydrolysis with alkaline protease following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. Extracted buckwheat protein was treated with HHP at 600 MPa for 30 min and hydrolyzed with alkaline protease for 240 min. IgE binding was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with serum samples from 14 patients who were allergic to buckwheat. Depending on the serum samples, HHP treatment of buckwheat protein without enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the IgE binding by 8.9% to 73.2% or increased by 31% to 78%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease decreased by 73.8% to 100%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease following HHP treatment decreased by 83.8% to 100%. This suggested that hydrolysis with alkaline protease following HHP treatment could be applied to reduce the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing.

  15. A Study on the Relational Model of Spring Buckwheat Yield and Climatic Conditions in Liangshan Prefecture%凉山州春苦荞产量与气候条件的关系及模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国照; 曹艳秋; 阮俊

    2014-01-01

    According to the spring buckwheat yield data of Liangshan Prefecture from 1999 to 2011 ,the main climatic factors and the critical periods influencing spring buckwheat yield were studied ,and climatic models of spring buckwheat yield for Liangshan Prefecture and 5 representative counties in it were estab-lished .The results showed that the critical periods in which the weather conditions influenced buckwheat yield differed with different regions .There were different forms with different times and different factors on buckwheat yield .Temperature was correlated with buckwheat yield positively in the early and middle growth periods of the crop and negatively in its late growth period .The daily range had its influence mainly in the late growth period .Sunshine was associated with yield positively in the early stage and negatively in the late grow th stage .Precipitation had a positive effect ,especially in the early grow th stage of the crop . Climatic and ecological models of buckwheat yield were established in this study for meteorological depart-ments to be used in their service of buckw heat yield forecast .%根据凉山州各县1999-2011年春苦荞产量资料,研究了影响凉山州春苦荞产量形成的主要气象因子和关键时段,建立了凉山州及冕宁、昭觉等5个代表县春苦荞产量的气候生态模型。结果表明:(1)不同区域气象条件对荞麦产量影响的关键时段不同。凉山全州(区域平均),气候条件影响的关键时段在荞麦生产的前期和中后期两个时段,其它各代表县的关键时段有的有3个时段,有的只有2个时段或者1个时段。(2)不同时段不同因子对荞麦产量的影响形式不同。荞麦生产的中前期温度与产量呈现正相关,而后期呈负相关;日较差的影响在后期,产量呈抛物线关系;日照与产量的关系前期为正,后期为负;降水量的影响主要在前期,与产量

  16. 冷藏条件下荞麦淀粉回生规律的研究%Study on the retrogradation law of buckwheat in cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤生; 周雪; 连喜军; 吴常燕

    2013-01-01

    荞麦食品一般在冷藏条件下贮藏,研究冷藏贮藏过程荞麦淀粉的回生规律有利于确定荞麦食品适宜的贮藏条件.本实验以荞麦淀粉为原料,研究淀粉乳浓度和冷藏时间对荞麦淀粉回生的影响.实验结果表明,当荞麦淀粉浓度为1%和10%时,0℃贮藏荞麦淀粉回生率较高,达到30%以上,5%、15%和20%浓度下2℃和6℃下贮藏淀粉回生率高.荞麦淀粉浓度高于5%时冷藏容易回生.电镜图片显示,荞麦淀粉呈现不规则块状,有凸起和凹陷截面,颗粒直径为1~10μm,部分颗粒表面有针扎状小孔.荞麦回生淀粉呈粘状结构.荞麦淀粉吸附碘后的最大可见吸收波长为564nm,而回生后荞麦淀粉没有最大可见吸收波长.%Most of the buckwheat foods were kept at cold storage,and the research on cold storage process of buckwheat starch retrogradation rule was beneficial to determine suitable storage conditions for the buckwheat food.In this experiment,the buckwheat starch was used as raw materials,the effect of starch concentration and storage time on buckwheat starch retrogradation were investigated.The experimental results showed that,when the buckwheat starch concentrations were 1% and 10%,the buckwheat starch retrogradation rate was higher at 0℃ storage,reaching above 30%.For concentrations of 5%,15% and 20%,the retrogradation rates at 2℃ and 6℃ were higher.The buckwheat starch inclined to retrograde when its concentrations was in excess of 5% in cold storage.Electron microscopy images showed that buckwheat starch granule was irregular block with a rising or falling in surface,its particle diameter was of 1~10μm.Some of the granule surface had needle shaped holes.Retrograded buckwheat starch had adhesive structure.The maximum visible absorption of buckwheat starch attached with l2/Kl was 564nm and its retrograded ones had no maximum absorption.

  17. Fagopyrins and Protofagopyrins: Detection, Analysis, and Potential Phototoxicity in Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Eva Tavčar; Kreft, Samo

    2015-06-24

    Buckwheat contains many healthy nutrients, and its consumption is therefore increasing. Buckwheat also contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. A systematic review of fagopyrins and the phototoxicity of buckwheat found that reliable quantitative data on fagopyrin toxicity are not yet available. Generally, buckwheat seeds, flour, and teas are safe in normal amounts. Diets extensively composed of buckwheat sprouts, herbs, and particularly flowers or of fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts may cause fagopyrism. A reference standard is needed, as it would enable the accurate evaluation of fagopyrin content in buckwheat products and would allow proper testing of their as yet unknown physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  18. 不同品种荞麦挤压面条品质探究%Study on the quality of different varieties of buckwheat extruded noodle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛晓峰; 李雪帆; 贾平

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat is one of the characteristics of agricultural products in Shanxi Province, because of its rich nutri-tion, unique function increasingly welcomed by consumers. 10 varieties of buckwheat in national total were selected to make into extruded buckwheat noodles by extrusion technology , and the noodles ' soaking time, rehydration ratio and cooking loss were tested and analyzed. Finally, Sweet No. 3, Jinbian No. 1, Jingbian No. 2 were selected as the better va-rieties choice for extruded buckwheat noodles.%荞面是山西省特色农产品之一,因其营养丰富、功能独特日益受到消费者的欢迎。选取了全国共计10个品种的荞麦,通过挤压膨化工艺生产荞麦挤压面条,并对其浸泡时间、复水率及烹调损失进行测试分析,最终确定定甜3号、靖边1号、靖边2号为挤压荞麦面条较好的品种选择。

  19. Experimental Study on the Relationship between Buckwheat-Feeding and Blood Glucose%荞麦喂饲与血糖关系的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 李延红; 徐荷; 蔡全才

    2001-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between buckwheat and blood glucose. [Methods] Measuring the variation of blood glucose and insulin sensitivity after buckwheat-feeding in the hyperglycemia model mice. [Results] The results showed that the blood glucose level in the group with buckwheat feeding (7.57±0.90 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that in the group with common feeding (9.08±1.12 mmol/L) (P<0.01). There was not significant difference between two experimental groups on the measurement of blood serum insulin. But,the insulin sensitivity in the buckwheat-feeding group (-3.34±0.24) was significantly higher than that in non-buckwheat-feeding group (-3.56±0.23) (P<0.05). [Conclusion] Buckwheat could low the level of blood glucose in hyperglycemia model mice with increasing the utilization of blood glucose by increasing the insulin sensitivity. Buckwheat is a kind of natural food with a wide use in the prevention and therapy of diabetes.%[目的]探讨荞麦喂饲与血糖之间的关系。[方法]通过建立小鼠的高血糖模型,对荞麦喂饲后小鼠的血糖及胰岛素敏感性的变化进行了检测。[结果]对两组高血糖小鼠分别给予荞麦喂饲和普食喂饲后,荞麦组的血糖水平(7.57 mmol/L±0.90 mmol/L)明显低于普食组(9.08 mmol/L±1.12 mmol/L),经检验差异显著(P<0.01)。同时,荞麦组的胰岛素敏感性(-3.34±0.24)高于普食组(-3.56±0.23),差异显著(P<0.05)。[结论]荞麦可使高血糖小鼠血糖值降低,下降的原因可能是胰岛素敏感性增高,血糖利用增加,导致血糖水平下降。说明荞麦是一种很有应用前途的防治糖尿病的天然食品。

  20. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurendić-Brenesel, Maja; Popović, Tamara; Pilija, Vladimir; Arsić, Aleksandra; Milić, Miljan; Kojić, Danijela; Jojić, Nikola; Milić, Nataša

    2013-05-01

    As a source of biologically active compounds, buckwheat has beneficial effects in nutrition due to its high content of flavonoids, particularly rutin. Aim of our study was to examine effects of buckwheat on plasma lipid status and phospholipids fatty acids composition, histological and parameters of oxidative stress in Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. This study showed that buckwheat leaf and flower (BLF) mixture supplementation significantly reduce weight gain, plasma lipid concentrations and atherogenic index in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of the high-fat group of animals with buckwheat significantly increased percentage of n-6 fatty acids as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decreased percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and oleic acid. Buckwheat antioxidant effects diminished negative influence of high-fat diet in hyperlipidemic rats, while pathohistological analysis of liver confirmed changes after high-fat consumption. Our results showed hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic and antioxidative features of buckwheat leaf and flower mixture, and these parts of the plant with the highest rutin content could be beneficial in prevention and curing of hyperlipidemia.

  1. Thermal Analysis Kinetics of Buckwheat%荞麦的热分析动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严云

    2015-01-01

    The thermal stabilities of buckwheat stalk and buckwheat shell in the static air were studied by the thermogravi-metric differential thermal analysis instrument of SHMASZU DTG-60. According to the thermal analysis of the experimental data, the activation energy of decomposition reaction of buckwheat stalk and buckwheat shell was calculated by using the Coats-Redfern integral method,the results showed that the stability of buckwheat stalk was higher than the buckwheat shell.%用SHMASZU DTG-60差热-热重分析仪器,在静态空气气氛条件下,研究了荞麦秆和荞麦壳的热稳定性。根据热分析试验数据,采用Coats-Redfern积分法计算荞麦秆和荞麦壳的热分解反应的活化能,通过比较得出了荞麦秆的稳定性比荞麦壳的稳定性高。

  2. Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two tartary buckwheat samples (Xingku No.2 and Diqing grown at three locations were analyzed for free and bound phenolic content and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the relative contributions of variety and growing environment to phenolic content and antioxidant properties were determined, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. The total phenolic contents varied from 5,150 to 9,660 μmol of gallic acid equivalents per 100 gram of dry weight (DW of tartary buckwheat and the free phenolics accounted for 94% to 99%. Rutin content was in the range from 518.54 to 1,447.87 mg per 100 gram of DW of tartary buckwheat. p-Hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids were the prominent phenolic acids and other phenolics, including p-coumaric, gallic, caffeic, vanillic and syringic acids were also detected. Tartary buckwheat exhibited higher DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities and was more effective at preventing the bleaching of β-carotene in comparison with reference antioxidant and plant phenolics constituents. Additionally, growing conditions and the interaction between variety and environment may have more contribution than variety to individual phenolics and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat. Environmental parameters such as higher altitudes may also have an increasing effect on rutin and phenolic acids. This study suggests that tartary buckwheat has potential health benefits because of its high phenolic content and antioxidant properties. These components could also be enhanced by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected variety.

  3. 荞麦皮粉中膳食纤维的制备工艺研究%Study on Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Buckwheat Brans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 郭翠翠

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber was extracted from buckwheat brans by alkaline hydrolysis method. The optimum extraction condition was found by single-factor and orthogonal experiment, and the properties of dietary fiber were also studied. The results showed that the optimum extraction condition was as follows: the temperature of alkaline hydrolysis 80 ℃, the concentration of NaOH 1.0%, the ratio of material to solution 1:16 (g/mL), and the time of alkaline hydrolysis 80 min. Under these conditions, the yield of dietary fiber was 20.39%. The water holding capacity of insoluble dietary fiber, swelling capacity, and solubility of soluble dietary fiber were 5.97 g/g, 7.4 mL/g and 96%, respectively.%以荞麦皮粉为原料,采用碱法提取膳食纤维,通过单因素及正交试验得出最佳提取工艺条件,并对所得膳食纤维进行性质测定.结果表明,最佳提取工艺条件为:碱解温度80℃,氢氧化钠质量分数1.0%,料液比1∶16(g/mL),碱解时间80 min.在此条件下膳食纤维得率为20.39%,水不溶性膳食纤维持水力为5.97 g/g,膨胀力为7.4 mL/g,水溶性膳食纤维溶解率为96%.

  4. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  5. Effects of simultaneous use of methyl jasmonate with other plant hormones on the level of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of auxin (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and cytokinin (kinetin, used solely and in combination with methyl jasmonate (MJ, on the accumulation of anthocyanins and biogenic amines in hypocotyls and cotyledons of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench seedlings. The obtained results indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat seedlings was dependent on the concentration of the phytohormone applied and the tissue studied. The combined use of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin partly reversed the effect of strong inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by MJ. IAA used solely decreased the level of anthocyanins in de-etiolated buckwheat cotyledons. IAA also caused a reduction of putrescine content, both in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. MJ used alone caused high accumulation of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA in buckwheat cotyledons and hypocotyls. The simultaneous application of MJ and IAA, GA3  or kinetin also stimulated PEA synthesis in buckwheat tissues, however this effect was significantly lower compared to the use of MJ only. A reverse significant correlation between PEA and anthocyanin contents occurred in buckwheat hypocotyls, but not in cotyledons. It was suggested that the deficiency of L-phenylalanine, a substrate for synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, may be partly responsible for the decline in anthocyanin content in buckwheat hypocotyls under the influence of MJ.

  6. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (Pbuckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  7. Phenolic acids in the inflorescences of different varieties of buckwheat and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of total phenolics and phenolic acid composition together with parameters of antioxidant activities was studied in the inflorescences of three varieties of buckwheat (F. esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum rotundatum and Fagopyrum esculentum, forma green-flowers. Antioxidant activity of extracts of these buckwheat varieties has been found high and at the same time extracts of inflorescences of green flower buckwheat have been characterized by the highest total phenolic content. Eight phenolic acids (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, p-anisic acid, salicylic acid and methoxycinnamic acid were found in the investigated buckwheat inflorescences with HPLC analysis. Inflorescences of F. esculentum, forma green-flowers have a high content of chlorogenic acid (16 mg 100 g−1 DW and p-anisic acid (872 mg 100 g−1 DW. The highest content among the investigated buckwheat inflorescences of vanillic acid, trans-ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and p-anisic acid was found in the F. tataricum, F. esculentum inflorescences have been characterized by the highest content of salicylic acid (115 mg 100 g−1 DW and methoxycinnamic acid (74 mg 100 g−1 DW.

  8. Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui

    2015-05-01

    Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion.

  9. Effect of roasting time of buckwheat groats on the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, Wronkowska; Konrad, Piskuła Mariusz; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the formation of Maillard reaction products and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat, induced by roasting at 160 °C for 30, 40 and 50 min, were evaluated in the study. Furozine, was detected after roasting, in all buckwheat samples. Increase of FIC, the presence of significant amounts of CML and enhanced browning were observed, along with increasing times of roasting. The formation of acrylamide in the obtained buckwheat products was also significantly connected with the time of roasting. A significant degradation was observed in natural antioxidants, as affected by heat treatment time. The colour parameter changed significantly with the increasing of roasting time. Overall, 30min of roasting was beneficial from a nutritional point of view for the obtained buckwheat product.

  10. Modeling bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for predicting hourly evapotranspiration of maize and buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haofang; Shi, Haibin; Hiroki, Oue; Zhang, Chuan; Xue, Zhu; Cai, Bin; Wang, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    This study presents models for predicting hourly canopy resistance ( r c) and evapotranspiration (ETc) based on Penman-Monteith approach. The micrometeorological data and ET c were observed during maize and buckwheat growing seasons in 2006 and 2009 in China and Japan, respectively. The proposed models of r c were developed by a climatic resistance ( r *) that depends on climatic variables. Non-linear relationships between r c and r * were applied. The measured ETc using Bowen ratio energy balance method was applied for model validation. The statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between predicted ETc by proposed models and measured ETc for both maize and buckwheat crops. The model for predicting ETc at maize field showed better performance than predicting ETc at buckwheat field, the coefficients of determination were 0.92 and 0.84, respectively. The study provided an easy way for the application of Penman-Monteith equation with only general available meteorological database.

  11. Ecology of Kearney’s Buckwheat (Eriogonum nummulare) for Restoration Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eriogonum are a highly complex group of plants with a long history of changes in scientific names. These distinctive plants often have unique associations with endemic animals. One such case that has received much interest involves Kearney’s Buckwheat (Eriogonum nummulare) and an endemic Sand Mo...

  12. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenlechner, Regine; Drausinger, Julian; Ottenschlaeger, Veronika; Jurackova, Katerina; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2010-12-01

    The use of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta was investigated in the present study. The aim of the work was to produce pasta of good textural quality, in particular, low cooking loss, optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The results demonstrated that pasta produced from amaranth had decreased texture firmness and cooking time, while pasta from quinoa mainly showed increased cooking loss. In buckwheat pasta the least negative effects were observed. By combination of all three raw materials to one flour blend in the ratio of 60% buckwheat, 20% amaranth and 20% quinoa, dough matrix was improved. After decreasing dough moisture to 30%, addition of an increased amount of egg white powder of 6% and addition of 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) texture firmness as well as cooking quality of gluten-free pasta produced from such a flour blend reached acceptable values comparable to wheat pasta.

  13. Combined Effects of Blue and Ultraviolet Lights on the Accumulation of Flavonoids in Tartary Buckwheat Sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blue and UV-A (365 nm/UV-C (254 nm or their combinations on the levels of total flavonoids, rutin, quercetin, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, rutin degrading enzymes (RDEs and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity in tartary buckwheat sprouts were investigated in this study. The total flavonoids content in the tartary buckwheat sprouts irradiated with blue light followed by UV-C (BL+UV-C raised by 10%, compared with the opposite combination sequence (UV-C+BL. However, blue light did not show the same results when combined with UV-A, and their combinations on the accumulation of total flavonoids were still lower than that of UV-A/UV-C. Key enzymes (PAL, CHI and RDEs revealed a significant correlation with total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts.

  14. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants.

  16. Development of Buckwheat Sprouts Dried Noodles%苦荞苗挂面的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

    The effects on dose of buckwheat sprouts in dried noodles on its cooking time,cooked-off rate and cooking loss were studied.Experiments results showed that with the increasing of buckwheat sprouts addition dose,the cooking time gradually reduced,while cooked-off rate and cooking loss decreased firstly and then increased.The cooked-off rate was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 5%,10%,15%; and cooking loss was the lowest when buckwheat sprouts addition dose was 20%.Considering the quality and nutritional value of buckwheat sprouts dry noodles,the appropriate addition dose of buckwheat sprouts should be 20%~25%.%研究了苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)苗添加量对挂面烹调时间、熟断条率、烹调损失率的影响.结果表明,随着苦荞苗添加量的增加,烹调时间逐渐减少,熟断条率和烹调损失率先降低后增加;熟断条率在苦荞苗添加量为5%、10%、15%时最低,烹调损失率在苦荞苗添加量为20%时最低;综合考虑苦荞苗挂面的品质和营养价值,苦荞苗合适的添加量为20%~25%.

  17. PCR method for detecting trace amounts of buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Takashi; Imai, Shinsuke; Sawada, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Nobuo; Hachimura, Satoshi; Kato, Hisanori

    2005-04-01

    Buckwheat often causes severe allergic reactions, even when its ingestion level is extremely low. Therefore, buckwheat is listed in several countries as a common food allergen. In addition to common buckwheat and Tartarian buckwheat that are cultivated and consumed widely, wild buckwheat may be potentially allergenic. Food containing undeclared buckwheat poses a risk to patients with the buckwheat allergy. We describe in this report a PCR method to detect buckwheat DNA by using primers corresponding to the internal transcribed spacer region and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The method is buckwheat-specific and compatible with both cultivated and wild buckwheat of the Fagopyrum spp. Its sensitivity was sufficient to detect 1 ppm (w/w) of buckwheat DNA spiked in wheat DNA. This method should benefit food manufacturers, clinical doctors, and allergic patients by providing information on the presence of buckwheat contamination in food.

  18. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  19. The effect of methyl jasmonate and phenolic acids on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and phenolic acids: trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA, p-coumaric acid (p-CA, salicylic acid (SA as well as naringenine (NAR on growth of seedlings and accumulation of anthocyanins in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench were studied. JA-Me and phenolics were applied to growth medium of 4-days etiolated buckwheat seedlings before their exposition to day/night (16h/8h conditions. The increase of primary roots and hypocotyls length were measured after 3 days of seedling growth in such conditions. At the end of experiment the total anthocyanins contents were measured as well. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me and trans-cinnamic acid (t-CA inhibited growth of the primary root in young buckwheat seedlings, while naringenine (NAR had a stimulatory influence, and p-coumaric acid had no effect at all. None of investigated phenolics or JA-Me had an effect on the growth of buckwheat hypocotyls, except the mixture of JA-Me and p-coumarcic acid. JA-Me significantly decreased the anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocototyls, but not in cotyledons. trans-Cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and naringenine had no significant influence on the anthocyanin level in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous treatment of buckwheat seedlings with JA-Me and t-CA or p-CA did not change the inhibition of anthocyanins accumulation in buckwheat hypocotyls by JA-Me. In the hypocotyls of buckwheat treated with a mixture of JA-Me and NAR, or SA, a synergistic reduction of anthocyanins was observed.

  20. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  1. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  2. 苦荞茶酸奶的研制%The Development of Yogurt with Buckwheat Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家东; 王荣荣

    2014-01-01

    以苦荞茶和鲜牛奶为主要原料,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌按1∶1为发酵剂,发酵温度为42℃下,对苦荞茶酸奶的加工工艺进行了研究。采用L9(34)正交试验,得出最佳试验工艺为:苦荞茶鲜牛奶比为1∶60;蔗糖添加量为7%;接种量为4%;发酵时间为3h。以最佳工艺生产的苦荞茶酸奶色、香、味、组织状态等俱佳。%With buckwheat tea and fresh milk as the main raw material, with streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus Bulgaria according to 1∶1 as starter cultures, for 42℃fermentation temperatures, the processing technology of buckwheat tea yoghurt was studied. By L9 (34) orthogonal test, the best test process is:buckwheat tea milk ratio is 1∶60;Sucrose content is 7%;Inoculation amount is 4%;The fermentation time is 3 h. With optimum yoghurt production of buckwheat tea color, fragrance, delicious taste and delicate organization state, etc.

  3. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  4. 苦荞麦挂面研制%Manufacture on Fine Dried Noodles of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永; 肖诗明; 张忠

    2011-01-01

    以苦荞粉、小麦粉为主要原料,研究了预糊化处理,谷朊粉、碳酸钠、魔芋精粉添加量对苦荞麦挂面质量都有明显影响,结果表明:预糊化处理是提高苦荞麦挂面苦荞粉含量的前提条件,谷朊粉、碳酸钠、魔芋精粉添加量分别为3Z、0.4名、1.2Z。%The study was carried out with the buckwheat flour and wheat flour as the main raw material. Results are as follows: pre-gelatinization, gluten, sodium carbonate and content of konjac flour have a significant effect on the quality of the buckwheat noodles ; it has been tested that pre-gelatinization is the prerequisites and the optimum proportion is to add 3% gluten, 0.4% sodium caibonate and 1.2% konjac flour to improve the content of buckwheat flour of the buckwheat paste noodles.

  5. Preference of Bemisia tabaci biotype B on zucchini squash and buckwheat and the effect of Delphastus catalinae on whitefly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, Janine M; Liburd, Oscar E; McSorley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Zucchini squash, Cucurbita pepo L., is an important vegetable crop in Florida. Physiological disorders and insect-transmitted diseases are major problems for squash growers in semi-tropical regions around the world. Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B is a significant whitefly pest and is largely responsible for transmitting viruses and causing physiological disorders in squash. Several studies have shown that whitefly populations are reduced when crops are interplanted with non-host cover crops or mulches. The aim of the present study was to determine how the presence of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and a key predator, Delphastus catalinae (Horn), affect whitefly colonization on squash. Whitefly densities were higher on squash than on buckwheat. The introduction of D. catalinae on squash significantly reduced whitefly populations. Overall, there were higher densities of D. catalinae on squash where the whitefly pest was more concentrated compared with buckwheat. The study provided preliminary evidence that D. catalinae, when used in conjunction with buckwheat as a living mulch, may aid in reducing whiteflies in squash. This greenhouse experiment highlights the need to investigate a multitactic approach of intercropping buckwheat with squash and the incorporation of D. catalinae in the field to manage populations of whiteflies and whitefly-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 色选机在苦荞清理中的应用及研究%Application and Study of Color Sorter on Cleaning of Tartary Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽; 程江华; 闫晓明; 彭镰心

    2015-01-01

    介绍了ZK4型光电色选机的结构及工作原理,并探讨了对苦荞麦的色选效果。以色选机的色选精度和带出比作为评价指标,对色选机的工作参素进行了优化。色选精度达到100%,带出比随着含杂率的增大而增大,最终带出比达到1∶0.05。%This paper introduced the structure and working principle of ZK4 photoelectricity color sorting machine, and discussed the color sorting effect of tartary buckwheat. The working parameters of color sorting machine were optimized with color accuracy and color sorting out ratio as evalution indexes. The sorting accuracy reached 100%and the color sorting out ratio was increasing as the increase of trash content , the final color sorting out ratio could acheived 1∶0.05.

  7. The effect of methyl jasmonate vapors on content of phenolic compounds in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ vapors on content of phenolic compounds: free phenolic acids, total quercetin, and total phenolics in etiolated buckwheat seedlings were studied. The data presented show that low concentration of MJ (10-8 M had no influence on trans-cinnamic acid (CA, but stimulated the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. A moderate dose of MJ (10-6 M did not change the level of chlorogenic acid in the hypocotyls and cotyledons, but CA synthesis was promoted in cotyledons, whereas in hypocotyls no significant effect was found. Highest concentration of MJ (10-4 M caused small decline of CA in hypocotyls, but large stimulation of the acid production in cotyledons was noted. MJ had stimulatory effect on caffeic acid forming, but inhibited synthesis of vanillic acid in hypocotyls and cotyledons. Lowest concentration of MJ (10-8 M elicited accumulation of quercetin glycosides in both studied tissues of buckwheat seedlings, however at higher doses (10-8 and 10-4 M did not affect the flavonol level. The obtained results suggest that nonequivalent influence of methyl jasmonate on the phenolics composition can be a result of various mechanisms of MJ uptake, transforming and/or its translocation in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons. Decline of anthocyanins level in buckwheat hypocotyls caused by MJ cannot be explained by enhanced accumulation of quercetin glycosides or free phenolic acids, but probably by synthesis of other unknown phenolic compounds.

  8. Buckwheat achenes antioxidant profile modulates Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarrini, G; Nobili, C; Pinzari, F; Antonini, A; De Rossi, P; Del Fiore, A; Procacci, S; Tolaini, V; Scala, V; Scarpari, M; Reverberi, M

    2014-10-17

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) is a "pseudo-cereal" of great interest in the production of healthy foods since its flour, derived from achenes, is enriched with bioactive compounds and, due to the absence of gluten, may be used in composition of celiac diets. Amongst buckwheat species, F. tataricum achenes possess a larger amount of the antioxidant flavenol rutin than the common buckwheat F. esculentum. Ongoing climate change may favor plant susceptibility to the attack by pathogenic, often mycotoxigenic, fungi with consequent increase of mycotoxins in previously unexploited feeds and foodstuffs. In particular, Aspergillus flavus, under suitable environmental conditions such as those currently occurring in Italy, may produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most carcinogenic compound of fungal origin which is classified by IARC as Category 1. In this study, the viable achenes of two buckwheat species, F. tataricum (var. Golden) and F. esculentum (var. Aelita) were inoculated with an AFB1-producing A. flavus NRRL 3357 to analyze their relative performances against fungal invasion and toxin contamination. Notably, we sought the existence of a correlation between the amount of tocols/flavonols in the achenes of buckwheat, infected and non-infected with A. flavus, and to analyze the ability of the pathogen to grow and produce toxin during achene infection. Results suggest that achenes of F. tataricum, the best producer of antioxidant compounds in this study, are less susceptible to A. flavus infection and consequently, but not proportionally, to mycotoxin contamination compared with F. esculentum. Moreover, rutin-derived quercetin appears to be more efficient in inhibiting aflatoxin biosynthesis than the parent compound.

  9. Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control, was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and superoxide dismutase (SOD of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.

  10. Sprouted buckwheat an important vegetable source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Brajdes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Germination process is the only food processing which provides asignificant increase of the nutritional value by enhancing the bioavailability of some nutritional compounds, such as vitamins. The aim of our study was to test the antioxidant properties of the buckwheat sprout. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents during seven days of germination were determined. The results indicate that important changes occur in the amount of biologically active compounds during germination: the amount of polyphenols increases from 50.26 to 298.03 mg/100g d.w., the amount of rutin increases from 13.66 to 283.43 mg/100g d.w., the amount of quercitin increases from 4.77 to 223.76 mg/100g d.w., whereasthe amount of ascorbic acid increases from 0 to 1.09 mg/100g d.w. Due to the excellent antioxidant properties, the buckwheat sprouts can be considered good candidate ingredients for functional foods to be used for lowering the risk of various diseases and/or for exerting health promoting effects in addition to its nutritive value.

  11. Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutin in buckwheat flour is converted into quercetin by rutin-degrading enzymes when water is added. Thus, buckwheat was subjected to hydrothermal treatments for minimizing the rutin loss in buckwheat-based foods by water addition. When native buckwheat flour was mixed with water, the rutin conten...

  12. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rui; Li, Hua-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zheng, Cheng-Jian

    2016-04-19

    The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  13. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae, currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum Moench. (common buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum (L. Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys (D. Don Hara. (perennial buckwheat, which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

  14. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  15. Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiaoxuan; Wintersteen, Carol L; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-03-27

    Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.

  16. 苦荞麦麸复合饮料的研究%Research on the Buckwheat Bran Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅臣; 王明力; 陆雅丽; 郑君花

    2012-01-01

    For comprehensive development of buckwheat functional foods,the production technology of buckwheat bran compound beverage was studied with buckwheat bran as the main raw material.The results show that buckwheat wheat gluten powder through 40 mesh fineness were extracted about 10min with water of mass ration 1︰30 at 90 ℃,80% wheat bran extract,15% pear juice,5% grapefruit juice were respectively added and 1% mass fraction of honey was appended.The mixture was filtered and clarified through sodium alginate,buckwheat bran compound beverage with general flavones 0.256 mg/mL was obtained,pale brown and buckwheat unique fragrance.%为综合开发苦荞功能食品,以苦荞麦麸为主要原料,对苦荞麦麸复合饮料的工艺进行研究。结果表明:过40目筛的苦荞麦麸粉用质量比1︰30的水于90℃浸提10 min,分别取体积分数80%的麦麸浸提液、15%的梨汁、5%西柚汁,并加入1%质量分数的蜂蜜,经海藻酸钠进行澄清过滤,所得苦荞麦麸复合饮料,其总黄酮含量为0.256 mg/mL,呈淡褐色、具有苦荞特有的清香。

  17. Clarification of Buckwheat Vinegar%荞麦醋的澄清研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 翟小艳

    2015-01-01

    以壳聚糖、β-环糊精、明胶、硅藻土作为澄清剂对荞麦醋进行澄清处理,结果表明壳聚糖的澄清效果最佳。研究了壳聚糖对荞麦醋的澄清效果,测定了荞麦醋澄清前后主要成分的变化,经过单因素试验和正交试验,确定了壳聚糖澄清荞麦醋的最佳工艺条件:壳聚糖用量3 g/L、澄清处理pH 3.5、澄清处理时间8 h、澄清处理温度35℃。在此最佳工艺条件下,壳聚糖对荞麦醋有良好的澄清效果,可以较好地降低荞麦醋中蛋白质的含量,从而有效地改善其贮藏稳定性。%Take chitosan,β-cyclodextrin,gelatin,diatomite as clarifying agents to clarify buckwheat vinegar.The result shows that the clarification effect of chitosan is the best.Study the clarification effect of chitosan on buckwheat vinegar;detect the change of main components of buckwheat vinegar before and after clarification. Determine the optimum process conditions of chitosan clarifying buckwheat vinegar through the single factor test and orthogonal test.The optimum process conditions are as follows:dosage of chitosan of 3 g/L,clarifying treatment pH of 3.5,clarifying treatment time of 8 h,clarifying treatment temperature of 35 ℃.Under the optimum process conditions,chitosan has good clarification effect on buckwheat vinegar,can reduce the content of protein in buckwheat vinegar and effectively improve its storage stability.

  18. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted.

  19. 苦荞超微粉对苦荞小麦混合粉及其挂面品质的影响%Influence of micronized buckwheat flour on the quality of buckwheat-wheat mixed flour and dried noodle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽萍; 田晓红; 刘明; 刘艳香; 吴娜娜; 谭斌

    2015-01-01

    Common buckwheat flour,ultrafine buckwheat flour A and B,with 5% ~30%,was added to wheat flour and mixed,respectively. The farinograph properties of mixed flour were analyzed. The senso-ry quality,cooking quality and texture characteristics of dry noodle made of mixed flour were studied. The results showed that:compared with common buckwheat flour,the water absorption of ultrafine buck-wheat flour dough was increased,dough formation time and stability time were shorten,dough softness was increased,farinogram quality number was decreased,the sensory quality of noodle was improved be-cause of adding ultrafine buckwheat flour. Adding buckwheat flour with 15% or less,the cooking weight of the noodles containing common buckwheat flour was higher than the others. Adding 15% ~30%,the cooking weight with ultrafine buckwheat flour A was higher. Adding with 5% ~30%,the cooking loss of ultrafine buckwheat flour A was the least. Because of buckwheat micronization,the firmness and shear power of buckwheat noodles were increased and the chewiness and toughness of noodles were enhanced.%将普通苦荞粉,苦荞超微粉A和B按照5%~30%的比例添加到小麦粉中,对苦荞小麦混合粉的面团粉质特性及其挂面的感官品质、蒸煮品质及质构特性进行了研究,结果表明:与普通粉相比,添加苦荞超微粉的混合粉面团的吸水率增加,面团形成时间和稳定时间缩短,弱化度值升高,粉质指数降低;添加苦荞超微粉提高了挂面的感官品质;添加量在15%以下时,添加苦荞普通粉制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,添加量在15%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟增重率较高,而添加量在5%~30%时,添加苦荞超微粉A制作的面条煮熟的干物质损失率最低;苦荞粉超微处理增加了苦荞挂面的坚实度和剪切功,面条咀嚼性和韧性增强。小麦粉中添加20%苦荞超微粉A时制作的挂面韧性,口感良好。

  20. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  1. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  2. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  3. Buckwheat in the conservation of insects species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Naumkin, V.; Lysenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Buckwheat one of the most important of the field rotation crop, attracting and keeping a large number of insects. Entomocenosis of a buckwheat field consists of more than 170 species of insects pollinators, phytophags, entomophags. The dominant species are pollinators; there are about 90 species of them. They feed on nectar, pick up it and make pollination possible. Bee honey, wild bees, bumblebees, wasps, other hymenopterans, dipterous, beetles are widely spread. All of them are polytrophs t...

  4. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  5. Study on Optimization of Buckwheat Maca Biscuit by Using Response Surface Analysis%响应面分析在荞麦玛咖饼干研制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 李磊

    2013-01-01

      To optimize the processing of buckwheat maca biscuit,based on single-factor tests the response surface methodology was adopted with three levels and four factors that are buckwheat,maca,white sugar and skimmed milk powder.The result of the Sensory evaluation score was used as the data for the response surface methodology.Design expert was used to optimize the response surface.The result of the experiments demonstrates that:buckwheat content 26.40 %,maca content 2.63%,white sugar content 22.12 %,skimmed milk powder 5.49%. Under these conditions, the sensory analysis score of buckwheat maca biscuits was 85.77.%  以新资源食品玛咖粉和荞麦为主要原料,在单因素分析的基础上,通过对玛咖荞麦饼干生产配方进行4因素(荞麦粉、玛咖粉、白砂糖和脱脂奶粉)3水平的响应面试验设计,以饼干的感官评定结果,通过Design expert软件进行响应面优化。试验结果表明:荞麦粉添加量为26.40%,玛咖粉添加量为2.63%,白砂糖添加量为22.12%,脱脂奶粉添加量为5.49%,在此条件下,荞麦玛咖饼干的感官分析评分为85.77。

  6. Metabolomic analysis and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in hairy root culture of tartary buckwheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Aye Thwe

    Full Text Available Buckwheat, Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., is an important medicinal plant, which contains several phenolic compounds, including one of the highest content of rutin, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory properties. An experiment was conducted to investigate the level of expression of various genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway to analyze in vitro production of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds from hairy root cultures derived from 2 cultivars of tartary buckwheat (Hokkai T8 and T10. A total of 47 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS and subjected to principal component analysis (PCA in order to fully distinguish between Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The expression levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes, through qRT-PCR, showed higher expression for almost all the genes in T10 than T8 hairy root except for FtF3'H-2 and FtFLS-2. Rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 2 anthocyanin compounds were identified in Hokkai T8 and T10 hairy roots. The concentration of rutin and anthocyanin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots of tartary buckwheat was several-fold higher compared with that obtained from Hokkai T8 hairy root. This study provides useful information on the molecular and physiological dynamic processes that are correlated with phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene expression and phenolic compound content in F. tataricum species.

  7. EXPANDING THE RANGE OF GLUTEN-FREE FLOUR CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS BASED ON BUCKWHEAT AND QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding the range of flour confectionery products for people suffering from intolerance to wheat protein is relevant in the circumstances of import substitution. The domestic market of gluten-free confectionery products fully meets the demand of this category of people, which are dominated by sweet tooth children, requiring constant variety of confectionery. Therefore, the purpose of the work, which consists in expanding the range of pastry products based on buckwheat and quinoa, is relevant. The study presents a shortbread recipe based on buckwheat flour with different dosages of quinoa, a block diagram of the production and evaluation of the quality of the finished confectionery. Sensory evaluation of quality was carried out by a tasting analysis by a special system of scores: quantified indicators of quality - color, taste, smell, surface, shape and form in a break - is presented in the form of balls, followed by mathematical processing. We have defined physical and chemical indicators of quality biscuits, including moisture, alkalinity, absorption, fat and sugar content. Based on the assessment of quality of gluten-free shortbread we have set the optimal ratio of buckwheat flour and quinoa is equal to 70:30. The developed formulation will expand the range of gluten-free flour confectionery and can be adapted to the process and the equipment installed on the existing confectionery businesses

  8. The influence of selected hypotensive drugs on the bioavailability of minerals from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mineral status in hypertensive patients may be affected by hypotensive drugs. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of hypotensive drugs (angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, b-blockers, Ca-antagonists, diuretics on the potential bioavailability of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion. Material and methods. The degree of release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats was determined with and without (the control sample an addition of hypotensive drugs. Four antihypertensive drugs in one dose (one tablet per sample were analysed: metocard (a β-blocker, cardilopin (a Ca-antagonist, apo-perindox (ACE-I and indapen (a diuretic. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in buckwheat groats before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results. It was found that cardilopin (amlodipine and indapen (indapamide significantly increased the release of zinc from groats. The degree of release of magnesium was higher and the release of iron was lower in samples with apo-perindox (perindopril than in the control group. The release of copper was significantly decreased by indapen (indapamid. Conclusions. Amlodipine, perindopril and indapamide affected the release of magnesium, iron, zinc and copper from buckwheat groats in vitro enzymatic digestion.

  9. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  10. Structural identification of anthocyanins and analysis of concentrations during growth and flowering in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Mohamed, Zaidul Islam Sarker; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Naoto; Noda, Takahiro; Saito, Tatsuya

    2007-11-14

    The anthocyanin profiles and variety/breeding-line differences of anthocyanin concentrations in petals of common buckwheat flowers have been studied. Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were isolated from the petals of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), separated using high performance liquid chromatography and identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. In every variety/breeding line tested, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside was detected as the major anthocyanin and the next is cyanidin 3-O-glucoside whereas cyanidin 3-O-rhamnoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside were trace or not detectable in white and pink flowered buckwheat. Of all the varieties/breeding lines tested, Gan-Chao, a Chinese variety, contained the highest amount of anthocyanins. The largest part of cyanidin moiety was presented as a proanthocyanidin form (PAs-Cy). Anthocyanins and PAs-Cy in petals were increased along with increase of flower development stages. Therefore, fully developed petals of red flowered buckwheat, especially Gan-Chao, are promising as a new anthocyanin-rich material for food processing.

  11. Experimental study on the rheological properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato%荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉凝胶特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小芳; 李小昱; 王为

    2006-01-01

    利用电子万能材料试验机对荞麦、玉米、马铃薯淀粉的力学特性进行了研究.结果表明:在一定范围内,随着淀粉乳浓度的增加,荞麦、玉米、马铃薯的凝胶强度、弹性模量和凝胶弹性呈线性增加,但凝胶弹性变化较小;同一淀粉乳浓度下凝胶强度由高到低顺序为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,凝胶弹性为荞麦淀粉>玉米淀粉>马铃薯淀粉.在淀粉乳浓度为20%时,随着NaCl浓度增加,3种淀粉的凝胶强度均有一定程度增强.在同一NaCl浓度下,其凝胶强度为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,弹性模量为马铃薯淀粉>玉米淀粉>荞麦淀粉,对凝胶弹性的影响不大.%The mechanical properties of starch gels of buckwheat, corn and potato were tested with All-purpose Electronic Tester. The test results show that the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of buckwheat starch, corn starch and potato starch increase linearly with the increase of starch concentration, while the increase trend of gel elasticity changes little. Under the condition of the same starch concentration, the gel strength, elastic modulus and gel elasticity of three different starches behave in different orders: the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follows the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; while the gel elasticity of starch order is reverse, the first is buckwheat starch and the last is potato starch. When the starch concentration is 20%, the gel strengths of three starches increase with the increase of NaCl concentration. Under the condition of same NaCl concentration, the gel strength and elastic modulus of starch follow the same trend, the first is potato starch and the last is buckwheat starch; but it has little effect on gel elasticity.

  12. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day...

  13. 荞麦芽的抗氧化作用及醛糖还原酶抑制作用的研究%Study on effects of antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibition of buckwheat sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 李红梅; 李善姬; 林顺成; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    以萌发期为4,6,8,9,10 d的甜荞麦芽和苦荞麦芽(黑丰一号,坝上苦荞)为原料,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),探明荞麦芽在萌发过程中芦丁的变化趋势,同时观察荞麦芽的ABTS自由基的清除作用以及对大鼠晶状体醛糖还原酶(rAR)的抑制作用.结果表明:无论是甜荞还是苦荞,芦丁的含量都随发芽时间的延长而有所增加,同时黑丰一号苦荞对ABTS自由基的清除作用在萌发的第10天时达最大值(IC50=12.18 μg/mL),作用效果高于芦丁标准品(IC50=21.10 μg/mL), 但是低于对照物Trolox(IC 50 =3.89 μg/mL).坝上苦荞在萌发的第10天时对rAR抑制活性最大(IC 50=2.09 μg/mL),作用效果明显高于槲皮素(IC50=2.57 μg/mL)、芦丁标准品(IC50=4.90 μg/mL).所以萌发的荞麦芽均有一定的抗氧化作用,且对rAR有明显的抑制作用,可以作为醛糖还原酶抑制剂的良好来源.%The contents of rutin in the powders of buckwheat sprouts and tartary buckwheat sprouts ( Heifeng NO. 1, Bashang tartary buckwheat) germinated for 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 days were determined u-sing High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Meanwhile, observed the scavenging effects of ABTS free radical and the inhibi-tive effects of aldose reductase on rat lens (rAR). The results indicated that regardless of buckwheat sprouts and tartary buckwheat sprouts, the contents of rutin were increased with increasing the germination time. When Heifeng NO. 1 germination l0thd reaches the maximum value (IC50 = 12. 18 μg/mL) to the ABTS free radical scavenging action, the function effects is higher than rutin (IC50 = 21. 10 μg/mL) , but less than Trolox ( IC50 = 3. 89 μg/mL). When Bashang tartary buckwheat germination lOthd reaches the maximum value (IC50 = 2.09 μg/mL) on rAR inhibitory activity, the reduction energy is higher than quercetin ( IC50 = 2. 57 μg/mL) and rutin (/C50 = 4. 90 μg/mL). Therefore the germination of buckwheat sprouts has certain antioxidant effects, and

  14. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  15. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  16. Effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality%荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温纪平; 毛瑞; 郑学玲

    2013-01-01

    According to the abundant nutrition,medicine and edible value of buckwheat,steamed bread was prepared by 10 %,20%,30%,40%,50% and 60% of the total buckwheat flour in replacement of high gluten wheat flour.By the changes of sensory evaluation,color,texture properties,the effect of buckwheat flour on steamed bread quality was studied.The results showed that:the buckwheat flour dough structure and steamed bread quality were weakened;with the increase of the content of buckwheat flour,the steamed bread skin and internal color was darkened,hardness,gelling and chewiness significantly increased.%荞麦具有丰富的营养和药食价值,采用10%、20%、30%、40%、50%和60%的全荞麦粉置换出等量高筋小麦粉蒸制馒头,通过荞麦馒头感官评价、色泽、质构特性的变化,研究荞麦粉对馒头品质的影响.结果表明:全荞麦粉会弱化面团结构,影响馒头的品质.随着荞麦粉添加量的增加,馒头表皮及内部色泽变暗,质构参数中硬度、胶凝性、咀嚼性明显增大.

  17. Identification and characterization of granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Feng, Bo; Xu, Zhibin; Sestili, Francesco; Zhao, Guojun; Xiang, Chao; Lafiandra, Domenico; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-25

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is increasingly considered as an important functional food material because of its rich nutraceutical compounds. Reserve starch is the major component of tartary buckwheat seed. However, the gene sequences and the molecular mechanism of tartary buckwheat starch synthesis are unknown so far. In this study, the complete genomic sequence and full-size cDNA coding tartary buckwheat granule-bound starch synthase I (FtGBSSI), which is responsible for amylose synthesis, were isolated and analyzed. The genomic sequence of the FtGBSSI contained 3947 nucleotides and was composed of 14 exons and 13 introns. The cDNA coding sequence of FtGBSSI shared 63.3%-75.1% identities with those of dicots and 56.6%-57.5% identities with monocots (Poaceae). In deduced amino acid sequence of FtGBSSI, eight motifs conserved among plant starch synthases were identified. A cleavage at the site IVC↓G of FtGBSSI protein produces the chloroplast transit sequence of 78 amino acids and the mature protein of 527 amino acids. The FtGBSSI mature protein showed an identity of 73.4%-77.8% with dicot plants, and 67.6%-70.4% with monocot plants (Poaceae). The mature protein was composed of 20 α-helixes and 16 β-strands, and folds into two main domains, N- and C-terminal domains. The critical residues which are involved in ADP and sugar binding were predicted. These results will be useful to modulate starch composition of buckwheat kernels with the aim to produce novel improved varieties in future breeding programs.

  18. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  19. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  20. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  1. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  2. 超高压处理对荞面碗托品质的影响%Effect of ultra-high pressure treatment on quality of buckwheat wantuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭登峰; 柴春祥; 张坤生; 王伟

    2014-01-01

    通过对荞面碗托在25℃进行200,400和600 MPa 20 min的超高压处理,以未经超高压处理的荞面碗托为对照,研究超高压对荞面碗托品质的影响。结果显示,在感官评分方面,200 MPa处理后的荞面碗托的感官评分最高,优于对照和经过400,600 MPa处理的荞面碗托;在质构方面,超高压对荞面碗托的硬度、黏着性、胶着性、咀嚼性、回复性有显著性影响(P<0.05),对弹性、内聚性没有显著性影响(P>0.05);在色泽方面,超高压处理后的荞面碗托的ΔE*值都小于2,说明超高压对荞面碗托的色泽基本无影响;在水分含量和水分活度方面,超高压对荞面碗托基本没有影响;在菌落总数方面,超高压处理可以显著延长荞面碗托的货架期;在挥发性气味方面,200 MPa超高压对荞面碗托的气味基本没有影响。试验说明200 MPa的超高压处理能使荞面碗托获得良好的外观品质和较长的货架期。%The buckwheat wantuo were submitted to high pressure treatments at 200, 400, 600 MPa for 20 min at 25℃.In the comparison of the quality with buckwheat wantuo that was not using high pressure treatment , the effects of different pressure on the quality of buckwheat wantuo were studied .In conclusion , in the aspect of sensory score , the buckwheat wantuo under 200 MPa pressure treatment had highest sensory score and was better than the control and the buckwheat wantuo under 400 and 600 MPa pressure treatment .In the aspect of texture , ultra-high pressure had significant difference on the hardness , adhesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience of buckwheat wantuo ( P0.05 ) .In the aspect of color , theΔE* value of buckwheat wantuo under ultra-high pressure was less than 2, it demonstrated that ultra-high pressure had no impact on the color of buckwheat wantuo .In the aspect of moisture content and water activity , it had basically no effect on it .In the

  3. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Cho

    Full Text Available We report the chloroplast (cp genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats and F. esculentum (one repeat, and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Comparative Analysis with Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Soo; Yun, Bong-Kyoung; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hong, Su-Young; Mekapogu, Manjulatha; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report the chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) obtained by next-generation sequencing technology and compared this with the previously reported common buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale) cp genome. The cp genome of F. tataricum has a total sequence length of 159,272 bp, which is 327 bp shorter than the common buckwheat cp genome. The cp gene content, order, and orientation are similar to those of common buckwheat, but with some structural variation at tandem and palindromic repeat frequencies and junction areas. A total of seven InDels (around 100 bp) were found within the intergenic sequences and the ycf1 gene. Copy number variation of the 21-bp tandem repeat varied in F. tataricum (four repeats) and F. esculentum (one repeat), and the InDel of the ycf1 gene was 63 bp long. Nucleotide and amino acid have highly conserved coding sequence with about 98% homology and four genes--rpoC2, ycf3, accD, and clpP--have high synonymous (Ks) value. PCR based InDel markers were applied to diverse genetic resources of F. tataricum and F. esculentum, and the amplicon size was identical to that expected in silico. Therefore, these InDel markers are informative biomarkers to practically distinguish raw or processed buckwheat products derived from F. tataricum and F. esculentum.

  5. Extract of buckwheat sprouts scavenges oxidation and inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages (RAW264.7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Karki; Cheol-Ho Park; Dong-Wook Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Buckwheat has been considered as a potential source of nutraceutical components on the world market of probiotic foodstuffs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) sprouts on oxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators.METHODS:The anti-oxidant effects of buckwheat extract (BWE) and rutin were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-and nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activities,serum peroxidation and chelating assays.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activities of buckwheat and rutin.NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was determined by using Griess reagent.The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in cytosolic and nuclear portions were determined by Western blot analysis.Also,the production of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:Inhibitory concentration 50 values for DPPH-and NO-scavenging activities of BWE were 24.97 and 72.54 μg/mL respectively.BWE inhibited serum oxidation and possessed chelating activity.Furthermore,BWE inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Also,BWE inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and NF-κB p65 translocation.CONCLUSION:Buckwheat sprouts possessed strong antioxidant activity and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the applied model systems.Thus,buckwheat can be suggested to be beneficial in inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the free radicals and inflammatory mediators.

  6. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hua; YUAN Ya; YANG Xiao-lan; TAO Shu-ying; MING Jian

    2013-01-01

    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.

  7. Genomic Characterization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene in Buckwheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Thiyagarajan

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL gene which plays a key role in bio-synthesis of medicinally important compounds, Rutin/quercetin was sequence characterized for its efficient genomics application. These compounds possessing anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties and are predominantly produced by Fagopyrum spp. In the present study, PAL gene was sequenced from three Fagopyrum spp. (F. tataricum, F. esculentum and F. dibotrys and showed the presence of three SNPs and four insertion/deletions at intra and inter specific level. Among them, the potential SNP (position 949th bp G>C with Parsimony Informative Site was selected and successfully utilised to individuate the zygosity/allelic variation of 16 F. tataricum varieties. Insertion mutations were identified in coding region, which resulted the change of a stretch of 39 amino acids on the putative protein. Our Study revealed that autogamous species (F. tataricum has lower frequency of observed SNPs as compared to allogamous species (F. dibotrys and F. esculentum. The identified SNPs in F. tataricum didn't result to amino acid change, while in other two species it caused both conservative and non-conservative variations. Consistent pattern of SNPs across the species revealed their phylogenetic importance. We found two groups of F. tataricum and one of them was closely related with F. dibotrys. Sequence characterization information of PAL gene reported in present investigation can be utilized in genetic improvement of buckwheat in reference to its medicinal value.

  8. 荞麦治疗糖尿病化学成分的研究进展%Advances of Buckwheat Chemicals in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小理; 李宗杰; 周一鸣

    2011-01-01

    荞麦是一种粮药兼备的粮食作物,目前世界上有多个国家传统食疗研究都发现食用荞麦可降血糖,因此荞麦可用于中药治疗糖尿病.通过现代生化与分子生物学、细胞生物学等研究手段已经逐渐确定荞麦中起降血糖作用的化学成分及其可能作用途径,降糖成分主要是植物肌醇、生物类黄酮以及荞麦蛋白.分离鉴定荞麦降糖成分可以为研究开发荞麦源糖尿病药物提供思路,亦能为加工生产荞麦功能性食品提供参考信息.本文主要综述了国内外关于荞麦降糖化合物的研究进展,并对其可能作用机制进行了初步讨论.%Buckwheat is a kind of grain that can be exploited for both food production and medicine application, and its glycemic - lowering effects have been wildly known by traditional dietetic therapy in many countries of theworld. Therefore, buckwheat can be used in traditional medical therapy of diabetes. The buckwheat compounds with serum glucose lowering function are gradually determined, and their possible signal pathway is partially clear through modem biochemistry and molecular biology and cell biological study. Main functional chemicals in buckwheat are plant inositol, bio - flavonoids and buckwheat protein. Isolation and characterization of buckwheat glycemic - lowering components can provide candidates with new diabetic drugs, and can be benefit for the production of buckwheat functional food. This paper focused on the research progress of buckwheat glycemic- lowering compounds, and their possible mechanism is also preliminarily discussed.

  9. 荞麦基因型间的耐铝性研究%Research on Al3+ Tolerance among Different Buckwheat Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选出耐铝性较强的荞麦资源.[方法]用水培法对25份荞麦资源的耐铝性进行研究.以发芽的荞麦种子在3 d内的根伸长量衡量耐铝性程度.[结果]低浓度(500 μmol/L以下)的AlCl3处理对荞麦根系的生长具有明显的促进作用,而高浓度(1 000μmol/L)的AlCl3处理则会抑制荞麦根系的生长.荞麦基因型间的耐铝性具有明显差异.[结论]在所选取的25份荞麦材料中,L2081和T442的耐铝胁迫能力最强,值得在荞麦耐铝性育种和耐铝机制的研究中开发利用.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to select the buckwheat accessions with higher Al3+ tolerance. [ Method ] 25 buckwheat accessions were used as materials, the Al3+ tolerance were studied by means of solution culture method in this research. The length of root was used to evaluate the degree of Al3+ tolerance. [ Result] The root growth of some buckwheat accessions were significantly promoted under the concentration of 500 μmol/L, while high concentration of Al3+ ( 1 000 μmol/L) inhibited the buckwheat roots growth. There were great variations of Al3+ tolerance among the different buckwheat genotypes. [ Conclusion] Among the 25 buckwheat genotypes, L2081 and T442 had much higher Al3 + tolerance than the others, which could be used for researching on the buckwheat breeding and the mechanism of the buckwheat Al3+ tolerance.

  10. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  11. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  12. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF ULTRASOUND-ASSISTED EXTRACTION CONDITIONS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM TARTARY BUCKWHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB. Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 65 °C. UAE method is an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of FTB.

  14. Herbal complex of green buckwheat in the production technology of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using vegetable complex of green buckwheat in production technology cheesecakes. The unique chemical, rich mineral and vitamin composition buckwheat green indicates desirability of not only its use, but also th e possibility of using for cooking preventive and functional orientation. Using green buckwheat plant complex due to the hi gh water-holding ability to reduce the time of the process, eliminate some technological preparatory operations, such as pressing off. It is found that the maximum degree of swelling (2.5 g/g was observed at 40 oC and pH 4, 2. The time to reach an equilibrium state is reached after 30 minutes. On the basis of the research has been defined in a way to make plant complex curd basis, in an amount of from 10 to 70 % based on standardized physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of harmonious order to minimize-if-operation of flour to make the product functional and preventive properties. Technology of production of a pre -from adequate use of shock freezing, thus preserving the shape, color and flavor of the product. Microbiologists -cal studies analyzed frozen semi-finished products indicates that the microbiological-cal indicators remain stable throughout the shelf life. The use of herbal ingredients in the development of technology and the adjustment of the nutritional value of cheese bioproducts will solve the issue of their care-enrichment in essential micronutrients and natural way to improve the taste and increase the life -sti Useful developed products that currently is a modern and topical focus of research.

  15. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  16. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  17. Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Zaidul, I S M; Suzuki, Tatsuro; Mukasa, Yuji; Hashimoto, Naoto; Takigawa, Sigenobu; Noda, Takahiro; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2008-10-15

    The phenolic compositions of non-germinated/germinated seeds and seed sprouts (at 6-10 day-old) of common (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) buckwheats were investigated. Phenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid, four C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin vitexin, isovitexin), rutin and quercetin, were determined in the seed sprouts by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the edible parts of common buckwheat sprouts, individual phenolics significantly increased during sprout growth from 6 to 10 days after sowing (DAS), whereas in tartary buckwheat sprouts they did not. While the sum contents of phenolic compounds in the edible part (mean 24.4mg/g DW at 6-10 DAS) of tartary buckwheat sprouts were similar to those of common buckwheat sprouts, rutin contents in the non-germinated/germinated seeds (mean 14.7mg/g DW) and edible parts (mean 21.8mg/g DW) of tartary buckwheat were 49- and 5-fold, respectively, higher than those of common buckwheat. Extracts of the edible parts of both species showed very similar free radical-scavenging activities (mean 1.7μmol trolox eq/g DW), suggesting that the overall antioxidative activity might be affected by the combination of identified phenolics and unidentified (minor) components. Therefore, buckwheat seed sprouts are recommended for their high antioxidative activity, as well as being an excellent dietary source of phenolic compounds, particularly tartary buckwheat sprouts, being rich in rutin.

  18. The retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starches as observed with FT-IR, 13C NMR and DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Wang, Changjun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Li, Lin

    2014-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852 cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.

  19. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  20. Global transcriptome analysis of Al-induced genes in an Al-accumulating species, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-12-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a species with high aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for external and internal detoxification of Al have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-responsive genes in the roots and leaves using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. RNA-Seq generated reads ranging from 56×10(6) to 93×10(6). A total of 148,734 transcript contigs with an average length of 1,014 bp were assembled, generating 84,516 unigenes. Among them, 31,730 and 23,853 unigenes were annotated, respectively, in the NCBI plant database and TAIR database for Arabidopsis. Of the annotated genes, 4,067 genes in the roots and 2,663 genes in the leaves were up-regulated (>2-fold) by Al exposure, while 2,456 genes in the roots and 2,426 genes in the leaves were down-regulated (buckwheat, indicating some common Al tolerance mechanism across the species, although most STOP1/ART1-regulated gene homologs were not changed. Most genes involved in citric and oxalic acid biosynthesis were not significantly altered. Some transporter genes were highly expressed in the roots and leaves and responded to Al stress, implicating their role in Al tolerance and accumulation. Overall, our data provide a platform for further characterizing the functions of genes involved in Al tolerance and accumulation in buckwheat.

  1. 荞麦壳膳食纤维咀嚼片制备工艺研究%Processing of buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芙莲; 陈旭清

    2014-01-01

    该实验以荞麦壳中提取的膳食纤维为主要原料,制备膳食纤维咀嚼片。通过设计正交试验优化配方,确定了咀嚼片最佳配方:荞麦壳膳食纤维添加量为20%、菊粉添加量为20%、微晶纤维素添加量为19.3%、木糖醇添加量为38.7%、柠檬酸添加量为1.0%。制备膳食纤维咀嚼片口感细腻、酸甜可口,具有润肠通便、降压、降脂等功效。%Buckwheat hull dietary fiber was taken as the raw material to prepare buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing in this study. The formulation of buckwheat hull dietary fiber chewing tablets was optimized by orthogonal array design,the optimal formula was:buckwheat hull dietary fiber 20%, inulin 20%,microcrystalline cellulose 19.3%,xylitol 38.7%,citric acid 1.0%. The product has sour and sweet taste with smooth feeling,and has laxative,blood pressure lowering effect.

  2. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lara; Lukšič, Lea; Molinari, Romina; Kreft, Ivan; Bonafaccia, Giovanni; Manzi, Laura; Merendino, Nicolò

    2014-12-15

    In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67.4%). Moreover, this bread possessed lower energy (14%) and carbohydrate contents (24%) compared to the control. Tartary buckwheat also improved the total antioxidant capacity of the bread (about 75%) and provided a considerable amount of flavonoids, which are healthy non-nutritional compounds. Overall, chia and tartary buckwheat represent excellent raw materials for the formulation of gluten-free bread with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa.

  4. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-12-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information.

  5. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Forming and maintaining a collection of plant genetic resources of the Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Тригуб

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Providing information on the formation, composition, maintenance of the collection of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill. genus at Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production (Poltava region, and areas of its use: introduction, preservation and study of the material, for the set of index, formation of special collections and providing research and education institutions of Ukraine with a valuable original material. Methods. Methodical developments dealing with formation and maintenance of crop collections, methodical literature on the study of buckwheat collection for breeding and agronomic performance. Results. The author represented results of the collection material study for the main breeding and economically valuable traits including yield, productivity, resistance to abiotic and biotic factors of the environment. The results of work are considered aimed on creating special collections of the gene pool – base, trait (for yield and large seeds; for productivity, drought and heat resistance; for suitability for mechanical cultivation, educational and core ones. Conclusions. All formed and registered collections are a valuable base material for solving a number of breeding goals to increase the quantity and improve the quality of plant production.

  8. The prebiotic and protective effects of buckwheat flour and oat bran on Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VASILE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.

  9. Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Shen, Siou-Ru; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching

    2013-04-30

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a healthy and nutritionally important food item. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of 75% ethanol extracts from tartary buckwheat (EEB) against ethanol- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. EEB were administered to C57BL/6 mice (ethanol induction) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (CCl(4) induction) for 4 and 8 consecutive weeks, respectively. The major active compounds, rutin and quercetin, were also administered to ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals. EEB inhibited increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-induced animals; similar effects were found after rutin and quercetin administration. Moreover, EEB elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities, including those of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and inhibited the levels of hepatic inflammation in the ethanol- and CCl(4)-treated animals. This study suggests that EEB exerts hepatoprotection via promoting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties against oxidative liver damage.

  10. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  11. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, G. Christopher; Frewin, Andrew J.; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s) are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common), red clover (Trifolium pratense), and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia) under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens. PMID:27478712

  12. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  13. Effect of Exogenous Mg2+ on Salt Tolerance of Buckwheat%外源Mg2+对荞麦耐盐性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2012-01-01

    The salt-sensitive buckwheat variety ( TQ-0808) was used as experimental material, which was treated with different concentrations of Mg2 + under NaCl stress of 100 mmol/L to study the effect of exogenous Mg2+ on physiological characters of salt tolerance in buckwheat. The results showed that the exogenous Mg2 + treatment of 40 mmol/L could significantly decrease the plasmalemma permeability and malondialdehyde ( MDA ) content of buckwheat leaves,and obviously increase the superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity and net photosynthetic rate of buckwheat leaves, which made the SOD activity of buckwheat leaves under NaCl stress close to the control level,and the net photosynthetic rate of buckwheat leaves reach the control level. It indicated that appropriate concentrations of exogenous Mg 2+ treatment could obviously improve the physiological characters of salt tolerance in buckwheat and had better mitigation to salt stress,while too high concentrations of exogenous Mg 2+ might aggravate stress.%以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808为试验材料,在100 mmol/L NaCl胁追下进行不同浓度的外源Mg2+处理,探讨外源Mg2+对养麦耐盐生理特性的效应.结果表明,40 mmol/L外源Mg2+处理能显著降低NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片质膜透性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,明显增加NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和净光合速率,使NaCl胁迫下荞麦叶片SOD活性接近对照水平,荞麦叶片净光合速率达到对照水平.说明适当浓度的外源Mg2+处理可明显改善盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗的生理特性,对盐胁迫具有较好的缓解作用;而外源Mg2+浓度过高可能会加剧胁迫.

  14. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  15. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  16. Research on Se Content of Different Tartary Buckwheat Genotypes%苦荞种子中硒含量的基因型差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时政; 韩承华; 黄凯丰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to screening the tartary buckwheat resources with higher Se content. [Method] 35 accessions of tartary buckwheat resources were used as experimental materials, and the Se content of seeds were determined. [ Result] The Se content of 35 kinds of tartary buckwheat will change in a range of 0.009 9 to 0.120 8 mg/g with an average of 0.040 6 mg/g. There was difference among tartary buckwheat from different origins. The seeds from Gansu had the highest content of Se, while the seeds from Nayong in Guizhou and Shaanxi had a lowest content of Se. [ Conclusion ] The study had important significance for further study on the genetic and variation law of Se content between different tartary buckwheat resources.%[目的]筛选出硒含量较高的苦荞资源.[方法]以不同产地的35份苦荞资源为试验材料,测定了其籽粒中的硒含量.[结果]35份苦荞资源的硒含量变化幅度为0.0099-0.1208mg/g,平均值为0.0406mg/g;不同产地苦荞的硒含量存在差异,以甘肃地区较高,贵州纳雍和陕西较低.[结论]为进一步研究硒含量在不同苦荞资源间的遗传变异规律提供了理论依据.

  17. Flavonoid synthesis in buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) sprout grown under pseudo-microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Iwasawa, Hiroko; Hiraishi, Kanae; Sato, Seigo; Miyagawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We are studying space agriculture to provide foods and oxygen for space habitats. However, careful assessment should be made on the effects of exotic environment on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in plants, which will be cultivated in space. We found that production of functional substances is affected by gravity in broccoli sprout (Brassica coleracea var. italica). The production of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinybutyl isothiocyanate), in broccoli was slightly affected by gravity. Buckwheat is also known to produce several species of flavonoids, which act as an antioxidant, and enhance immunity of human. Such production of physiologically active substances, those agricultural species are accepted as good food materials. Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated for 4 days under the 3D-clinorotation. The amount of flavonoids, such as orientin, isoorientin, isovitexin, vitexin, rutin, produced by this treatment showed significant differences compared to those in the ground control. We examined effects of the gravity to the flavonoid synthesis pathways.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of phenolic compounds in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprouts treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Lim, Jeong-Ho

    2011-05-25

    The effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on phytochemical production in buckwheat sprouts cultivated under dark conditions (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d) were investigated by metabolomic analysis, using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). MeJA-treated and control groups showed no differences in growth but were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plots. The metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as chlorogenic acid, catechin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, vitexin, and quercitrin, which have various health effects. Moreover, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin were assigned as the main phytochemicals of sprouts cultivated under dark conditions. The accumulation of these metabolites caused the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of the sprouts to increase. Further, this study revealed that their accumulation resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by MeJA treatment. Therefore, these metabolites may be useful for better understanding the effects of MeJA on buckwheat sprout phytochemicals and contribute to improving the functional quality of the sprouts.

  19. 苦荞麦酥配方的优化%The Optimized Formula of Buckwheat Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠

    2013-01-01

      以经气流膨化制得的苦荞米花为原料,采用过油、搅拌、压型、切分、包装等工艺流程,通过添加不同比例的麦芽糖醇﹑柠檬酸、玛雅琳、食盐、煎蛋香精、山梨糖醇,对苦荞麦酥的配方进行研究,试验结果表明:苦荞麦酥的最佳配方为麦芽糖醇95.27%,柠檬酸0.30%,玛雅琳1.2%,食盐1.2%,煎蛋香精0.03%,山梨糖醇2%。%The formula of buckwheat cakes was studied by using the oil, stirring, pressure type, segmentation, packaging process and adding different proportions of maltitol, citric acid, margarine, salt, omelette flavor, sorbitol. The results showed that:the best optimized formula of buckwheat cakes for maltitol 95.27%, 0.30%citric acid, Maya Lin 1.2%, salt 1.2%, 0.03%of the omelette flavor, sorbitol 2%.

  20. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  1. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor enters Hep G2 cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhuanhua; Li, Yuying; Li, Chen

    2013-12-01

    Recombinant buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (rBTI) was studied to evaluate if it could enter cancer cells and to determine the mechanism. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (FITC-BTI) entered Hep G2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. FITC-BTI colocalised with labelled transferrin (Tf) in the punctate structure, implying that rBTI enters Hep G2 cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Incubation of Hep G2 cells with different chemical inhibitors abolished diffuse, but not punctate fluorescence, thus indicating that membrane potential plays a critical role in this process. Impairment of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by RNAi with clathrin heavy chain greatly reduced or completely abolished both diffuse and punctate fluorescence, further supporting a theory of a single route of endocytosis. Consistent with our working hypothesis, Hep G2 cells which were arrested in the M phase did not show any vesicular or diffuse FITC-BTI. We conclude from these results that both endocytosis and membrane potential are required for rBTI entry into Hep G2 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multivariate analysis of buckwheat sourdough fermentations for metabolic screening of starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Stetina, Mandy; Gstattenbauer, Anja; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-08-18

    This study investigated the metabolic activity of 35 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which were able to grow in buckwheat sourdoughs and delivers a detailed explanation of LAB metabolism in that environment. To interpret the high-dimensional dataset, descriptive statistics and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Heterofermentative LAB showed a clear different metabolism than facultative (f.) heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB, which were more similar. Heterofermentative LAB were mainly characterized by high free SH groups and acetic acid production; they were also able to consume arabinose and glucose. Homofermenters were mainly characterized by lower free amino nitrogen content and they did not show a good capacity to consume arabinose and fructose. Except for the heterofermentative Weissella cibaria strain, only homofermentative strains showed high ornithine yields. Some f. heterofermentative strains differed from homofermentative due to the high lactic acid production as well as low glucose and arginine consumption. LAB containing more genes encoding peptidase activities and genes involved in aroma production showed a high consumption of free amino acids. Strain-dependent activities could be clearly distinguished from group dependent ones (homofermentative, f. heterofermentative and heterofermentative), e.g., some Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest carbohydrate consumption. However, some microbial activities were more strain-dependent than group-dependent. Multivariate analysis of raw data delivered a detailed and clear explanation of LAB metabolism in buckwheat sourdough fermentations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenylalanine and LED lights enhance phenolic compound production in Tartary buckwheat sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Min; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2015-06-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) concentrations and various light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, vitexin, rutin, quercetin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside) in Tartary buckwheat sprouts. We found that 5mM was the optimum l-Phe concentration for the synthesis of total and individual phenolic compounds. The highest rutin (53.09 mg/g DW) and chlorogenic acid (5.62 mg/g DW) content was observed with Red+Blue and white lights. Comprehensive differences in total and individual anthocyanin content were observed between different lights; however, the total anthocyanin content (9.12 mg/g DW) was 1.5-fold higher in blue light. The expression levels of regulatory genes, such as FtDFR and FtANS, were 7.1-fold higher with l-Phe treatment. Gene expression results showed that the phenolic compounds in Tartary buckwheat sprouts increased with the use of l-Phe and LED lights.

  4. 荞麦冷面中荞麦粉的添加量及芦丁限值的研究%Research on the addition level of buckwheat flour in buckwheat noodle and the limit value of rutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛若竹; 丁梅; 陈友军; 孟宪志; 康金仙; 彭永凯

    2013-01-01

    The apparent condition,palatability, breaking rate, spit slurry rate, untidy degree, iodine colorimetry and the content of rutin were used as quality index, and the effect of the addition level of buckwheat flour on the quality of noodle was studied. The results showed that the optimal addition level of buckwheat flour was 20 %~ 30%; the minimum limit of rutin content in standard buckwheat flour was no less than 90 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg using the dry bar technique and the wet bar technique, respectively;and the minimum limit in refined buckwheat flour was no less than 10 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg by the dry bar technique and the wet bar technique, respectively, which provided reference for buckwheat noodle production and processing, quality control and quality evaluation.%以荞麦冷面的外观状态、适口性、熟断条率、吐浆率、不整齐度、碘呈色度及芦丁含量为质量指标,研究了荞麦粉添加量对冷面品质的影响,确定荞麦粉的最佳添加量为20%~30%,并研究确定了荞麦冷面中芦丁含量最低限值分别为:以标准荞麦粉为原料的干条冷面芦丁限值为≥90 mg/kg,湿条冷面芦丁限值为≥75 mg/kg;以精制荞麦粉为原料的干条冷面芦丁限值为≥10 mg/kg,湿条冷面芦丁限值为≥8 mg/kg.为荞麦冷面的生产加工、质量控制及品质评价提供了参考依据.

  5. Application of Composite Improvers in Buckwheat Noodles%复合改良剂在荞麦面条中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海燕; 祝海洋; 闫利纳; 陈帅家; 苏泉泉; 王毅

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis,the mixture of buckwheat and common wheat was used to product noodle and the optimal proportions of buckwheat and other additives were studied.The texture of noodles such as breaking strength of dry noodles and bending distance was determined by TA.XT.plus.The formula of buckwheat noodle was optimized by response surface design.The results showed that the best conditions were buckwheat flour 20%,xanthan gum 1.09%,phosphate ester starch 5.76%,sodium tripolyphosphate 0.15%.Under this conditions the quality of buckwheat noodles was improved significantly.%以荞麦-小麦混合粉制作面条,研究了不同比例的荞麦粉和添加剂对荞麦面条加工特性的影响,用TA.XT.plus质构仪测定分析干面条的断裂强度和弯曲距离。结合其它单因素试验,对荞麦面条的综合品质进行分析,精选出合适的荞麦面条添加剂,并通过响应面优化,得出添加剂的最佳添加量为:黄原胶1.09%,磷酸酯淀粉5.76%,三聚磷酸钠0.15%。在此条件下加工出的荞麦面条改良效果显著。

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  7. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  8. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  9. Impact of buckwheat flour granulation and supplementation level on the quality of composite wheat/buckwheat ginger-nut-type biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of gradual wheat flour substitution with buckwheat flour in ginger-nut biscuit formulation were investigated regarding dough characteristics, physical and textural characteristics of finalproduct assessed after baking and 30 days of storage. Buckwheat flour was added at 30, 40, 50% levels and two granulations (fine and coarse. Addition of buckwheat flour significantly increaseddough hardness and decreased adhesiveness. Spread significantly increased in biscuits with 40% and 50% of coarse buckwheat flour. Biscuits containing coarse flour were harder and more fracturable than the control, whereas those with fine flour tended to be softer and less fracturable.Textural properties were significantly correlated to protein stability to heat and retrogradation tendency of starch in biscuit dough as well as moisture content.

  10. A search of Brassica SI-involved orthologs in buckwheat leads to novel buckwheat sequence identification: MLPK possibly involved in SI response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI systems, gamethophytic (GSI and sporophytic (SSI, prevent self-pollination in angiosperms. Buckwheat displays heteromorphic SSI, with pollination allowed only between different flower morphs - thrum and pin. The physiology of thrum and pin morph SI responses are entirely different, resembling homomorphic Brassica SSI and Prunus GSI responses, respectively. Considering angiosperm species may share ancestral SI genes, we examined the presence of Brassica and Prunus SI-involved gene orthologs in the buckwheat genome. We did not find evidence of SRK, SLG and SP11 Brassica or S-RNase and SFB Prunus orthologs in the buckwheat genome, but we found a Brassica MLPK ortholog. We report the partial nucleotide sequence of the buckwheat MLPK and discuss the possible implications of this finding.

  11. Research progress on the functional components and healthy functions of buckwheat%荞麦的功效因子与保健功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲

    2011-01-01

    The functional components, nutritive properties, physiological functions of lowering blood fat, blood sugar and saccharorrhea of buckwheat were analyzed. The study showed that the buckwheat is a kind of green food resource which has nutritive, healthy functions and vast exploitable prospects.%通过对荞麦的功效因子、营养特性及其降血脂,降血糖、降尿糖等生理功能的分析,表明荞麦是一种具有食疗保健功能的食品资源,开发前景广阔。

  12. Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lian-xin; HUANG Yan-fei; LIU Yuan; ZHANG Zhi-feng; LU Lu-yang; ZHAO Gang

    2014-01-01

    The essential and toxic element concentrations in buckwheat were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentration data were subjected to common chemometrics analyses, including correlation analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), to gain better understanding of the differences among the tested samples. Our results indicated that the essential and toxic element concentrations were not different between Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn and F. esculentum Moench. The element concentrations varied among buckwheat samples from different sources. Commercial tartary buckwheat tea contained several essential elements, thus, could be used as the source of essential elements. The detection of toxic heavy metals in commercial tartary buckwheat tea suggested that safety issue of such buckwheat products should be seriously concerned. Our results also revealed that the place of origin and the processing protocol of tartary buckwheat affected the element concentrations of the commercial form. The implications to the quality control and safety evaluation of buckwheat were extensively discussed.

  13. Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Chen, Rong Fu; Iwashita, Takashi; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionic aluminum (Al) is toxic for plant growth, but some plant species are able to accumulate Al at high concentrations without showing toxicity symptoms. In order to determine whether other species in the genus Fagopyrum are able to accumulate Al like common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), we investigated the external and internal detoxification mechanisms of Al in two self-compatible species: tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and wild buckwheat (Fagopyrum homotropicum). Both tartary and wild buckwheat showed high Al tolerance comparable to common buckwheat. Furthermore, these two species also secreted oxalate rapidly from the roots in response to Al in a time-dependent manner. Both tartary and wild buckwheat accumulated > 1 mg g(-1) Al in the leaves after short-term exposure to Al. Analysis with (27) Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that Al was present in the form of Al-oxalate (1 : 3 ratio) in the roots and leaves, but in the form of Al-citrate (1 : 1 ratio) in the xylem sap in both species. These results indicate that similar to common buckwheat, both tartary and wild buckwheat detoxify Al externally and internally, respectively, by secreting oxalate from the roots and by forming the Al-oxalate complex, which is a nonphytotoxic form. These features of Al response and accumulation may be conserved in genus Fagopyrum.

  14. 荞麦的应用研究及展望%Research progress in application and prospect of buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎红

    2011-01-01

    Buckwheat is the important crops with effect of nutrition and health at western region of China. In this paper,the health products of buckwheat, buckwheat noodles products, buckwheat baking foods, buckwheat fermenting products, puffed food made by buckwheat, buckwheat flavoring and oil, seedling of buckwheat were investigated. There was a summary about application and exploitation of buckwheat produce nearly a decade in China.The existing problems and put forward some measures and methods were discussed, hoping that the processors produced buckwheat foods in China western could get some references from this paper.%荞麦是我国西部地区重要的集营养与保健为一体的粮食作物.本文通过对荞麦保健品、荞麦面条类产品、荞麦烘焙制品、荞麦发酵品、荞麦膨化食品、荞麦调辅品、荞麦芽菜等方面的研究调查,综述了十年来我国荞麦制品的应用研究和开发现状,对存在的问题进行了探讨,提出了一定的解决措施和方法,以期为我国西部的荞麦食品加工者提供一定的借鉴.

  15. Sensory and textural evaluation of gluten-free biscuits containing buckwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Öksüz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different formulations containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum flour were used in this study to produce biscuit samples which were then analyzed for proximate composition, textural and sensory properties. The different formulations based on incorporation of egg white, carob syrup, and purified starches into the dough formulation yielded final products with different nutritional, sensory, and textural properties. Use of carob syrup to replace table sugar resulted in biscuits with higher outer appearance scores and significantly harder texture. Purified starch substitution on the other hand resulted in high fracturability values. They also had lower protein and higher energy contents. Egg white substitution was aimed at increasing cohesion in the biscuit dough, however, the dough texture of the plain formulation was also acceptable and very subtle differences in biscuit quality were observed with this alteration in the basic formula.

  16. Comparative analysis of flavonoids and polar metabolite profiling of Tanno-original and Tanno-high rutin buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Soo-Yun; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2014-03-26

    Rutin is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of buckwheat. In this study, flavonoid biosynthesis was compared between two common cultivars (an original and a high-rutin line) of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Transcriptional levels of the main flavonoid biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time PCR, and main flavonoid metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); levels of gene expression varied among organs of the two cultivars. Significantly higher transcription levels of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes, except FeFLS1, were detected in stems of the high-rutin line than in stems of the original line. FeCHI and FeFLS2 genes also showed higher expression levels in seeds of the high-rutin cultivar. In contrast, FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeCHS, FeF3H, FeF3'H, FeFLS2, and FeDFR were highly detected in the roots of the original line. The HPLC results indicated 1.73-, 1.62-, and 1.77-fold higher accumulation of rutin (the primary flavonoid compound) in leaves, stems, and mature seeds of the high-rutin cultivar (24.86, 1.46, and 1.36 μg/mg, respectively) compared with the original cultivar (14.40, 0.90, and 0.77 μg/mg, respectively). A total of 46 metabolites were identified from seeds by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA could clearly differentiate the original and high-rutin cultivars. Our results indicate that the high-rutin cultivar could be an excellent alternative for buckwheat culture, and we provide useful information for obtaining this cultivar.

  17. Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection.

  18. Optimal recovery of high-purity rutin crystals from the whole plant of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) by extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Hyung Hwan; Kwon, Ik Boo; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2005-10-01

    Rutin, one of the flavonoids derived from plants, is increasingly in demand in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its various biological and physiological activities including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-hypertension. The whole plant of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a major source of natural rutin. This study developed a low-cost process encompassing the efficient extraction, fractionation, and recrystallization to obtain high-purity rutin from buckwheat, and it could improve the economic utilization of this abundant low-value agricultural product. The sequential separation and purification procedures established in this study involved extraction with 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at 80 degrees C for 1 h followed by elution with water and aqueous ethanols at 20% and 30% (v/v) on a styrene-based resin column, and recrystallization at 4 degrees C for 12 h. These conditions resulted in the recovery of 92% of total rutin with over 95% purity. In the present study, high-purity rutin was obtained from whole buckwheat through low-cost processes, the separation and purification strategy established in this study could provide valuable information to the relevant industries.

  19. A technology of making buckwheat flavor type buckwheat liquor%一种荞香型苦荞酒的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世权

    2015-01-01

    在深入研究苦荞酒现状的基础上,通过创新工艺来解决苦荞酒荞香和健康功能不明显的问题,创新点主要有:1、通过创新发酵工艺来生产原酒,酿酒原料由单一的苦荞变成苦荞、糯米、大米;发酵用曲由小曲或黄酒曲变成糖化酶、黄酒酵母、荞香专用米曲;取酒工艺由小曲酒蒸馏或黄酒过滤变成分型发酵、串蒸取酒;2、提出不通过发酵,直接对苦荞有效成分提取工艺的研究,提取出具有一定保健功能的荞香舒适的苦荞汁,并添加少量中药提取液,使得苦荞的有效成分发挥更充分;3、把发酵取得的原酒和提取的苦荞、中药汁合理调配,并创新澄清方式,经贮存老熟后制得一种口感均衡、风味俱佳新型产品.%This article is concerned about the solution of inconspicuous flavor and healthy function of buckwheat liquor through innovative technology based on the deep research on the current situation of buckwheat liquor . The major innovations include: ( 1 ) innovative fermentation process of making original liquor from buckwheat, sticky rice and rice instead of buckwheat only, of changing koji of xiaoqu or rice wine koji to glucoamylase, rice wine yeast and rice koji specialized for buckwheat flavor in fermentation, and of using various types of fermentation and tandem distillation instead of xiaoqu liquor distillation or rice wine filtration;(2) extraction of the active components in buckwheat without fermentation. The buckwheat juice with certain healthy function was extracted and supplemented with a small amount of Chinese traditional medicine extract which made the full use of active ingredients in buckwheat;(3) a new product with good taste and flavor made by reasonable adjustment of fermented original liquor with buckwheat extract and Chinese medicine extract, and by development of new clarification methods prior to aging for a period of time.

  20. Phenological phases of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. in the primary and secondary crop depending on seeding rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Juszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the growth stages of buckwheat grown as a primary or secondary crop as well as using three seeding rates. A field experiment was conducted in the years 2003-2004 and in 2006 on podzolic soil derived from slightly loamy sand. Phenological observations were made at 5-day intervals, from the time of buckwheat emergence (in the primary crop around 28 May, in the secondary crop 7 June, on selected and properly marked plants. The buckwheat plants were harvested when more than 80% of buckwheat seeds on them were brown. The duration of particular growth stages of buckwheat are presented in phenological diagrams. It was found that crop rotation treatment and weather conditions affected significantly the time of occurrence of the phenological phases of buckwheat, but these phases were less dependent on seeding density. A rainfall deficit in 2006 caused a delay in particular growth stages compared to the previous years.

  1. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Natalia V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A

    2011-05-12

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits). These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1), AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND) and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS) are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  2. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum based on transcriptome sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Demidenko

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is one of the most precise and widely used methods of gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. We studied the expression stability of potential reference genes in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum in order to find the optimal reference for gene expression analysis in this economically important crop. Recently sequenced buckwheat floral transcriptome was used as source of sequence information. Expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was assessed in different plant structures (leaves and inflorescences at two stages of development and fruits. These genes are the orthologs of Arabidopsis genes identified as stable in a genome-wide survey gene of expression stability and a traditionally used housekeeping gene GAPDH. Three software applications--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to estimate expression stability and provided congruent results. The orthologs of AT4G33380 (expressed protein of unknown function, Expressed1, AT2G28390 (SAND family protein, SAND and AT5G46630 (clathrin adapter complex subunit family protein, CACS are revealed as the most stable. We recommend using the combination of Expressed1, SAND and CACS for the normalization of gene expression data in studies on buckwheat using qRT-PCR. These genes are listed among five the most stably expressed in Arabidopsis that emphasizes utility of the studies on model plants as a framework for other species.

  3. Final Critical Habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the clay-loving wild buckwheat (Eriogonum pelinophilum) occur. The geographic extent...

  4. Final Critical Habitat for the Gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for gypsum wild-buckwheat (Eriogonum gypsophilum) occur based on the description...

  5. Buckwheat for the production of biogas. Rediscover forgotten cultures; Buchweizen fuer die Biogasproduktion. Vergessene Kulturen wiederentdecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmann, Falko; Fritz, Maendy

    2011-07-01

    Buckwheat whole plant can be used for the production of biogas. Due to its short growing period, buckwheat can be integrated very variable in crop rotations. For example, buckwheat can be grown as a second crop in the summer. After the harvest of winter wheat, which is used as whole plant silage, the sowing date is around mid-June. The ingredients of buckwheat expect a good fermentability with corresponding biogas production. [German] Buchweizen-Ganzpflanzen koennen fuer die Erzeugung von Biogas genutzt werden. Durch seine kurze Vegetationsperiode laesst sich Buchweizen sehr variabel in Fruchtfolgen einbinden. Zum Beispiel kann Buchweizen als Zweitfrucht im Sommer angebaut werden. Nach der Ernte von Wintergetreide, das als Ganzpflanzensilage genutzt wird, liegt der Saattermin etwa Mitte Juni. Die Inhaltsstoffe von Buchweizen lassen eine gute Vergaerbarkeit mit einer entsprechenden Biogasproduktion erwarten.

  6. [Qualitative case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The qualitative case study is a research method which enables a complex phenomenon to be explored through the identification of different factors interacting with each other. The case observed is a real situation. In the field of nursing science, it may be a clinical decision-making process. The study thereby enables the patient or health professional experience to be conceptualised. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  8. Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts have been widely consumed all around world due to their great abundance of bioactive compounds. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid-rich common buckwheat sprout (CBS and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS extracts were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages from male BALB/c mice. Based on the reversed-phase HPLC analysis, the major flavonoids in CBS were determined to be C-glycosylflavones (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, and rutin, whereas TBS contained only high amounts of rutin. The TBS extract exhibited higher inhibitory activity as assessed by the production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, and IL-12 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages than CBS extract. In addition, TBS extract suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B activation by preventing inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, the TBS extract markedly reduced LPS-induced cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TBS extract can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents that may influence macrophage-mediated inflammatory disorders.

  9. Stability of Lead Immobilized by Apatite in Lead-Containing Rhizosphere Soil of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sato, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted plant growth experiments using a rhizobox system to understand the growth of buckwheat and hairy vetch as well as the stability of lead immobilized by hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the lead-containing rhizosphere soil. The shoot dry weight of buckwheat did not significantly differ between the lead-containing rhizosphere soil with and without HAP, whereas that of hairy vetch with rhizosphere soil without HAP was reduced. Lead was not accumulated from the rhizosphere soil to the shoots of either plant when HAP was added. The percentage of each lead fraction in sequential extraction was approximately the same through the 3 mm of rhizosphere soils from the root surface and non-planted soil, with and without the addition of HAP. For hairy vetch, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil within 3 mm thickness from the root surface did not increase. However, for buckwheat, the amount of water-soluble lead in the HAP-added rhizosphere soil 1 mm from the root surface increased to the same level as that in the non-planted soil without HAP. Our results suggest that when applying phytostabilization combined with apatite to lead-contaminated soil, the plant that cannot re-mobilize lead should be selected.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of AGAMOUS sequences reveals the origin of the diploid and tetraploid forms of self-pollinating wild buckwheat, Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyoshi, Mitsuyuki; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsako, Takanori; Li, Cheng-Yun; Ohnishi, Ohmi

    2012-09-01

    Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi is a self-pollinating wild buckwheat species indigenous to eastern Tibet and the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces of China. It is useful breeding material for shifting cultivated buckwheat (F. esculentum ssp. esculentum Moench) from out-crossing to self-pollinating. Despite its importance as a genetic resource in buckwheat breeding, the genetic variation of F. homotropicum is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum based on the nucleotide sequences of a nuclear gene, AGAMOUS (AG). Neighbor-joining analysis revealed that representative individuals clustered into three large groups (Group I, II and III). Each group contained diploid and tetraploid forms of F. homotropicum. We identified tetraploid plants that had two diverged AG sequences; one belonging to Group I and the other belonging to Group II, or one belonging to Group II and the other belonging to Group III. These results suggest that the tetraploid form originated from at least two hybridization events between deeply differentiated diploids. The results also imply that the genetic diversity contributed by tetraploidization of differentiated diploids may have allowed the distribution range of F. homotropicum to expand to the northern areas of China.

  11. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  12. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from this, the national case study begins to conceptualise a new approach to ... teacher education environments and a piloting of a 'Train the Trainers' or .... Study) and TIMMS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) ..... Objective 7: Publish the materials in an open learning system format and integrate the.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM ON THE KINETICS OF THE SWELLING OF GREEN BUCKWHEAT FLAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of green buckwheat flakes, especially swelling of the flakes at different process conditions. The process of swelling depends on the nature of the high molecular compound, temperature, composition and pH of the absorbing liquid and can flow unrestricted and restricted. With a limited degree of swelling of the swelling reaches the limit and is no longer changing. As a result of limited swelling formed jelly. If the limit value of the degree of swelling in contact with a further high-molecular compound and a solvent is reduced, there is an unlimited swelling. In this case, the swelling of the first stage of dissolution. Unlimited swell polymers with weak intermolecular bonds. Character of the process has an impact on quality indicators and semi-finished products. The resulting kinetic curves indicate limited swelling main components of green buckwheat flakes in all test solutions. In the alkaline pH range, partial dissolution occurred certain components, but the general nature of the process is not appreciably affected. The paper identified the maximum degree and the rate constant swelling green buckwheat flakes in solutions with different pH. To quantify the extent and limit of the rate constant swelling high-molecular compound at different process conditions (type of solvent, temperature, pH determine the degree of swelling at specified intervals and construct the kinetic curve swelling. The acidity of the medium affects mainly on swelling polyampholytes, which are the proteins that make up most of the swell components flakes green buckwheat. Depending on the pH of the protein macromolecule adopt different conformations. The minimum degree of swelling of the protein corresponds to its isoelectric point at which stipulates equality of positive and negative charges in the macromolecule and it rolled into a ball or globule, which hinders the penetration of solvent molecules into the matrix of high-molecular compound

  14. 外源硒对铅污染下荞麦生长及生理特性的影响%Effect of exogenous selenium on growth and development of buckwheat under plumbum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦成; 裴红宾; 吴晓薇; 连慧达

    2015-01-01

    以荞麦‘右玉26’为材料,在防雨棚下进行盆栽试验,研究外源硒对土壤铅污染下荞麦幼苗的农艺性状及生理特性、成熟期各器官铅累积和产量的影响,旨在探讨硒对土壤铅胁迫下荞麦的生长发育、产量及铅在荞麦体内富集量的影响,为发现硒缓解重金属铅对植物的毒害作用提供理论依据,以期为农业区铅污染治理及荞麦生产提供有价值的思路和方法。试验采用2因素完全随机设计,设置3个土壤铅浓度(0 mg·L−1、500 mg·L−1、1000 mg·L−1)、5个硒浓度(0 mg·kg−1、1 mg·kg−1、2.5 mg·kg−1、5 mg·kg−1和10 mg·kg−1)。研究结果表明:1)随铅浓度增加,荞麦的株高、总根长、干重、根系总面积、根系活力、叶绿素含量、叶绿素荧光参数、经济产量(千粒重、株粒数)均呈降低趋势。2)低浓度硒(1~2.5 mg·L−1)可缓解铅对荞麦的毒害,高浓度硒(5~10 mg·L−1)和铅为协同作用,加剧了对荞麦的毒害。3)硒浓度为2.5 mg·L−1时,缓解铅对荞麦毒害的效果最为明显,显著降低了铅胁迫下荞麦幼苗SOD和POD活性;降低成熟期荞麦各器官铅含量,各处理下荞麦各器官铅含量均表现为根>茎>叶>种子;产量达到最大值。由此可见,外源硒可通过抑制荞麦对铅的吸收和转运,促进荞麦幼苗叶片的光合作用、提高叶片叶绿素含量和根系活力等途径来增强荞麦对铅胁迫的耐性。对本研究所用的5种浓度来说,缓解效果最佳的硒浓度为2.5 mg·L−1。%This study used ‘Youyu 26’ buckwheat cultivar to analyze the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) on agronomic and physiological characteristics of buckwheat seedlings in plumbum (Pb) polluted soil in a pot experiment. The study determined the effects of exogenous Se on Pb content, and growth, development and output of buckwheat under soil Pb stress. The results of the study could lay the

  15. Effects and Mechanism of Natural Fermentation on the Tensile Properties of Buckwheat Noodle%自然发酵对荞麦挤压面条拉伸性能的影响效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩立宏; 郝学良; 程永强; 李里特

    2012-01-01

    How to improve the poor textural properties caused by problems such as lack of mucedin, high fiber content was the bottleneck problem in buckwheat noodles manufacturing. The effecl of natural fermentation on the tensile properties of buckwheat noodles was studied by tensile measurement and rapid viscosity analysis(RVA). The results showed that maximum break strain increased from 24. 7% to 29. 4% and work - to - break increased by 0. 24 kg X mm of buckwheat noodles made of buckwheat fermented for 96 h compared with control. Swelling and breakdown of buckwheat starch was accelerated, and peak viscosity, trough viscosity and final viscosity was decreased by 96h of natural fermentation. The tensile properties of buckwheat noodle were strengthened by natural fermentation, so it is a viable option for texture improvement of buckwheat noodles.%面筋蛋白缺乏,淀粉糊稳定性差,纤维含量高等因素,导致荞麦粉凝胶质地差是当前面条等荞麦面制品开发的瓶颈问题.拉伸测试及RVA快速黏度分析法研究了自然发酵对荞麦挤压面条质地的改善效应.结果表明,自然发酵96 h可使面条的最大破断应变从24.7%增加到29.4%,破断功增加了0.25kg·mm;自然发酵加速了糊化过程中淀粉颗粒的膨胀及崩解,降低了淀粉糊化的峰值黏度、谷值黏度及终黏度,使得发酵荞麦粉面条制品的凝胶结构更加致密,凝胶强度增强.因此,自然发酵作为一种绿色加工技术用于改善荞麦面条的质地特性是切实可行的.

  16. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Synthesis of hypoallergenic derivatives of the major allergen Fag t 1 from tartary buckwheat via sequence restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhuang; Li, Yuying; Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuanhua

    2012-08-01

    Fag t 1, a legumin-type protein, is the major allergen in tartary buckwheat. In the current study, three recombinant derivatives of Fag t 1, designated as Fag t 1-rs1, Fag t 1-rs2, and Fag t 1-rs3, were constructed via rational design and genetic engineering. However, because of the loss of their native-like folds, the Fag t 1 derivatives failed to bind IgE, and their allergenic activities were reduced. The recombinant hypoallergenic variants are promising vaccine candidates for specific immunotherapy of buckwheat allergy. The unfolding of the Fag t 1 structure reduced its high resistance to gastrointestinal proteolysis and strongly reduced its IgE reactivity. The derivatives showed a more than 90% reduction in allergenic activity compared with rFag t 1. These results suggest that the structure-dependent stability of 11S seed storage proteins is directly related to digestive stability and allergenic potential. Therefore, the destruction of the native conformation is the appropriate strategy to reduce the allergenicity of the cupin family food allergens.

  18. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry.

  19. THE PHENOLS ACCUMULATION IN TRANSFORMED ROOT CULTURES OF DIFFERENT EXPLANTS SOURCES OF COMMON BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Sytar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters of transformed root cultures, total phenolic content and phenolic acids composition has been studied in root cultures, which were obtained from various explants of buckwheat by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains A4. The methods of obtaining of the transformed root cultures, total phenol estimation, gas-liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction has been used. Elevated levels of total phenols in transformed roots of buckwheat from different sources of explants have been found. The high content of chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-anisic and caffeic acids has been discovered in the root cultures, which can be used for their industrial production. Maximal root growth was equal 21.2 g/l of dry weight in the roots as source for root culture, 17.7 g/l with leaves and 14.6 g/l with stems at 3 week after placement. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction amplification was confirmed that the rol B gene (652 bp which transferred info hairy roots from Ri-plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for induction of root from plant species.

  20. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yoshihisa; Usui, Shiori; Ito, Takamitsu; Kato, Akira; Shimosaka, Makoto; Taguchi, Goro

    2014-11-01

    C-Glycosides are characterized by their C-C bonds in which the anomeric carbon of the sugar moieties is directly bound to the carbon atom of aglycon. C-Glycosides are remarkably stable, as their C-C bonds are resistant to glycosidase or acid hydrolysis. A variety of plant species are known to accumulate C-glycosylflavonoids; however, the genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze C-glycosylation of flavonoids have been identified only from Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize), and have not been identified from dicot plants. In this study, we identified the C-glucosyltransferase gene from the dicot plant Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat). We purified two isozymes from buckwheat seedlings that catalyze C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are expressed specifically in the cotyledon during seed germination. Following purification we isolated the cDNA corresponding to each isozyme [FeCGTa (UGT708C1) and FeCGTb (UGT708C2)]. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both proteins demonstrated C-glucosylation activity towards 2-hydroxyflavanones, dihydrochalcone, trihydroxyacetophenones and other related compounds with chemical structures similar to 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of plant glycosyltransferases shows that flavonoid C-glycosyltransferases form a different clade with other functionally analyzed plant glycosyltransferases.

  1. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  2. 苦荞粉添加量对面团性质及馒头品质的影响%Effect of addition amount of buckwheat on the dough properties and steamed bread quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭芸; 陈洁; 吕莹果; 屈凌波

    2015-01-01

    通过添加不同量的苦荞粉配成苦荞-小麦混粉,研究混粉揉混特性、面团微观结构的变化以及苦荞馒头的感官品质。结果表明,当添加量在5%~15%时,揉混结果中的和面时间和峰值面积变化不大,微观结构中蛋白质面筋网络结构略微减弱,但当添加量达到20%后,和面时间和峰值面积都有大幅度降低,微观面筋网络结构也出现明显的下降。同时,苦荞粉添加量为15%时馒头感官品质较好。综合分析可知,添加量为15%时苦荞馒头仍具有较好的品质。%Different amount of buckwheat flour was mixed into wheat flour. The kneading property,the microstructure of the mixed flour dough and sensory quality of buckwheat steamed bread was studied. The results showed that,when the addition between 5% ~15%,kneading dough time and peak area changed a little,the gluten network structure of protein in microstructure reduced a little,but when the addition to 20%,both kneading dough time and peak area reduced greatly,and the gluten network structure of pro-tein in microstructure decreased obviously. Buckwheat steamed bread had the good quality when 15%buckwheat flour was added. So the buckwheat steamed bread had a good quality when the adding amount was 15% through comprehensive analysis.

  3. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  4. 晋中地区荞麦品质气候区划的GIS多元分析%Climate Regionalization of Buckwheat Quality Index Based on GIS Multivariate Analysis in Jinzhong Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 牛波; 杨武德; 肖璐洁

    2012-01-01

    探索养麦的最佳生产布局,为优质养麦生产的区域化、规模化提供理论和实践依据.本文分析了荞麦品质指标与气象因子的关系,结合养麦地理分布,筛选影响各品质指标的主要气象因子,利用主成分分析法构建养麦综合品质评价模型,并以ArcGIS软件的空间分析功能,对养麦综合品质进行气候区划及区划评述.结果表明:温度、降水、日照时数等气象因子是影响各品质指标的主要因子.较高的均温和日最高温大于30℃时,对养麦的生长有不良影响,不利于各品质指标的积累.而8月丰富的降水和生育期充足的光照有利于养麦品质指标的积累.结合评价模型,利用GIS对荞麦综合品质进行区划,将晋中地区分为3个区,即适宜、次适宜、不适宜养麦种植区,且各区与实际状况基本符合.利用主成分分析法和GIS进行养麦品质气候区划是可行的,研究结果为荞麦的优质生产提供参考.%Buckwheat is mainly distributed in central and western regions in China, is one of the major food crops and economic crops in these areas. The production and development of buckwheat have direct impact on farmers' income and agricultural economic development of these areas. The climate regionalization of buckwheat quality is the important basis of optimizing cultivation environment and quality variety layout, and has a great guiding meaning towards high quality production of buckwheat. So, exploring the best planting pattern of buckwheat can provide theoretical and practical basis for the regionalization and high quality buckwheat production at larger scales. But the current climate regionalization studies of buckwheat mainly focused on the suitable cultivation division using traditional research methods, and no report about climatic regionalization of buckwheat quality using principal components analysis (PCA) and GIS was found. In this study, the correlation of quality index of buckwheat

  5. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  6. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to develop a descriptive framework (e.g. a draft table of contents) for organising the case study, whilst not pre-empting outcomes before the data...has been fully analysed. Such a framework can help the analyst with organising the data as well as with developing a story line [48]. As...Publications Repository http://dspace.dsto.defence.gov.au/dspace/ 14. RELEASE AUTHORITY Chief, Joint and Operations Analysis Division 15

  7. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  9. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  10. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, S; Knapp, M; Kreft, I

    1999-11-01

    The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.

  11. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  12. 荞麦和商品苦荞茶中总黄酮的含量测定%Determination of total flavonoids in buckwheat and buckwheat goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静霞; 黄艳菲; 赵小燕; 孙美; 许云章; 彭镰心; 刘圆

    2013-01-01

    目的:测定荞麦不同栽培种、植株不同部位以及不同商品苦荞茶中的总黄酮含量.方法:采用UV法测定总黄酮含量;通过回流法提取,NaNO3-Al (NO3)3法显色测定样品吸光度,以芦丁为标准溶液计算求得总黄酮含量结果:芦丁在0.003006~0.1503mg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好,R2=0.9999;平均回收率为97.9%,RSD为1.95%结论:不同栽培种荞麦总黄酮含量测定中,苦荞的总黄酮含量在13.67~21.56mg/g之间,甜荞总黄酮含量在5.79~7.23mg/g之间,苦荞总黄酮含量总体高于甜荞;荞麦植株不同部位中叶的总黄酮含量最高,最高达到68.30mg/g;商品苦荞茶中,所测商品总黄酮含量在6.96~16.78mg/g之间,较苦荞种子中总黄酮含量有一定程度减少 该方法简便快捷,结果准确,重现性好,适用于荞麦和商品苦荞茶中总黄酮含量的测定.%Objective:To determine the content of total flavones in the different kinds of buckwheat,different parts of buckwheat and buckwheat goods. Method :UV spectrophotometry for determination of total flavonoids was used. Using Na(NO3)-AI(NO3)3 to detect the absorbance of samples and then count the total flavonoids. Results:The linear range of rutin was 0.003006~0.1503mg/mL(R2=0.9999) with average recovery of 97.9% (RSD 195%). Conclusions different cultivated species of buckwheat,the concentration of total flavonoids of Fagopyrum tataricum(L.) Gaerth was 13.67-21.56mg/g, and that of F. escuientum Moench was 5.79~7.23mg/g. In different parts of buckwheat,the concentration of total flavonoids of leaves was the highest,up to 68.30mg/g. For buckwheat tea,the concentration of total flavonoids was 6.96~16.78mg/g,but they were lower than that of buckwheat seeds. This method was simple,accurate and reproducible for determination of total flavonoids of buckwheat and buckwheat goods.

  13. Spatial characteristics of aluminum uptake and translocation in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Benjamin; Horst, Walter J

    2010-06-01

    The detoxification of aluminum (Al) in root tips of the Al accumulator buckwheat by exudation of oxalate leading to reduced Al uptake (Al resistance) is difficult to reconcile with the Al accumulation (Al tolerance). The objective of this study was to analyze resistance and tolerance mechanisms at the same time evaluating particularly possible stratification of Al uptake, Al transport and oxalate exudation along the root apex. The use of a minirhizotron made it possible to differentiate between spatial responses to Al along the root apex with regard to Al uptake and organic acid anion exudation, but also to measure at the same time Al and organic acid transport in the xylem. Al accumulates particularly in the 3-mm root apex. The study showed that Al taken up by the 10-mm root apex is rapidly transferred to the xylem which differentiates in the 10 to 15-mm root zone as revealed by a microscopic study. Al induces the release of oxalate from the root apex but particularly from the subapical 6-20 mm root zone even when Al was applied only to the 5-mm root apex suggesting a basipetal signal transduction. Citrate proved to be the most likely ligand for Al in the xylem because Al and citrate transport rates were positively correlated. In conclusion, the data presented show that the Al-induced release of oxalate, and Al uptake as well as Al accumulation are spatially not separated in the root apex.

  14. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  15. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  16. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  17. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity.

  18. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  19. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lee, Seung Mi; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Inglett, George E; Lee, Suyong

    2010-10-01

    With rising consumer awareness of obesity, the food industry has a market-driven impetus to develop low-fat or fat-free foods with acceptable taste and texture. Fancy buckwheat flour was thus subjected to steam jet-cooking and the performance of the resulting product in cake-baking was evaluated as a fat replacer. Steam jet-cooking caused structural breakdown and starch gelatinization of buckwheat flour, thus increasing its water hydration properties. In the pasting measurements, steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited high initial viscosity, while no peak viscosity was observed. Also, the suspensions of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour exhibited shear-thinning behaviors, which were well characterized by the power law model. When shortening in cakes was replaced with steam jet-cooked buckwheat gels, the specific gravity of cake batters significantly increased, consequently affecting cake volume after baking. However, shortening replacement with steam jet-cooked buckwheat up to 20% by weight appeared to be effective in producing cakes as soft as the control without volume loss. When buckwheat flour was thermomechanically modified by steam jet-cooking, it was successfully incorporated into cake formulations for shortening up to 20% by weight, producing low-fat cakes with comparable volume and textural properties to the control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Optimization of the Formula of Tartary Buckwheat Bread%苦荞面包配方的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2013-01-01

    采用快速发酵法,研究了苦荞粉添加量、魔芋精粉和谷朊粉添加量对苦荞面包品质的影响.试验表明:苦荞粉添加量对苦荞面包的比容和感官评定得分起着决定作用;苦荞粉添加量占苦荞粉和面包专用粉总质量的30%时,魔芋精粉添加量为1.61%,谷朊粉添加量为1.60%,苦荞面包比容最大.%The influences of tartary buckwheat bread quality on added buckwheat powder and konjac flour and wheat gluten added by quick fermentation were tested. The experiments showed that the amount of tartary buckwheat powder played a decisive role of tartary buckwheat bread specific volume and sensory evaluation scores. The best addition amount of buckwheat powder was 30% of total counts of buckwheat powder and bread flour. The best addition amounts of konjac flour and wheat gluten werel.61%, and 1.60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the largest buckwheat bread specific volume was obtained.

  1. Anaphylaxis to buckwheat in an atopic child: a risk factor for severe allergy to nuts and seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Eva-Maria; Kollmann, Dagmar; Zach, Maximilian; Bohle, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is known to cause severe anaphylactic reactions in adult individuals. However, type I allergy to buckwheat is rarely seen in children. We report on a 7-year-old boy who developed a grade III anaphylactic reaction after consumption of a cake containing buckwheat flour. Prior to this incident, the boy had developed severe allergic reactions to hazelnuts and suffered from an oral allergy syndrome to poppy seed. Analysis of the patient's IgE reactivity by immunoblotting experiments revealed that he was sensitized to members of the 2S albumin and 11S globulin protein families in buckwheat. Additionally, cross-reactivity was found between the 11S globulins in buckwheat, poppy and hazelnut. IgE inhibition experiments indicated that the 11S globulin in buckwheat was the initial sensitizing protein. We conclude that 11S globulins in buckwheat have the potential to induce IgE antibodies cross-reactive with 11S globulins in other, botanically unrelated foods and may induce anaphylactic reactions.

  2. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  3. Elaboration, Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis of a Sweet Bread Made with Buckwheat and Fruit Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Möller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of new gluten free sweet bread, as well as their physicochemical features and acceptance. As more and more people become aware of coeliac disease, it is important to increase the options in terms of gluten free bakery products. The adaptation of bakery product-sweet bread-to gluten free versions can be justified for its role in preventing coeliac problems. Wheat flour was substituted by common buckwheat flour mixed with fruit flours and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, compared to standard sweet bread, with wheat flour in its composition. The passion fruit sweet bread had the highest percentage of humidity, with significant difference among the other formulations (p≤0.05. Ash and lipids had the highest amount in the banana sample and proteins showed its highest value in the standard sweet bread (p≤0.05. A sensory analysis was conducted, with good results. It was also evaluated the purchase intention, indicating that these products are not only viable, but worth buying.

  4. Differential expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Woo, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Sang Un

    2010-12-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a short-season grain crop that is a source of rutin and other phenolic compounds. In this study, we isolated the cDNAs of 11 F. esculentum enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, namely, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) 1 and 2, chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonol synthase (FLS) 1 and 2, and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that these genes were most highly expressed in the stems and roots. However, high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that their flavonoid products, such as rutin and catechin, accumulated in the flowers and leaves. These results suggested that flavonoids may be transported within F. esculentum. In addition, light and dark growth conditions affected the expression levels of the biosynthesis genes and accumulation of phenolic compounds in F. esculentum sprouts.

  5. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes.

  6. Effect of Different Fertilization Patterns on Buckwheat Seed Quality%不同肥料配施方案对荞麦籽粒品质影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松鹤; 任琴; 曹兴明; 郭宏杰; 刘拴成

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to improve the taste and quality of buck-wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds. [Method] Buckwheat seeds were fertilized by using a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design to establish quaternary quadratic regression equations between N, P, K, organic fertilizers and soluble sug-ar, protein contents in buckwheat seeds. [Result] According to the regression equa-tions, appropriately increasing the application amount of P fertilizer and maintaining the ratio of N fertilizer to organic fertilizer at 1:140 could improve soluble sugar and protein contents in buckwheat seeds. By simulation optimization using a computer, in order to ensure high soluble sugar and protein contents in buckwheat seeds, the optimal fertilization patterns of each fertilizer were: N, 535.35-581.10 kg/hm2; P2O5, 69.511 5-71.359 5 kg/hm2; K2O, 249.525-270.975 kg/hm2; organic fertilizer, 76 590-80 514 kg/hm2. The optimal fertilization ratio of N, P, K and organic fertilizers was 8:1:4:1 114. [Conclusion] This study provided scientific basis for producing buck-wheat products with good taste, high nutrition value and excel ent quality.%[目的]该研究旨在提高荞麦( Fagopyrum esculentum)籽粒口感与品质。[方法]采用4因素5水平二次正交旋转组合设计方案进行施肥,分别建立氮肥、磷肥、钾肥和有机肥与荞麦籽粒中可溶性糖和蛋白质的4元2次回归方程。[结果]通过回归方程分析得出:适当增施 P肥,同时 N肥和有机肥比例为1:140时,可以提高荞麦种子中蛋白质和可溶性糖的含量。通过计算机模拟方程寻优得出,荞麦种子中可溶性糖含量和蛋白质含量都较高的最优施肥方案是:N:535.35-581.10 kg/hm2; P2O5:69.5115-71.3595 kg/hm2;K2O:249.525-270.975 kg/hm2;有机肥:76590-80514 kg/hm2。氮肥、磷肥、钾肥和有机肥的最优施肥比例约为8:1:4:1114。[结论]该研究为生产口感佳、营养高、品质优的

  7. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  8. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  9. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  10. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  11. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  12. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  13. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  14. Textural properties of bread formulations based on buckwheat and rye flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern nutrition and nutritionists worldwide more and more require high nutritional quality foods including breads. Products based on rye (Secale cereale L. and other cereals such as buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench provide nutritional benefits such as higher intake of fibre which has a positive effect on digestion and decreases a risk of obesity and heart disease, therefore current trend is to replace part of gluten breads with other cereal products. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in breads based on buckwheat and rye mixtures influenced by ratio of buckwheat and rye flour. Eleven ratios of buckwheat-rye flours were prepared. Dough and bread quality were tested in terms of dough machine workability, dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analyses 24 and 72 hours after baking. The results were statistically evaluated and showed that rising amount of rye flour in mixtures did not affect dough machine workability but improved all of the investigated texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads, no significant differences were found. All texture parameters deteriorated with staling time.

  15. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  16. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  17. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  18. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  19. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  20. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...

  1. Metabolism of secondary metabolites isolated from Tartary buckwheat and its extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiang; Li, Yingfei; Wu, Caisheng; Wang, Caihong; Jin, Ying; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-07-01

    The metabolism of Tartary buckwheat was investigated using a strategy from single bioactive compounds to complex Tartary buckwheat extract. Firstly, the metabolites of different structural compounds were investigated by an in situ liver-intestinal perfusion model and the metabolic pathways were proposed. Furthermore, Tartary buckwheat extract in rats was elucidated on the basis of the metabolism information of single compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass and multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS(n)) was performed to characterise and identify 19 metabolites in perfusate and intestinal content after administration of single compounds to an in situ liver/intestinal perfusion model and 16 metabolites and 6 components in rat faeces, urine, bile, and plasma after oral administration of Tartary buckwheat to rats. Five new metabolites were identified as the glucuronidation and sulfation products of N-trans-feruloyltyramine and the methylation product of quercetin-3-O-[β-d-xyloxyl-(1→2)-α-l-rhamnoside]. The metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid glycosides and N-trans-feruloyltyramine were proposed for the first time.

  2. Distribution of Vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin in common buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Jana; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2006-07-26

    Buckwheat leaves and young parts of the plant are consumed in some countries as a vegetable. Green flour, obtained by milling of the dried plants, is used as a natural food colorant. The distribution of vitamin E, squalene, epicatechin, and rutin (as the most important antioxidants) within buckwheat plants, as well as changes of their content within leaves during the growing season, were determined by GC-MS and HPLC analyses. alpha-Tocopherol was found as the main component of vitamin E in all parts of the plant; epicatechin and squalene were also detected. For the use of buckwheat as an antioxidant source in the human diet, the most suitable part of the plants seems to be the leaves and the flowers at the stage of full flowering due to the considerable amounts of rutin and epicatechin. alpha-Tocopherol content correlates positively with temperature, drought, and duration of solar radiation. Certain differences appear among varieties of buckwheat, especially in their squalene and rutin contents.

  3. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Material and methods. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropa- noid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. Results. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control, whereas phenylala- nine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control. Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively, condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively, and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively. Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. Conclusion. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of sec- ondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of

  4. Genetic Diversity within Cultivar Population and among Different Cultivars of Common Buckwheat%甜荞品种内与品种间的遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠景; 冯佰利; 柴岩; 胡银岗

    2009-01-01

    以9个甜荞品种为材料,1个苦荞品种为对照,每个品种随机取10粒种子发芽,提取基因组DNA,采用长随机引物和内含子切接点引物的PCR分子标记技术,对甜荞品种内和品种间的遗传多样性进行了分析.结果表明:(1)所使用的引物均能在 9份甜荞品种和1份苦荞品种中稳定扩增出条带,共获得了45条条带,其中多态性条带42条,占总数的93.3%;(2)甜荞同一品种内存在一定的遗传差异,但遗传距离较小,大部分不同甜荞品种间的遗传差异大于其品种内的遗传差异.因而,在甜荞品种鉴定和遗传多样性研究中,通过品种内适当混合取样可以较好地代表和反映甜荞品种特性.%Common buckwheat (F.esculentum) is an allogamy crop,which is entomophilous heterogony.Revealing the genetic diversity within cultivar population has great theoretical and practical significance for the establishment of the sampling strategy in its genetic diversity study.Nine common buckwheat varieties were used as materials,and one tartary buckwheat variety was as control in this study.Ten seeds of each cultivar were randomly picked for seedling germination and genomic DNA extraction.PCR with intron-splice junction primers and long random primers was employed to reveal the genetic diversity within cultivar population and among cultivars of common buckwheat.The results showed:(1)All of the primers used could amplify stable bands in 9 common buckwheat cultivars and 1 tartary buckwheat cultivar,the total bands amplified were 45,of which 42 bands were polymorphic,accounting for 93.3% of total bands;(2)There were differences between different individuals of the same common buckwheat cultivar,but the difference within the cultivar population was much smaller than that among different cultivars.Therefore,taking mixed sample of appropriate seedlings of one cultivar could reflect the characteristics of the cultivar in the germplasm idenfication and genetic diversity study

  5. Optimization on Processing Technologies of Buckwheat Resistant Starch by Pullulanase Hydrolysis%酶解法制备荞麦抗性淀粉的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 肖新龙; 李海侠; 张国权

    2012-01-01

    With buckwheat used as raw material , the best technologies for producing resistant starch and the best resistant starch yield with pullulanase hydrolysis method were determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal test. The effects of various processing parameters on resistant starch yield were studied at the same time. It was found that influencing factors of resistant starch yield are the concentration of the buckwheat paste, amount of pullulanase, hydrolysis time and temperature. The optimum technical parameters and conditions were obtained:the concentration of the buckwheat paste was 5 g/(100 mL) which was laydrolyzed by 7.2 PUN/g pullulanase for 8 h at 45 ℃, and the RS yield is 15.82%. By combining pullulanase hydrolysis method and moist heat sterilization, there is a marked improvement of resistant starch yield compared with that of raw buckwheat flour.%为确定荞麦粉制备抗性淀粉的工艺条件,采用普鲁兰酶酶解脱支法,并通过单因素和正交试验研究了影响抗性淀粉得率的因素。结果表明:影响抗性淀粉得率的因素主次顺序依次为荞麦粉浓度、普鲁兰酶用量、酶解时间和酶解温度。酶解法制备荞麦抗性淀粉的适宜工艺条件为荞麦粉浓度5 g/(100 mL)、普鲁兰酶用量7.2 PUN/g、酶解温度45℃、酶解时间8 h,在此条件下测得的抗性淀粉含量为15.82%。与原粉相比,普鲁兰酶酶解脱支与湿热法相结合制备荞麦抗性淀粉使其抗性淀粉含量显著提高。

  6. A novel buckwheat protein with a beneficial effect in atherosclerosis was purified from Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  8. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopt a child and, in due course, assumed parenthood of. Jobs shortly after his .... The Psychobiographical Case Subject and Sampling ..... The school recommended that he skip .... look at pathways that could lead to personal fulfilment ...... Personology: Method and content in personality assessment and psychobiography.

  9. Methyl jasmonate stimulates biosynthesis of 2-phenylethylamine, phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol in seedlings of common buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Sawicki, Tomasz; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Mitrus, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate has a strong effect on secondary metabolizm in plants, by stimulating the biosynthesis a number of phenolic compounds and alkaloids. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important source of biologically active compounds. This research focuses on the detection and quantification of 2-phenylethylamine and its possible metabolites in the cotyledons, hypocotyl and roots of common buckwheat seedlings treated with methyl jasmonate. In cotyledons of buckwheat sprouts, only traces of 2-phenylethylamine were found, while in the hypocotyl and roots its concentration was about 150 and 1000-times higher, respectively. Treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in a 4-fold increase of the 2-phenylethylamine level in the cotyledons of 7-day buckwheat seedlings, and an 11-fold and 5-fold increase in hypocotyl and roots, respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment led also to about 4-fold increase of phenylacetic acid content in all examined seedling organs, but did not affect the 2-phenylethanol level in cotyledons, and slightly enhanced in hypocotyl and roots. It has been suggested that 2-phenylethylamine is a substrate for the biosynthesis of phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol, as well as cinnamoyl 2-phenethylamide. In organs of buckwheat seedling treated with methyl jasmonate, higher amounts of aromatic amino acid transaminase mRNA were found. The enzyme can be involved in the synthesis of phenylpyruvic acid, but the presence of this compound could not be confirmed in any of the examined organs of common buckwheat seedling.

  10. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  11. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  12. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  13. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  14. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  15. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  16. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat-Based Cookies Designed for a Raw Food Vegan Diet as Affected by Moderate Drying Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožková, Iveta; Dvořáková, Veronika; Michálková, Kateřina; Červenka, Libor; Velichová, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Buckwheat cookies with various ingredients for raw food vegan diet are usually prepared by soaking them in water at ambient temperature followed by drying at moderate temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the temperature effect on the microbiological quality, antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of lipids of final dried samples. The mixture of ingredients was soaked for 20 h in distilled water, and then cookies were formed and dried in air-forced oven at constant temperature in the range from 40 to 60 °C. Total viable counts, fungi, yeasts, coliform and aerobic spore-forming bacteria counts were evaluated in dried samples and were found to decrease during drying at 50 and 60 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the former showed the highest value at 40 °C. Superoxide dismutase activity was also higher at 40 °C in comparison with that at 60 °C. The percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition increased with the increase in drying temperature until 4th day of incubation. While peroxide value was significantly higher in samples dried at 40 °C, TBARS values did not show significant changes during the drying process. The results of this study suggest that drying buckwheat-based cookies at 40 °C retained their good antioxidant properties but represent a potentially serious microbial hazard.

  17. 渗透胁迫和盐胁迫对荞麦硝酸还原酶及亚硝酸还原酶活性的影响%Effects of Osmotic and Salt Stress on Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase Activities of Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2013-01-01

    以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808和耐盐荞麦品种川荞1号为试验材料,采用NaCl和等渗PEG-6000处理,研究渗透胁迫和盐胁迫对不同耐盐性荞麦品种硝酸还原酶(NR)及亚硝酸还原酶(NiR)活性的影响.结果表明,高浓度盐胁迫下盐敏感荞麦品种叶片NR及NiR活性显著降低,而耐盐荞麦品种降低幅度相对较小,且高浓度盐胁迫下盐敏感荞麦品种叶片NR及NiR活性的降低幅度明显大于渗透胁迫的,说明Na+毒害效应发挥了主要作用.另外,两个荞麦品种叶片NR活性高低与其叶片硝酸盐含量呈正相关.%The salt-sensitive buckwheat variety (TQ-0808) and salt-tolerant buckwheat variety (Chuanqiao No.1)were used as experimental materials,which were treated with NaCl and iso-osmotic PEG-6000.The effects of osmotic and salt stress on nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity of buckwheat varieties with different salt tolerance were studied.The results showed that the nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity of leaves in salt-sensitive buckwheat variety were decreased significantly under the salt stress of high concentration,while that in salt-tolerant buckwheat variety were decreased relatively small,and that in salt-sensitive buckwheat variety under the salt stress of high concentration were obviously more than those under the osmotic stress.It indicated that ion toxicity effects of Na + play the major role.In addition,the level of nitrate reductase activity of leaves in two buckwheat varieties was positively correlated with the nitrate content of leaves.

  18. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  19. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  20. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  1. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  2. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  3. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  4. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  5. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  6. BUCKWHEAT AS A GLUTEN-FREE CEREAL IN COMBINATION WITH MAIZE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, and fatigue. The only treatment is long life diet with absence of gluten. Many researches concerning gluten-free nutrition have been done but it is still a big challenge. The main aim of this work was to observe changes in gluten-free breads quality made from maize-buckwheat mixtures depending on ratio of maize and buckwheat flour. To obtain samples, bread baking test was applied and these were provided to analyses (dough and pastry yield, baking loss, specific volume and texture analysis. The results showed that rising amount of maize flour in mixtures improved texture characteristics such as chewiness and gumminess, concerning specific volume of breads no significant differences were found and it was proved, that all texture parameters deteriorate with staling time.

  7. 荞麦多糖的研究进展%Research Advances of Buckwheat Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏

    2015-01-01

    The research advances on extraction,separation and purification,chemical analysis and biological activities of Buckwheat Polysaccharide were summarized.The problems at present and the future research progress on Buckwheat polysaccharides were put forward.%多糖是从动、植物中分离出的一类物质,在免疫调节、抗肿瘤、抗病毒和抗感染等方面有很强的活性,疗效高、毒副作用小,值得深入研究和开发。本文就荞麦多糖的提取纯化、化学结构、分子量测定、生物活性等方面的研究进展予以综述。

  8. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  9. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  10. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  11. Effectiveness of Growing the Sugar Buckwheat in Short Time Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asker U. Taychibekov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available If you fertilize the sugar buckwheat by organ minerals on a one-time basic as a first harvest in 3-fiels short time crop rotation, it positively effects the productivity of 1st, 2nd an 3rd crops. Thus the highest rates of productivity have been observed by dung application 60 t/ha and NPK + dung 60 t/ha.

  12. 新体系评价市售荞麦的营养及健康效应%Evaluation for Nutritional and Healthy Effects of Buckwheat&Prevention of Chronic Epidemics by Diets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 靳谨; 周岳; 沈秀; 龙伟; 吴红英; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    荞麦是我国传统杂粮之一, 本研究通过玉米低营养小鼠模型结合食品BDI-GS新体系进行荞麦营养健康效应的综合评价,用损益指数(BDI)及其累计积分(GS)考察荞麦摄取对机体重要脏器组织及微观血清生化指标的影响.以线性生长期健康的ICR小鼠为对象,设有玉米空白对照组,掺和8%、16%、32%荞麦组,喂养12 d后,称重并取血样、解剖,完整剖取9项脏器组织,并进行血清生化指标的分析检测.结果表明荞麦对机体胸腺、脾脏、胰腺指标的营养、健康存在有益的效应,表现在3个剂量的重量及系数BDI均高于1.0;且3个剂量荞麦实验组的累计GS值也均高于9.0(9项指标)的基本积分.表明低剂量下摄取荞麦对机体重要脏器组织有良好的营养和健康效应,可降低血糖、血脂.同时,可以控制体重增加对抗肥胖,对我国糖尿病、癌症等相关慢性流行病的预防,降低发病率具有积极的意义.%Buckwheat is one of traditional grain cereals, in this study, through low-nutritional mice model combined the BDI-GS evaluation system of food, nutritional and healthy effects of buckwheat were evaluated comprehensively, observe the influences of buckwheat intake for functions of vital organs and/or tissues by using approach of benefit-damage index (BDI) and accumulative general scores (GS), as well as microscope serum biochemical parameters. The healthy ICR male mice during the linear growth were selected as subject. Including of blank control mice fed with maize, 8%, 16%and 32%spiking buckwheat diets fed mice were designed in the study, respectively. After fed 12 days, took mice body weights and obtained blood samples, performed necropsy and excised perfectly 9 organs or tissues , record weights and calculated indices and their BDI values , as well as accumulative GS values, further detected the serum biochemical parameters. The buckwheat intake for indicators of thymus, spleen and pancreas in

  13. Comparison and Analysis on the Content of Total Flavonoids in Liangshan Tartary Buckwheat Tea%凉山州苦荞茶总黄酮含量对比及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩发永

    2011-01-01

    分析了8个全麦苦荞茶、15个造粒成型苦荞茶、2个苦荞叶芽茶共25个苦荞茶产品的总黄酮含量,结果表明,三类苦养茶总黄酮含量平均值高低依次是全麦苦养茶<造粒成型苦荞荼<苦养叶芽茶,总黄酮含量之比全麦苦荞茶:造粒成型苦荞茶:苦荞叶芽茶为1.00∶2.51∶3.57;同一类型苦荞茶之间总黄酮最高含量平均值和最低含量平均值比值最大的是造粒成型苦荞荼,总黄酮含量差异性最大的是苦荞叶芽荼,其次是造粒成型苦荞荼,最小的是全麦苦荞茶.%Total flavonoid contents in 25 tartary buckwheat tea products including 8 wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea, 15 granulated tartary buckwheat tea and 2 tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea were analyzed. The results showed that the levels of the total flavonoid contents in the 3 types of tartary buckwheat tea were as follows, wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea buckwheat tea < tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea; and the content ratio of wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea: granulated tartary buckwheat tea: tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea was 1.00:2.52:3.57. The ratio of highest and lowest content appeared in granulated tartary buckwheat tea; the most variable content of total flavonoid was in tartary buckwheat leaf bud tea, followed by granulated tartary buckwheat tea and wholewheat tartary buckwheat tea.

  14. Growth and rutin production in hairy root cultures of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Soo-In; Park, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Eul; Park, Sang-Un

    2007-01-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) is a potentially important source of rutin, a natural flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, and antioxidative properties. To examine in vitro production of rutin, we established a hairy root culture of buckwheat by infecting leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000, and tested the growth conditions and rutin production rates of these cultures. Ten hairy root clones were established; their growth and rutin production rates ranged from 233 to 312 (mg dry wt per 30 mL flask, and 0.8 to 1.2 (mg/g dry wt), respectively. Clone H8, which had high growth and rutin production rates (312 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask and 1.2 mg/g dry wt, respectively), was selected for further experiments. H8 showed maximal growth and rutin content at 30 days in culture in MS medium. Of four tested culture media, half-strength MS medium was found to induce the highest levels of growth (378 mg dry wt per 30 mL flask) and rutin production (1.4 mg/g dry wt) by clone H8. In contrast, supplementation with auxins (0.1-1 mg/l IAA, IBA and NAA) increased the growth rate, but had no significant effect on rutin production by H8. Collectively, these findings indicate that hairy root cultures of buckwheat culture could be a valuable alternative approach for rutin production.

  15. AFLP fingerprinting of tartary buckwheat accessions (Fagopyrum tataricum) displaying rutin content variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Sharma, Sunil K; Rana, Jai C; Chauhan, Rajinder S

    2012-09-01

    In light of the economic importance of buckwheat as well as existence of enormous accessions of Fagopyrum species in the Himalayan regions of India, the characterization of tartary buckwheat for rutin content variation vis-à-vis DNA fingerprinting was undertaken so as to identify fingerprint profiles unique to high rutin content accessions. Rutin content analysis in mature seeds of 195 accessions of Fagopyrum tataricum showed a wide range of variation (6 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg D.W.) with most of the accessions (81%) containing 10-16 μg/mg of rutin followed by 14% accessions with significantly higher rutin content (17 μg/mg to 30 μg/mg) and 5% accessions with low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg). AFLP fingerprinting of 18 accessions having high (≥17 μg/mg) and low rutin content (≤10 μg/mg) with 19 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations yielded 136 polymorphic fragments out of total 907. The hierarchical and model-based cluster analyses of AFLP data strongly suggested that the 18 populations of F. tataricum were clustered into two separate groups. The high and low rutin content accessions were clustered into two separate groups based on AFLP fingerprinting. The AFLP fingerprints associated with high rutin content accessions of F. tataricum are expected to be useful for evaluation, conservation and genetic improvement of buckwheat.

  16. Antigenotoxic effect of Tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and common (Fagopyrum esculentum) buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogrinčič, Maja; Kreft, Ivan; Filipič, Metka; Zegura, Bojana

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our work was to determine and to compare the possible antigenotoxic effect of methanolic extracts of common buckwheat (CB) and Tartary buckwheat (TB) flour, containing naturally present rutin (R), and quercetin (Q), and of R and Q in chemical form, against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). R and Q content of CB and TB flour extracts was determined by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and antigenotoxic effect of flour extracts, R and Q was evaluated using the comet assay. R (100 μM) and Q (50 μM) decreased the extent of t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 51% and 67%, respectively. CB and TB flour extracts showed high antioxidant capacity and prominent genoprotective ability. CB extract containing up to 0.1 μM R decreased t-BOOH induced DNA damage for 34%, and TB extract containing up to 12.64 μM R, and 2.86 μM Q for 40%. The obtained results show high antigenotoxic activity of buckwheat and furthermore, they suggest that complex nutrient and flavonoid rich food products are more efficient in their health promoting effects compared to a single active substance.

  17. Progress and prospects for interspecific hybridization in buckwheat and the genus Fagopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler-Drienyovszki, Nóra; Cal, Andrew J; Dobránszki, Judit

    2013-12-01

    Cultivated buckwheat, such as common (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) and tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) buckwheat, is one of the most versatile crops for forage and food and has several benefits for human health. Interspecific hybridization between Fagopyrum species is of great importance to improvement of buckwheat. Hybridization would allow the transfer of agronomical beneficial characteristics from wild Fagopyrum species, including self-pollination and increased fertility, frost tolerance, and higher content of beneficial compounds. However, conventional breeding methods are only partially applicable because of the self-incompatibility and incompatibility barriers between different species. Present review summarizes the morphology of self-incompatibility, the genetic and cellular basis of incompatibility between different Fagopyrum species. In many interspecific crosses hybrid embryos are aborted after successful pollination due to post-zygotic incompatibility. The use of in vitro embryo rescue after interspecific hybridization has been successful in circumventing breeding barriers between Fagopyrum species. Methods applied successfully for the construction of interspecific hybrids are discussed in detail.

  18. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  19. Dose response and mutation induction by ion beam irradiation in buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Degi, K.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.; Tanaka, A.; Abe, T.

    2003-05-01

    The biological effects of ion beams were investigated to pursue the development of a method for breeding by mutation in buckwheat. Common buckwheat (Botansoba, Bot) and tartary buckwheat (Rotundatiem, Rot) seeds were exposed to various ions in linear energy transfer (LET) at 9-630 keV/μm. The lethal dose 50 (LD 50) of ion beams were 10-300 Gy (Bot) and 30-500 Gy (Rot). It was indicated that a penetrating depth in excess of 1.7 mm is necessary to thoroughly saturate the target, and ions with a penetrating depth of less than 2.2 mm were affected by the presence of hulls. The maximum values of the relative biological effectiveness were 17.7 (Rot) and 22.5 (Bot) at 305 keV/μm. The effective cross sections increased with the LET, and the maximum values were 2.7 (Rot) and 3.0 μm 2 (Bot). The mutation induction effects of He and C ions were higher than those of gamma rays.

  20. Genetic analyses of agronomic traits in Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Kobayashi, Kiwa; Yoshida, Yasuko; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of products made from Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) has increased in recent years in Japan. Increased consumer demand has led to recognition of the need for early varieties of this crop with high and stable yields. In order to accomplish this, more information is needed on the genetic mechanisms affecting earliness and yield. We conducted genetic analysis of 3 agronomic traits (days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight per plant) to segregate F(2) and F(3) populations derived from a cross between Tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokuriku No. 4' and 'Ishisoba'. Broad-sense heritability estimates for days to flowering, plant height and total seed weight were 0.70, 0.62 and 0.75, respectively, in F(3) population. Narrow-sense heritability for total seed weight (0.51) was highest, followed by heritability for days to flowering (0.37), with heritability for plant height (0.26) lowest. Later flowering was associated with increased plant height and higher yields. From the F(4) generation, we identified twelve candidate plants with earlier maturity and reduced plant height compared to 'Hokuriku No. 4', but almost the same total seed weight. These results suggest that hybridization breeding using the single seed descent (SSD) method is an effective approach for improving agronomic characteristics of Tartary buckwheat.

  1. Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartary buckwheat bran, a by-product of buckwheat flour production was utilized as a source of rutin, and the extracted rutin-enriched material (REM) was used to fortify wheat-based foods of which rheological and antioxidant properties were characterized. REM contained a high content of rutin (29.6 ...

  2. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  3. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  5. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  6. Effects of Different Light Intensities on the Main Physiological Characteristics of Buckwheat%不同光照强度对苦荞主要生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安虎

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究不同光照强度对苦荞主要生理特性的影响.[方法]以出苗后19 d的苦荞为试材,设置3种遮光方法(自然光强的80%、60%、40%),进行遮光处理,100%光强为对照,遮光后5 d在不同生育时期分别测定各处理叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率及茎叶和种子黄酮含量的变化,并通过SSR法进行分析比较.[结果]苦荞遮光后较短时间内,叶片叶绿素指数随光强的增加而降低,遮光后较长时间内,叶片叶绿素指数随光强的减弱而减弱;在现蕾期、开花结实期和成熟期,光照越强,苦荞叶片的净光合速率和叶、茎的黄酮含量越高,表现为:CK>80%光强>60%光强>40%光强,成熟期苦荞籽粒黄酮含量变化与此一致.[结论]光照强弱对苦荞的叶绿素指数、净光合速率和黄酮含量均具有较大的影响.%[Objective]The purpose was to study the effects of different light intensity on buckwheat.[Method]With buckwheat after seeding emergence for 19 d as the tested material, 3 shading treatments with the light intensity of 80%, 60% and 40% of nature light were sep up to treat on the buckwheat seedlings, with light intensity of 100% as CK.After the shading treatments for 5 d, the leaf chlorophyll contents index, the net photosynthetic rates and the flavone contents in stem-leaves and seeds of the buckwheat during different growth stages were measured, and they were analyzed and compared by SSR.[Result]The chlorophyll exponent of buckwheat leaves was reduced with the increase of light intensity in short time after shading treatments and it was weaken with the reduction of light intensity.The stronger the light intensity was, the higher the net photosynthetic rate in leaves and the flavone content in stem-leaves were in squaring, blooming and bearing and mature stages.Their performance for different shading treatments in order was CK > 80% light intensity > 60% light intensity > 40% light intensity.The flavone content in

  7. 适宜机播深度及覆土厚度提高苦荞幼苗素质%Appropriate mechanical sowing depth and soil-covering thickness improving seedling quality of tartary buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向达兵; 邹亮; 彭镰心; 赵钢; 范昱; 韦爽; 宋超; 刘学仪; 海来吉木

    2014-01-01

    Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an edible and medicinal crop belonging to family Polygonaceae and it is native to southwest of China, northern India, Bhutan and Nepal. The seeds are widely consumed as daily diet and traditional medicine, such as tartary buckwheat flour, noodles, bread, tea, vinegar, sprouts, etc. Tartary buckwheat is one of the most complete and nutritional foods and rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, dietary fiber, amino acids, trace elements, and various bioactive phytochemicals. Thus, interest in the use of tartary buckwheat for health benefits is growing, and the market demand is increasing. However, the major tartary buckwheat production is in hilly and high-cold mountainous areas. Because of the inconvenience in transportation and lack of communication with outside, the mechanization of farming in these areas is still under developed, which seriously limits the development of tartary buckwheat industry. As we known, mechanization for farming is important in increase of farm productivity and improving efficiency for modern agriculture production. In order to investigate the feasibility of mechanized seeding technology and the measures of improving the mechanical sowing quality of tartary buckwheat in the hilly areas, a field experiment with three sowing depth (2, 4, 6 cm) and soil-covering (no-covering as CK) was conducted to study quality of tartary buckwheat seedlings during the growing season of 2012 at the farm of Jintang county in Sichuan Province. The results showed that sowing depth was the most important factor, and the optimum depth was 4 cm. The emergence rate, seedling number, seedling rate, root activity, stem diameter, dry matter, area per plant and leaf chlorophyll content of the treatment of 2 cm sowing depth decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared to 4 cm sowing depth. Besides, the 6 cm sowing depth resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower emergence rate, plant height, dry matter weight, area per plant, stem

  8. Level of catechin, myricetin, quercetin and isoquercitrin in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), changes of their levels during vegetation and their effect on the growth of selected weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Jana; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    2009-04-01

    Buckwheat is well-known as a crop rich in flavonoids, however, attention has usually only been paid to the main flavonoid rutin as an important natural antioxidant or as a possible allelopathic compound. Therefore, some of the other constituents found within individual plant parts of buckwheat (isoquercitrin, quercetin, catechin, and myricetin), as well as changes of their level during the growing season, were determined by HPLC analysis. The effects of these compounds on plant growth were proved on seven plant species. In buckwheat, isoquercitrin represented the largest component of the selected compounds. The strongest inhibitive effects on the growth of those selected plants were produced by catechin. Quercetin and isoquercitrin had weak inhibitive effects. Myricetin did not show any influence on plant growth. Hence we suppose that myricetin, isoquercetin and quercetin do not have important function in allelopathy of buckwheat. Buckwheat as row material for functional foods could be a significant source of another antioxidant, isoquercitrin.

  9. 发酵荞麦面条制备工艺研究%Preparation of fermented buckwheat noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小磊

    2011-01-01

    以荞麦面为主要原料,加入一定量的酵母和水,调制成荞麦面团,在30℃恒温条件下发酵成具有一定的芳香酸味的荞麦面团,再利用面条机将发酵好的荞麦面团挤压成荞麦面条。试验了面团含水量、酵母添加量、发酵时间和温度对荞麦面团发酵程度及面团成型的影响。%Buckwheat flour was made as the primary raw material,joining the ration yeast and the suitable proportion water then changing them for the buckwheat pasta.There ferments long time with 30 ℃ until it became aromatic acid taste buckwheat pasta.The buckwheat paste was made into noodle by the noodle maker.Water content,yeast's recruitment,ferment time and ferment temperature factors affecting buckwheat paste.

  10. Translation Procedures (a Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Roswita; Lestari, Disa Evawani

    2012-01-01

    Roswita Silalahi This research is entitled Translation Procedures (A Case Study) which analysis translation procedures used in translating economic terms from English language book Principles of Economics by N. Gregory Mankiw into Bahasa Indonesia book Pengantar Ekonomi by Haris Munandar. The improvement of economic science which creates new economic terms challenges translator especially in translating a word or phrase, which in some cases, does not exist in the target l...

  11. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.

  12. Response surface modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of three flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Xin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp., Polygonaceae is a widely planted food crop. Flavonoids, including quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol, are the main bioactive components in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L. Gaertn. From the nutriological and pharmacological perspectives, flavonoids have great value in controlling blood glucose and blood pressure levels, and they also have antioxidant properties. Objective: To optimize the conditions for extraction of quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol from F. tataricum. Materials and Methods: A combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and response surface methodology (RSM was used for flavonoid extraction and yield assessment. The RSM was based on a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design. Results: Flavonoids were optimally extracted from F. tataricum by using 72% methanol, at 60°C, for 21 minutes. Under these conditions, the obtained extraction yield of the total flavonoids was 3.94%. Conclusion : The results indicated that the UAE method was effective for extraction of flavonoids from tartary buckwheat.

  13. Proteinases from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum moench seeds: Purification and properties of the 47 kDa enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinases from buckwheat seeds are analyzed. Three forms of 47 kDa, 40 kDa and 28 kDa, were purified from mature buckwheat seeds, while two forms of 47 kDa and 28 kDa were detected in developing buckwheat seeds using pepstatin A affinity chromatography. A form of 47 kDa was selectively precipitated from other forms by ammonium sulfate precipitation. This enzyme resembles the chymosin-like pattern of proteolytic activity, as it was shown using BSA and k-casein as substrates, clarifying its ability for milk-clotting. The 47 kDa aspartic proteinase form is localized in the membrane fraction. .

  14. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  15. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  16. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  17. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  18. 苦荞花生奶茶的研制%Development on Tartary Buckwheat and Peanut Milk Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静波; 赵江林; 彭镰心; 邹亮; 贾丹; 李园园; 赵钢

    2013-01-01

      Tartary buckwheat, peanut and skimmed milk powder were used as the raw material for developing buckwheat and peanut milk tea. Through the orthogonal experiment analysis, the extraction conditions of tartary buckwheat, the optimal formula and stability of tartary buckwheat and peanut milk tea were investigated. The results showed that the best extracting procedures of tartary buckwheat were determined as follows:ratio of solid to liquid 1∶30, extracting temperature 70℃, extracting time 2 hours;the optimal formula was obtained by using 40%tartary buckwheat extract, 20 % peanut plasma, 20 % skim milk and 1.5 % sucrose; and the optimal stabilizer was combination of 0.02%carrageenan, 0.10%xanthan gum and 0.20%sucrose fatty acid ester.%  以苦荞、花生和脱脂奶粉为主要原料,通过正交试验对苦荞浸提条件、苦荞花生奶茶的配方以及稳定性进行了研究。结果表明,苦荞最佳浸提条件为料水比1∶30,浸提温度70℃,浸提时间2 h;苦荞花生奶茶的最佳配方为苦荞浆40%,花生浆20%,脱脂奶20%,蔗糖1.5%;最佳的复合稳定剂添加量为卡拉胶0.02%,黄原胶0.10%,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.20%。

  19. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  20. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  1. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  2. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  3. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  4. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  5. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  6. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  7. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression in hairy roots of tartary buckwheat under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, YeJi; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Nam-Il; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2014-12-01

    Differential expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in the hairy roots of tartary buckwheat cultivars "Hokkai T8" and "Hokkai T10" were studied over a time course of the light-dark cycle. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system was applied for inducing hairy roots. Further, a total of six phenolic compounds and two anthocyanins were analyzed in the hairy roots which were exposed to both light and dark conditions, and their amounts were estimated by HPLC. The gene expression levels peaked on day 5 of culture during the time course of both dark and light conditions. Notably, FtPAL, Ft4CL, FtC4H, FtCHI, FtF3H, FtF3'H-1, and FtFLS-1 were more highly expressed in Hokkai T10 than in Hokkai T8 under dark conditions, among which FtPAL and FtCHI were found to be significantly upregulated, except on day 20 of culture. Significantly higher levels of phenolic compound, rutin, along with two anthocyanins were detected in the hairy roots of Hokkai T10 under both conditions. Furthermore, among all the phenolic compounds detected, the amount of rutin in Hokkai T10 hairy roots was found to be ∼5-fold (59,01 mg/g dry weight) higher than that in the control (12.45 mg/g dry weight) at the respective time periods under light and dark conditions.

  8. On the origin of the woody buckwheat Fagopyrum tibeticum (=Parapteropyrum tibeticum) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinmin; Luo, Jian; Wang, Ailan; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2011-11-01

    Here we tested whether 'insular woodiness', a striking evolutionary pattern that commonly occurs on islands, has also appeared in QTP continental endemics. Parapteropyrum, a monotypic shrubby genus occurring in the central QTP, has been previously placed in the tribe Atraphaxideae of the family Polygonaceae, while all the other woody species of this tribe mainly occur in western and central Asia. We studied sequence variations of nuclear ITS (internal transcribed spacer) and cp (chloroplast) DNA (rbcL and accD) of this genus and the other ten genera. The constructed phylogenies based on ITS, cpDNA or a combination of both datasets, suggest that the woody Parapteropyrum is nested within and most likely evolved from the herbaceous Fagopyrum. We propose that the large-scale uplift of the QTP not only promoted continental species radiation, but also the secondary feature of woodiness in a few herbaceous lineages in response to strong selection pressures, similar to those acting on island flora. In addition, the confirmation of Parapteropyrum within Fagopyrum highlights its potential use as a new, perennial source of buckwheat.

  9. Characterization of FeDREB1 promoter involved in cold- and drought-inducible expression from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z W; Xu, X Y; Gao, J F; Wang, P K; Liu, Z X; Feng, B L

    2015-07-17

    C-repeat-binding factor (CBF)/dehydration-responsive element (DREB) transcription factors play key roles in plant stress responses. However, little information is available on the regulation of CBF/DREB expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the FeDREB1 promoter sequence from the common buckwheat accession Xinong 9976. To identify the upstream region of the FeDREB1 gene required for promoter activity, we constructed a series of FeDREB1 promoter deletion derivatives. Each deletion construct was analyzed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in tobacco leaves treated with 4°C cold or drought stress. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase fusion assays revealed that the pCD1 (-270 bp) deletion in the upstream region of FeDREB1 could activate expression of the GUS gene at 4°C. The pCD1 (-270 bp), pCD2 (-530 bp), and pCD3 (-904 bp) deletion induced low-level GUS expression under drought stress. However, the pCD4 (-1278 bp) deletion clearly activated GUS gene expression. Our results suggest that sections pCD1 (-270 bp) and pCD4 (-1278 bp) in the FeDREB1 gene promoter are new sources of induced promoters for adversity-resistance breeding in plant genetic engineering.

  10. Potentially bioaccessible phenolics, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of young buckwheat sprouts affected by elicitation and elicitation supported by phenylpropanoid pathway precursor feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the study on impact of elicitation and the phenylpropanoid pathway feeding on the nutritional quality, the potentially bioaccessible phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of young buckwheat sprouts. Phenolics content was increased by elicitation and feeding with tyrosine and shikimic acid--an elevation of 30% and 17%, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was improved by feeding with tyrosine--an increase of 16.7% and 17.1% in both untreated and treated sprouts, respectively. The highest protein digestibility was determined for the control sprouts and those obtained after tyrosine feeding. The lowest starch digestibility was found for elicited sprouts obtained from seeds fed with tyrosine (a decrease by 52%). An increase of expected glycemic index by 38% was determined for elicited sprouts obtained after phenylalanine feeding. Starch and protein digestibility were negatively correlated with total phenolics (r = -0.55 and -0.58, respectively), however starch digestibility was also affected by resistant starch content.

  11. Research progress of buckwheat nutrition and its product%荞麦营养及其制品研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海莹; 张锐昌; 张应龙; 聂小宝

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews research statusof nutritional valueof buckwheat,proportionof major nutrient in different buckwheat powder,and the processingcraftof its product. Meanwhile it analyzes the problems existing in buckwheat processing,and gives anoutlookon its prospect.%简要综述了荞麦的营养价值,不同荞麦粉主要营养成分的比例,以及其制品加工工艺的研究状况,同时,分析了荞麦加工存在的问题,并对其前景进行展望。

  12. Case Study: Guidelines for Producing Videos to Accompany Flipped Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Wild, John H.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Three years ago, the "National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science" (NCCSTS) was inspired to merge the case study and flipped classroom approaches. The resulting project aimed to create the materials required to teach a flipped course in introductory biology by assigning videos as homework and case studies in the classroom. Three…

  13. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. © 2013.

  14. Analysis on contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles%苦荞茶和荞麦面条中芦丁及槲皮素含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪锋; 唐宇; 孙俊秀; 钟志惠

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法分析苦荞茶和荞麦面条中的芦丁和槲皮素含量.结果表明:造粒型和非造粒型(全麦和全胚)苦荞茶中芦丁和槲皮素的含量(质量分数)具有明显差异,非造粒型苦荞茶中芦丁的质量分数较高(0.518 3%~0.850 6%),槲皮素的质量分数较低(0.0573%~0.252 1%);而造粒型苦荞茶和荞麦面条中槲皮素的质量分数较高(0.481 6%~1.022 2%,0.034 9%~0.072 0%),芦丁的质量分数较低(0.029 7%~0.031 4%,0.008 1%~0.024 4%),这可能是由于荞麦中存在的芦丁降解酶分解芦丁产生槲皮素的缘故.由此可见,并非所有的苦荞茶和荞麦面条都是以芦丁作为主要的黄酮类物质,单纯以芦丁和总黄酮的质量分数来评价荞麦制品的品质是不准确的.%Contents of rutin and quercetin in tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the contents of rutin and quercetin had significant differences between granulated and whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. There was more rutin (0. 518 3% ~0. 850 6%) than quercetin (0. 057 3% ~0.252 1%) in whole wheat (embryo) tartary buckwheat tea. However, in granulated tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles, the content of rutin (0. 029 7% ~0.0314% and 0.008 1%~0. 024 4% respectively) was much less than quercetin (0.481 6%~1. 022 2% and 0. 034 9%~0. 072 0% respectively). One of the possible explanations is the presence and activity of the rutin degrading enzyme. Rutin transformed to quercetin could be caused by this enzyme found in buckwheat. Rutin was not the main flavonoids in all tartary buckwheat tea and tartary buckwheat dried noodles. So, it was inaccurate to evaluate the quality of buckwheat products only by rutin content and total flavonoids content.

  15. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  16. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  17. Metabolomic analysis and differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in white- and red-flowered buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Park, Soo-Yun; Thwe, Aye Aye; Seo, Jeong Min; Suzuki, Tastsuro; Kim, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2013-11-01

    Red-flowered buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is used in the production of tea, juice, and alcohols after the detoxification of fagopyrin. In order to investigate the metabolomics and regulatory of anthocyanin production in red-flowered (Gan-Chao) and white-flowered (Tanno) buckwheat cultivars, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted. The transcriptions of FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeF3H, FeANS, and FeDFR increased gradually from flowering stage 1 and reached their highest peaks at flowering stage 3 in Gan-Chao flower. In total 44 metabolites, 18 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 7 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine were detected in Gan-Chao flowers. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside, were identified in Gan-Chao cultivar. The first component of the partial least-squares to latent structures-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that high amounts of phenolic, shikimic, and pyruvic acids were present in Gan-Chao. We suggest that transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, anthocyanin contents, and metabolites have correlation in the red-flowered buckwheat Gan-Chao flowers. Our results may be helpful to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-flowered buckwheat.

  18. Effect of processing and cooking on mineral and phytic acid content of buckwheat-enriched tagliatelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrec Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of buckwheat flour - non-treated (NBF and autoclaved (TBF were used for the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle (control sample at the level of 10-30% and the produced tagliatelle samples (dry and cooked were examined in terms of mineral and phytic acid (PA content. Both NBF and TBF possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of all investigated minerals compared to whole wheat flour (WWF, but significantly lower (p < 0.05 PA content. Cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe compared to the cooked control sample, while mineral content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples was not significantly different from the control. Autoclaving significantly reduced (p < 0.05 PA content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples compared to cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle samples and the control sample. The mineral bioavailability defined through molar ratio of mineral to phytate was slightly improved in buckwheat-containing tagliatelle samples, but it still remains at low level. Regarding all results, the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle with NBF at higher levels of substitution (20-30% resulted in significant increase in mineral content and bioavailability.

  19. Influence of levan-producing acetic acid bacteria on buckwheat-sourdough breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Buckwheat sourdoughs supplemented with molasses as natural sucrose source were fermented with levan-producing Gluconobacter (G.) albidus TMW 2.1191 and Kozakia (K.) baliensis NBRC 16680. Cell growth, concomitant levan and low-molecular-weight metabolite production were monitored. Sourdough breads were prepared with different sourdoughs from both strains (24, 30 and 48 h fermentation, respectively) and analyzed with respect to bread volume, crumb hardness and sensory characteristics. During fermentation, levan, acetic and gluconic acids were increasingly produced, while spontaneously co-growing lactic acid bacteria additionally formed acetic and lactic acids. Sourdoughs from both strains obtained upon 24 h of fermentation significantly improved the bread sensory and quality, including higher specific volume as well as lower crumb hardness. Buckwheat doughs containing isolated levan, with similar molecular size and mass compared to in situ produced levan in the sourdough at 48 h, verified the positive effect of levan on bread quality. However, the positive effects of levan were masked to a certain extent by the impact from the natural acidification during fermentations. While levan-producing acetic acid bacteria are a promising alternative for the development of clean-label gluten-free breads without the need of additives, an appropriate balance between acidification and levan production (amount and structure) must be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Increasing Technology in Buckwheat Seed by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化萌发荞麦γ-氨基丁酸含量的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 胡俊君; 李红梅; 陕方; 边俊生

    2013-01-01

    Germination can increase the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in buckwheat seed.After 60 h germination,soaking with a solution of ethanol and sodium glutamate increased more GABA content in buckwheat seed.The optimal concentration of ethanol,sodium glutamate and soaking time for GABA accumulation were determined by response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimal condition for GABA accumulation during soaking were a sodium glutamate concentration of 1.3 g/100 mL,ethanol concentration of 0.9% and treatment time of 61.3 h.Under these conditions the maximal observed value of GABA was 127.96 mg/100 g,which was 12.7 times of buckwheat seed.It was shown by a indicated that the quadratic polynomial regression model was extremely significant (P<0.0001) with the R2 of 0.9665 by ANOVA analysis.This study provided theoretical basis for high GABA buckwheat food further more.%萌发处理可提高荞麦籽粒中γ-氨基丁酸含量水平.将荞麦萌发60 h,用乙醇和谷氨酸钠混合溶液浸泡处理,可进一步提高荞麦中GABA含量.采用响应面分析法优化混合溶液的浓度、处理时间等条件,结果表明,最优条件:谷氨酸钠1.3%,乙醇0.9%,处理时间61.3 h,此时萌发荞麦的γ-氨基丁酸含量达127.96 mg/100g,是萌发前的12.7倍.ANOVA分析证实了该方程的预测值与实际值之间具有较好的拟和度(R2 =0.9665).本研究为开发高GABA含量的荞麦食品提供了理论依据.

  1. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  2. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  3. Differential stress-response expression of two flavonol synthase genes and accumulation of flavonols in tartary buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Yeji; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Flavonoids are ubiquitously present in plants and play important roles in these organisms as well as in the human diet. Flavonol synthase (FLS) is a key enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, acting at the diverging point into the flavonol subclass branch. We isolated and characterized a FLS isoform gene, FtFLS2, from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). FtFLS2 shares 48% identity and 67% similarity with the previously reported FtFLS1, whereas both genes share 47-65% identity and 65-69% similarity with FLSs from other plant species. Using quantitative real-time PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the expression of FtFLS1/2 and the production of 3 main flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin) was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flowers and different stages of developing seeds. The relationship between the expression of the 2 FLS genes and the accumulation of the 3 basic flavonols was analyzed in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars. FtFLS1 and FtFLS2 exhibited differential transcriptional levels between the tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokkai T10' and 'Hokkai T8'. Generally, higher transcript levels of FtFLS1 and FtFLS2 and a higher amount of flavonols were observed in the 'Hokkai T10' cultivar than 'Hokkai T8'. The content of flavonols showed tissue-specific accumulation between the 2 cultivars. The transcription of FtFLS1 was inhibited by the exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and sodium chloride (NaCl), while FtFLS2 was not affected by ABA but up-regulated by SA and NaCl. These data indicate that the 2 FtFLS isoforms of buckwheat have different functions in the response of buckwheat to environmental stress.

  4. Effects of Exogenous Polyols on Seeds Germination and Seedlings Physiological Traits of Buckwheat under Salt Stress%外源多元醇对盐胁迫下荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪兵

    2013-01-01

    Salt-sensitive buckwheat variety TQ-0808 was treated as experimental material .Under NaCl stress of 100 mmol/L and adding different concentrations of mannitol and sorbitol treatment to study the effects of exogenous polyols on seeds germination and seedlings physiological traits of buckwheat .The results showed that the appropriate concentrations of exogenous mannitol and sorbitol treatment could significantly increase the germination rate ( Gr) , germination index ( Gi) and vigor index ( Vi) of buckwheat seeds ,and significantly promote the seedlings growth and increase the nitrate reductase(NR)activity,superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and ascorbate peroxidase(APX)ac-tivity of buckwheat seedlings under salt stress ,which could also significantly decrease the plasmalemma permeability of buckwheat seedlings under salt stress , and significantly increase the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of buckwheat seedlings .It indicated that the appropriate concentrations of mannitol or sorbitol treatment could significantly improve seeds germination and seedlings growth of buckwheat ,and significantly improve the physiologi-cal traits of buckwheat seedlings .The optimal concentrations of exogenous mannitol and sorbitol treatment were 0.8, 0 .6 mmol/L respectively ,and the effects of exogenous mannitol treatment were better than those of sorbitol did .%以盐敏感荞麦品种TQ-0808为试验材料,在100 mmol/L NaCl胁迫下添加不同浓度甘露醇和山梨醇处理,研究外源多元醇对荞麦种子萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响。结果表明,适当浓度的外源甘露醇和山梨醇处理能显著增加盐胁迫下荞麦种子的发芽率(Gr)、发芽指数(Gi)和活力指数(Vi),明显促进盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗生长及显著增加荞麦幼苗硝酸还原酶( NR)、超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶( APX)活性,显著降低盐胁迫下荞麦幼苗的质膜透性,显著增加荞麦

  5. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  6. Obsessional slowness: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy; Wong, Karen W; Fulks, Mary-Ann; Holsti, Liisa

    2008-10-01

    Obsessional slowness is a rare psychiatric disorder with few treatment options and limited research to date. Some suggest that targeted behavioural interventions may reduce the time taken for functional daily activities. To examine whether a behavioural intervention would reduce the amount of time taken for an adolescent with obsessional slowness to walk to class. A single-subject A-B-A withdrawal design was incorporated into this case study. The treatment involved one-to-one pacing and prompting during the subject's walk to gym class. Walking times to gym class were measured during a baseline phase, during a one-month treatment phase, and during a post-treatment follow-up phase. The subject's walking times decreased during the treatment phase. Post-treatment walking times suggested a carry-over effect. This study adds to the sparse evidence on treatments for obsessional slowness and suggests occupation-based treatment options.

  7. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  8. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  9. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study

  10. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  11. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  12. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  13. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  14. Control of lead polluted leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grown on lead contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M; Tamura, H; Kimura, T; Kinoshita, T; Matsufuru, H; Sato, T

    2007-04-01

    The remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil using plants is a technology worth developing. However, the overall effect of phytoremediation in high-density Pb polluted sites remains unknown. Especially, little information is available about the effects of using plants to control lead polluted leachate. Thus, we investigated the control of leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat, a Pb hyperaccumulator, grown on Pb contaminated soil. In the presence of buckwheat, the change in volumetric water content was smaller than that of the control with rainfall. The total amount of Pb in the leachate strongly correlated with the amount of leachate and the decrease in the density of Pb in the leachate. During the cultivation period, the total amount of Pb leached in the control was 1.28mg per container, while in the presence of buckwheat the total amount of Pb was approximately 22.7% of the control. Moreover, with buckwheat cultivation, Pb polluted leachate resulting from rainwater was prevented. The results suggested that buckwheat was a Pb hyperaccumulator and also had a high ability for phytostabilization. Control of Pb polluted leachate using buckwheat was shown to be a phytoremediation technology applicable to heavily Pb contaminated sites.

  15. 四川及藏东南荞麦资源的调查研究%Investigation and Research of Buckwheat Resources in Sichuan Province and Southeast Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安虎; 蔡光泽; 陈波; 华劲松

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the investigation and research of buckwheat resources of Sichuan province and Southeast Tibet by CAAS biology resource expedition in 2010 was detailed. 120 villages and more than 360 village teams of 40 villages and towns were investigated. 88 buckwheat resources including 64 tartary buckwheat resources, 20 common buckwheat resources, 4 wild buckwheat resources were obtained. The valuable buckwheat resources considered by local minority were large grain long cone resources, short thin cone resources,disease resistant, insect resistant,drought resistant and cold resistant resources.%本文叙述了2010年中国农业科学院农业生物资源考察队对四川及藏东南荞麦资源的详细调查结果.考察队共调查了40个乡镇的120个村,360余个村小组,共获得荞麦资源88份,其中苦荞资源64份,甜荞资源20份,野生荞麦资源4份.当地少数民族认知有价值的荞麦资源分别是长锥大粒型资源、短锥皮薄型资源、抗病资源、抗虫资源、抗旱资源和抗寒资源等.

  16. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  17. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  18. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  19. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  20. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  1. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  2. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  3. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M. Sprout Treated with Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA Improved Anti-Adipogenic Activity Associated with the Oxidative Stress System in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  4. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) improved anti-adipogenic activity associated with the oxidative stress system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Kui-Jin; Park, Kee-Jai; Yoon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-11

    Buckwheat sprouts contain various bioactive compounds including rutin which have a number of biological activities. We have previously shown that buckwheat sprouts (TBWE) treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly increased the amount of phenolics and the antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of TBWE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-oxidant enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of TBWE in adipocytes by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Our data showed that TBWE markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control groups. Moreover, TBWE has strongly shown the inhibition of adipogenic transcription factor as well as pro-oxidant enzymes. Together, we demonstrate that the MeJA treatment significantly increased the amount of phenolic compound, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and ROS production in the 3T3-L1 cells. These findings indicate that TBWE has the potential for anti-adipogenesis activity with anti-oxidative properties.

  5. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  6. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  7. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  8. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  9. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  10. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  11. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  12. Case Study Evaluations: A Decade of Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    In the last 10 years, there has been increased use of case study methodology, with accompanying refinement and improvement of the methods. Case studies have become legitimate research methods in evaluation, but it is too soon to say whether improvements in methodology are really resulting in improvements in the case studies conducted. (SLD)

  13. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  14. Seed-specific aspartic proteinase FeAP12 from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotijević Gordana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic proteinase gene (FeAP12 has been isolated from the cDNA library of developing buckwheat seeds. Analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed that it resembled the structure and shared high homology with typical plant aspartic proteinases (AP characterized by the presence of a plant-specific insert (PSI, unique among APs. It was shown that FeAP12 mRNA was not present in the leaves, roots, steam and flowers, but was seed-specifically expressed. Moreover, the highest levels of FeAP12 expression were observed in the early stages of seed development, therefore suggesting its potential role in nucellar degradation.

  15. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  16. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...

  17. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  18. 红花甜荞籽粒淀粉的理化特性%Physicochemical properties of common buckwheat starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金锋; 晁桂梅; 杨秋歌; 刘小进; 王鹏科; 高小丽; 冯佰利

    2013-01-01

      为明确红花甜荞籽粒淀粉理化特性,选用12个红花甜荞品种为材料,分析了其淀粉颗粒形态、粒度分布特征、直链淀粉含量、溶解度、透明度及糊化特性以及品种间差异.结果表明,红花甜荞淀粉颗粒多为不规则多角形和球形,多角形多且颗粒较大,球形颗粒较少且颗粒小,淀粉粒径范围介于0.38~25.78μm;品种间淀粉粒径、直链淀粉含量、溶解度、透明度存在显著性差异(P<0.05);起始糊化温度在62.80~72.60℃,峰值黏度在126.58~141.00 RU;品种间谷值黏度、最终黏度、破损值、回生值和峰值时间差异显著.定边甜荞谷值黏度大,为118.00 RU;破损值及回生值小,分别为13.00和57.33 RU;达到峰值时间最长,达5.80 min;淀粉糊稳定性好.因此,在进行优质专用品种选育和产品加工时,应根据不同目标选择不同的甜荞品种.%In order to understand the physicochemical characters of common buckwheat starch, 12 varieties of common buckwheat were planted in the research farm of the Yan’an Institute of Agricultural Sciences and the granule morphology, solubility, transparencies, gelatinization and viscosities of their starch granules were investigated in this study. The starch granules’shapes and sizes were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The starch granule diameters, amylase contents, solubility and transparencies were found to significantly differ among the different test varieties(P<0.05). The starch granules of the test varieties had irregular polygonous and global shapes and the granules of the varieties with the former shapes were larger and numbered more than their ones with the latter shapes. The granule diameters of the test varieties ranged within 0.38-25.78μm. The starch granules of Ning D07-1, Wuqi Honghuaqiao-2, Pingxuan 01-036, Dingbian Tianqiao and D07-2 were polygonous with clear-cut edges and the starch granules of Qingyang Honghuaqiao, Zhidan Honghuaqiao

  19. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  20. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  1. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  2. 荞麦贮藏过程中的品质变化%Changes of Buckwheat Quality During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝才; 李丹; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    The changes of buckwheat quality( color, flavor) during storage were reviewed.Furthermore, the affecting factors and their mechanism were discussed.In the conclusion, the control methods were put forward.%综述了贮藏和制粉过程中荞麦色泽和风味的变化,探讨了其影响因子和作用机制,并提出了品质控制方法。

  3. [Effect of synthetic cyclopentane beta,beta'-triketones on amino acid metabolism in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, E A; Tishchenko, L Ia; Shestak, O P; Novikov, V L; Anisimov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Germination of buckwheat seeds in solutions of synthetic mono- and tricyclic cyclopentane-containing beta,beta'-triketones of various concentrations was accompanied by inhibition of seedling root growth and changes in the contents of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, proline, glutamine, and alanine. The monocyclic triketone also affected the amount of isoleucine. It is likely that the increase in proline content is a nonspecific response significant for enhancing stress tolerance in seedlings.

  4. Epitope mapping and identification on a 3D model built for the tartary buckwheat allergic protein TBb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Xiaodong Cui; Yuying Li; Zhuanhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Allergic protein TBb, a major allergen in tartary buckwheat, was divided into four epitope-containing fragments and was named Fl, F2, F3, and F4, respectively.Results of immunological assays revealed that F2 had the strongest IgE-binding activity to patient's sera, which indicated that it might contain the linear IgE-binding epitope of TBb.According to the results of sequence analysis and molecular modeling of tartary buckwheat allergen, three mutants of F2 gene (R139A, R141A, and D144A) were reconstructed using site-directed mutagenesis, and each mutant was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).Following purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dot blot were performed for wild-type F2 and its mutants using sera from buckwheat-allergic patients and a negative control (non-allergic patient).Results showed that mutants R139A and D144A had weaker IgE-binding activity to patient's sera than wild-type F2, implying that Arg139 and Asp144 might be involved in the allergic activity of TBb.However, R141A had the weakest IgE-binding activity,suggesting that Arg141 may be the critical amino acid of TBb.This is the first report on the epitope mapping and identification of TBb.Our findings will contribute to the production of TBb hypoallergens and to allergen-specific immunotherapy for tartary buckwheat allergy.

  5. Two metallothionein gene family members in buckwheat: Expression analysis in flooding stress using Real Time RT-PCR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majić Dragana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are an extensive and diverse family of small cysteine-rich proteins with metal-binding ability that are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Two cDNA clones of the MT3 type, differing in 3’ UTRs, were isolated from the developing buckwheat seed cDNA library. Following sequence analyses, expression profiles during flooding stress were monitored by Real Time RT PCR technology.

  6. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  7. Weed Survey of Buckwheat Field in Liangshan%凉山州荞麦田杂草调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓玲; 熊仿秋; 钟林; 林松; 刘纲

    2015-01-01

    通过对凉山州荞麦田杂草的种类、分布及危害进行调查,结果表明凉山州荞麦田荞麦地杂草据不完全统计有22科59种.双子叶杂草的辣子草、酸模叶蓼、尼泊尔蓼、凹头苋、三叶鬼针草、荠菜、繁缕、藜和单子叶杂草的马唐、光头稗、鸭跖草是凉山州荞麦田的优势种群.%The species ,distribution and harm of weeds of buckwheat fields in Liangshan, were investigated, the results show that according to incomplete statistics, buckwheat weeds in wheat field in Liangshan, , there are 22 families 59 species. Dicotyledonous weeds Galinsoga parviflora, Polygonum lapathifolium , Amaranthus blitum, Nepal, Bidens pilosa, Shepherd's purse, Chickweed, Chenopodium album and Monocotyledonous weeds Barnyardgrass, Commelina communis are the dominant population of buckwheat field in Liangshan.

  8. Effect of microbiological fertilizer and soil additive on yield of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moenchunder high altitude conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol and soil additives (zeolite and hydrogel on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench yield was investigated in this paper. Trial was set up in the village of Radijevići, Serbia in agroecological conditions of mountain Zlatar (altitude 1,065 m during a two-year period 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with four replications was set up. In organic cropping system three combinations of microbiological fertilizer (Slavol with zeolite and hydrogel were used prior to sowing. Different combinations of the microbiological fertilizer and the soil additives gave positive results especially in the second year of the trial. The best combination in organic cropping system was Slavol+hydrogel with foliar application of the microbiological fertilizer, which resulted in the greatest yield of buckwheat and this treatment can be recommended to producers. Buckwheat performed very well under limited conditions of acidic soil on high altitude in organic cropping system and it can be recommended as a very suitable crop for organic producers.

  9. Discovery and genetic analysis of non-bitter Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) with trace-rutinosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    In a screening of about 500 lines of Tartary buckwheat, we identified lines that contained no detectable rutinosidase isozymes using an in-gel detection assay. We confirmed that seeds of these individuals had only a trace level of in-vitro rutinosidase activity. To investigate the heritability of the trace-rutinosidase characteristic, we analyzed the progeny of crosses between rutinosidase trace-lines, 'f3g-162', and the 'Hokkai T8'. The F2 progeny clearly divided into two groups: those with rutinosidase activity under 1.5 nkat/g seed (trace-rutinosidase) and those with activity over 400 nkat/g seed (normal rutinosidase). The segregation pattern of this trait in F2 progeny exhibited 1 : 3 ratio (trace-rutinosidase : normal rutinosidase), suggesting that the trace-rutinosidase trait is conferred by a single recessive gene; rutinosidase-trace A (rutA). In addition, sensory panelists evaluated the bitterness of flour from trace-rutinosidase individuals and did not detect bitterness, whereas flour from normal rutinosidase individuals was found to have strong bitterness. Although at least three bitter compounds have been reported in Tartary buckwheat seeds, our present findings indicate that rutin hydrolysis is the major contributing factor to bitterness. In addition, the trace-rutinosidase line identified here, 'f3g-162', is a promising material for generating a non-bitter Tartary buckwheat variety.

  10. The Problems and the Advantages of Tongliao Buckwheat Industry under the New Situation%新形势下通辽荞麦产业优势与问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆福

    2013-01-01

    Tongliao City is the advantages district of the buckwheat industry, but research, production and processing of buckwheat is later. In recent years, it promote research and development of buckwheat for the importance of a healthy diet. From the Chinese buckwheat industry overview, this paper described the significance of the development of buckwheat industry;expand the analysis the advantages of buckwheat industry in Tongliao City, demonstrated a favorable factor in the Tongliao City on the development of buckwheat industry;analysis development issues of buckwheat Industry from Tongliao City, , and then make recommendations.%通辽市是荞麦产业的优势区,但荞麦科研、生产和加工起步较晚,近年来因人们对饮食健康的重视,促进了荞麦的研究和开发。从中国荞麦产业发展概况入手,阐述了发展荞麦产业的意义;从通辽市发展荞麦产业的优势条件展开分析,论证了通辽市发展荞麦产业的有利因素;就通辽市荞麦产业发展现状分析其中存在的问题,进而提出建议。

  11. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  12. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  13. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  14. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  15. Determination of rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danila, Ana-Maria; Kotani, Akira; Hakamata, Hideki; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2007-02-21

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and seeds by micro-high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Chromatography was performed using an octadecylsilica column, acetonitrile-water-formic acid (13:87:1, v/v/v) as a mobile phase, and an applied potential at +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl. We found that Japanese buckwheat flour contains rutin (12.7 mg/100 g), catechin (3.30 mg/100 g), epicatechin (20.5 mg/100 g), and epicatechin gallate (1.27 mg/100 g). The relative standard deviations for rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate peak heights were less than 0.86% (n = 5). The detection limit of rutin was 0.86 ng/mL. Moreover, the present method was applied to the distribution analysis of these compounds in buckwheat seed. The embryo proper and cotyledons of a mature buckwheat seed contained rutin with the highest concentration as compared to other parts. This method is useful in determining rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate in buckwheat with a small amount of sample for quality control in the food industry.

  16. 荞麦芽功能性成分研究综述%Research Review on the Functional Composition of Buckwheat Sprouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国娟; 徐红艳; 崔泰花; 金铁岩; 李官浩; 崔承弼

    2012-01-01

    发芽可以提高荞麦的营养价值和功能特性,荞麦芽具有口感良好、营养丰富、无过敏性反应等优点。该文介绍了荞麦芽的培养过程及其在生长过程中各种功能性成分的变化,对荞麦芽产品的开发前景进行展望,以期促进荞麦芽的开发利用。%Malting can enhance the nutritional and functional properties of buckwheat.Buckwheat sprouts as a new type of food with good taste,nutrient-rich,non-allergic reactions and so on.The change of buckwheat sprouts various functional components during the growth process were introduced in this paper,and the development prospects of buckwheat sprouts product were discussed,so as to promote the development and utilization of buckwheat sprout.

  17. 食品过敏原荞麦的实时荧光PCR检测%Detection of buckwheat in food by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒亚; 李妮; 刘金华; 高琴; 陈颖; 郭云霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for detection of buckwheat in food exported to Japan based on that buckwheat was the mandatory - signed food allergen in Japan. Methods: A real - time PCR method was established for detection of buckwheat in food. Results: The method was specific for buckwheat, and the limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Conclusion: The PCR procedure is suitable for the detection of buckwheat in food.%目的:荞麦是日本法规要求强制性标识的食品过敏原,我国需要建立出口日本食品中过敏原荞麦成分的标准方法.方法:参考现有文献,采用实时PCR方法建立食品过敏原荞麦成分的检测方法.结果:研究表明建立的检测方法具有特异性,灵敏度高,检测限为1mg/kg.结论:本方法适用于食品中过敏原荞麦成分检测.

  18. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  19. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; Carbonnel, S.; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  20. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  1. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  2. Influence of lactic acid bacteria on redox status and on proteolytic activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Alessandro; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2013-07-15

    Redox potential and proteolysis determine protein networks in doughs and thus dough rheology as well as the structure of baked goods. Namely, gluten-free bakery products needs structural improvements but little is known about these parameters in gluten free dough systems. In this work the influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on redox status and proteolysis of buckwheat sourdoughs was investigated. An increase of free thiol groups was detected as redox potential was decreasing during fermentation. Thiol content at 8 h was higher in doughs fermented with strains with high reductive activity, such as Weissella (W.) cibaria in comparison to Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus, which exhibited a lower reducing activity. At 24 h each fermentation showed a similar content of free thiol groups. Endogenous buckwheat proteases were characterized using various protease inhibitors in buckwheat doughs. Until pH3.1 a proteolysis increase was monitored in doughs. Employed LAB didn't show any detectable extracellular proteolytic activity. Flour proteases are thus responsible for protein breakdown, and this was demonstrated comparing free amino nitrogen (FAN) values and protein electrophoretic patterns of sourdough fermentations with chemical acidified (CA) doughs. FAN content at 24 h using P. pentosaceus, proteolytic comparative strain of Enterococcus faecalis, W. cibaria, mixed culture (containing P. pentosaceus and W. cibaria), CA and CA doughs containing glutathione (GSH) reached 45.9±1.3, 42.4±1.3, 40±1, 31±2, 29±2 and 17.8±3.9 mmol kg(-1) flour, respectively. Proteolysis was mainly influenced by pH and incubation time. The addition of GSH showed a decrease of proteolysis and of free amino acids. CA doughs showed a higher total free amino acids content than sourdough fermented with LAB indicating their metabolization. Fermentations with high FAN values exhibited lower band intensity (analyzed under reducing condition) in electrophoretic patterns. These results show that

  3. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  4. 荞麦边缘细胞对铝毒害的响应%Response of Root Border Cells to Aluminum Toxicity in Buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑娜; 李诗佩; 毛玲玲; 郑怡; 徐根娣; 羊滨

    2011-01-01

    以江西荞麦(耐铝基因型)和内蒙荞麦(铝敏感基因型)为材料,采用悬空气培养法,研究Al3+时荞麦相对根长、原位和离体边缘细胞活性、黏液分泌量的影响.结果表明,AP"降低荞麦相对根长和边缘细胞活性.相同Al3+浓度处理下,附着于根尖的边缘细胞活性要大于离体边缘细胞.细胞黏液层厚度与Al3+浓度相关,且离体边缘细胞黏液层厚度要大于原位边缘细胞,耐铝品种中表现的更为明显.由此说明,荞麦边缘细胞在一定程度上能通过改变细胞活性和黏液层厚度对铝毒害做出适应性的反应.%The effect of Al toxicity on the reletive root length, the viability of the attached and detached root border cells and the production of mucilage of two buckwheat cultivars(Jiangxi and Neimeng) was studied using aeroponic culture method.Al stress could suppress root growth and the viability of root border cells of buckwheat.The viability of the root border cells clinging to the root tip was higher than that detached at same Al concentration.The thickness of mucilage layer was related to the Al concentration.and the layer of the attached root boeder cells was thicker than that of detached, especially in Altolerant cultivar (Jiangxi).These results indicated that border cells could make adaptive reaction to Al toxicitv by changingcell viability and producing of mucilage.

  5. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  6. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  7. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  8. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  9. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  10. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  11. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  12. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  13. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  14. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  15. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  16. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  17. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  18. Discussion on the Buckwheat Culture within Traditional Agricultural Society%浅析彝族传统农耕文化中的苦荞文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马史火

    2013-01-01

    彝族传承着别具特色的农耕文化,苦荞文化是彝族传统农耕文化中的重要组成部分。苦荞麦是彝族人的日常生活中重要的粮食之一;在长期的生产实践中,彝族人总结了苦荞麦生产的习俗和经验;在彝族节日、婚丧嫁娶、祭祀鬼神等民俗活动中,苦荞麦往往也是不可或缺的物品;苦荞麦可食可药,具有很好的医疗保健功效和巨大的市场开发价值。%Among the distinctive cultures of Yi agricultural society, the buckwheat culture shares an indispensable part of them. Buckwheat is one of staple food of Yi people. Over many years of raising buckwheat, the Yi have developed many customs and experiences about producing buckwheat. On special days, weddings, engagements, funerals, giving offerings to spirits, and other customary activities, the presenting of buckwheat is a very important part of the ceremonial offerings. Buckwheat can be eaten and can be used for medical purpose. It has good medicinal properties and is useful for maintaining good health. It also has great potential for opening up a very wide market for sale.

  19. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  20. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  1. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  2. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  3. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2008-02-01

    Agriculture productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. In the present work, transgenic buckwheat plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, were regenerated after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These plants were able to grow, flower and accumulate more rutin in the presence of 200 mmol/l sodium chloride. Moreover, the content of important nutrients in buckwheat was not affected by the high salinity of the soil. These results demonstrated the potential value of these transgenic plants for agriculture use in saline soil.

  4. 内蒙古荞麦总黄酮含量测定%Determination of total flavonoids content of Inner mongolia buckwheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫超; 郭军; 张美莉; 刘莉敏

    2015-01-01

    从内蒙古和其它省区采集了37种荞麦,75%乙醇回流提取后用分光光度法测定总黄酮含量。结果表明,总黄酮含量(均值±2SD,单位:mg/kg)分别为,内蒙甜荞409.61±287.07(N=23),其中一个内蒙甜荞样品总黄酮含量(3553.42)极高未计入均值,其它省区甜荞503.51±411.29(N=7),差异不显著;实验室自去皮甜荞样品524.27±340.81(N=16),高于无皮甜荞样品(325.52±85.56,N=14),差异极显著(ρ=0.000);苦荞总黄酮含量(16177.23±1841.40,N=6)为甜荞(431.52±322.56,N=30)的37倍。测定结果为鲜有报道的内蒙古荞麦总黄酮含量提供了数据。%37 kindsof buckwheat samples from Inner Mongolia andother regions werecollected. Total flavonoids were extracted by 75% ethanol and determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that total flavonoidscontent(mean±2SD,mg/kg)of Inner Mongoliacommon buckwheat was 409.61±287.07(N=23). Andcontentofother regionscommon buckwheat was 503.51±411.29(N=7). The difference was not significant. One sampleof Inner Mongoliacommon buckwheat,with high total flavonoidscontent(3 553.42),was not included in the average. Contentofcommon buckwheat samples which were peeled in laboratory was 524.27±340.81(N=16) and higher than hulless samples(325.52±85.56,N=14). The difference was significant(ρ=0.000). Tartary buckwheat (16 177.23±1 841.40,N=6) was 37 timesofcommon buckwheat(431.52±322.56,N=30) in total flavonoidscontent. The results provided data which were rarely reported for total flavonoidscontentof Inner Mongolia buckwheat.

  5. Cloning and computer analysis of the promoter region of the legumin-like storage protein gene from buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Mira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the modified 5’-RACE approach, a fragment containing the 955 bp long 5’- regulatory region of the buckwheat storage globulin gene (FeLEG1 has been amplified from the genomic DNA of buckwheat. The entire fragment was sequenced and the sequence analyzed by computer prediction of cis-regulatory elements possibly involved in tissue specific and developmentally controlled seed storage protein gene expression. The promoter obtained might be interesting not only for fundamental research, but also as a useful tool for biotechnological application.

  6. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  7. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  8. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  9. Comparison of fluence-response relationships of phototropism in light- and dark-grown buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R J

    1987-11-01

    Fluence-response relationships of phototropism in light- and dark-grown buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) were compared using systematically varied fluence rates and irradiation times of unilateral monochromatic blue light. Etiolated seedlings respond to most fluence rates in a tri-phasic manner. Phase one differs from classic first positive in that reciprocity is not observed and the peak occurs at a wide variety of fluences, often orders of magnitude less than those characteristic of first positive. Light-grown plants display this pattern only when stimulated by low fluence rates. Phase three is an ascending arm directly related to irradiance time and is comparable to classic second positive. Phase two is a nearly indifferent zone separating phases one and three. At the lowest fluence rates, the maximal observed curvature is greater for dark-grown than for light-grown plants and the former curve more in response to short (2-second) exposures than do the latter. At the highest fluence rates, the maximal observed curvature is much greater for light-grown than for dark-grown seedlings, particularly at irradiation times of 2 to 3 minutes or more. Tropic curvatures correlate positively with increasing fluence rate up to some inflection range, above which the relationship becomes negative. This inflection range is approximately two orders of magnitude higher for light-grown plants.

  10. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor with helical hairpin structure belongs to a new family of plant defence peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Peter B; Mineev, Konstantin S; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Arseniev, Alexander S; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2012-08-15

    A new peptide trypsin inhibitor named BWI-2c was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by sequential affinity, ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The peptide was sequenced and found to contain 41 amino acid residues, with four cysteine residues involved in two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant BWI-2c identical to the natural peptide was produced in Escherichia coli in a form of a cleavable fusion with thioredoxin. The 3D (three-dimensional) structure of the peptide in solution was determined by NMR spectroscopy, revealing two antiparallel α-helices stapled by disulfide bonds. Together with VhTI, a trypsin inhibitor from veronica (Veronica hederifolia), BWI-2c represents a new family of protease inhibitors with an unusual α-helical hairpin fold. The linker sequence between the helices represents the so-called trypsin inhibitory loop responsible for direct binding to the active site of the enzyme that cleaves BWI-2c at the functionally important residue Arg(19). The inhibition constant was determined for BWI-2c against trypsin (1.7×10(-1)0 M), and the peptide was tested on other enzymes, including those from various insect digestive systems, revealing high selectivity to trypsin-like proteases. Structural similarity shared by BWI-2c, VhTI and several other plant defence peptides leads to the acknowledgement of a new widespread family of plant peptides termed α-hairpinins.

  11. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Novel Protein Obtained from Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Yao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TBWSP31 is a novel antitumor protein that was isolated from tartary buckwheat water-soluble extracts. The objective of this paper was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of TBWSP31 on breast cancer Bcap37cells and to explore its possible mechanism. After treatment of Bcap37 cells with TBWSP31, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by inverted microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, such as detachment from the culture plate, change to a round shape, cell shrinkage, the absence of obvious microvilli, plasma membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that treatment with TBWSP31 resulted in a G0/G1 arrest and prevented the cells from growing from G0/G1 phase to S phase, which was most prominent at 48 h. The expression of bcl-2 and Fas were detected quantitatively by FCM, which showed that TBWSP31 induced-apoptosis may be involved with the participation of Fas and bcl-2. These results suggest that TBWSP31 is a potential antitumor compound and that apoptosis induced by TBWSP31 is a key antitumor mechanism.

  12. Effect of salinity stress on phenolic compounds and carotenoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) sprout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kee-Jai; Kim, Bum-Keun; Jeong, Jin-Woong; Kim, Hyun-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The effect of salinity stress on the nutritional quality of buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 1, 3, 5, and 7d was investigated by analysis of the antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Treatment with various concentrations of NaCl (10, 50, 100, and 200mM) resulted in an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the sprouts compared with the control (0mM). The phenolic contents of sprouts treated with 10, 50, and 100mM after 7d of cultivation were 57%, 121%, and 153%, respectively, higher than that of the control (0mM NaCl). Moreover, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was primarily caused by an increase in the levels of 4 compounds: isoorientin, orientin, rutin, and vitexin. The carotenoid content of sprouts treated with 50 and 100mM NaCl was twice higher than that of the control. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the sprouts was increased by NaCl treatment. Although the growth rate of sprouts decreased with >50mM NaCl, these results suggest that treatment of an appropriate concentration of NaCl improves the nutritional quality of sprouts, including the level of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity.

  13. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  14. INTERIORITY - a prefab case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    , tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...... an interrelation of the functional and emotional dimensions of furniture and envelope as form, with the necessary economy and logic of construction, can be developed as a critical architctural theory for transforming the technical and economical elements of construction into experiences of interiority within...... of furnishing ‘gestures’ requiring of the envelope itself to guide, reveal, cover, caress and embrace us. These ‘gestures’ unite function and emotion by describing at once a physical movement and a feeling which is intrinsic of the spatial envelope itself. - The explanatory level has resulted in the development...

  15. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  16. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  17. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The

  18. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  19. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  20. Case Study of above Average Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This case study explores the duty of midmanagement administrators to enforce district policies with which they do not necessarily agree. The case addresses the issues of moral leadership, distribution of power, emotional responses that impact decision making, class differences, and equity. It also examines the role conflict that many married…

  1. Case Study: Mini-Case Studies: Small Infusions of Active Learning for Large-Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloye, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the usage of case studies to be an excellent method for engaging students through stories. The author notes she developed a series of mini-case studies that can be implemented, with a little advance preparation, within a 10- to 15-minute window during lecture. What makes them "mini" case studies?…

  2. A Unique Case of Intraabdominal Polyorchidism: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Otero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyorchidism, alternatively supernumerary testes (SNT, is a condition where an individual is born with more than two testicles. This congenital anomaly is quite rare and the literature has described various presentations. Questions/Purposes. To our knowledge, this presentation of polyorchidism has yet to be described in the literature. The goal of this case study is to add to the pediatric, general, and urologic surgery’s body of knowledge of the subject matter. Case Study. A nine-month-old boy was admitted for an impalpable right testis and phimosis. At the time of surgical exploration, there appeared to be polyorchid testis on the right-hand side, with three masses that potentially appeared to be undescended testes. Discussion. Proponents of a conservative approach argue that infertility is common in patients with polyorchidism and, by preserving a potentially functional SNT, there may be improved spermatogenesis. When performing definitive surgical treatment, meticulous intra-abdominal and intrainguinal exploration must be undertaken. Orchiopexy should be performed to reduce the chances of torsion, malignancy, and infertility. Conclusion. Our case is important to the literature as it is the first known case of polyorchidism with 3 SNT on the right side, located intra-abdominally, and in a patient less than 1 year of age.

  3. Energy Audit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This India is the Fifth largest producer of Electricalenergy in the world. Despite such achievements the gapbetween demand and supply of electrical energy is increasingevery year and power sector is highly capital – intensive. Thusthe deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10000MWper year.So the gap between demand and supply is continuouslyincreasing day by day. An energy audit is a study of a plant orfacility to determine how and where energy is used and toidentify methods for energy savings. The opportunities lie inthe use of existing renewable energy technologies, greaterefforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of thesetechnologies and options. This thesis provides an overview of ageneral energy conservation measures (ECMs that can becommonly recommended for NIT Hamirpur. It should be notedthat the Energy auidut presented in this paper does not pretendto be exhaustive nor comprehensive. It provides merely toindicate some of the options that energy auditor can considerwhen performing an analysis of this institute. Energyconservation and exploration of new energy avenues are thewell accepted solution to fulfil the demand in future. The totalcost of energy plays a vital role in determining the product costof a commodity. Therefore the identification of potential energysavings and implementation for a given institutional facility isunimportant to ensure its competitive advantage over otherinstitute. This paper work presents such energy saving methodsin a methodological approach, experienced during a detailedenergy audit of NIT Hamirpur.

  4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  5. Implementing Product Platforms: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a case study dealing with the process of creating and implementing a product platform. The paper espessially deals with the fact that to obtain the benefits of platforms a permanent change in behaviour in product development must be ensured. This change in behaviour requires...... acceptance and approval from the organisation in general and the commitment from management to enforce agreed-upon decisions. The case study itself was performed in the Danish company LEGO Group. The case study had two objectives: To create a technical architecture and align this architecture...

  6. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  7. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  8. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roozbeh Tanhaeivash; Tobias Franiel; Marc-Oliver Grimm; Marcus Horstmann

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg...

  9. Case Study Orientation for New Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Oldfields School's systematic orientation program for beginning teachers. They meet as a group and discuss case studies, which give substance to the regulations and policies listed in the school handbooks. (SJL)

  10. Functional Disorders in Neurology : Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new

  11. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Method Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation ... KEYWORDS: qualitative, interpretive, case study, systems theory, methodology. INTRODUCTION ..... Maidenhead: Open University Press. Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, ...

  12. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  13. Expression of a Buckwheat Trypsin Inhibitor Gene in Escherichia coli and its Effect on Multiple Myeloma IM-9 Cell Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gene of buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (BTI) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The yield of this recombinant inhibitor was over 12 mg/L by using one-step purification on a Ni2+-NTA Sepharose column. Its molecular weight was 9322.1 Da, determined by mass spectrum analysis. The MTT and cytometry analyses showed that recombinant BTI could specifically inhibit the proliferation of IM-9 human B lymphoblastoid cells (from patient with multiple myeloma) in a dose-dependent manner. The test of recombinant BTI-induced apoptosis in IM-9 cells implied that the inhibitor might have potential application in the treatment of cancer.

  14. 双辽市荞麦生产的意义及发展的可行性分析%Analysis on Significance of Buckwheat Production and Feasibility of Development in Shuangliao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫春兴; 杨喜梅

    2015-01-01

    阐述了双辽市的自然条件、荞麦生产的意义,从市场需求、自然条件、交通、技术等方面分析了该市荞麦生产的可行性,以促进该市荞麦产业的发展.%The natural condition,significance of buckwheat production were elaborated in Shuangliao City,feasibility of buckwheat development in Shuangliao City were analyzed from market demand,natural conditions,transportation,technology,etc,so as to promote the development of buckwheat industry in this city.

  15. Anencephaly: A pathological study of 41 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anencephaly is a lethal neural tube defect which is due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. In more than 50% of cases it is associated with other systemic anomalies. Hence this study was undertaken to assess pathological parameters associated with anencephaly in particular attention to associated systemic anomalies. Materials and Methods: It is a study on 41 anencephaly fetuses conducted in the Department of Pathology. The period of study is from January 2001 to December 2011. Results: Out of 41 cases, 30 (73% cases showed presence of systemic anomalies, 48.5% of the cases were observed in primigravida. Most common associated anomaly was spina bifida followed by gastrointestinal anomalies. Conclusion: Pathological examination of the abortus is essential to document the associated anomalies.

  16. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research...... and science through co-operation with Science Shops as a mediator between universities and civil society. The Danish national case study report analyses three projects carried out through the Science Shops at DTU and RUC. One case is a co-operation between two DTU students and an NGO, whom is working towards...... the projects so it fits into the university schedule, without leaving out the time perspective of the clients, and secure the research is applicable for the clients and based on their need for knowledge. The case studies have shown different roles of a Science Shop. All Science Shops have a role as mediator...

  17. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  18. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings...

  19. 晋荞麦(甜)3号的选育及高产栽培%Selection of Jin Buckwheat (Sweet)3 and Its Cultivation Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明; 李秀莲; 张耀文

    2011-01-01

    晋荞麦(甜)3号是用60C-γ射线处理甜荞品系83-230,采用集团选择和系谱选育相结合的方法选育而成的,2006年3月经山西省品种审定委员会认定通过.其在山西省区域试验中,比对照品种晋荞麦(甜)1号增产9.8%,适宜在山西、陕西、甘肃、宁夏等省区种植.同时对其配套高产栽培技术进行了阐述.%Jin buckwheat (sweet)3 was selected with buckwheat 83-230 treated by 60Co-γ rays, through method of group selection and system selection by the buckwheat research team in the Research Centre, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences.The species was identified by Shanxi Variety Assessment and Appraisement Committee in March 2006.In its area experiment, it had a mean yield improvement of 9.8% than the control Jin buckwheat (sweet) 1.It is adapted to grow in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu,Ningxia and other regions.Besides, its high yielding cultivation technology system was introduced.

  20. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  1. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  2. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  3. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  4. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R

    1984-01-01

    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Fractionation of Buckwheat Seed Phenolics and Analysis of Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamać Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five fractions of phenolic compounds were obtained from the extract of common buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with methanol as a mobile phase. The total phenolics content ranged from 19.8±1.5 (fraction I to 164±2.2 mg (+-catechin eq/g (fraction IV. The profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the fractions were analysed using RP-HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was tested as ABTS⋅+ and DPPH⋅ scavenging activity and capability to reduce the Fe(III/2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl-s-triazine complex to the ferrous form. Results were expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, IC50 and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP values, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was noted for fraction IV that was predominated by flavones. TEAC, IC50 and FRAP values were: 1.47±0.01 mmol Trolox eq/g, 0.058±0.003 mg/assay and 2.18±0.05 mmol Fe(II/g, respectively. Rutin constituted 77.7% of the compounds identified in fraction III. The antiradical activity and reducing capability of this fraction were lower compared to fraction IV, but significantly higher than in fractions I and II. The main phenolic compounds of fractions I and II were phenolic acids (caffeic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and p-coumaric. The antioxidant activity of fraction V was similar to that of fraction III.

  6. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  7. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), this draft case study on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is based on the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, which consists of both a framework and a process. Unlike previous case studies this case study incorporates information about a traditional (i.e., “non-nano-enabled”) product, against which the MWCNT flame-retardant coating applied to upholstery textiles (i.e., the “nano-enabled” product) can be compared. The comparative element serves dual-purposes: 1) to provide a more robust database that facilitates identification of data gaps related to the nano-enabled product and 2) to provide a context for identifying key factors and data gaps for future efforts to evaluate risk-related trade-offs between a nano-enabled and non-nano-enabled product. This draft case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of MWCNTs; rather, it uses the CEA framework to structure information from available literature and other resources (e.g., government reports) on the product life cycle, fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and impacts in human, ecological, and environmental receptors.

  8. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  9. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  10. Case Studies of Three Interorganizational Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    As part of their study of interorganizational collaboration, researchers present three detailed case studies of how regional education agencies (REAs) supply knowledge utilization services to the school districts they serve. The three REAs are the Wayne County (Michigan) Intermediate School District (with 36 districts), the Educational Improvement…

  11. Prader-Willi Disease: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, William R., III

    A case study focuses on the characteristics and physical management of a 15-year-old with Prader-Willi Syndrome, a birth defect associated with hypotonia, insatiable appetite, hypogonadism, central nervous system dysfunction, and abnormal growth and development . A literature review addresses studies dealing with behavior modification of obesity…

  12. CASE STUDY: DIELDRIN ATTACK IN DALYAN LAGOON

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first two weeks of December 2005, NATO sponsored an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) in Istanbul, Turkey. Part of this ASI involved a case study of a terrorist attack, where a chemical was assumed to be dumped into Sulunger Lake in Turkey. This chapter documents the re...

  13. Breeding of 'Manten-Kirari', a non-bitter and trace-rutinosidase variety of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Mukasa, Yuji; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Yokota, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Koji; Noda, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Here, we developed a new Tartary buckwheat cultivar 'Manten-Kirari', whose flour contains only trace amounts of rutinosidase and lacked bitterness. The trace-rutinosidase breeding line 'f3g-162' (seed parent), which was obtained from a Nepalese genetic resource, was crossed with 'Hokkai T8' (pollen parent), the leading variety in Japan, to improve its agronomic characteristics. The obtained progeny were subjected to performance test. 'Manten-Kirari' had no detectable rutinosidase isozymes in an in-gel detection assay and only 1/266 of the rutinosidase activity of 'Hokkai T8'. Dough prepared from 'Manten-Kirari' flour contained almost no hydrolyzed rutin, even 6 h after the addition of water, whereas the rutin in 'Hokkai T8' dough was completely hydrolyzed within 10 min. In a sensory evaluation of the flour from the two varieties, nearly all panelists detected strong bitterness in 'Hokkai T8', whereas no panelists reported bitterness in 'Manten-Kirari'. This is the first report to describe the breeding of a Tartary buckwheat cultivar with reduced rutin hydrolysis and no bitterness in the prepared flour. Notably, the agronomic characteristics of 'Manten-Kirari' were similar to those of 'Hokkai T8', which is the leading variety in Japan. Based on these characteristics, 'Manten-Kirari' is a promising for preparing non-bitter, rutin-rich foods.

  14. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  15. Fermentation Process and NutritionaI Components of Tartary Buckwheat Natto%苦荞纳豆发酵H艺及其营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董岳峰

    2016-01-01

    以苦荞和黄豆为原料,以感官评价、纳豆菌数量和纳豆激酶活力三者的加权评分为指标,采用正交设计优化苦荞纳豆的制作发酵工艺,并对苦荞纳豆的氨基酸组成、氨基酸态氮、黄酮和多糖含量进行了测定。优化后的苦荞纳豆发酵工艺:苦荞和黄豆质量比为2∶8,接种量为5%,发酵时间为24 h。苦荞纳豆含有丰富的氨基酸,氨基酸态氮含量为0.4 g/100 g,黄酮类化合物含量为78 mg/100 g,多糖含量为4.0 g/100 g。%Soybean and tartary buckwheat are used as raw materials for making tartary buckwheat natto.With sensory evaluation,Bacillusnattocount and nattokinase activity as indexes,the optimum fermentation process is determined by L9 (34 )orthogonal experiment design.The nutritional components of buckwheat natto are determined,including amino acids composition,amino acid nitrogen,polysaccharides and flavonoids.The optimum fermentation technology is the mass ratio of tartary buckwheat and soybean as 2∶8 ,the inoculum concentration of 5% and fermentation time of 24 h.Amino acids composition of tartary buckwheat natto is abundant,the content of amino acid nitrogen and polysaccharides is 0.4,4.0 g/100 g respectively.The total flavonoids content is 78 mg/100 g.

  16. The change of flavonoids content of tartary buckwheat and its evaluation during buckwheat dried noodles processing%苦荞挂面加工过程中苦荞黄酮含量的变化及其评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳香; 刘明; 田晓红; 汪丽萍; 谭斌

    2011-01-01

    The change of tartary buckwheat flavonoids content and the feasibility of the method which evaluated the buckwheat content by the flavonoids as markers in processing buckwheat dried noodles were investigated in this paper.The results indicated that the flavonoids content were not significant difference(p0.05) in the pre and post watering,kneading dough,aging,calendaring and drying process.And buckwheat flavonoids had good stability.There was a good linear correlation between buckwheat addition and flavonoids content(R2=0.999).Flavonoids would be a good marker to fast evaluate the buckwheat addition in dried noodles,which will be a good feasibility and have application prospects.%以苦荞粉、小麦粉为主要原料制作苦荞挂面,探讨苦荞挂面在加工过程中黄酮含量的变化规律及以黄酮作为标记物评价苦荞挂面中苦荞含量方法的可行性。结果表明:加水、和面、醒置、压延、干燥工艺前后的黄酮含量(干基)差异均不显著(p〉0.05),苦荞黄酮在挂面加工过程中具有较好的稳定性;苦荞粉添加量与挂面中黄酮含量呈线性相关(R2=0.999)。将黄酮作为标记物来快速评价挂面中苦荞含量具有较好的可行性与应用前景。

  17. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  18. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking.  Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks.  Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components.  I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should." and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  19. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  20. Integrating ethics into case study assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A

    2014-12-01

    I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking. Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks. Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components. I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should," and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  1. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.

  2. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  3. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  4. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  5. Case Studies, Make-Your-Case Studies, and Case Stories: A Critique of Case-Study Methodology in Sustainability in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Walker, Kim E.; Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we raise serious concerns about existing case-study research on sustainability in higher education. Our key concern is that the research does not live up to its potential for improving the field of sustainability in higher education. We have argued that case-study research in the field falls short of its promise due to a lack of…

  6. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Study of 48 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Bharpoda, Pragnesh; Reddy, Raghuveer

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis represents a group of highly lethal infections characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile, microbial flora, and predisposing risk factors in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Lastly, we aimed to formulate a protocol for management of necrotizing fasciitis. Forty-eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis patients who reported to our hospital between April 2007 and September 2009 were included in the study. The commonest predisposing factors were age greater than 50 years (58 % cases) and diabetes mellitus (52 % cases). The commonest site involved was extremity (70.8 %). Majority of infections were polymicrobial (87.5 %). Repeated aggressive debridement was the commonest surgical procedure performed. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, often in multiple sittings, supplemented by appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy, forms the key to a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis.

  7. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  8. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Major Ingredients of Three Flavonoids Extracted from Tartary Buckwheat%中国粮食宏观调控思路与确保粮食安全核心问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶维武

    2012-01-01

    The research progresses on the all sorts of color reaction to flavonoids,buckwheat buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids and buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids solution in the chemical composition of flavonoids of qualitative discrimination.And there is guiding significance to the function of flavonoids.The results showed that, buckwheat flavonoids, buckwheat water-soluble flavonoids, buckwheat alcohol-soluble flavonoids contains flavonols, and they are the main component.What is more, quercetin,kaempferol and rutin has a wide distribution.Choose, rutin quercetin and kaempferol as standard, carries on the thin layer chromatography experiment.%回顾2011年中国粮食价格的基本走势,对本轮粮价波动周期内国家有关部门的调控思路与成效进行简要梳理及评析,提出确保国家粮食安全的重要手段乃是不断地提高种粮比较效益,建议“十二五”时期应进一步丰富与完善各项“三农”政策措施。

  10. Biliteracy, Spelling, and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgette, Ekaterina; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this case study is to examine biliteracy and its effects on a young child's orthographic and writing growth. The analysis of the kindergartener's spelling development and compositional growth in reference to both language systems indicates that biliteracy had a positive effect on the student's acquisition of English…

  11. New Lives: Some Case Studies in Minamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Kazuko

    Three case studies of young Japanese adults who fell ill with Minamata disease (a form of methyl-mercury poisoning) are presented and the adjustment of the individuals to the disease is analyzed in terms of a model of creativity. The model distinguishes three types of creativity: identificational (in which one identifies with old ideas and…

  12. A Case Study of Horizontal Teacher Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Trav D.

    Horizontal teacher evaluation increases understanding of teaching through the critical examination of educational goals and classroom practices. This examination includes teachers' classroom observations of one another coupled with in-depth teacher conversations or dialogue about teaching aims and practices. A qualitative case study of a…

  13. Eastern's Employee Communication Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha

    1988-01-01

    Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)

  14. ESL and Digital Video Integration: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J., Ed.; Gromik, N., Ed.; Edwards, N., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that digital video technology is of particular interest to English language learners; students are drawn to its visual appeal and vibrant creative potential. The seven original case studies in this book demonstrate how video can be an effective and powerful tool to create fluid, fun, interactive, and collaborative…

  15. Portfolio Manager Selection – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Within a delegated portfolio management setting, this paper presents a case study of how the manager selection process can be operationalized in practice. Investors have to pursue a thorough screening of potential portfolio managers in order to discover their quality, and this paper discusses how...

  16. Lifelong Learning in SMEs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…

  17. Effective communication. A Platonic case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Gerry C.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; Van Noord, Gertjan

    As a contribution to the valedictory volume for John Nerbonne I present a case study of two thematically similar passages in Plato where I will make use of an analysis based on discourse cohesion and above all on the rhetorical and manipulative use of particles to show how a single (leading)

  18. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  19. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  20. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  1. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  2. WP6 - The Ag2020 Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens G; Borch, Kristian; Trombi, Giacomo;

    2010-01-01

    of the Future are presented. Finally, in section 1.4, is described the structure of the present report,which is firmly followed by the four case studies involved in the Project, namely the Rhodope Mountainous region in Bulgaria (CS1), The Kastelli region (Herakleion nomos) in Greece (CS2), the Central Denmark...

  3. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment approach that combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Rather, the case studies are intended to help identify what needs to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. This draft document is part of a process that will inform the development of EPA’s research strategy to support nanomaterial risk assessments. The complex properties of various nanomaterials make evaluating them in the abstract or with generalizations difficult if not impossible. Thus, this document focuses on two specific uses of nano-TiO2, as a drinking water treatment and as topical sunscreen. These case studies do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments; rather, they present the structure for identifying and prioritizing research needed to support future assessments.

  4. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...

  5. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  6. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  7. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  8. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  9. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  10. Understanding Parkinson disease: an evolving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Gwyn M; Carty, Anne E S; Salemno, Christin M; Siskind, Michele M; Thomas, Cathi A

    2014-10-15

    Thirty years ago, Parkinson disease was described as a shortage of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Today, understanding of this disorder includes possible genetic influences, premorbid and nonmotor issues, and a variety of neurologic, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. Using a case study, this article presents the current science of Parkinson disease.

  11. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...... engineering design education....

  12. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  13. Peasant Politics in Chile: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, James; Zemelman, Hugo

    The major purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the formation of a new structure of authority and the process of change from capitalist oligarchy to pluralistic collectivism--an aspect of political development. A case study is based upon interviews with 12 informants who were involved in the seizure of a large farm from its owner. The…

  14. Case Study of Home-School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerrebere, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This case study evaluated one site of a California teacher home visit program. Home visits have been an important means of connecting families and schooling. In 1999, California inaugurated a statewide home visit program to promote effective partnership between home and school for low-achieving schools. At this site, families in 3 kindergarten…

  15. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  16. Helping Adolescents in Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Obaid, Beatrice

    1989-01-01

    Addresses problem of adolescent suicide by developing five stages (suicidal signs, establishing rapport, making referral, constructive actions, and self-management) that may be used to help adolescents in distress. Uses five stages in case study to demonstrate the roles played by teacher, friend, and parents in helping adolescent through a crisis.…

  17. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  18. Gifted Teenagers with Problems: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane

    Case studies are presented of three gifted students, indicating the social and academic problems which are standing in the way of their potential development. The students include a Vietnamese-American ninth-grade girl who has difficulty with English and does not feel accepted by other students, an underachieving seventh grade boy who speaks out…

  19. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  20. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…