Sample records for buckingham potential

  1. Buckingham (1907): An appreciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.


    Nearly a century ago, Edgar Buckingham (1907) published a seminal work on the movement of soil moisture which is part of the foundation of modern soil physics. It also constitutes a pioneering contribution in the study of multi-phase flow in porous media. A physicist, Buckingham took on an earth science issue of importance to society, and produced superb basic science as a byproduct. Buckingham impresses us with his ability to combine experiment and theory, and his capacity to intuitively explain difficult ideas to a wide audience. Science progresses both by gradual accretion of knowledge, and by sudden influx of ideas. Buckingham's contribution belongs in the latter category. After a brief, four-year rendezvous with soil science, he went on to pursue a long and distinguished career in physics with the National Bureau of Standards. This paper is an appreciation of Buckingham's contribution on soil moisture in the context of contemporary developments in diffusion theory, and the rapid growth of science in America at the turn of the twentieth century.

  2. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.


    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality. (United States)

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A


    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  4. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India. (United States)

    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B


    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  5. An ab initio investigation of the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth


    Using a recently developed quadratic response methodology for the calculation of frequency-dependent third-order properties of molecules in solution, we investigate the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution. These systems are chosen since accurate experimental data are available, allowing for a direct comparison of experimental observations with our theoretical estimates. Our model for describing the solvent effects is based on a dielectric continuum approach for the solvent, and uses a molecule-shaped cavity. Our results show qualitatively different Buckingham constants and effective quadrupole centers calculated with and without the solvent, and only when the solvent is included are the qualitative trends observed experimentally reproduced. It is demonstrated that a significant part of this effect arises from the geometry relaxation of the molecules in the solvent.

  6. Evaluating London Dispersion Interactions in DFT: A Nonlocal Anisotropic Buckingham-Hirshfeld Model. (United States)

    Krishtal, A; Geldof, D; Vanommeslaeghe, K; Alsenoy, C Van; Geerlings, P


    In this work, we present a novel model, referred to as BH-DFT-D, for the evaluation of London dispersion, with the purpose to correct the performance of local DFT exchange-correlation functionals for the description of van der Waals interactions. The new BH-DFT-D model combines the equations originally derived by Buckingham [Buckingham, A. D. Adv. Chem. Phys1967, 12, 107] with the definition of distributed multipole polarizability tensors within the Hirshfeld method [Hirshfeld, F.L. Theor. Chim. Acta1977, 44, 129], resulting in nonlocal, fully anisotropic expressions. Since no damping function has been introduced yet into the model, it is suitable in its present form for the evaluation of dispersion interactions in van der Waals dimers with no or negligible overlap. The new method is tested for an extended collection of van der Waals dimers against high-level data, where it is found to reproduce interaction energies at the BH-B3LYP-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level with a mean average error (MAE) of 0.20 kcal/mol. Next, development steps of the model will consist of adding a damping function, analytical gradients, and generalization to a supramolecular system.

  7. Ascesa e “decadenza” politica di un favorito regio nell’Inghilterra giacobita: George Villiers, primo duca di Buckingham (1592-1628)


    Lupini, Eleonora


    Facing with an evaluation of main contemporary theories, concerning the figure of the royal favourite in the context of early modern Europe, and in particular with the works of J. Elliott, F. Beningno, I.A.A. Thompson and A. Feros, this research is focus on the political career of George Villiers (1592-1628), first duke of Buckingham and royal favourite in the early Stuart England. Beginning with an analysis of the political and institutional context of the reign of James I Stuart...

  8. Density-functional and electron correlated study of five linear birefringences--Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Buckingham, Jones, and magnetoelectric--in gaseous benzene. (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Cappelli, Chiara; Jansík, Branislav; Jonsson, Dan; Sałek, Paweł; Coriani, Sonia; Agren, Hans


    We present the results of an extended study of five birefringences--Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Buckingham, Jones, and Magnetoelectric--on benzene in the gas phase. The relevant molecular quantities--first-order properties, linear, quadratic, and cubic response functions--are computed employing the density-functional theory (DFT) response theory, with a choice of functionals. In some cases, different functionals are employed for the wave-function computational step and for the subsequent analytical response calculation to determine the combination yielding at the same time the optimal energy and energy derivative results. Augmented correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality are used. The DFT results are compared to those obtained at the Hartree-Fock level and in some cases within a coupled cluster singles and doubles electronic structure model. The study tries to assess the ability of the DFT response theory to describe a wide range of properties in a system of rather large size and high complexity. The relative strength of the five birefringences for plausible experimental conditions is determined and, when possible, comparison is made with the results of the measurements.

  9. Relativistic four-component DFT calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts in transition-metal hydride complexes: unusual high-field shifts beyond the Buckingham-Stephens model. (United States)

    Hrobárik, Peter; Hrobáriková, Veronika; Meier, Florian; Repiský, Michal; Komorovský, Stanislav; Kaupp, Martin


    State-of-the-art relativistic four-component DFT-GIAO-based calculations of (1)H NMR chemical shifts of a series of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition-metal hydrides have revealed significant spin-orbit-induced heavy atom effects on the hydride shifts, in particular for several 4d and 5d complexes. The spin-orbit (SO) effects provide substantial, in some cases even the dominant, contributions to the well-known characteristic high-field hydride shifts of complexes with a partially filled d-shell, and thereby augment the Buckingham-Stephens model of off-center paramagnetic ring currents. In contrast, complexes with a 4d(10) and 5d(10) configuration exhibit large deshielding SO effects on their hydride (1)H NMR shifts. The differences between the two classes of complexes are attributed to the dominance of π-type d-orbitals for the true transition-metal systems compared to σ-type orbitals for the d(10) systems.

  10. Relationship and Discrepancies Among Typical Interatomic Potential Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM Teik-Cheng


    @@ We develop a simultaneous relationship among parameters of the generalized version of the Lennard-Jones,Morse, Rydberg and Buckingham pair potentials, and the two-body portion of the Kaxiras-Pandey potential function by introducing a set of scaling factors. These potential functions are selected according to their frequent adoption in condensed matter and molecular computation. In addition to verifying the parametric relations,theoretical plots of these potential curves show that each of these potential functions is unique in terms of their characteristic shape. However, gaps between these potential functions are narrowed for interatomic interactions possessing lower separation energy and longer interatomic equilibrium distance. Finally, comparison with the ab initio results shows that the extended-Rydberg potential energy curve gives the best agreement among the five empirical potential functions, for the specific case of hydrogen molecule.

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Buckingham County, VA, USA (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. Electric potential invariants and ions-in-molecules effective potentials for molecular Rydberg states (United States)

    Coy, Stephen L.; Grimes, David D.; Zhou, Yan; Field, Robert W.; Wong, Bryan M.


    The dependence of multipole moments and polarizabilities on external fields appears in many applications including biomolecular molecular mechanics, optical non-linearity, nanomaterial calculations, and the perturbation of spectroscopic signatures in atomic clocks. Over a wide range of distances, distributed multipole and polarizability potentials can be applied to obtain the variation of atom-centered atoms-in-molecules electric properties like bonding-quenched polarizability. For cylindrically symmetric charge distributions, we examine single-center and atom-centered effective polarization potentials in a non-relativistic approximation for Rydberg states. For ions, the multipole expansion is strongly origin-dependent, but we note that origin-independent invariants can be defined. The several families of invariants correspond to optimized representations differing by origin and number of terms. Among them, a representation at the center of dipole polarizability optimizes the accuracy of the potential with terms through 1/r4. We formulate the single-center expansion in terms of polarization-modified effective multipole moments, defining a form related to the source-multipole expansion of Brink and Satchler. Atom-centered potentials are an origin independent alternative but are limited both by the properties allowed at each center and by the neglected effects like bond polarizability and charge flow. To enable comparisons between single-center effective potentials in Cartesian or spherical form and two-center effective potentials with differing levels of mutual induction between atomic centers, we give analytical expressions for the bond-length and origin-dependence of multipole and polarizability terms projected in the multipole and polarizability expansion of Buckingham. The atom-centered potentials can then be used with experimental data and ab initio calculations to estimate atoms-in-molecules properties. Some results are given for BaF+ and HF showing the

  13. Computer simulation of acetonitrile and methanol with ab initio-based pair potentials (United States)

    Hloucha, M.; Sum, A. K.; Sandler, S. I.


    This study address the adequacy of ab initio pair interaction energy potentials for the prediction of macroscopic properties. Recently, Bukowski et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 7322 (1999)] performed a comprehensive study of the potential energy surfaces for several pairs of molecules using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. These ab initio energies were then fit to an appropriate site-site potential form. In an attempt to bridge the gap between ab initio interaction energy information and macroscopic properties prediction, we performed Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations using their developed pair potentials for acetonitrile and methanol. The simulations results show that the phase behavior of acetonitrile is well described by just the pair interaction potential. For methanol, on the other hand, pair interactions are insufficient to properly predict its vapor-liquid phase behavior, and its saturated liquid density. We also explored simplified forms for representing the ab initio interaction energies by refitting a selected range of the data to a site-site Lennard-Jones and to a modified Buckingham (exponential-6) potentials plus Coulombic interactions. These were also used in GEMC simulations in order to evaluate the quality and computational efficiency of these different potential forms. It was found that the phase behavior prediction for acetonitrile and methanol are highly dependent on the details of the interaction potentials developed.

  14. The Effects of Hydrogen on the Potential-Energy Surface of Amorphous Silicon (United States)

    Joly, Jean-Francois; Mousseau, Normand


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is an important semiconducting material used in many applications from solar cells to transistors. In 2010, Houssem et al. [1], using the open-ended saddle-point search method, ART nouveau, studied the characteristics of the potential energy landscape of a-Si as a function of relaxation. Here, we extend this study and follow the impact of hydrogen doping on the same a-Si models as a function of doping level. Hydrogen atoms are first attached to dangling bonds, then are positioned to relieve strained bonds of fivefold coordinated silicon atoms. Once these sites are saturated, further doping is achieved with a Monte-Carlo bond switching method that preserves coordination and reduces stress [2]. Bonded interactions are described with a modified Stillinger-Weber potential and non-bonded Si-H and H-H interactions with an adapted Slater-Buckingham potential. Large series of ART nouveau searches are initiated on each model, resulting in an extended catalogue of events that characterize the evolution of potential energy surface as a function of H-doping. [4pt] [1] Houssem et al., Phys Rev. Lett., 105, 045503 (2010)[0pt] [2] Mousseau et al., Phys Rev. B, 41, 3702 (1990)

  15. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad


    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  16. The effect of temperature, interaction range, and pair potential on the formation of dodecagonal quasicrystals in core-corona systems (United States)

    Pattabhiraman, Harini; Dijkstra, Marjolein


    A two-dimensional dodecagonal quasicrystal was previously reported by Dotera et al (2014 Nature 506 208) in a system of particles interacting with a hard core of diameter σ and a repulsive square shoulder of diameter δ =1.40σ . In the current work, we examine the formation of this quasicrystal using bond orientational order parameters, correlation functions and tiling distributions. We find that this dodecagonal quasicrystal forms from a fluid phase. We further study the effect of the width of the repulsive shoulder by simulating the system over a range of values of δ. For the range of densities and temperatures considered, we observe the formation of the dodecagonal quasicrystal between δ =1.30σ and 1.44σ . We also study the effect of shape of the interaction potential by simulating the system using three other interaction potentials with two length scales, namely hard-core plus a linear ramp, modified exponential, or Buckingham (exp-6) potential. We observe the presence of the quasicrystal in all three systems. However, depending on the shape of the potential, the formation of the quasicrystal takes place at lower temperatures (or higher interaction strengths). Using free-energy calculations, we demonstrate that the quasicrystal is thermodynamically stable in the square-shoulder and linear-ramp system.

  17. On the theory of interaction potentials in ionic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Roberto [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Soto-Bubert, Andres [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail:


    The aim of this research work is to report a more comprehensive and detailed study of both, the intermolecular and intramolecular potencial functions with reference to the various families of the elpasolite type crystals. The cohesive energy has been thought as a sum of three terms; the long range (Coulombic), the Born and the van der Waals contributions to the total energy. The Born-Mayer-Buckingham potential{sup 1} has been employed in all of these current studies and a number of convergence tests are analyzed from a formal viewpoint. Our work has been focused to the following systems: Cs{sub 2}NaLnF{sub 6}, Cs{sub 2}NaLnCl{sub 6}, Cs{sub 2}NaLnBr{sub 6}, Rb{sub 2}NaLnF{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}KLnF{sub 6} in the Fm3m space group. A substantial amount of theoretical models have been analyzed and several computing simulations have been undertaken to estimate the reticular energies and the corresponding heat of formation for these crystals. To achieve this goal, a Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle has been introduced in our model. It is shown that the calculated energy values are reasonable and follow the expected trend along the lanthanide series in the periodic chart. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current and proposed generalized model. The most likely sources for improvement are discussed in detail. New convergence tests as well as some master equations have been introduced to study the various diagonal contributions to the total energy.

  18. Ab Initio and Analytic Intermolecular Potentials for Ar–CH3OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasic, Uros; Alexeev, Yuri; Vayner, Grigoriy; Crawford, T Daniel; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.


    Ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were used to characterize the Ar–CH₃y6tOH intermolecular potential energy surface (PES). Potential energy curves were calculated for four different Ar + CH₃OH orientations and used to derive an analytic function for the intermolecular PES. A sum of Ar–C, Ar–O, Ar–H(C), and Ar–H(O) two-body potentials gives an excellent fit to these potential energy curves up to 100 kcal mol¯¹, and adding an additional r¯¹n term to the Buckingham two-body potential results in only a minor improvement in the fit. Three Ar–CH₃OH van der Waals minima were found from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. The structure of the global minimum is in overall good agreement with experiment (X.-C. Tan, L. Sun and R. L. Kuczkowski, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1995, 171, 248). It is T-shaped with the hydroxyl H-atom syn with respect to Ar. Extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, the global minimum has a well depth of 0.72 kcal mol¯¹ with basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction. The aug-cc-pVTZ basis set gives a well depth only 0.10 kcal mol¯¹ smaller than this value. The well depths of the other two minima are within 0.16 kcal mol¯¹ of the global minimum. The analytic Ar–CH₃OH intermolecular potential also identifies these three minima as the only van der Waals minima and the structures predicted by the analytic potential are similar to the ab initio structures. The analytic potential identifies the same global minimum and the predicted well depths for the minima are within 0.05 kcal mol¯1 of the ab initio values. Combining this Ar–CH₃OH intermolecular potential with a potential for a OH-terminated alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer surface (i.e., HO-SAM) provides a potential to model Ar + HO-SAM collisions.

  19. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří


    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  20. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis


    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality......” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights...

  1. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas


    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence....... While most Bugkalot men have today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can...

  2. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis


    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality”...

  3. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L


    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  4. Generalized Morse Potential Symmetry and Satellite Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sol-Mesa, A; Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yu. F.


    We study in detail the bound state spectrum of the generalized Morse potential~(GMP), which was proposed by Deng and Fan as a potential function for diatomic molecules. By connecting the corresponding Schrödinger equation with the Laplace equation on the hyperboloid and the Schrödinger equation for the an $so(2,2)$ symmetry algebra, and obtain an explicit realization of the latter as $su(1,1) \\oplus su(1,1)$. We prove that some of the $so(2,2)$ generators connect among themselves wave functions belonging to different GMP's (called satellite potentials). The conserved quantity is some combination of the potential parameters instead of the level energy, as for potential algebras. Hence, $so(2,2)$ belongs to a new class of symmetry algebras. We also stress the usefulness of our algebraic results for simplifying the calculation of Frank-Condon factors for electromagnetic transitions between rovibrational levels based on different electronic states.

  5. Isomorphs in the phase diagram of a model liquid without inverse power law repulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhorst, Arnold Adriaan; Bøhling, Lasse; Dyre, J. C.;


    It is demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations that liquids interacting via the Buckingham potential are strongly correlating, i.e., have regions of their phase diagram where constant-volume equilibrium fluctuations in the virial and potential energy are strongly correlated. A binary...... Buckingham liquid is cooled to a viscous phase and shown to have isomorphs, which are curves in the phase diagram along which structure and dynamics in appropriate units are invariant to a good approximation. To test this, the radial distribution function, and both the incoherent and coherent intermediate...

  6. Composite absorbing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Sala, P R


    The multiple scattering interferences due to the addition of several contiguous potential units are used to construct composite absorbing potentials that absorb at an arbitrary set of incident momenta or for a broad momentum interval.

  7. Crown Fire Potential (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  8. Soils - Potential Runoff (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  9. Graphical Potential Games


    Ortiz, Luis E.


    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  10. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe


    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  11. Tapping Academic Potential. (United States)

    McLamb, L. W.; Lant, Marsha


    Twelve low-achieving, high-potential junior high students were involved in a pullout program to improve their academic performance. The students were partially successful in applying strategies they learned for analyzing their potential, building self-esteem, managing time, managing stress, goal setting, and developing individual action plans.…

  12. Potential theory of radiation (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang


    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  13. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton


    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  14. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  15. Measuring the Managerial Potential


    Ion Gh. Rosca; George Moldoveanu


    The paper proposes the measurement of managerial and functional capabilities of the organization, as the dimensions of managerial potential, based on the configurative theory and not on the reductionist one. The components of the managerial potential are fulfilled by the capability of building organizational culture, managerial change and defining equity as the proximate type of social responsibility. The components are described in relation with the socio-economic model, useful in the proces...

  16. Analytics for Education (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin


    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  17. Potential risks of nanomaterials (United States)

    Bakalova, Totka; Louda, Petr


    Nanotechnology is the design and manipulation of materials at the nanometer scale such that novel or enhanced properties emerge. It is a new area of knowledge that promises a dazzling array of opportunities in areas as diverse as manufacturing, energy, health care, and waste treatment. But while the ability to develop nanomaterials and incorporate them into products is advancing rapidly, our understanding of the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanomaterials — and of the most effective ways to manage such effects — has proceeded at a much slower pace. Because of the novel properties that emerge at the nano scale, nanomaterials may require more and different information than called for under traditional risk management systems. And given the enormous commercial and societal benefits that may potentially come from this technology, it is likely that nanomaterials, and the products and other applications containing them, will be widely produced and used. Therefore it is especially important to understand and minimize the potential risks.

  18. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero


    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  19. Integrable Cosmological Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V V


    The problem of classification of the Einstein--Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians $H$ with a single scalar inflaton field $\\varphi$ that possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint $H=0$ is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of first, second, and third degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential $V(\\varphi)$. In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in a parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.

  20. Potentiation of latent inhibition. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Hall, Geoffrey


    Rats were given exposure either to an odor (almond) or a compound of odor plus taste (almond plus saline), prior to training in which the odor served as the conditioned stimulus. It was found, for both appetitive and aversive procedures, that conditioning was retarded by preexposure (a latent inhibition effect), and the extent of the retardation was greater in rats preexposed to the compound (i.e., latent inhibition to the odor was potentiated by the presence of the taste). In contrast, the presence of the taste during conditioning itself overshadowed learning about the odor. We argue that the presence of the salient taste in compound with the odor enhances the rate of associative learning, producing a rapid loss in the associability of the odor. This loss of associability will generate both overshadowing and the potentiation of latent inhibition that is observed after preexposure to the compound.

  1. Biomethanation and Its Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.;


    matter via cascades of biochemical conversions to methane and carbon dioxide. Syntrophic relationships between hydrogen producers (acetogens) and hydrogen scavengers (homoacetogens, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, etc.) are critical to the process. Determination of practical and theoretical methane...... potential is very important for design for optimal process design, configuration, and effective evaluation of economic feasibility. A wide variety of process applications for biomethanation of wastewaters, slurries, and solid waste have been developed. They utilize different reactor types (fully mixed......, plugflow, biofilm, UASB, etc.) and process conditions (retention times, loading rates, temperatures, etc.) in order to maximize the energy output from the waste and also to decrease retention time and enhance process stability. Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic...

  2. Potentials Unbounded Below

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas


    Continuous interpolates are described for classical dynamical systems defined by discrete time-steps. Functional conjugation methods play a central role in obtaining the interpolations. The interpolates corrrespond to particle motion in an underlying potential, V. Typically, V has no lower bound and can exhibit switchbacks wherein V changes form when turning points are encountered by the particle. The logistic map is used to illustrate these features.

  3. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  4. Cosmology With Negative Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Frolov, Andrei; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei


    We investigate cosmological evolution in models where the effective potential V(\\phi) may become negative for some values of the field \\phi. Phase portraits of such theories in space of variables (\\phi,\\dot\\phi,H) have several qualitatively new features as compared with phase portraits in the theories with V(\\phi) > 0. Cosmological evolution in models with potentials with a "stable" minimum at V(\\phi)<0 is similar in some respects to the evolution in models with potentials unbounded from below. Instead of reaching an AdS regime dominated by the negative vacuum energy, the universe reaches a turning point where its energy density vanishes, and then it contracts to a singularity with properties that are practically independent of V(\\phi). We apply our methods to investigation of the recently proposed cyclic universe scenario. We show that in addition to the singularity problem there are other problems that need to be resolved in order to realize a cyclic regime in this scenario. We propose several modificati...

  5. Nanoparticle ζ -potentials. (United States)

    Doane, Tennyson L; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Hill, Reghan J; Burda, Clemens


    For over half a century, alternating electric fields have been used to induce particle transport, furnishing the ζ-potential of analytes with sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers. Concurrent advances in nanotechnology have provided new materials for catalysis, self-assembly, and biomedical applications, all of which benefit from a thorough understanding of particle surface charge. Therefore, the measurement of the ζ-potential via electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) has become essential for nanoparticle (NP) research. However, the interpretation of NP electrophoretic mobility, especially that of ligand-coated NPs, can be a complex undertaking. Despite the inherent intricacy of these data, key concepts from colloidal science can help to distill valuable information from ELS. In this Account, we adopt PEGylated Au NPs as an illustrative example to explore extensions of the classical theories of Smoluchowski, Hückel, and Henry to more contemporary theories for ligand-coated NP systems such as those from Ohshima, and Hill, Saville, and Russel. First, we review the basic experimental considerations necessary to understand NP electrophoretic mobility, identifying when O'Brien and White's numerical solution of the standard electrokinetic model should be adopted over Henry's closed-form analytical approximation. Next, we explore recent developments in the theory of ligand-coated particle electrophoresis, and how one can furnish accurate and meaningful relationships between measured NP mobility, ζ-potential, and surface charge. By identifying key ligand-coated NP parameters (e.g., coating thickness, permeability, molecular mass, and hydrodynamic segment size), we present a systematic method for quantitatively interpreting NP electrophoretic mobility. In addition to reviewing theoretical foundations, we describe our recent results that examine how the unique surface curvature of NPs alters and controls their properties. These data provide

  6. Thermodynamics extends economics potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Alexander V. [Kiev Technical Univ., Dept. of Marketing and Management, Kiev (Ukraine); Brodiansky, Victor M. [Moscow Energy Inst., Dept. of Cryogen Machines, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we consider the use of exergy in economic valuation and its correlation with money. Exergy-based determination of production expenses provides a new base for 'natural' price determination. A new macroeconomic dynamics approach based on this correlation is proposed. This method is relatively general because it is not restricted by certain assumptions used in traditional economic analysis. The exergy model of macroeconomic dynamics was tested by utilizing data from the US economy. This test, covering a period of about 25 years, confirms this approach and opens new potentials in economic analysis. (Author)

  7. Compact Polarimetry Potentials (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric


    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  8. Vector potential photoelectron microscopy. (United States)

    Browning, R


    A new class of electron microscope has been developed for the chemical microanalysis of a wide range of real world samples using photoelectron spectroscopy. Highly structured, three-dimensional samples, such as fiber mats and fracture surfaces can be imaged, as well as insulators and magnetic materials. The new microscope uses the vector potential field from a solenoid magnet as a spatial reference for imaging. A prototype instrument has demonstrated imaging of uncoated silk, magnetic steel wool, and micron-sized single strand tungsten wires.

  9. On quantum potential dynamics (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Struyve, Ward


    Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function—the quantum potential—together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.

  10. Are Advanced Potentials Anomalous? (United States)

    Ibison, Michael


    Advanced electromagnetic potentials are indigenous to the classical Maxwell theory. Generally however they are deemed undesirable and are forcibly excluded, destroying the theory's inherent time-symmetry. We investigate the reason for this, pointing out that it is not necessary and in some cases is counter-productive. We then focus on the direct-action theory in which the advanced and retarded contributions are present symmetrically, with no opportunity supplement the particular integral solution of the wave equation with an arbitrary complementary function. One then requires a plausible explanation for the observed broken symmetry that, commonly, is understood cannot be met by the Wheeler-Feynman mechanism because the necessary boundary condition cannot be satisfied in acceptable cosmologies. We take this opportunity to argue that the boundary condition is already met by all expanding cosmologies simply as a result of cosmological red-shift. A consequence is that the cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time can be equated, the direct action version of EM is preferred, and that advanced potentials are ubiquitous.

  11. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  12. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe


    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  13. Zoonotic potential of Giardia. (United States)

    Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M


    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection.

  14. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server


    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  15. Analytic QCD Binding Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y -M


    This paper applies the analytic forms of a recent non-perturbative, manifestly gauge- and Lorentz-invariant description (of the exchange of all possible virtual gluons between quarks ($Q$) and/or anti-quarks ($\\bar{Q}$) in a quenched, eikonal approximation) to extract analytic forms for the binding potentials generating a model $Q$-$\\bar{Q}$ "pion", and a model $QQQ$ "nucleon". Other, more complicated $Q$, $\\bar{Q}$ contributions to such color-singlet states may also be identified analytically. An elementary minimization technique, relevant to the ground states of such bound systems, is adopted to approximate the solutions to a more proper, but far more complicated Schroedinger/Dirac equation; the existence of possible contributions to the pion and nucleon masses due to spin, angular momentum, and "deformation" degrees of freedom is noted but not pursued. Neglecting electromagnetic and weak interactions, this analysis illustrates how the one new parameter making its appearance in this exact, realistic formali...

  16. Memantine: Reality and Potentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo M. Antonello


    Full Text Available Memantine protects cultured neurons from excitotoxin-induced cell-death; it attenuated loss of cholinergic neurons in the CNS induced by injection of NMDA into the basal forebrain of rats. It has been shown that memantine induced production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a substance shown to promote survival and differentiation of CNS neuron. Due to the preclinical effects of memantine owing to its anti-ischemic and anti-excitotoxic properties, recent clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with advanced dementia of vascular origins. Therefore, it has been employed in different trials, in vascular dementia, showing a potential benefit and no unbearable side effects. Different studies under- line the possible role of memantine in Parkinson Disease.

  17. CLIC Physics Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pandurovic, Mila


    The CLICdp is an international collaboration that investigates the physics potential of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and performs research and development of the CLIC detector. CLIC is a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, designed to cover a physics program of the Standard model physics, with the emphasis on Higgs and top as well as to address the wide range of open questions of the phenomena beyond the Standard model with high precision. The CLIC is designed to be build and operated at three discrete energy stages, sort(s) = 380 GeV, 1.5 and 3.0 TeV, which are optimized for the foreseen physics program. In this talk the CLIC accelerator, detector and experimental environment of CLIC will be presented, as well as, the number of the full-simulation measurements in the Higgs, top and beyond Standard model sector, presenting the capabilities of CLIC for high precision measurements.

  18. Not utilized learning potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

      When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...... transformation from one type of disjuncture to another.      Students and mentors are not aware that students are in potential learning situations when they interact on their own with patients, and that it is non-routine for students to act with patients in pseudo-everyday life activities. It may be possible......-conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that provoke...

  19. Effective potential for relativistic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elbistan, Mahmut; Balog, Janos


    We consider quantum inverse scattering with singular potentials and calculate the Sine-Gordon model effective potential in the laboratory and centre-of-mass frames. The effective potentials are frame dependent but closely resemble the zero-momentum potential of the equivalent Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar et al.


    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a dark-red pigment which is the main carotenoid found in the marine world of algae and aquatic animals. Astaxanthin, is present in many types of seafood, including salmon, trout, red sea bream, shrimp and lobster, as well as in birds such as flamingo and quail. Synthetic Astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural Astaxanthin, are the green algae haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses unusual antioxidant property which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market of the encapsulated products. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.

  1. Neuroprotective potential of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Phani Kumar


    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is a major health problem in the 21st century, and many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer′s Disease dementia, cerebrovascular impairment, seizure disorders, head injury and Parkinsonism, can be severly functionally debilitating in nature. In course of time, a number of neurotransmitters and signaling molecules have been identified which have been considered as therapeutic targets. Conventional as well newer molecules have been tried against these targets. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants play a vital role in maintaining the brain′s chemical balance by influencing the function of receptors for the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. In traditional practice of medicine, several plants have been reported to treat cognitive disorders. In this review paper, we attempt to throw some light on the use of medicinal herbs to treat cognitive disorders. In this review, we briefly deal with some medicinal herbs focusing on their neuroprotective active phytochemical substances like fatty acids, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes etc. The resistance of neurons to various stressors by activating specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors are also discussed. It was observed in the review that a number of herbal medicines used in Ayurvedic practices as well Chinese medicines contain multiple compounds and phytochemicals that may have a neuroprotective effect which may prove beneficial in different neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Though the presence of receptors or transporters for polyphenols or other phytochemicals of the herbal preparations, in brain tissues remains to be ascertained, compounds with multiple targets appear as a potential and promising class of therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with a multifactorial etiology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner


    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  3. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  4. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  5. Trypsin potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation. (United States)

    White, Michael J V; Glenn, Melissa; Gomer, Richard H


    Trypsin-containing topical treatments can be used to speed wound healing, although the mechanism of action is unknown. To help form granulation tissue and heal wounds, monocytes leave the circulation, enter the wound tissue, and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. We find that 20 to 200 ng/ml trypsin (concentrations similar to those used in wound dressings) potentiates the differentiation of human monocytes to fibrocytes in cell culture. Adding trypsin inhibitors increases the amount of trypsin needed to potentiate fibrocyte differentiation, suggesting that the potentiating effect is dependent on trypsin proteolytic activity. Proteases with other site specificities such as pepsin, endoprotease GluC, and chymotrypsin do not potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. This potentiation requires the presence of albumin in the culture medium, and tryptic fragments of human or bovine albumin also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. These results suggest that topical trypsin speeds wound healing by generating tryptic fragments of albumin, which in turn potentiate fibrocyte differentiation.

  6. Local Existence of Spinor Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, F


    We present a new, simple proof of existence for the Lanczos spinor potential in 3+1 dimensions that introduces a potential $T_{ABCD}= T_{(ABC)D}$ of the Lanczos potential together with several generalizations to other index configurations and metric signatures. The potential $T_{ABCD}$ can also be used to express, in a concise way, the gauge freedom left in the Lanczos potential after the differential gauge has been specified. We consider Einstein spacetimes and prove that in those spacetimes any symmetric (3,1)-spinor possesses a symmetric potential $H_{ABA'B'}$. Potentials of this type have earlier occurred in some special cases investigated e.g., by Torres del Castillo, Bergqvist and ourselves.

  7. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooverman, R. H.


    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  8. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W


    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  9. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.


    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  10. The erosive potential of lollipops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; Paap, A.; Bulthuis, M.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.


    Aim: To determine the erosive potential of several commercially available lollipops and the protective effect of saliva. Methods: The erosive potential of lollipops was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. Subsequently, 10 healthy volunteers tested different types of lo

  11. Transport properties of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T S [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Galiyev, K Zh [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, K N [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Redmer, R [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)


    We have considered partially ionized hydrogen plasma for the density region n{sub e} = (10{sup 18}-10{sup 22}) cm{sup -3}. Charged particles in the system (electrons, protons) interact via an effective potential taking into account three-particle correlations. We use the Buckingham polarization potential to describe electron-atom and proton-atom interactions. The electrical and thermal conductivity is determined using the Chapman-Enskog method. We compare the obtained results with other available data.

  12. Potential theory—selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki


    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  13. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Potentials


    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.


    We study the reverse triangle inequalities for suprema of logarithmic potentials on compact sets of the plane. This research is motivated by the inequalities for products of supremum norms of polynomials. We find sharp additive constants in the inequalities for potentials, and give applications of our results to the generalized polynomials. We also obtain sharp inequalities for products of norms of the weighted polynomials $w^nP_n, deg(P_n)\\le n,$ and for sums of suprema of potentials with ex...

  14. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Kraft, George H


    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs.

  15. Generalized anti-centrifugal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandoloff, Rossen [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Jensen, Bjørn [Department of Micro and Nano Systems Technology, Vestfold University College, N-3103 Tønsberg (Norway); Saxena, Avadh, E-mail: [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)


    We generalize the quantum anti-centrifugal potential in the two-dimensional Euclidean plane to two-dimensional surfaces embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We consider the sphere with two caps removed in some detail. We show that quantum particles in this space are “pushed” towards either of the cap boundaries. We also consider the two-dimensional Euclidean plane with an elliptic area removed and compute the quantum anti-centrifugal potential on the elliptic boundary. It is argued that a sufficiently thin electrically conducting nano-wire shaped as an ellipse will exhibit an inhomogeneous charge distribution due to this quantum potential.

  16. Tachyon potential in KBc subalgebra

    CERN Document Server

    Zeze, Syoji


    We evaluate the classical action and the effective tachyon potential of open string field theory within KBc subalgebra, which is extensively used in analytic solution for tachyon condensation recently found by Erler and Schnabl. It is found that the level expansion of the string field terminates at level 3. We find that the closed string vacuum is a saddle point of the classical action. We also evaluate the effective potential for tachyon field. The closed string vaccum becomes stable by integrationg out an auxiliary field. It is found that the effective potential is bounded below hence has no runaway direction. We also argue validity of simple identity based solution.

  17. Tachyon Potential in KBc Subalgebra (United States)

    Zeze, S.


    We evaluate the classical action and the effective tachyon potential of open string field theory within K B c subalgebra, which is extensively used in analytic solution for tachyon condensation recently found by Erler and Schnabl. It is found that the level expansion of the string field terminates at level 3. We find that the closed string vacuum is a saddle point of the classical action. We also evaluate the effective potential for tachyon field. The closed string vacuum becomes stable by integrating out an auxiliary field. It is found that the effective potential is bounded below hence has no runaway direction. We also argue validity of simple identity based solution.

  18. Chemical Potential Dependence of Vertices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu; ZHANG Yan-Bin; SUN Wei-Min; ZONG Hong-Shi


    Based on the rainbow-ladder approximation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and the assumption of the analyticity of the fermion-boson vertex in the neighborhood of zero chemical potential (μ = 0) and neglecting the μ-dependence of the dressed gluon propagator, we apply the method in [Phys. Rev. C 71 (2005) 015205] of studying the dressed quark propagator at finite chemical potential to prove that the general fermion-boson vertex at finite μ can also be obtained from the one at μ=0 by a simple shift of variables. Using this result we extend the results of [Phys. Lett. B 420 (1998) 267] to the situation of finite chemical potential and show that under the approximations we have taken, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation also holds at finite chemical potential.

  19. Chirally motivated K - nuclear potentials (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.


    In-medium subthreshold Kbar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K- atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K- nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold Kbar N amplitudes, with Re VK-chiral = - (85 ± 5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When Kbar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K- nuclear potential results, Re VK-chiral + phen . = - (180 ± 5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K--nuclear quasibound states generated by VK-chiral are reported and discussed.

  20. Central Nucleon-Nucleon Potential (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.


    The outer region of the NN interactions is dominated by the one pion exchange potential (OPEP), followed by the two-pion exchange potential (TPEP). Chiral calculations of the TPEP have been performed using either heavy baryon1 (HB) or relativistic2 perturbation theories. We compare the predictions from these two approaches for the dominant central interaction and show that they fail to agree by 25% ...

  1. Static quark-antiquark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, B.B.; Barik, B.K.


    A heavy-quark--antiquark potential is suggested which connects asymptotic freedom and quark confinement in a unified manner by formal methods of field theory using some plausible assumptions. The potential has only one additional adjustable parameter B which is proportional to (M/sub q//m/sub q/), where M/sub q/ and m/sub q/ are the constituent and current quark masses, respectively.

  2. Labor potential: enhancing its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Melnichuk


    Full Text Available This publication presents the views of the author about the need to expand research of labor potential, estimation of quantitative indicators and qualitative characteristics at the individual, regional levels and the state as a whole to develop the mechanisms of its development. The existing methods of labour potential assessment are mainly based on the probable approach taking into account external and internal factors. In the case of assessment of labour potential of a single enterprise for the most suitable for this production method the mechanisms of its development can be worked out. However, for the state under a certain depreciation of the resource, property, financial and other potentials, aggressive manifestations of the crisis phenomena, processes etc. to resolve urgent is the problem of enhancing the development of qualitative characteristics of labor potential at all its levels. In this context it is important to exploit the potential of domestic education and science which now continue to be reformed for the sake of achieving European standards, using the advanced experience of other countries. Every means of legal, financial, managerial, and organizational impact should be used for this.

  3. Non-local Optical Potentials (United States)

    Thompson, Ian


    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  4. Sensitive Probe for Symmetry Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Ye; XIAO Guo-Qing; GUO Wen-Jun; REN ZhongZhou; ZUO Wei; LEE Xi-Guo


    Based on both very obvious isospin effect of the neutron-proton number ratio of nucleon emissions (n/p)nucl on symmetry potential and (n/p)nucl's sensitive dependence on symmetry potential in the nuclear reactions induced by halo-neutron projectiles, compared to the same mass stable projectile, probing symmetry potential is investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics with isospin and momentum-dependent interactions for different symmetry potentials U1sym and U2sym. It is found that the neutron-halo projectile induces very obvious increase of (n/p)nucl and strengthens the dependence of (n/p)nucl on the symmetry potential for all the beam energies and impact parameters, compared to the same mass stable projectile under the same incident channel condition. Therefore (n/p)nucl induced by the neutron-halo projectile is a more favourable probe than the normal neutron-rich and neutron-poor projectiles for extracting the symmetry potential.

  5. Optical potential from first principles

    CERN Document Server

    Rotureau, J; Hagen, G; Nunes, F; Papenbrock, T


    We develop a method to construct a microscopic optical potential from chiral interactions for nucleon-nucleus scattering at arbitrary energies. The optical potential is constructed by combining the Green's function approach with the coupled-cluster method. Using this approach, we perform a proof-of-principle calculation of the optical potential for the elastic neutron scattering on $^{16}{\\rm O}$. We verify the convergence of the optical potential and scattering phase shifts with respect to the model-space size and we also investigate the absorptive component of the optical potential. We find an almost negligible absorption at low-energies. To shed light on this result, we computed excited states of $^{16}{\\rm O}$ using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles-and-doubles excitations and we found no low-lying excited states below 10~MeV. We conclude that the reduced absorption at low-energies can be attributed to a lack of correlations coming from the low-order cluster truncation in the employed couple...

  6. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics]. (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G


    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  7. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.


    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  8. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  9. Generalized Stillinger--David Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, Igor


    We present an improved version of the Stillinger--David polarization potential of the intermolecular interaction in water. A clear algorithm of construction of a function describing the oxygen-hydrogen interaction in water molecules is formulated. A new approach to the modeling of a function screening the charge-dipole interaction on small distances is developed. To describe the long-range asymptotics of the intermolecular potential, the bare Stillinger--David potential is supplemented by a term related to the interaction of dipole moments of oxygen ions. In addition, we introduce a term involving a deformation of the electron shells of oxygen ions to the polarization component. These corrections allow us to successfully reproduce all essential results of quantum mechanical calculations of the interaction energy for water molecules obtained by Clementi. Analyzing the behavior of the dipole moment of a water molecule as a function of the intermolecular distance, we obtain the estimate of irreducible two-partic...

  10. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author


    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  11. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))


    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  12. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry


    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  13. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina


    lives. These complex and often conflicting imagined potentialities lead to inflicted burden on designers, policy makers and healthcare practitioners who are faced with different realities on the ground. The conflicting notions have real life effects as these impact our present understanding of...... improvement in care keeps people engaged in continuous efforts of reproducing the project instantiations. Gradually, what the EHR technologies actually do or do not do become to some degree less significant. In other words, that which is imagined can be transformed into real. Finally, imagined potentialities...

  14. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S


    similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ cells......) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  15. Neurotechnology premises, potential, and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, James


    New technologies that allow us to investigate mechanisms and functions of the brain have shown considerable promise in treating brain disease and injury. These emerging technologies also provide a means to assess and manipulate human consciousness, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, bringing with them the potential to transform society. Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential, and Problems explores the technical, moral, legal, and sociopolitical issues that arise in and from today,s applications of neuroscience and technology and discusses their implications for the future. Some of the issues r

  16. Field Analysis and Potential Theory (United States)


    T T T 430 FIELD ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL THEORY [Sec.5.7 But V2f [ dT - Z j V2 Jxdr T T hence V c2at 7- dT _- J2 (J2 dT T TT whence dalf [13 dT " 0 (5.7...8) at exterior points or dal pot [2] - O (5.7-8(a)) Similarly, dalf r dS - 0 (5.7-9) dal [y] ds - 0 (5.7-10) r Sec.5.7] RETARDED POTENTIAL THEORY 431

  17. Virtual materiality, potentiality and subjctivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    -activity of such elements in children’s night dreams? These are some of the questions discussed in this text. I bring together Karen Barad’s agential realism and Giorgi Agamben’s concept of potentiality to enable and refine an analytical approach to real-virtual enactments, thereby questioning the potentialities of gaming......How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse and subjectivity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse and subjectivity in children’s everyday lives? How do we understand the intra...

  18. Anisotropic Inflation with General Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jiaming; Qiu, Taotao


    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  19. Evolutionary potential games on lattices (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István


    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  20. Das immunsuppressive Potential von Dopaminrezeptoragonisten


    Gronen, Felix


    Dopaminagonisten (DA) werden als Therapie beim idiopathischen Parkinson Syndrom und auch bei anderen chronischen ZNS-Erkrankungen zunehmend eingesetzt. Wenig Aufmerksamkeit wurde bisher auf die klinische Auswirkung des bekannten, immunsuppressiven Potentials der DA verwand. In vitro Experimente, Untersuchungen an Tiermodellen und auch kleinere klinische Pilot-Untersuchungen bei immunvermittelten Erkrankungen, z.B. der rheumatoiden...

  1. Quantum mechanics without potential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhaidari, A. D., E-mail: [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 32741, Jeddah 21438 (Saudi Arabia); Ismail, M. E. H. [Department of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)


    In the standard formulation of quantum mechanics, one starts by proposing a potential function that models the physical system. The potential is then inserted into the Schrödinger equation, which is solved for the wavefunction, bound states energy spectrum, and/or scattering phase shift. In this work, however, we propose an alternative formulation in which the potential function does not appear. The aim is to obtain a set of analytically realizable systems, which is larger than in the standard formulation and may or may not be associated with any given or previously known potential functions. We start with the wavefunction, which is written as a bounded infinite sum of elements of a complete basis with polynomial coefficients that are orthogonal on an appropriate domain in the energy space. Using the asymptotic properties of these polynomials, we obtain the scattering phase shift, bound states, and resonances. This formulation enables one to handle not only the well-known quantum systems but also previously untreated ones. Illustrative examples are given for two- and three-parameter systems.

  2. Synthesis of potential mescaline antagonists. (United States)

    DeSantis, F; Nieforth, K A


    1-[2-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-pyrroline, 2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, N-n-propylmescaline, N-cyclopropylmethylmescaline, and N-allylmescaline were synthesized as potential mescaline antagonists. The ability of these compounds to antagonize mescaline-induced disruption of swim behavior is also given.

  3. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))


    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  4. Assessment of triton potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L


    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  5. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy (United States)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.


    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  6. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail:; Borsos, István, E-mail:


    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  7. Evoked Potentials and Human Intelligence. (United States)

    Ertl, John P.; Schafer, Edward W. P.

    Evidence of a relationship between the electrical responses of the human brain and psychometric measure of intelligence is presented. These involuntary cortical responses, known as average evoked potentials are considered to be the electrical signs of information processing by the brain. The time delays of these responses from presentation of a…

  8. Refined Factorizations of Solvable Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, J; Rosas-Ortiz, O


    A generalization of the factorization technique is shown to be a powerful algebraic tool to discover further properties of a class of integrable systems in Quantum Mechanics. The method is applied in the study of radial oscillator, Morse and Coulomb potentials to obtain a wide set of raising and lowering operators, and to show clearly the connection that link these systems.

  9. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S


    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2....

  10. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari


    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic, soci

  11. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte


    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  12. The hydrogeothermal potential of Southern Hesse; Das hydrogeothermische Potential Suedhessens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzer, C.; Fluhrer, S.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften


    The paper investigates rock series suited as storage media and the temperature distribution in the subsurface of Southern Hesse. It gives an idea of the possibilities for hydrogeothermal energy use in the area. The densily populated Rhein-Main-region provides a good demand potential for geothermal heat. A substantially elevated geothermal gradient of about 60 K/km as compared to the continental average of 30 K/km could be demonstrated in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben. Thermal anomalies could be localised. The Rotliegend-layers (Perm) provide the highest geothermal ressources in the region. In more shallow depth, the Hydrobia layers (Teritary) show reasonable values. To the north, the potential of these series decreases. Hence hydrogeothermal energy use should not be considered in the northern part of Southern Hesse. The highest potential can be expected from the Rotliegend layers in the area of Stockstadt and Biebesheim. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung geht auf die moeglichen Speichergesteine und die Temperaturverteilung im Untergrund Suedhessens ein und gibt einen ersten Eindruck von den Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie in der Region. Fuer geothermische Waerme besteht im dicht besiedelten Rhein-Main-Gebiet eine gute Abnehmerstruktur. Im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben konnte im Mittel ein deutlich erhoehter Temperaturgradient von etwa 60 K/km gegenueber dem kontinentalen Krustendurchschnittswert von 30 K/km nachgewiesen werden. Waemeanomalien wurden lokalisiert. Die Rotliegendschichten weisen im untersuchten Gebiet eindeutig die hoechsten Ressourcen auf. In geringerer Tiefenlage erzielen die Hydrobienschichten noch beachtliche Werte. Nach Norden nimmt das Potential der Schichten ab. Daher ist von einer Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie im noerdlichen Bereich Suedhessens eher abzuraten. Die hoechsten Ressourcen in Suedhessen sind im Bereich von Stockstadt und Biebesheim in den Rotliegenschichten zu erwarten. (orig.)

  13. Decoupling Action Potential Bias from Cortical Local Field Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. David


    Full Text Available Neurophysiologists have recently become interested in studying neuronal population activity through local field potential (LFP recordings during experiments that also record the activity of single neurons. This experimental approach differs from early LFP studies because it uses high impendence electrodes that can also isolate single neuron activity. A possible complication for such studies is that the synaptic potentials and action potentials of the small subset of isolated neurons may contribute disproportionately to the LFP signal, biasing activity in the larger nearby neuronal population to appear synchronous and cotuned with these neurons. To address this problem, we used linear filtering techniques to remove features correlated with spike events from LFP recordings. This filtering procedure can be applied for well-isolated single units or multiunit activity. We illustrate the effects of this correction in simulation and on spike data recorded from primary auditory cortex. We find that local spiking activity can explain a significant portion of LFP power at most recording sites and demonstrate that removing the spike-correlated component can affect measurements of auditory tuning of the LFP.

  14. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  15. Dark Matter and Potential fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I


    A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent in local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized electromagnetic field and a simple solution is given of the old problem to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space--time which...

  16. On the blackhole dynamic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kabe, Koustubh Ajit


    In the following paper, certain blackhole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental blackhole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats and have been defined. For a blackhole, these quantities are negative. The equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the blackhole, the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function, and the surface gravity, has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in blackhole spacetimes that ....

  17. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R


    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  18. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina


    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  19. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation. (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C


    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  20. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants. (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R


    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  1. Potential Theory in Classical Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Wolfgang


    In Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics the fields are frequently expressed by potentials in order to facilitate the solution of the first order system of equations. This method obscures, however, that there exists an inconsistency between Faraday's law of induction and Maxwell's flux law. As a consequence of this internal contradiction there is neither gauge invariance, nor exist unique solutions in general. It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous wave equations cannot be solved by retarded integrals.

  2. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike


    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  3. Time Perception and Evoked Potentials (United States)


    ARI Research Note 88-69 0 MitnS.Ktohe U.0 ... Ann-r (. Time Perception and Evoked Potentials Paul FraisseDT ( Lfniversit6 Rene Descartes E LECTE...JOHNSON 00L, [N Technical Dicctojr Cmad Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army C. Universite Rene Descartes , Paris )r...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Labrato-ire de Psychologie Experimental AREA• WORK UNIT NUMBERS Universite Rene Descartes

  4. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica. (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H


    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin


    Full Text Available Advergames represent a new advertising concept that uses Internet technology to implement viral marketing campaigns. Despite the potential of this interactive advertising method, very few academic studies have been initiated to investigate the characteristics of advergames, and their influence on consumers’ perceptions and behaviour. Using secondary data, this paper attempts to evaluate the characteristics of effective advergames, and to analyse the effect of advergames on players’ perceptions and behaviour.

  6. Bioluminescence Potential Modeling and Forecasting (United States)


    bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from simple agitation of the water with one’s hand...history of brilliant displays of bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from...during the earlier stages of upwelling development. Later, the observed deep offshore BL potential maximum disappeared and became a shallower and much

  7. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine


    La Bounty Paul M; Campbell Bill I; Roberts Mike


    Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1) its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2) its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3) its role in augmenting n...

  8. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan


    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  9. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Momčilo


    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without "touching" them. Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: They can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop--absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid--we are free to ...

  10. Potentiality, Actuality, and Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Koznjak


    Full Text Available In this paper a possible interpretative value of Aristotle’s fundamental ontological doctrine of potentiality (δύναµις and actuality (ἐνέργεια is considered in the context of operationally undoubtedly the most successful but interpretatively still controversial theory of modern physics – quantum mechanics – especially regarding understanding the nature of the world, the phenomena of which it describes and predicts so successfully. In particular, beings of the atomic world are interpreted as real potential beings (δυνάµει ὄντα actualized by the measurement process in appropriate experimental arrangement, and the problem of actual beings (ἐνεργείᾳ ὄντα of the atomic world (better known as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered in the context of Aristotle’s threefold requirement for the priority of actuality over potentiality – in time (χρόνος, definition or knowledge (λόγος, and substantiality (οὐσία.

  11. Cannabinoids and their medicinal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Tikoo


    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L preparations have been used therapeutically since many years. Inspite of their medicinal value, the danger of its abusive potential led to the ban on its use in clinical practice in many countries. The recent research and in depth knowledge about the cannabinoid system which throw a light on their disease management potential has paved way for the cannabinoids to become a new therapeutic focus of attention. Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors which include CB1, predominantly expressed in the brain and CB2 which is primarily found in the cells of the immune system. Despite the addictive properties of cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases such as anorexia, pain, inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, hepatic disorders, skin related diseases, respiratory disorders like asthma and eye diseases like glaucoma have suggested cannabinoid agonists/ antagonists/ cannabinoids related compounds as potential treatment options. Developments of new specific ligands for the cannabinoid receptors are now underway and it needs to be seen, if in future, they can prove to be a boon for the medical world. The paper reviews the current understanding of the cannabinoid receptors, their ligands and their possible role in various diseases supported by preclinical and clinical studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 48-59

  12. Amplitude recruitment of cochlear potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingqi; SUN Wei; SUN Jianhe; YU Ning; JIANG Sichang


    Intracellular recordings were made from outer hair cells (OHC) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were recorded from scala media (SM) in three turn of guinea pig cochlea,the compound action potential (CAP) were recorded at the round window (RW) before and after the animal were exposed to white noise. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties with “saduration” of Input/output (I/O) function of OHC AC recepter potential and CM were founded; the nonlinear properties with “Low”, “Platean” and “high” of CAP also were investigated. After explosion, the threshold shift of CAP has about 10 dB. The I/O of OHC responses and CM were changed in a linearizing (i.e., nonlinearity loss), the “platean” of I/O CAP disappeared and the growth rate of CAP amplitude were larger than before explosion. The response amplitude recruitment of OHC appears to result from reduction in gain (i.e., hearing loss); It was due to the nonlinear growth function of OHC receptor potentials was changed in linearzing that the basilar membrance motion was changed in linearizing. Since intensity coding in the inner ear depends on an interactions of nonlinear basilar membrance and nerve fibers. So that it must lead to a linearizing of CAP as input responses.

  13. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels. (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young


    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately.

  14. Bio-potential amplifier for potential gradient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Andrea N; Spinelli, Enrique M; Muravchik, Carlos H [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)


    This work proposes a bio-potential amplifier suitable for measurements from an electric potential gradient sensor, in electro-encephalography (EEG). The sensor is an array made by three electrodes placed on the vertices of an equilateral triangle of reduced size. Measuring the gradient requires small separation between electrodes hence, very low amplitude signals, of a few {mu}V, are obtained. Therefore, it is important to minimize amplifier noise and electromagnetic interference effects. In the proposed scheme, the first stage is a passive and balanced ac-coupling network adapted to the gradient configuration and the second stage is an 80 dB gain amplifier. The implementation requires a reduced number of components. Therefore, the circuit can be mounted just above the electrodes (active electrodes). The proposed amplifier was built and tested. It achieves a CMRR of 125dB at 50 Hz and an equivalent input noise voltage of 0,3{mu}V RMS in the band 0.5 - 500 Hz. Finally, some preliminary results in the detection of occipital alpha rhythm are presented.

  15. The dynamic polarization potential and dynamical non-locality in nuclear potentials: Deuteron-nucleus potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mackintosh, R S


    The consequences for direct reactions of the dynamical non-locality generated by the excitation of the target and projectile are much less studied than the effects of non-locality arising from exchange processes. Here we are concerned with the dynamical non-locality due to projectile excitation in deuteron induced reactions. The consequences of this non-locality can be studied by the comparison of deuteron induced direct reactions calculated with alternative representations of the elastic channel wave functions: (i) the elastic channel wave functions from coupled channel (CC) calculations involving specific reaction processes, and, (ii) elastic channel wave functions calculated from local potentials that exactly reproduce the elastic scattering $S$-matrix from the same CC calculations. In this work we produce the local equivalent deuteron potentials required for the study of direct reactions involving deuterons. These will enable the study of the effects of dynamical non-locality following a method previously...

  16. Potential neuroprotective effects of cinnamon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Crews Stavinoha


    Full Text Available Summary. The pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases involves complex interactions between multiple mechanisms, including but not limited to oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteotoxicity, which have yet to be ameliorated by pharmaceutical drugs with single targets. Natural products have been recognized for their health promoting effects for thousands of years. Plants produce a vast collection of secondary products, such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, and terpenes that have shown health benefits in a variety of conditions including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the search for more effective and safe treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases, several dietary sources of phytochemicals have been investigated. Historical usage in traditional medicine, along with modern research has identified several key products with potential benefits in neurodegenerative diseases. Among the dietary sources, cinnamon shows particular merit as a therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence suggesting neuroprotective effects via modulation of various risk factors relevant to neurodegeneration has been reviewed here. Industrial relevance. Cinnamon has been cherished for its health-promoting effects for thousands of years. Today, while modern medicine provides critical pharmaceutical agents that have assisted in ameliorating many diseases and extended the average lifespan significantly in the past century, these agents are associated with many side effects and expenses. As such, the search for efficient therapies with limited side effects is a significant target of research. Cinnamon, as a rich source of phytochemicals and long history in traditional medicine, has been a popular spice in recent decades for investigations elucidating its health-promoting effects. This review evaluates the therapeutic potential of cinnamon in ameliorating the risk factors responsible for the development

  17. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine


    This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation...... of continuity and discontinuity of progressive pedagogy. The Danish context is identified as being part of an international and scientific enlightenment movement circulating in, e.g., the New Education Fellowship (NEF). The cultural constructs embedded in progressivism are clarified in the article...

  18. China’s Military Potential (United States)


    Chinese strategist Sun Tzu into English . In a 1964 essay on the subject of China’s military potential General Griffith told us that: One need not labor the...discussion of China’s modernization efforts in English may be found in Joseph C. Anslemo, "China’s Military Seeks a Great Leap Forward," Aviation Week and...the general staff of the PLA. 17. Jiang Zemin, "Gaoju Deng Xiaoping Lilun Weida Qizhi, ba Jianshe you Zhongguo Tesi Zhehui Zhuyi Shiye Quanmian Tuixiang

  19. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto


    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Feedback traps for virtual potentials (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Bechhoefer, John


    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without `touching' them (e.g. by putting them in a small box or attaching them to a tether). Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: they can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop-absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid-we are free to specify and then manipulate in time an arbitrary potential U(x,t). Here, we review recent applications of feedback traps to studies on the fundamental connections between information and thermodynamics, a topic where feedback plays an even more fundamental role. We discuss how recursive maximum-likelihood techniques allow continuous calibration, to compensate for drifts in experiments that last for days. We consider ways to estimate work and heat, using them to measure fluctuating energies to a precision of ±0.03 kT over these long experiments. Finally, we compare work and heat measurements of the costs of information erasure, the Landauer limit of kT ln 2 per bit of information erased. We argue that, when you want to know the average heat transferred to a bath in a long protocol, you should measure instead the average work and then infer the heat using the first law of thermodynamics. This

  1. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole


    studies, carried out as research by design. The empirical study is set forth to find tectonic implications and challenges in existing casting methods. These implications form the basis for the formulation of the case studies, the purpose of which is to assess tectonics potentials in existing casting...... techniques and develop novel ones. It is through an analysis of the empirical study and experimental case studies against a conceptual universe that conclusions are drawn and an answer to the research question is proposed. This conceptual universe is based on research into established writings concerning...

  2. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Bounty Paul M


    Full Text Available Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1 its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2 its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3 its role in augmenting nitric oxide. These aspects of arginine supplementation will be discussed as well as a review of clinical investigations involving exercise performance and arginine ingestion.

  3. The cool potential of gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Peshier, Andre


    We put forward the idea that the quark-gluon plasma might exist way below the usual confinement temperature $T_c$. Our argument rests on the possibility that the plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions could reach a transient quasi-equilibrium with `over-occupied' gluon density, as advocated by Blaizot et al. Taking further into account that gluons acquire an effective mass by interaction effects, they can have a positive chemical potential and therefore behave similarly to non-relativistic bosons. Relevant properties of this dense state of interacting gluons, which we dub serried glue, can then be inferred on rather general grounds from Maxwell's relation.

  4. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng


    liberated as free sterols within 4 h). With this process, the system was simplified as fatty acid ethyl esters and free sterol as major components, where free sterols can be recovered via solvent extraction or molecular distillation. Furthermore, a reuse study of enzyme in consecutive batch reactions......In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  5. Scientific Potential of Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B; Acernese, F; Andersson, P Amaro-Seoane N; Arun, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsuglia, M; Beveridge, M Beker N; Birindelli, S; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Bulik, T; Calloni, E; Cella, G; Mottin, E Chassande; Chelkowski, S; Chincarini, A; Clark, J; Coccia, E; Colacino, C; Colas, J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Danilishin, S; Danzmann, K; Salvo, R De; Dent, T; Rosa, R De; Fiore, L Di; Virgilio, A Di; Doets, M; Fafone, V; Falferi, P; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Friedrich, D; Fulda, P; Gair, J; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Glampedakis, K; Gräf, C; Granata, M; Grote, H; Guidi, G; Gurkovsky, A; Hammond, G; Hannam, M; Harms, J; Heinert, D; Hendry, M; Heng, I; Hennes, E; Hild, S; Hough, J; Husa, S; Huttner, S; Jones, G; Khalili, F; Kokeyama, K; Kokkotas, K; Krishnan, B; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Lück, H; Majorana, E; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mantovani, M; Martin, I; Michel, C; Minenkov, Y; Morgado, N; Mosca, S; Mours, B; Müller--Ebhardt, H; Murray, P; Nawrodt, R; Nelson, J; Oshaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Palomba, C; Paoli, A; Parguez, G; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pinard, L; Plastino, W; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Prato, M; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabeling, D; Racz, I; Rapagnani, P; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Rezzolla, L; Ricci, F; Richard, F; Rocchi, A; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Santamaría, L; Sassolas, B; Schnabe, R; Schwarz, C; Seidel, P; Sintes, A; Somiya, K; Speirits, F; Strain, K; Strigin, S; Sutton, P; Tarabrin, S; Thüring, A; Brand, J van den; Veggel, M van; Broeck, C van den; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A; Vyatchanin, S; Willke, B; Woan, G; Yamamoto, K


    Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET) is a design study funded by the European Commission to explore the technological challenges of and scientific benefits from building a third generation gravitational wave detector. The three-year study, which concluded earlier this year, has formulated the conceptual design of an observatory that can support the implementation of new technology for the next two to three decades. The goal of this talk is to introduce the audience to the overall aims and objectives of the project and to enumerate ET's potential to influence our understanding of fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  6. On some nonlinear potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Efendiev


    Full Text Available The degree theory of mappings is applied to a two-dimensional semilinear elliptic problem with the Laplacian as principal part subject to a nonlinear boundary condition of Robin type. Under some growth conditions we obtain existence. The analysis is based on an equivalent coupled system of domain--boundary variational equations whose principal parts are the Dirichlet bilinear form in the domain and the single layer potential bilinear form on the boundary, respectively. This system consists of a monotone and a compact part. Additional monotonicity implies convergence of an appropriate Richardson iteration.

  7. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.


    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  8. Ethnography: principles, practice and potential. (United States)

    Draper, Jan


    Ethnography is a methodology that is gaining popularity in nursing and healthcare research. It is concerned with studying people in their cultural context and how their behaviour, either as individuals or as part of a group, is influenced by this cultural context. Ethnography is a form of social research and has much in common with other forms of qualitative enquiry. While classical ethnography was characteristically concerned with describing 'other' cultures, contemporary ethnography has focused on settings nearer to home. This article outlines some of the underlying principles and practice of ethnography, and its potential for nursing and healthcare practice.

  9. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi


    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  10. Unleashing the Potential of SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles


    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  11. Curcumin: therapeutical potential in ophthalmology. (United States)

    Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella


    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology.

  12. Telemedicine in neurology: underutilized potential. (United States)

    Misra, U K; Kalita, J; Mishra, S K; Yadav, R K


    Advances in telecommunication which started with telephone lines, FAX, integrated service digital network (ISDN) lines and now internet have provided an unprecedented opportunity for transfer of knowledge and sharing of information. The information can be used for overlapping applications in patient care, teaching and research. In medicine there is increasing utilization of telemedicine; radiology and pathology being regarded as mature specialties and emergency medicine as maturing specialties compared to other evolving specialties which include psychiatry, dermatology, cardiology and ophthalmology. Of the emergencies, status epilepticus and stroke have high potential for improving patient management. Administration of tPA was more frequent when carried out under telemedicine guidance. Telemedicine has great potential for medical education. The principles of education are in congruence with those of telemedicine and can be closely integrated in the existing medical education system. Our experience of telemedicine as a medical education tool is based on video conferencing with SCB Medical College, Cuttack. We had 30 sessions during 2001 to 2004 in which 2-3 cases were discussed in each session. The patients' details, radiological and neurophysiological findings could be successfully transmitted. These conferences improved the knowledge of participants, provided an opportunity for a second opinion as well as modified the treatment decisions in some cases. The advances in telemedicine should be utilized more extensively in neurology, especially in emergency management, epilepsy and stroke patients as well, as it may have a role in neurophysiology and movement disorders.

  13. Telemedicine in neurology: Underutilized potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra U


    Full Text Available Advances in telecommunication which started with telephone lines, FAX, integrated service digital network (ISDN lines and now internet have provided an unprecedented opportunity for transfer of knowledge and sharing of information. The information can be used for overlapping applications in patient care, teaching and research. In medicine there is increasing utilization of telemedicine; radiology and pathology being regarded as mature specialties and emergency medicine as maturing specialties compared to other evolving specialties which include psychiatry, dermatology, cardiology and ophthalmology. Of the emergencies, status epilepticus and stroke have high potential for improving patient management. Administration of tPA was more frequent when carried out under telemedicine guidance. Telemedicine has great potential for medical education. The principles of education are in congruence with those of telemedicine and can be closely integrated in the existing medical education system. Our experience of telemedicine as a medical education tool is based on video conferencing with SCB Medical College, Cuttack. We had 30 sessions during 2001 to 2004 in which 2-3 cases were discussed in each session. The patients′ details, radiological and neurophysiological findings could be successfully transmitted. These conferences improved the knowledge of participants, provided an opportunity for a second opinion as well as modified the treatment decisions in some cases. The advances in telemedicine should be utilized more extensively in neurology, especially in emergency management, epilepsy and stroke patients as well, as it may have a role in neurophysiology and movement disorders.

  14. New potentials for conformal mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, G


    We show that V=\\alpha x^2+\\beta x^{-2} arises as a potential of 1-dimensional conformal theories. This class of conformal models includes the DFF model \\alpha=0 and the harmonic oscillator \\beta=0. The construction is based on a different embedding of the conformal symmetry group into the time re-parameterizations from that of the DFF model and its generalizations. Depending on the range of the couplings $\\alpha, \\beta$, these models can have a ground state and a well-defined energy spectrum, and exhibit either a $SL(2,\\bR)$ or a SO(3) conformal symmetry. The latter group can also be embedded in Diff(S^1). We also present several generalizations of these models which include the Calogero models with harmonic oscillator couplings and non-linear models with suitable metric and potential couplings. In addition, we give the conditions on the couplings for a class of gaugetheories to admit a SL(2,\\bR) or SO(3) conformal symmetry. We present examples of such systems with general gauge groups and global symmetries t...

  15. Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials. (United States)

    Raudzens, P A


    Sensory EPs were recorded intraoperatively in 173 neurosurgical procedures (71 VEPs, 66 BAEPs, and 31 SSEPs) to evaluate the utility of this technique. EPs could be safely recorded in all cases, but the yield of useful results varied with each sensory modality. BAEPs were recorded reliably in 100% of the cases and intraoperative latency changes accurately predicted postoperative hearing deficits in 10%. Potential hearing deficits were detected in another 15%. BAEP changes were associated with brainstem dysfunction in only one case. VEP changes were difficult to interpret intraoperatively because of contamination by a high degree of variability and both false negative and false positive results. Changes in VEP amplitudes related to surgical manipulation of the optic chiasm were only suggested. SSEP changes were recorded reliably in only 75% of the cases and no correlations between SSEP changes and postoperative sensory function were established. Again, intraoperative amplitude attenuation of the SSEP waveform with surgical manipulation only suggested a potential sensory deficit. Intraoperative EP monitoring is a valuable technique that provides a functional analysis of the sensory nervous system during surgical procedures. Specific sensory stimuli and improved data analysis will increase the utility of this CNS monitor.

  16. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian


    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  17. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J


    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  18. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.


    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  19. Higgs Potential from Derivative Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Quadri, A


    A formulation of the linear $\\sigma$ model with derivative interactions is studied. The theory is on-shell equivalent to the model with a quartic Higgs potential. The mass of the scalar mode only appears in the quadratic part and not in the interaction vertices, unlike in the ordinary formulation of the theory. Renormalization of the model is discussed. A natural non power-counting renormalizable extension of the theory is presented. The model is physically equivalent to the inclusion of a dimension six effective operator $\\partial_\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi) \\partial^\\mu (\\Phi^\\dagger \\Phi)$. The resulting UV divergences are arranged in a perturbation series around the power-counting renormalizable theory. UV completion of the non-power-counting renormalizable model through a symmetric deformation of the propagator of the massive physical scalar is addressed.

  20. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias


    they were shaped by the specific context or, possibly, had more of a timeless nature – with the findings ultimately intended to help inform contemporary decision-making. This introduction to the special issue describes the framework for the following six papers on foreign multinationals in emerging markets......Emerging markets trigger great expectations. Many foreign multinationals are eager to exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities potentially related to less developed but fast growing markets. This is not a new phenomenon. Multinationals from more developed countries have for long searched...... for opportunities in less developed markets and have dealt with the related challenges. Foreign environments with different needs and capabilities, unstable institutions and policies, stark fluctuations in the macroeconomic environment and unrealistic expectations are just some of the obstacles for ‘turning...

  1. Relativity, potential energy, and mass (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene


    This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.

  2. Antidiabetic potential of Conocarpus lancifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Saadullah


    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of Conocarpus lancifolius extract was investigated in vitro, as alpha glucosidase inhibition and in vivo as alloxan induced diabetic rabbits with other biochemical parameters (LDL, HDL, SGPT, SGOT, cretinine, urea and triglyceride. Alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity was performed by using acorbose as standred. Methanolic extract show alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. The dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05 decreases the blood glucose level, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in treated rabbits as compared to diabetic rabbits. This dose significantly increased the level of HDL in treated group. The activity of SGOT and SGPT also significantly (p<0.05 decreased in treated diabetic rabbits. Phytochemical studies show the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The antidiabetic potential is may be due to its saponin contents.

  3. Bacteriocins as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhraj eKaur


    Full Text Available Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have nonspecific toxicity towards normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  4. Mycoinsecticides: potential and future perspective. (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; Al-Jabr, Ahmed M


    Crop damage and consequent loss in productivity associated with arthropod pests represent the most serious threats to the world economy. Different methods have been used in the past to control arthropod pests; however, the increase in incidences of resistance to pesticides, food safety concerns, and concerns related to environmental impact associated with the use of chemical pesticides have led to the recent expansion of biological control agents. Entomopathogenic fungi are important and promising bio-control agents for controlling arthropod pests. This review compiles recent information regarding the potential of entomopathogenic fungi used against arthropod pests, traits responsible for mycoinsecticide virulence, and possible ways to enhance the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi, in order to pave the way for the development of bio-rational and eco-friendly arthropod pest management strategies.

  5. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar


    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  6. Regularity of harmonic maps with the potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU; Yuming


    The aim of this work is to prove the partial regularity of the harmonic maps with potential. The main difficulty caused by the potential is how to find the equation satisfied by the scaling function. Under the assumption on the potential we can obtain the equation, however, for a general potential, even if it is smooth, the partial regularity is still open.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Using the formalism of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we give an exact solution for a family of onedimensional periodic potentials, which are the supersymmetric partners of the potential proportional to the trigonometric function cos(2x) such that the Schrodinger equation for this potential is named the Mathieu equation mathematically.We show that the new potentials are distinctly different from their original ones. However, both have the same energy band structure. All the potentials obtained in this paper are free of singularities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Amit


    Full Text Available Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda.The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda.Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered.

  9. Topological insulators in random potentials (United States)

    Pieper, Andreas; Fehske, Holger


    We investigate the effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the two-dimensional surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs). Modeling weak and strong TIs using a generic four-band Hamiltonian, which allows for a breaking of inversion and time-reversal symmetries and takes into account random local potentials as well as the Zeeman and orbital effects of external magnetic fields, we compute the local density of states, the single-particle spectral function, and the conductance for a (contacted) slab geometry by numerically exact techniques based on kernel polynomial expansion and Green's function approaches. We show that bulk disorder refills the surface-state Dirac gap induced by a homogeneous magnetic field with states, whereas orbital (Peierls-phase) disorder preserves the gap feature. The former effect is more pronounced in weak TIs than in strong TIs. At moderate randomness, disorder-induced conducting channels appear in the surface layer, promoting diffusive metallicity. Random Zeeman fields rapidly destroy any conducting surface states. Imprinting quantum dots on a TI's surface, we demonstrate that carrier transport can be easily tuned by varying the gate voltage, even to the point where quasibound dot states may appear.

  10. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. [Intraoperative Visual Evoked Potential Monitoring]. (United States)

    Hayashi, Hironobu; Kawaguchi, Masahiko


    Visual evoked potential (VEP) is recorded from the back of the head, which is elicited by retinal stimulation transmitted through optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and finally cortical visual area. VEP monitoring did not prevail since 1990s because marked intra-individual difference and instability of VEP recording limited the clinical usefulness under inhalation anesthetic management and techniques of VEP monitoring at the time. However, recent advances in techniques including a new light-stimulating device consisting of high-luminosity LEDs and induction of electroretinography to ascertain the arrival of the stimulus at the retina provided better conditions for stable VEP recording under general anesthesia. In addition, the introduction of total intravenous anesthesia using propofol is important for the successful VEP recordings because inhaled anesthetics have suppressive effect on VEP waveform. Intraoperative VEP has been considered to monitor the functional integrity of visual function during neurosurgical procedures, in which the optic pathway is at a risk of injury. Intraoperative VEP monitoring may allow us to detect reversible damage to the visual pathway intraoperatively and enable us to prevent permanent impairment.

  12. The biomethane potential in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, M.; Miranda, J.A. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)


    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  13. Aquaporins as potential drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Xue-chao FENG; Yong-ming LI; Hong YANG; Tong-hui MA


    The aquaporins (AQP) are a family of integral membrane proteins that selectively transport water and,in some cases,small neutral solutes such as glycerol and urea.Thirteen mammalian AQP have been molecularly identified and localized to various epithelial,endothelial and other tissues.Phenotype studies of transgenic mouse models of AQP knockout,mutation,and in some cases humans with AQP mutations have demonstrated essential roles for AQP in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology,including urinary concentrating function,exocrine glandular fluid secretion,brain edema formation,regulation of intracranial and intraocular pressure,skin hydration,fat metabolism,tumor angiogenesis and cell migration.These studies suggest that AQP may be potential drug targets for not only new diuretic reagents for various forms of pathological water retention,but also targets for novel therapy of brain edema,inflammatory disease,glaucoma,obesity,and cancer.However,potent AQP modulators for in vivo application remain to be discovered.

  14. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  15. Conotoxins: Therapeutic Potential and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Layer


    Full Text Available The pharmacological variety of conotoxins, diverse peptides found in the venoms of marine cone snails, is well recognized. Venoms from each of the estimated 500 species of cone snails contain 50 to 200 distinct biologically active peptides. Most conotoxins characterized to date target receptors and ion channels of excitable tissues, such as ligandgated nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and type 3 serotonin receptors, as well as voltage-gated calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, and G-protein-coupled receptors including α-adrenergic, neurotensin, and vasopressin receptors, and the norepinephrine transporter. Several conotoxins have shown promise in preclinical models of pain, convulsive disorders, stroke, neuromuscular block, and cardioprotection. The pharmacological selectivity of the conotoxins, coupled with the safety and efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models, has led to their investigation as human therapeutic agents. In the following review, we will survey the pharmacology and therapeutic rationale of those conotoxins with potential clinical application, and discuss the unique challenges that each will face in the course of their transition from venom component to human therapeutic.

  16. Fractional statistical potential in graphene (United States)

    Ardenghi, J. S.


    In this work the fractional statistics is applied to an anyon gas in graphene to obtain the special features that the arbitrary phase interchange of the particle coordinates introduce in the thermodynamic properties. The electron gas is constituted by N anyons in the long wavelength approximation obeying fractional exclusion statistics and the partition function is analyzed in terms of a perturbation expansion up to first order in the dimensionless constant λ / L being L the length of the graphene sheet and λ = βℏvF the thermal wavelength. By considering the correct permutation expansion of the many-anyons wavefunction, taking into account that the phase changes with the number of inversions in each permutation, the statistical fermionic/bosonic potential is obtained and the intermediate statistical behavior is found. It is shown that "extra" fermonic and bosonic particles states appears and this "statistical particle" distribution depends on N. Entropy and specific heat is obtained up to first order in λ / L showing that the results obtained differs from those obtained in different approximation to the fractional exclusion statistics.

  17. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying (United States)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.


    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Enayati


    Full Text Available A fundamental study was carried out to explore the properties of canola stalks with regards to pulp and paper production. In this study the morphological properties, chemical composition, and soda pulping properties of canola stalks were investigated. The mean values of length, diameter, and cell wall thickness of canola stalks fibers were measured as 1.17 mm, 23.02 m, and 5.26 m, respectively. The morphological properties analysis indicated that despite the thicker cell wall, the morphological properties of canola stalks fibers were comparable to those of non-woods and hardwoods fibers. The holocelluloses, alpha-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents of canola stalks were determined to be 73.6, 42.0, 17.3, and 8.2 wt%, respectively. The hot water and dilute alkali extractives of canola stalks were determined as 18 and 46.1 wt%. In comparison to most other non-wood papermaking raw materials, soda pulping of canola stalks required higher chemical charge and cooking time. Soda pulping of canola stalks gave a low yield bleachable grade pulp. The strength properties of bleached canola stalks soda pulp appeared to be similar to those of common non-wood papermaking resources. The overall results showed that canola has a promising potential to be used in pulp and paper production.

  19. The potential of micromagnetic tomography (United States)

    de Groot, Lennart; Béguin, Annemarieke; Fabian, Karl; Reith, Pim; Rastogi, Ankur; Barnhoorn, Auke; Hilgenkamp, Hans


    Methods to derive paleodirections or paleointensities from rocks currently rely on measurements of bulk samples (typically ~10 cc). The process of recording and storing magnetizations as function of temperature, however, differs for grains of various sizes and chemical compositions. Most rocks, by their mere nature, consist of assemblages of grains varying in size, shape, and chemistry. When dealing with lavas, this differing magnetic behaviour often hampers paleointensity experiments; while occasionally a reliable paleodirection is obscured (e.g. Coe et al. (2014)). If we would be able to isolate the contribution of each magnetic grain in a sample to the bulk magnetic moment of that sample, a wealth of opportunities for highly detailed magnetic analysis would be opened, possibly leading to an entirely new approach in retrieving paleomagnetic signals from complex mineralogies. Firstly, the distribution and volume of the remanence carrying grains in the sample must be assessed; this is done using a MicroCT scanner capable of detecting grains >1 micron. Secondly, the magnetic stray field perpendicular to the surface of a thin sample is measured using a high-resolution DC SQUID microscope. A mathematical inversion of these measurements yields the isolated direction and magnitude of the magnetic moment of individual grains in the sample. Here we show the results of inversions on a synthetic sample that was magnetised under different angles with respect to the scanned surface. Computational limitations constrain us to inverting only up to tens of grains at the same time. Besides presenting new results of the first successful non-destructive micromagnetic tomography study, we will discuss the current potential and limitations of this technique.

  20. Beautiful, but also potentially invasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipták Boris


    Full Text Available Introduction of non-indigenous exotic species to new areas, where they may establish viable populations and become invasive, is a considerable problem in the protection of nature worldwide, as these species may alter the indigenous species population structure and potentially even decrease the biodiversity. The European fauna underwent through major negative changes on the continent and nowadays, it experiences another new treat, represented by the expanding aquarium pet trade, and with it, associated species (and disease introductions. Exotic freshwater crustaceans are one of the taxa widely incorporated in the business, counting a remarkable number of species. Recent records of the exotic marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis in German in open ecosystems in Slovakia pointed to human-mediated introductions associated with aquarium pet trade in the country. In this regard, a study of the aquarium pet trade both in expositions and shops and online was assessed. Several crustacean taxa are available both in pet trade exhibitions and online through the Internet. Altogether 26 different species were identified in the aquarium trade in Slovakia. These are Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii, P. alleni, Cherax quadricarinatus, C. destructor, C. holthuisi, C. peknyi, Cambarellus patzcuarensis and C. diminutus occurring in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia (n = 9. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, P. clarkii and C. patzuarensis are the most common in this regard. There is also a quantity of other related taxa in the aquarium pet trade in Slovakia, mainly Caridina spp. (n = 5, Neocaridina spp. (n = 4, Atyopsis moluccensis, Atya gabonensis, Arachnochium kulsiense and several taxa of exotic crabs (n = 5 belonging to three different genera (Cardiosoma, Geosesarma and Gecarinus present. Neocaridina davidi is identified as the most frequent in this regard. As some of the species can become established and form viable

  1. Potential seaways across West Antarctica (United States)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.


    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  2. A black potential for spin less particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: [ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore 560017 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)


    We consider the most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential to study the scattering of spin-less relativistic particles. The conditions for CC, SS and CPA are obtained analytically for this potential. We show that almost total absorption occurs for entire range of incidence energy for certain parameter ranges of the potential and hence term this as ‘black potential’. Time reversed of the same potential shows perfect emission for the entire range of particle energy. We also present the classical analog of this potential in terms of waveguide cross section. - Highlights: • Relativistic scattering properties of a spin zero particle due to most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential are discussed. • Analytical conditions for CC, CPA and SS are obtained. • Broadband CPA is obtained for entire range of incidence energy. • Non-Hermitian Hulthen potential is parametrized in such a way to show broadband CPA and/or CC. • Waveguide analog of such potential is presented.

  3. Stages of Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors (United States)

    ... potential tumor include pain or swelling in the abdomen. Ovarian low malignant potential tumor may not cause ... include the following: Pain or swelling in the abdomen . Pain in the pelvis. Gastrointestinal problems, such as ...

  4. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  5. Analytic three-loop static potential (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias


    We present analytic results for the three-loop static potential of two heavy quarks. The analytic calculation of the missing ingredients is outlined, and results for the singlet and octet potential are provided.

  6. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  7. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  8. Book review: Managing change in higher education: a learning environment architecture / by Peter Ford and others. - Buckingham : Society for Research into Higher Education and the Open University Press, 1996. - ISBN 0-335-19791-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty


    This composite review is intended to give readers a number of different perspectives on an important book. The technique, which was used in an earlier ALT-J review (in Volume 4 Number 2, 1996, pages 61-72), is a development of what Spiro et al (1988) call 'traversing the terrain'. Each reader will b

  9. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials


    Afonso, V. I.; Bazeia, D.; Brito, F. A.


    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scena...

  10. Active learning of linear interatomic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Podryabinkin, Evgeny V


    This paper introduces an active learning approach to the fitting of machine learning interatomic potentials. Our approach is based on the D-optimality criterion for selecting atomic configurations on which the potential is fitted. It is shown that the potentials fitted with this approach have improved transferability. Moreover, the proposed active learning approach is highly efficient in training potentials on the fly, ensuring that no extrapolation is attempted.

  11. The scalar magnetic potential in magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassios, G [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Two results on Magnetoencephalography (MEG) are reported in this presentation. First, we present an integral formula connecting the scalar magnetic potential with the values of the electric potential on the boundary of a conductive region. This formula provides the magnetic potential analogue of the well known Geselowitz formula. Second, we construct the scalar magnetic potential for the realistic ellipsoidal model of the brain, as an eigenfunction expansion in terms of surface ellipsoidal harmonics.

  12. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation


    Rafał Matwiejczuk


    Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which de...

  13. The zero of potential : a persistent error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, H.C.


    Any point of an inanimate system or of a human body can be connected to earth to obtain zero potential. The processes inside the system are independent of this connection. It is only the potential differences which matter. An absolute value of the potential does not enter in the physical laws and, t


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky


    Full Text Available The paper considers economic principles on enterprise potential management and its competitiveness.  Elements of the enterprise economic potential that permit to select an efficient strategy of an organization behaviour are presented in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of enterprise potential competitiveness on the basis of the existing standard indices and various competitiveness levels.

  15. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica


    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  16. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials. (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P


    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  17. Smooth models for the Coulomb potential

    CERN Document Server

    González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Karwowski, Jacek; Savin, Andreas


    Smooth model potentials with parameters selected to reproduce the spectrum of one-electron atoms are used to approximate the singular Coulomb potential. Even when the potentials do not mimic the Coulomb singularity, much of the spectrum is reproduced within the chemical accuracy. For the Hydrogen atom, the smooth approximations to the Coulomb potential are more accurate for higher angular momentum states. The transferability of the model potentials from an attractive interaction (Hydrogen atom) to a repulsive one (Harmonium and the uniform electron gas) is discussed.

  18. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H


    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  19. The Folding Deuteron Optical Model Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaohua; Cai, Chonghai


    For 52 target nuclei with deuteron as projectile, we calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions, as well as the $\\chi^2$ values for 11 kinds of deuteron optical model potentials: our global deuteron optical potentials and 10 folding optical potentials calculated with 2 phenomenological global nucleon optical potentials given by Koning \\textit{et al}(KD) and by Varner\\textit{et al}(CH89), and 8 microscopic nucleon optical potentials with the generalized Skyrme force parameters(GS1-6) and modified Skyrme force parameters(SKa, SKb). We find that for constructing the folding deuteron optical potential, both SKa and SKb are the best Skyrme force parameters of the microscopic nucleon optical potential proposed by Q. Shen \\textit{et al}.

  20. Programmable Potentials: Approximate N-body potentials from coarse-level logic

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Gunjan S; Mezić, Igor


    This paper gives a systematic method for constructing an N-body potential, approximating the true potential, that accurately captures meso-scale behavior of the chemical or biological system using pairwise potentials coming from experimental data or ab initio methods. The meso-scale behavior is translated into logic rules for the dynamics. Each pairwise potential has an associated logic function that is constructed using the logic rules, a class of elementary logic functions, and AND, OR, and NOT gates. The effect of each logic function is to turn its associated potential on and off. The N-body potential is constructed as linear combination of the pairwise potentials, where the "coefficients" of the potentials are smoothed versions of the associated logic functions. These potentials allow a potentially low-dimensional description of complex processes while still accurately capturing the relevant physics at the meso-scale. We present the proposed formalism to construct coarse-grained potential models for three...

  1. Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turylo Anatolii M.


    Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.

  2. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude. (United States)

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A


    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  3. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii (United States)

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.


    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  4. Coder gender and potential for hostility ratings. (United States)

    Davidson, K; MacGregor, M W; MacLean, D R; McDermott, N; Farquharson, J; Chaplin, W F


    This study examined the effects of coder gender on Potential for Hostility ratings. Six trained coders (3 men and 3 women) who were unaware of the coder gender effect hypothesis coded 30 male and 30 female undergraduates for Potential for Hostility. Although reliability estimates as calculated by Cronbach's alpha suggested that all coders were consistent, an analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for coder gender, wherein female coders rated participants as displaying significantly less Potential for Hostility than did male coders. This significant difference was also meaningful, as coder gender accounted for 32% of the variance in Potential for Hostility scores. Thus, future Potential for Hostility investigations need to consider the gender of those coding, as this factor both significantly and substantially influences reported Potential for Hostility ratings.

  5. Research potential and cognitive features of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordovskaia N.V.


    Full Text Available This article examines the theoretical and methodological justifications for studying students’ research potential. It presents proof of the isomorphic nature of human research activity and research potential as well as of the fluid nature of its development: from research-like behavior to science-based research activity. It defines three functional components (motivational, cognitive, and behavioral that form the structure of research potential. It further presents the results of empirically studying the cognitive features of master’s students possessing different levels of research potential. It provides data on the dynamics of research-potential components at different educational levels (bachelor’s and master’s programs. Special attention is given to a comparative analysis of evaluations by research tutors regarding their students’ research potential and of the indicators obtained using psychodiagnostic methods.

  6. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gönül, B


    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  7. GalPot: Galaxy potential code (United States)

    McMillan, Paul J.


    GalPot finds the gravitational potential associated with axisymmetric density profiles. The package includes code that performs transformations between commonly used coordinate systems for both positions and velocities (the class OmniCoords), and that integrates orbits in the potentials. GalPot is a stand-alone version of Walter Dehnen's GalaxyPotential C++ code taken from the falcON code in the NEMO Stellar Dynamics Toolbox (ascl:1010.051).

  8. Bohm's Quantum Potential as an Internal Energy


    Dennis, Glen; De Gosson, Maurice,; Hiley, Basil


    We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated in Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system. This gives further insight into the role it played by the quantum potential in stationary states. It also allows us to provide a physically motivated derivation of Schr\\"odinger's equation for a particle in an external potential.

  9. Coherent states for exactly solvable potentials


    Shreecharan, T.; Panigrahi, Prasanta. K.; Banerji, J.


    A general algebraic procedure for constructing coherent states of a wide class of exactly solvable potentials e.g., Morse and P{\\"o}schl-Teller, is given. The method, {\\it a priori}, is potential independent and connects with earlier developed ones, including the oscillator based approaches for coherent states and their generalizations. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to construct more general coherent states for the quantum mechanical potential problems, like the nonlinear co...

  10. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential


    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.; Klyuvak Oksana V.; Protsevyat Oksana S.


    The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staf...

  11. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  12. QCD Phase Diagram with Imaginary Chemical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Atsushi


    Full Text Available We report our recent results on the QCD phase diagram obtained from the lattice QCD simulation. The location of the phase boundary between hadronic and QGP phases in the two-flavor QCD phase diagram is investigated. The imaginary chemical potential approach is employed, which is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the QCD with imaginary chemical potential and analytic continuation to the real chemical potential region.

  13. Deuteron wave function and OPE potential (United States)

    Righi, S.; Rosa-Clot, M.


    The deuteron wave function is calculated integrating from outside the Schredinger equation using as input its asymptotic behaviour. Some potentials are tested and the one pion exchange potential (OPEP) is shown to be the main responsible of the wave function structure up to distances of about 1 fm. The relevance of the short range part of the potential is analyzed and it is shown that a substantial enhancement of the OPEP central part is needed in the deuteron channel.

  14. A parametrized optimized effective potential for atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarsa, A; Galvez, F J; BuendIa, E [Departamento de FIsica Moderna, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    The optimized effective potential equations for atoms have been solved by parametrizing the potential. The expansion is tailored to match the known asymptotic behaviour of the effective potential at both short and long distances. Both single configuration and multi-configuration trial wavefunctions are implemented. Applications to several atomic systems are presented, improving on previous works. The results obtained here are very close to those calculated in either the Hartree-Fock (HF) or the multi-configurational HF framework.

  15. Dimensional reduction and the Higgs potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.


    Dimensional reduction of pure gauge theories over a compact coset space S/R leads to 4-dimensional gauge theories, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally. We derive and examine the Higgs potential in certain classes of dimensionally reduced models. In some of these models with Higgs potential of geometrical origin, the spontaneous symmetry breaking takes us a step closer towards the observed low energy gauge theory.

  16. Singularity theory for W-algebra potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J C


    The Landau potentials of $W_3$-algebra models are analyzed with algebraic-geometric methods. The number of ground states and the number of independent perturbations of every potential coincide and can be computed. This number agrees with the structure of ground states obtained in a previous paper, namely, as the phase structure of the IRF models of Jimbo et al. The singularities associated to these potentials are identified.

  17. Reflectionless potentials for difference Schrodinger equations


    Odake, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu


    As a part of the program 'discrete quantum mechanics', we present general reflectionless potentials for difference Schr dinger equations with pure imaginary shifts. By combining contiguous integer wave number reflectionless potentials, we construct the discrete analogues of the h(h+1)/cosh²x potential with the integer h, which belong to the recently constructed families of solvable dynamics having the q-ultraspherical polynomials with |q| = 1 as the main part of the eigenfunctions. For the g...

  18. The Anthropology of Potentiality in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Hoeyer, Klaus; Helmreich, Stefan


    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, potentiality serves as a central concept in the life sciences and in medical practices. This special issue of Current Anthropology explores how genes, cells, bodies, and populations as well as technologies, disciplines, and research areas become imbued...... and practices associated with potentiality, we must integrate an awareness of our own social scientific assumptions about potentiality with critical scrutiny of how the word and concept operate in the lives of the people we study....

  19. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  20. Comparing Some Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naghdi, M


    The aim is to compare a few Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) potentials especially Reid68, Reid68-Day, Reid93, UrbanaV14, ArgonneV18, Nijmegen 93, Nijmegen I, Nijmegen II. Although these potentials have some likenesses and are almost phenomenological, they include in general different structures and its own characteristics. The potentials are constructed in a manner that fit the NN scattering data or phase shifts and are compared in this way. A high-quality scale of a potential is that it fits the data with $\\chi^{2}/N_{data} \\approx 1$, describes well deuteron properties or gives satisfactory results in nuclear structure calculations. However, these scales have some failures. Here, we first compare many potentials by confronting with data. Then, we try to compare the potential forms by considering the potential structures directly and therefore regarding their substantial basis somehow. On the other hand, since the potentials are written in different schema, it is necessary to write the potentials in a unique schema to ...

  1. Potential Models for Radiative Rare B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, S


    We compute the branching ratios for the radiative rare decays of B into K-Meson states and compare them to the experimentally determined branching ratio for inclusive decay b -> s gamma using non relativistic quark model, and form factor definitions consistent with HQET covariant trace formalism. Such calculations necessarily involve a potential model. In order to test the sensitivity of calculations to potential models we have used three different potentials, namely linear potential, screening confining potential and heavy quark potential as it stands in QCD.We find the branching ratios relative to the inclusive b ->s gamma decay to be (16.07\\pm 5.2)% for B -> K^* (892)gamma and (7.25\\pm 3.2)% for B -> K_2^* (1430)gamma for linear potential. In the case of the screening confining potential these values are (19.75\\pm 5.3)% and (4.74\\pm 1.2)% while those for the heavy quark potential are (11.18\\pm 4.6)% and (5.09\\pm 2.7)% respectively. All these values are consistent with the corresponding present CLEO experim...

  2. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing geologic and alluvium maps. Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous-age sediments, and alluvium deposits are...

  3. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...

  4. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Mehrotra; S Prakash


    The phenomenon of proton emission is treated as a process of asymmetric fission through a one-dimensional potential barrier developed due to combined effects of the Coulomb potential, centrifugal potential and various renormalization processes. The barrier is simulated to an asymmetric, smooth and analytically solvable potential with adjustable depth, shape and range. The half-lives of proton emitters in the mass range = 105-171 have been calculated using exact expression for the transmission coefficients. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained by the adjustment of just one parameter in all the cases.

  5. Measurement of human potential in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles


    Full Text Available Companies around the world are concerned about talent management in their organizations. The concern is to retain talented employees and this may not be possible if they are not properly identified. Performance and potential evaluations become then important. Performance evaluations qualify the historical record of the employee, so their measurement is provided. However, measuring the potential performance assesses potential future charges, therefore it is not a simple task. In this paper, characteristics evaluated in potential employees and tools that are commonly used are presented. Also, the case of four companies operating in Peru is shown.

  6. Transferable Tight-Binding Potential for Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Wang, Yang


    A transferable tight-binding potential has been constructed for heteroatomic systems containing carbon and hydrogen. The electronic degree of freedom is treated explicitly in this potential using a small set of transferable parameters which has been fitted to small hydrocarbons and radicals. Transferability to other higher hydrocarbons were tested by comparison with ab initio calculations and experimental data. The potential can correctly reproduce changes in the electronic configuration as a function of the local bonding geometry around each carbon atom. This type of potential is well suited for computer simulations of covalently bonded systems in both gas-phase and condensed-phase systems.

  7. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming;


    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  8. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, B.; van Koick, U.; van Kolck, U.


    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r(2) potential perturbed by a 1/r(4) correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range

  9. Shape invariant potentials in SUSY quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dadkhah


    Full Text Available   We give a brief review on the known shape invariant potentials. We derive the all of them by introducing a general superpotential with two constant and four variable parameters. Finally we examine those potentials which lead to the equally-spaced energy spectrum for the Klein-Gordon equation.

  10. YouTube: Educational Potentials and Pitfalls (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Cuthrell, Kristen


    The instructional potential of video technology in the classroom is promising, especially in light of the 21st Century Learning Framework (Siegle, 2009). Studies show positive gains in student outcomes as a result of the integration of video technology in instruction. This article explores potential uses of YouTube as an instructional aid in…

  11. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); De Pace, Arturo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lopez, Jorge A. [Physics Department, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)


    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature.

  12. Biological Potential of Chitinolytic Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone;


    Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using ...... analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential....

  13. Two Loop Effective Kähler Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nyawelo, T S; Nyawelo, Tino S.; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot


    In this talk we study the renormalization of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional (non--renormalizable) N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We consider the Wess-Zumino model as an example.

  14. Gluten-free food - possible market potential


    Kamil Pícha


    Food intolerance touches no small part of people. These people have one more care when buying food. They have to find appropriate food product and it is sometimes quite difficult. This group of consumers could be potentially an interesting segment to target. This article shows basic needs of consumers with gluten intolerance and explores potential solution on the part of producers and services providers.

  15. Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. (United States)

    Arter, Wayne


    Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.

  16. Scalar potentials out of canonical quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, W; Socorro, J; Urena-Lopez, L A


    Using canonical quantization of a flat FRW cosmological model containing a real scalar field $\\phi$ endowed with a scalar potential $V(\\phi)$, we are able to obtain exact and semiclassical solutions of the so called Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a particular family of scalar potentials. Some features of the solutions and their classical limit are discussed.

  17. Embedded-atom Potential for Oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The analytic embedded-atom potential for oxygen is developed from the experimental data and the results of the first-principle. The potential is used to predict the geometries and energies of O3, fcc, bcc, sc and diamond. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental data available and other theoretical results.

  18. Complexification of three potential models – II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjib Meyur; S Dednath


    A new kind of $\\mathcal{PT}$ and non-$\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric complex potentials are constructed from a group theoretical viewpoint of the sl(2, ) potential algebras. The real eigenvalues and the corresponding regular eigenfunctions are also obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained before.

  19. Applying a potential across a biomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A; Hansen, Per Lyngs


    We investigate the effect on biomembrane mechanical properties due to the presence an external potential for a nonconductive incompressible membrane surrounded by different electrolytes. By solving the Debye-Hückel and Laplace equations for the electrostatic potential and using the relevant stres...

  20. Asymptotic iteration approach to supersymmetric bistable potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ciftci; O. ozer; P. Roy


    We examine quasi exactly solvable bistable potentials and their supersymmetric partners within the framework of the asymptotic iteration method (AIM).It is shown that the AIM produces excellent approximate spectra and that sometimes it is found to be more useful to use the partner potential for computation. We also discuss the direct application of the AIM to the Fokker-Planck equation.

  1. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children. (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  2. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.


    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteer

  3. A microscopic NN to NN*(1440) potential

    CERN Document Server

    Julia-Diaz, B; González, P; Fernández, F


    By means of a NN to NN*(1440) transition potential derived in a parameter-free way from a quark-model based NN potential, we determine simultaneously the $\\pi NN^*(1440)$ and $\\sigma NN^*(1440)$ coupling constants. We also present a study of the target Roper excitation diagram contributing to the $p(d,d')$ reaction.

  4. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk. (United States)

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J


    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  5. Weyl node with random vector potential (United States)

    Sbierski, Björn; Decker, Kevin S. C.; Brouwer, Piet W.


    We study Weyl semimetals in the presence of generic disorder, consisting of a random vector potential as well as a random scalar potential. We derive renormalization group flow equations to second order in the disorder strength. These flow equations predict a disorder-induced phase transition between a pseudoballistic weak-disorder phase and a diffusive strong-disorder phase for a sufficiently strong random scalar potential or for a pure three-component random vector potential. We verify these predictions using a numerical study of the density of states near the Weyl point and of quantum transport properties at the Weyl point. In contrast, for a pure single-component random vector potential, the diffusive strong-disorder phase is absent.

  6. The Maritime Potential of ASEAN Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers


    Full Text Available Countries may utilize a long coastline in relation to their landmass as a resource to develop their maritime economy. This paper argues that ASEAN countries differ in utilizing their maritime potential. As a basis for further comparative studies the Center for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS in Penang developed a set of indicators to measure the maritime potential of nations, the state of their maritime industries, and the degree to which the maritime potential has actually been utilized. Using the CenPRIS Ocean Index (COI shows that Brunei and the Philippines have underutilized their maritime potentials, whereas Singapore and Thailand have made full use of it. Malaysia still has the potential to further develop its maritime economy.

  7. Kaon-Nucleon potential from lattice QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemura H.


    Full Text Available We study the K N interactions in the I(Jπ = 0(1/2− and 1(1/2− channels and associated exotic state Θ+ from 2+1 flavor full lattice QCD simulation for relatively heavy quark mass corresponding to mπ = 871 MeV. The s-wave K N potentials are obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter wave function by using the method recently developed by HAL QCD (Hadrons to Atomic nuclei from Lattice QCD Collaboration. Potentials in both channels reveal short range repulsions: Strength of the repulsion is stronger in the I = 1 potential, which is consistent with the prediction of the Tomozawa-Weinberg term. The I = 0 potential is found to have attractive well at mid range. From these potentials, the K N scattering phase shifts are calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  8. Simple exercises to flatten your potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics


    We show how backreaction of the inflation potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}){proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p<2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}. (orig.)

  9. Simple Exercises to Flatten your Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP; Westphal, Alexander; /DESY /SLAC


    We show how backreaction of the inflaton potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}) {proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p < 2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}.

  10. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. (United States)

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L


    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program.

  11. Marketing potential of industrial companies of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliynyk


    Full Text Available The article determines the essence of the marketing potential of the company as a part of improving the efficiency of the company’s activity forming a united mechanism along with industrial and financial subsystems. The components of the total potential of the company, the factors forming structure of the marketing potential of the company and the approaches to the evaluation of such a potential of the company are considered. It is determined that the marketing potential of the company integrates all the marketing resources, reserves and the possibility of their use, and the functioning as well as development of the system are subjected to the achievement of the main company’s goals. The differences in the interpretation of economic, market and marketing potential of the company are identified, although they are related to the subject of entrepreneurship, but they differ in their essence. The substantiation of the essence of marketing potential of the company, the development of an effective mechanism of its management with the possibility of evaluation will contribute to the maximum satisfaction of interests of information consumers’ groups, the formation of strategic directions of the activity, making management decisions at the micro level, the effective functioning in the internal and external markets.

  12. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  13. Antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek K; Fatima, Atiya; Faridi, Uzma; Negi, Arvind S; Shanker, Karuna; Kumar, J K; Rahuja, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Sisodia, Brijesh S; Saikia, Dharmendra; Darokar, M P; Khanuja, Suman P S


    The present study was aimed to investigate antimicrobial potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. Antimycobacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found at 500 microg/mL concentration. Bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis identified glabridin as potentially active against both Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Ra and H(37)Rv strains at 29.16 microg/mL concentration. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate potential use of licorice as antitubercular agent through systemic experiments and sophisticated anti-TB assay.

  14. Tunable axial potentials for atom chip waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Stickney, James A; Imhof, Eric; Kroese, Bethany R; Crow, Jonathon A R; Olson, Spencer E; Squires, Matthew B


    We present a method for generating algebraically precise magnetic potentials along the axis of a cold atom waveguide near the surface of an atom chip. With a single chip design consisting of several wire pairs, various axial potentials can be created, including double wells, triple wells, and pure harmonic traps with suppression of higher order terms. We characterize the error along a harmonic trap between the expected algebraic form and magnetic field simulations and find excel- lent agreement, particularly at small displacements from the trap center. Finally, we demonstrate experimental control over the bottom fields of an asymmetric double well potential.

  15. Donor Centers in a Gaussian Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang


    We study a neutral donor center (D0) and a negatively charged donor center (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different from each other.

  16. Interatomic Potentials for Some Binary Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using atomistic computer simulation methods we have derived a new set of interatomic potential parameters for some binary oxides, comprising divalent transition elements (rock-salt structured)and tetrava)ent metals. Computational techniques based on the minimization of the crystal energy with respect to atomic coordinates have been employed. Crystal properties were calculated and compared with the experimental data to check the reliability of our potential models. Intrinsic (Schottky and Frenkel) defect energies were also calculated and compared with previous studies.There is a good agreement between these calculations, which shows that the new potential parameters are reliable and can be used with confidence for future investigations.

  17. Nonlinear Biharmonic Equations with Critical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui XIONG; Yao Tian SHEN


    In this paper, we study two semilinear singular biharmonic equations: one with subcritical exponent and critical potential, another with sub-critical potential and critical exponent. By Pohozaev identity for singular solution, we prove there is no nontrivial solution for equations with critical exponent and critical potential. And by using the concentrate compactness principle and Mountain Pass theorem, respectively, we get two existence results for the two problems. Meanwhile,we have compared the changes of the critical dimensions in singular and non-singular cases, and we get an interesting result.

  18. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.


    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  19. Innovative potential, innovative strategy, environment factors, estimation of innovative potential, innovative development


    Chernoivanova, G.


    The paper summarizes the elements of the innovation potential and the criteria for its evaluation. It is proposed methodical approach to the formation of innovation strategies with innovative potential.

  20. Effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials as limit cases of a multiparameter exponential-type potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)


    We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated.

  1. Relativistic Scattering States of Coulomb Potential Plus a New Ring-Shaped Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yuan; LU Fa-Lin; SUN Dong-Sheng


    In this paper, exact solutions of scattering states of the Klein-Gordon equation with Coulomb potential plus a new ring-shaped potential are studied under the condition that the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential.The normalized wave functions of scattering states on the "k/2π scale" and the calculation formula of phase shifts are presented. Analytical properties of the scattering amplitude are discussed.

  2. Schr(o)dinger Equation with Hulthén Potential Plus Ring-Shaped Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Agboola


    We present the solutions of the Schr(o)dinger equation with the Hulthén potential plus ring-shape potential for e ≠ 0 states within the framework of an exponential approximation of the centrifugal potential. Solutions to the corresponding angular and radial equations are obtained in terms of special functions using the conventional NikiforovUvarov method. The normalization constant for the Hulthén potential is also computed.

  3. Researchers Develop Potential Oral Treatment for Hemophilia (United States)

    ... 162798.html Researchers Develop Potential Oral Treatment for Hemophilia Currently, genetic bleeding disorder is treated with injections ... THURSDAY, Dec. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with hemophilia have to endure painful injections every few days ...

  4. Research of Microscopic Optical Potential for Deuteron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The microscopic optical potential for deuteron is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The radial

  5. Visual Evoked Potentials in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital recorded pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs in Mecp2 heterozygous female mice and in 34 girls with Rett syndrome (RTT.

  6. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel, E-mail: [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur nvironnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)


    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  7. Potential turning points in cluster radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N


    Effect of various nuclear interaction potentials on the decay lifetimes and the turning points of the WKB action integral has been studied. The microscopic nuclear potential obtained by folding in the density distribution functions of the two clusters with a realistic effective interaction has also been used to calculate the turning points. Half lives of $\\alpha$ and $^{20} O$ cluster emissions from $^{228} Th$ have been calculated within the superasymmetric fission model using various phenomenological and the microscopic double folding potentials. Calculations of half lives with the microscopic double folding potentials are found to be in good agreement with the observed experimental data. Present calculations put the superasymmetric fission model on a firm theoretical basis.

  8. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  9. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  10. Optical potentials in algebraic scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, Peter [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technical University of Budapest, Budapest (Hungary)


    Using the theory of induced representations new realizations for the Lie algebras of the groups SO(2, 1), SO(2, 2), SO(3, 2) are found. The eigenvalue problem of the Casimir operators yield Schroedinger equations with non-Hermitian interaction terms (i.e. optical potentials). For the group SO(2, 2) we have a two-parameter family of (matrix-valued) potentials containing terms of Poeschl-Teller and Gendenshtein type. We calculate the S-matrices for special values of this two-parameter family. In particular we also include a derivation of the S-matrix for the two-dimensional scattering problem on a complex Gendenshtein potential. The canonically transformed realization results in a non-local optical potential. (author)

  11. Geophysical Processes - MO 2013 Landslide Potential (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Landslide potential is based on slope and lithology. Landslide is considered probable if the slope is 12 percent or greater and correlated with a formation known to...

  12. Experimental studies on bioactive potential of rutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Dubey


    Full Text Available Background: Plant-derived phytochemicals are gaining wide popularity owing to their diverse therapeutic potential and less side effects. Rutin is one of the plant-derived flavonoid. Rutin has demonstrated cardio protective, analgesic, and anticancer effects. Aim: The current work was focused to evaluate bioactive potential of rutin. Materials and Methods: Rutin was isolated from tobacco leaves. The structure was confirmed by H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The isolated rutin was studied for possible antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and cytotoxic effects. Results: Results of studies demonstrated that rutin effectively inhibited growth of bacteria and fungi, as well as demonstrated anthelmintic potential. There was a positive response for larvicidal and cytotoxic effects. Conclusion: These studies justify chemotherapeutic potential of rutin.

  13. Remarks on the Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, M


    More recently, comprehensive application results of approximate analytical solutions of the Woods-Saxon potential in closed form for the 5-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian have been appeared [14] and its comparison to the data for many different nuclei has clearly revealed the domains for the sucsess and failure in case of using such potential forms to analyse the data concerning with the nuclear structure of deformed nuclei within the frame of the collective model. Gaining confidence from this work, exact solvability of the Woods-Saxon type potentials in lower dimensions for the bound states having zero angular momentum is carefully reviewed to finalize an ongoing discussion in the related literature and clearly shown that such kind of potentials have no analytical solutions even for l=0 case.

  14. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.


    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...

  15. Separable Dual Space Gaussian Pseudo-potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gödecker, S; Hutter, J


    We present pseudo-potential coefficients for the first two rows of the periodic table. The pseudo potential is of a novel analytic form, that gives optimal efficiency in numerical calculations using plane waves as basis set. At most 7 coefficients are necessary to specify its analytic form. It is separable and has optimal decay properties in both real and Fourier space. Because of this property, the application of the nonlocal part of the pseudo-potential to a wave-function can be done in an efficient way on a grid in real space. Real space integration is much faster for large systems than ordinary multiplication in Fourier space since it shows only quadratic scaling with respect to the size of the system. We systematically verify the high accuracy of these pseudo-potentials by extensive atomic and molecular test calculations.

  16. A Potential Model for Cylindrical Pores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张现仁; 汪文川


    An analytical potential for cylindrical pores has been derived by introducing a variational method into the integration for the calculation of the interaction energy between the wall molecules and a test molecule, all of which are represented by Lennard-Jones potential. The model proposed gives good fit to the results from the cylindrical surface model and the pseudoatom model. To test the potential proposed rigorously, we have carried out grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo(GCMC) simulation of nitrogen in the MCM-41 pore at 77 K, and compared the simulated adsorption isotherm with the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated isotherm from our model is in almost qualitative agreement with experiment. Consequently, the model proposed provides an explicit and accurate description of cylindrical pores represented by the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, the model can be easily applied to a variety of cylindrical pores, ranging from cylindrical surface to finite thickness walls, in both theoretical studies and computer simulations.

  17. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig


    ? This is the question we want to answer. More specifically, we want to identify potential success factors in building strong brands, understood as brands with high consumer-based brand equity. Keller (1993, p. 2) defined customer-based brand equity as "the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response...... of this paper is to identify potential success factors in developing strong brands and to test whether these factors can be used to discriminate between strong and weak brands. It does so through a review of the literature for potential success factors. Furthermore, to ensure that important factors have...... not been overlooked by the literature a brainstorming session with practitioners and researchers was carried out. Based on the literature and the brainstorming session, we present a list of potential success factors in brand development in the FMCG sector. To test the validity of these factors, they were...

  18. Algebraic approach to the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Setare, Mohammad R


    In this paper the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions are calculated for Hulthen potential. Then we obtain the ladder operators and show that these operators satisfy SU(2) commutation relation.

  19. Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka


    Neutrino potential for neutrinoless double beta decay is studied with focusing on its statistical property. The statistics provide a gross view of understanding amplitude of constitutional components of the nuclear matrix element.

  20. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.


    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR. (MOW)

  1. Evoked potentials in neuroinfections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Komantsev


    Full Text Available We present the results of the neurophysiological study in which 95 children with viral encephalitis and 30 children with meningitis (age from 2 up to 17 years undergo evoked potentials investigation. Some specific features of evoked potentials in neuroinfections have been shown to correlate with the course of disease and the age of the patients. We give a description of a logistic model of predicting outcomes in such patients by complex diagnostic method. We have found that evoked potentials may be successfully implemented in correcting the therapeutic strategies. Study of evoked potentials in neuroinfections in children can define the severity and extent of lesions and help to identify subclinical dysfunction and monitor the recovery processes under the therapy.

  2. Estimated potential for sage-grouse movement (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimated potential for sage-grouse movement among sage-grouse leks (Circuitscape; McRae 2006). Rescaled HSI values were used as a measure of landscape resistance

  3. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review. (United States)

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai


    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed.

  4. US Forest Service Wildfire Hazard Potential 2014 (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The wildfire hazard potential (WHP) is a raster geospatial product at 270-meter resolution covering all lands in the conterminous United States. It can help to...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The author reviews recent progress in studying in-medium modification of inter-quark forces at finite temperature in lattice QCD. Some applications to the problem of quarkonium binding in potential models is also discussed.

  6. Frequency-dependent streaming potentials: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Jouniaux, Laurence; 10.1155/2012/648781


    The interpretation of seismoelectric observations involves the dynamic electrokinetic coupling, which is related to the streaming potential coefficient. We describe the different models of the frequency-dependent streaming potential, mainly the Packard's and the Pride's model. We compare the transition frequency separating low-frequency viscous flow and high-frequency inertial flow, for dynamic permeability and dynamic streaming potential. We show that the transition frequency, on a various collection of samples for which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  7. Remarks on the Woods-Saxon potential (United States)

    Çapak, M.; Gönül, B.


    More recently, comprehensive applications of approximate analytical solutions of the Woods-Saxon (WS) potential in closed form for the five-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian have appeared [M. Çapak, D. Petrellis, B. Gönül and D. Bonatsos, J. Phys. G 42, 95102 (2015)] and its comparison to the data for many different nuclei has clearly revealed the domains for the success and failure in case of using such potential forms to analyze the data related to the nuclear structure within the frame of the collective model. Gaining confidence from this work, the exact solvability of the WS type potentials in lower dimensions for the bound states having zero angular momentum is carefully reviewed to finalize an ongoing discussion in the related literature which clearly shows that such kind of potentials have no analytical solutions even for ℓ = 0 case.

  8. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M


    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  9. Disappearing Inflaton Potential via Heavy Field Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kitajima, Naoya


    We propose a possibility that the inflaton potential is significantly modified after inflation due to heavy field dynamics. During inflation there may be a heavy scalar field stabilized at a value deviated from the low-energy minimum. As the heavy field moves to the low-energy minimum, the inflaton potential could be significantly modified. In extreme cases, the inflaton potential vanishes and the inflaton becomes almost massless at some time after inflation. Such transition of the inflaton potential has interesting implications for primordial density perturbations, reheating, creation of unwanted relics, dark radiation, and experimental search for light degrees of freedom. To be concrete, we consider a chaotic inflation in supergravity where the inflaton mass parameter is promoted to a modulus field, finding that the inflaton becomes stable after the transition and contributes to dark matter. Another example is the new inflation by the MSSM Higgs field which acquires a large expectation value just after infl...

  10. Puerto Rico Relative Erosion Potential (REP) - 1990 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 1990) and (maximum monthly)...

  11. Puerto Rico Relative Erosion Potential (REP) - 2000 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 2000) and (maximum monthly)...

  12. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  13. Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.


    We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  15. A potential integration method for Birkhoffian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chu-Le; Xie Jia-Fang


    This paper is intended to apply the potential integration method to the differential equations of the Birkhoffian system.The method is that,for a given Birkhoffian system,its diffcrential equations are first rewritten as 2n first-order differential equations.Secondly,the corresponding partial differential equations are obtained by potential integration method and the solution is expressed as a complete integral.Finally, the integral of the system is obtained.

  16. Conditions for high-potential female entrepreneurship


    Terjesen, Siri A.


    Female-led ventures that are market-expanding, export-oriented, and innovative contribute substantially to local and national economic development, as well as to the female entrepreneur’s economic welfare. Female-led ventures also serve as models that can encourage other high-potential female entrepreneurs. The supply of high-potential entrepreneurial ventures is driven by individuals’ entrepreneurial attitudes and institutional factors associated with a country’s conditions for entrepreneuri...

  17. Potential turning points in cluster radioactivity


    Basu, D. N.


    Effects of various nuclear interaction potentials on the decay lifetimes and the turning points of the WKB action integral has been studied. The microscopic nuclear potential obtained by folding in the density distribution functions of the two clusters with a realistic effective interaction has also been used to calculate the turning points. Half lives of alpha and ^{20}O cluster emissions from ^{228}Th have been calculated within the superasymmetric fission model using various phenomenologic...

  18. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe


    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  19. Molecular electrostatic potential as a graph. (United States)

    Daza, Edgar E; Maza, Julio; Torres, Raul


    We present several procedures to represent molecular electrostatic potential as a graph, based on the pattern of critical points and their neighborhood relations. This representation is used for the molecular electrostatic comparison, which is reduced to a comparison of tree-type graphs. Several methods to compare trees are also presented. The applications of this algorithm to compare and classify molecules through their electrostatic potential are illustrated.

  20. Monte Carlo Hamiltonian:Inverse Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiang-Qian; CHENG Xiao-Ni; Helmut KR(O)GER


    The Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method developed recently allows to investigate the ground state and low-lying excited states of a quantum system,using Monte Carlo(MC)algorithm with importance sampling.However,conventional MC algorithm has some difficulties when applied to inverse potentials.We propose to use effective potential and extrapolation method to solve the problem.We present examples from the hydrogen system.

  1. Estimating the potential gains from mergers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wang, Dexiang


    We introduce simple production economic models to estimate the potential gains from mergers. We decompose the gains into technical ef¿ciency, size (scale) and harmony (mix) gains, and we discuss alternative ways to capture these gains. We propose to approximate the production processes using...... the non-parametric. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach, and we use the resulting operational approach to estimate the potential gains from merging agricultural extension of¿ces in Denmark....

  2. Effective potential in the BET formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; Fraga, E S; Gelis, F


    We calculate the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for a system of massless scalar fields with quartic interaction $\\lambda\\phi^4$ in the framework of the boundary effective theory (BET) formalism. The calculation relies on the solution of the classical equation of motion for the field, and Gaussian fluctuations around it. Our result is non-perturbative and differs from the standard one-loop effective potential for field values larger than $T/\\sqrt{\\lambda}$.

  3. Static Gauge Potential from Noncritical Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Alvarez, Enrique; Manjarin, Juan Jose


    The static gauge potential between heavy sources is computed from a recently introduced non-critical bosonic string background. When the sources are located at the infinity of the holographic coordinate, the linear dilaton behavior is recovered, which means that the potential is exactly linear in the separation between the sources. When the sources are moved towards the origin, a competing overconfining cubic branch appears, which is however disfavored energetically.

  4. Measuring Officer Potential Using the OER (United States)


    counseling , assessment , documentation, and integration with other personnel functions to meet the needs of the Army, rating officials, and all rated...initial counseling . In some cases, completely different measures of performances are what raters and senior raters assess officers against. In addition...why a better definition of potential is needed in order for senior raters to provide better assessments on potential. One of the goals of the new

  5. The potential uses of operational earthquake forecasting (United States)

    Field, Ned; Jordan, Thomas; Jones, Lucille; Michael, Andrew; Blanpied, Michael L.


    This article reports on a workshop held to explore the potential uses of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). We discuss the current status of OEF in the United States and elsewhere, the types of products that could be generated, the various potential users and uses of OEF, and the need for carefully crafted communication protocols. Although operationalization challenges remain, there was clear consensus among the stakeholders at the workshop that OEF could be useful.

  6. Protection from potential exposure: a conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Potential radiation exposure is exposure that, while not certain to occur, can be anticipated as a result of introducing or modifying a practice and to which a probability of occurrence can be assigned. The purpose of this ICRP report is to elaborate upon the principles and objectors of ICRP recommendations as they relate to potential exposure; explain basic concepts, terminology and methodologies associated with application of the recommendations; and provide general guidance on its practical application. (UK).

  7. Schroedinger difference equation with deterministic ergodic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Suto, Andras


    We review the recent developments in the theory of the one-dimensional tight-binding Schr\\"odinger equation for a class of deterministic ergodic potentials. In the typical examples the potentials are generated by substitutional sequences, like the Fibonacci or the Thue-Morse sequence. We concentrate on rigorous results which will be explained rather than proved. The necessary mathematical background is provided in the text.

  8. Global evaluation of biofuel potential from microalgae



    Research into microalgae as a feedstock for biofuels continues to increase because of the inherent potential advantages it holds over traditional terrestrial feedstocks. However, the true near-term large-scale productivity of microalgae remains uncertain. This study integrates a large-scale, outdoor growth model with historical meteorological data from 4,388 global locations to estimate the current near-term lipid and biomass productivity potential from microalgae cultivated in a photobioreac...

  9. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)


    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  10. Gridded state maps of wind electric potential (United States)

    Schwartz, M. N.; Elliott, D. L.; Gower, G. L.


    Estimates of wind electric potential and available windy land area in the contiguous United States, calculated in 1991, were revised by incorporating actual data on the distribution of environmental exclusion areas where wind energy development would be prohibited or severely restricted. The new gridded data base with actual environmental exclusion areas, in combination with a 'moderate' land-use scenario, is the basis for developing the first gridded maps of available windy land and wind electric potential. Gridded maps for the 48 contiguous states show the estimated windy land area and electric potential for each grid cell (1/40 latitude by 1/30 longitude). These new maps show the distribution of the estimated wind electric potential and available windy land within an individual state, unlike previous national maps that only show estimates of the total wind electric potential for the state as a whole. While changes for some individual states are fairly large (in percentage), on a national basis, the estimated windy land area and wind electric potential are only about 1 - 2 percent higher than estimated in 1991.

  11. Quest for potentials in the quintessence scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Tetsuya


    The time variation of the equation of state $w$ for quintessence scenario with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative ($d^3w/da^3$) with respect to the scale factor $a$, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of $w$ for general potential $V$ is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power-law ($V=M^{4+\\alpha}/Q^{\\alpha}$), the exponential ($V=M^4\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}$), the cosine ($V=M^4(\\cos (Q/f)+1)$) and the Gaussian types ($V=M^4\\exp(-Q^2/\\sigma^2)$), which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is $ n$, it is necessary to find at least for $n+2$ independent observations to identify the potential form and the evolution of the scalar field ($Q$ and $ \\dot{Q} $). Such observations would be the values of $ \\Omega_Q, w, dw/da. \\cdots $, and $ dw^n/da^n$. Since four of the above mentioned po...

  12. Development of empirical potentials for amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, A.


    Amorphous silica (SiO{sub 2}) is of great importance in geoscience and mineralogy as well as a raw material in glass industry. Its structure is characterized as a disordered continuous network of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Many efforts have been undertaken to understand the microscopic properties of silica by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this method the interatomic interactions are modeled by an effective potential that does not take explicitely into account the electronic degrees of freedom. In this work, we propose a new methodology to parameterize such a potential for silica using ab initio simulations, namely Car-Parrinello (CP) method [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. The new potential proposed is compared to the BKS potential [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)] that is considered as the benchmark potential for silica. First, CP simulations have been performed on a liquid silica sample at 3600 K. The structural features so obtained have been compared to the ones predicted by the classical BKS potential. Regarding the bond lengths the BKS tends to underestimate the Si-O bond whereas the Si-Si bond is overestimated. The inter-tetrahedral angular distribution functions are also not well described by the BKS potential. The corresponding mean value of the SiOSi angle is found to be {approx_equal} 147 , while the CP yields to a SiOSi angle centered around 135 . Our aim is to fit a classical Born-Mayer/Coulomb pair potential using ab initio calculations. To this end, we use the force-matching method proposed by Ercolessi and Adams [Europhys. Lett. 26, 583 (1994)]. The CP configurations and their corresponding interatomic forces have been considered for a least square fitting procedure. The classical MD simulations with the resulting potential have lead to a structure that is very different from the CP one. Therefore, a different fitting criterion based on the CP partial pair correlation functions was applied. Using this approach the resulting

  13. Scattering processes and electrical conductivity of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); SRIETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Galiyev, K.; Dzhumagulova, K.N. [SRIETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G.; Redmer, R. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)


    We consider partially ionized hydrogen plasma for the density region n{sub e} = (10{sup 18} / 10{sup 22}) cm{sup -} {sup 3}. The cross sections for scattering processes between the particles are calculated within the partial wave method. Charged particles in the system (electrons, protons) interact via an effective potential that takes into account three-particle correlations. The Buckingham polarization potential is used to describe electron-atom and proton-atom interactions. The electrical conductivity is determined using the Chapman-Enskog method. The results are compared with other available data. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Evaluation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential via Schroedinger transmission across multi-step potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Sahu; Bidubhusan Sahu; Santosh K Agarwalla


    In a one-dimensional quantal solution of Schroedinger equation, the general expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are derived for a potential constituting n number of rectangular wells and barriers. These expressions are readily used for the estimation of eigenvalues of a smooth potential which is simulated by a multi-step potential. The applicability of this method is demonstrated with success in potentials with different forms including the most versatile Ginocchio potential where the widely used numerical method like Runge–Kutta integration algorithm fails to yield the result. Accurate evaluation of eigenvalues free from numerical problem for any form of potentials, whether analytically solvable or not, is the highlight of the present multi-step approximation method in the theory of potential scattering.

  15. Screening action potentials: The power of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eKaestner


    Full Text Available Action potentials reflect the concerted activity of all electrogenic constituents in the plasma membrane during the excitation of a cell. Therefore, the action potential is an integrated readout and a promising parameter to detect electrophysiological failures or modifications thereof in diagnosis as well as in drug screens. Cellular action potentials can be recorded by optical approaches. To fulfill the pre-requirements to scale up for e.g. pharmacological screens the following preparatory work has to be provided: (i model cells under investigation need to represent target cells in the best possible manner; (ii optical sensors that can be either small molecule dyes or genetically encoded potential probes need to provide a reliable readout with minimal interaction with the naive behavior of the cells and (iii devices need to be capable to stimulate the cells, read out the signals with the appropriate speed as well as provide the capacity for a sufficient throughput. Here we discuss several scenarios for all three categories in the field of cardiac physiology and pharmacology and provide a perspective to use the power of light in screening cardiac action potentials.

  16. Diagnostics of the Enterprise Export Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc. in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex, taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.

  17. Relationships between Depression and High Intellectual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Weismann-Arcache


    Full Text Available This paper proposes to analyse the relationships between depression and high intellectual potential through a multidisciplinary and original approach. Based on their respective experience in psychology and child psychiatry, the authors will focus their analysis on creative potential. First, relationships between creativity (literary, artistic, or scientific creativity and melancholy (“melancholy” comes from the Greek words for “black” (“melas” and “bile” (“khole” will be examined from antiquity to modern times. Aristotle introduced a quantitative factor, asserting that levels of melancholy and black bile are positively correlated; however, under a given threshold of black bile, it can give rise to an exceptional being. Second, the case study of Blaise Pascal (scientific and philosophical creativity associated with major depressive episodes from childhood will be presented and discussed. This case study sheds light on the paradoxical role of depression in the overinvestment in intellectual and creative spheres as well as on the impact of traumatic events on high intellectual potential. Third, observations will be reported based on a study conducted on 100 children with high intellectual potential (6–12 years old. Finally, based on these different levels of analysis, it appears that heterogeneity of mental functioning in children with high intellectual potential is at the center of the creative process and it has related psychological vulnerability.

  18. Fetal growth potential and pregnancy outcome. (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek


    Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.

  19. Tracing the gravitational potential using cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, Seshadri; Crittenden, Robert


    The properties of large underdensities in the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, known as cosmic voids, are potentially sensitive probes of fundamental physics. We use data from the MultiDark suite of N-body simulations and multiple halo occupation distribution mocks to study the relationship between galaxy voids and the gravitational potential $\\Phi$. We find that the majority of galaxy voids correspond to local density minima in larger-scale overdensities, and thus lie in potential wells. However, a subset of voids can be identified that closely trace maxima of the gravitational potential and thus stationary points of the velocity field. We identify a new void observable, $\\lambda_v$, which depends on a combination of the void size and the average galaxy density contrast within the void, and show that it provides a good proxy indicator of the potential at the void location. A simple linear scaling of $\\Phi$ as a function of $\\lambda_v$ is found to hold, independent of the redshift and properties of t...

  20. Perspective: Machine learning potentials for atomistic simulations (United States)

    Behler, Jörg


    Nowadays, computer simulations have become a standard tool in essentially all fields of chemistry, condensed matter physics, and materials science. In order to keep up with state-of-the-art experiments and the ever growing complexity of the investigated problems, there is a constantly increasing need for simulations of more realistic, i.e., larger, model systems with improved accuracy. In many cases, the availability of sufficiently efficient interatomic potentials providing reliable energies and forces has become a serious bottleneck for performing these simulations. To address this problem, currently a paradigm change is taking place in the development of interatomic potentials. Since the early days of computer simulations simplified potentials have been derived using physical approximations whenever the direct application of electronic structure methods has been too demanding. Recent advances in machine learning (ML) now offer an alternative approach for the representation of potential-energy surfaces by fitting large data sets from electronic structure calculations. In this perspective, the central ideas underlying these ML potentials, solved problems and remaining challenges are reviewed along with a discussion of their current applicability and limitations.

  1. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk


    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  2. Soil Water Hysteresis at Low Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Knowledge of the soil water characteristic curve is fundamental for understanding unsaturated soils. The objective of this work was to find scanning hysteresis loops of two fine textured soils at water potentials below wilting point. This was done by equilibration over NaCl solutions with water potentials of -6.6 to -18.8 MPa at 25 °C. When cycled repeatedly through a series of potentials in the range noted previously both soils exhibited a hysteresis effect. The experimental differences in water content between the drying and wetting soils at the same water potential were much too large to be accounted for by failure to allow sufficient time to attain equilibrium as predicted by the exponential decay model. The wetting versus drying differences were relatively small, however, at only 4 mg g-1 or less in absolute terms and about 3% of the mean of wetting and drying, in relative terms. Hysteresis should be a consideration when modeling biological and physical soil processes at water contents below the wilting point, where small differences in water content result in large potential energy changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available As companies and individuals to live their best release? What should companies and individuals were the most successful? What job would bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further development? What would be the fastest way led to the realization of corporate goals and their own? Answers to these questions can be obtained through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of individual potential (AIP. Employer brand analysis and analysis of individual potential is the process of identifying the strengths and potential of the company as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is that a company or person works best, how to motivate people and to the field of application of discovered talent. The main objective of this procedure is the development of an overall as well as personal and professional development of individuals in the direction of those activities and areas that will bring long-term satisfaction

  4. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M


    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  5. Functionalized carbon nanotubes for potential medicinal applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Yan, Bing


    Functionalized carbon nanotubes display unique properties that enable a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. High aspect ratio, unique optical property and the likeness as small molecule make carbon nanotubes an unusual allotrope of element carbon. After functionalization, carbon nanotubes display potentials for a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity.

  6. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd


    This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on the available potential of offshore wind energy at or below a given cost, and its corresponding geographical locations. The GIS-based models also reflect the impacts...... of each spatial constraint as well as various scenarios of spatial constraints on marginal production costs of offshore wind energy. Furthermore, the impacts of differing Feed-in-tariff (FIT) standards on the economic potential are calculated. It confirms that economic potential of offshore wind energy...

  7. Chemical Potential of Vacancies in Metal Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jun; W.R.Tyson


    In this paper, a concept, the chemical potential of vacancies in metal crystals, has been derived from the partial mole free energy of vacancies based on a model of an atom-vacancy binary solution.For a pure metal crystal containing the mole concentration of vacancies, Cv and it's value in thermal equilibrium,C0, at temperature T the chemical potential can be expressed respectively as: μ v(Cv)=RT[1+1n(C√Co)]and μ v (Co)=RT The second term in μ v(Cv) is the chemical potential of the vacancies referred to the standardstate concentration given by J. P. Hirth [1] and first term is the standard-state one presented in this paper.

  8. Potentiometric Measurements of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Redox Potentials. (United States)

    Carroll, Gerard M; Brozek, Carl K; Hartstein, Kimberly H; Tsui, Emily Y; Gamelin, Daniel R


    A potentiometric method for measuring redox potentials of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is described. Fermi levels of colloidal ZnO NCs are measured in situ during photodoping, allowing correlation of NC redox potentials and reduction levels. Excellent agreement is found between electrochemical and optical redox-indicator methods. Potentiometry is also reported for colloidal CdSe NCs, which show more negative conduction-band-edge potentials than in ZnO. This difference is highlighted by spontaneous electron transfer from reduced CdSe NCs to ZnO NCs in solution, with potentiometry providing a measure of the inter-NC electron-transfer driving force. Future applications of NC potentiometry are briefly discussed.

  9. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert


    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiological......, consciousness and self-consciousness are so fast that their execution depends primarily on fast neurotransmission (in the millisecond range) and action-potentials. In other words: brain functioning requires primarily maximal potential energy. Metabolic brain energy is necessary to restore and maintain...... tasks within 50 to 200 ms, and perception of conscious experience requires 0.5 to 2 s. Activation of cerebral oxygen consumption starts after at least 100 ms and increases of local blood flow become maximal after about 1 s. Current imaging technologies are unable to detect rapid physiological brain...

  10. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons (United States)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac


    Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton–polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons. PMID:28230047

  11. QCD phase diagram with isospin chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B


    In this contribution we investigate the phase diagram of QCD in the presence of an isospin chemical potential. To alleviate the infrared problems of the theory associated with pion condensation, we introduce the pionic source as an infrared regulator. We discuss various methods to extrapolate the results to vanishing pionic source, including a novel method based on the singular value spectrum of the massive Dirac operator, a leading-order reweighting and a spline Monte-Carlo fit. Our main results concern the phase transition boundary between the normal and the pion condensation phases and the chiral/deconfinement transition temperature as a function of the chemical potential. In addition, we perform a quantitative comparison between our direct results and a Taylor-expansion obtained at zero chemical potential to assess the applicability range of the latter.

  12. Void Profile from Planck Lensing Potential Map (United States)

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Sawangwit, Utane; Wandelt, Benjamin D.


    We use the lensing potential map from Planck CMB lensing reconstruction analysis and the “Public Cosmic Void Catalog” to measure the stacked void lensing potential. We have made an attempt to fit the HSW void profile parameters from the stacked lensing potential. In this profile, four parameters are needed to describe the shape of voids with different characteristic radii R V . However, we have found that after reducing the background noise by subtracting the average background, there is a residue lensing power left in the data. The inclusion of the environment shifting parameter, {γ }V, is necessary to get a better fit to the data with the residue lensing power. We divide the voids into two redshift bins: cmass1 (0.45Digital Sky Survey voids reside in an underdense region.

  13. Current wound healing procedures and potential care. (United States)

    Dreifke, Michael B; Jayasuriya, Amil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C


    In this review, we describe current and future potential wound healing treatments for acute and chronic wounds. The current wound healing approaches are based on autografts, allografts, and cultured epithelial autografts, and wound dressings based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. The Food and Drug Administration approved wound healing dressings based on several polymers including collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. The new potential therapeutic intervention for wound healing includes sustained delivery of growth factors, and siRNA delivery, targeting microRNA, and stem cell therapy. In addition, environment sensors can also potentially utilize to monitor and manage microenvironment at wound site. Sensors use optical, odor, pH, and hydration sensors to detect such characteristics as uric acid level, pH, protease level, and infection - all in the hopes of early detection of complications.

  14. Perturbative static four-quark potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, J; Green, A M


    A first attempt to understand hadron dynamics at low energies in terms of the fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom incorporates the effects of the gluonic field into a potential depending only on the spatial positions of the quarks, which are considered in the infinite mass limit. A suitable framework for calculating such potentials between static quarks, i.e.\\ a generalization of the Wilson loop will be discussed. Making a connection with recent Monte Carlo lattice simulations for the lowest two energies of a system of two quarks and two antiquarks, the static qq\\bar{q}\\bar{q}-potential will be calculated in perturbation theory to fourth order. The result will be shown to be exactly equal to the prediction of a straightforward two-body approach, which in Monte Carlo lattice simulations has been found to be a reasonable approximation for very small interquark distances.

  15. Resistive Ferroresonance Limiter for Potential Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Radmanesh


    Full Text Available The ferroresonance or nonlinear resonance is a complex phenomenon, which may cause overvoltage in the electrical power system and endangers the system reliability and operation. The ability to predict the ferroresonance in the transformer depends on the accuracy of the transformer model used. In this paper, the effect of the new suggested ferroresonance limiter on the control of the chaotic ferroresonance and duration of chaotic transients in a potential transformer including nonlinear core losses is studied. To study the proposed ferroresonance limiter, a single phase 100 VA, 275 kV potential transformer is simulated. The magnetization characteristic of the potential transformer is modeled by a single-value two-term polynomial. The core losses are modeled by third order power series in terms of voltage and include core nonlinearities. The simulation results show that the ferroresonance limiter has a considerable effect on the ferroresonance overvoltage.

  16. Event related potentials using visual stimulation. (United States)

    Varner, J L; Rohrbaugh, J W


    Visual patterns are used to elicit event related potentials. Equipment is available for generating visual geometric patterns such as checkerboards. Slides may be used for patterns which are more complex but preparation is costly and time consuming. A variety of programs exist on PC's for making very elaborate color pictures and in most cases the programs are easy to use making them ideal for generating visual patterns for event related potential experiments. A necessary requirement in event related potential experiments is the ability to control and/or determine precisely when the stimulus is presented to the subject. We have observed that timing is a problem with stimuli generated by the PC as a result of the raster scan and use in many cases of high level system calls in the software. This paper describes a technique which allows for precise control of the time of stimulus presentation using the video control signals to the monitor.

  17. A new interaction potential for swarming models

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, J A; Panferov, V


    We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare thus obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.

  18. Evolutionary potential games on lattices and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Gyorgy


    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and t...

  19. Effective potential in density matrix functional theory. (United States)

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C


    In the previous paper it was shown that in the ground state the diagonal of the spin independent second-order density matrix n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Thus the problem of an arbitrary system with even electrons can be reduced to a two-particle problem. The effective potential of the two-particle equation contains a term v(p) of completely kinetic origin. Virial theorem and hierarchy of equations are derived for v(p) and simple approximations are proposed. A relationship between the effective potential u(p) of the shape function equation and the potential v(p) is established.

  20. Vector Potential Generation for Numerical Relativity Simulations (United States)

    Silberman, Zachary; Faber, Joshua; Adams, Thomas; Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian


    Many different numerical codes are employed in studies of highly relativistic magnetized accretion flows around black holes. Based on the formalisms each uses, some codes evolve the magnetic field vector B, while others evolve the magnetic vector potential A, the two being related by the curl: B=curl(A). Here, we discuss how to generate vector potentials corresponding to specified magnetic fields on staggered grids, a surprisingly difficult task on finite cubic domains. The code we have developed solves this problem in two ways: a brute-force method, whose scaling is nearly linear in the number of grid cells, and a direct linear algebra approach. We discuss the success both algorithms have in generating smooth vector potential configurations and how both may be extended to more complicated cases involving multiple mesh-refinement levels. NSF ACI-1550436

  1. Weak gravitational field and Coriolis potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Y Turakulov


    In mechanics of the mass point passage from one frame of reference to another moving with velocity $\\vec{u}$ consists in subtracting this vector from the velocity of the particle. In general case the vector $\\vec{u}$ is not constant, as, for example, when passing through a rotating frame, this operation creates inertial forces. Analysis of this phenomenon from the point of view of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics is interesting from the general relativistic point of view due to Einstein's principle of equivalence. We show that the vector $\\vec{u}$ plays the role of vector potential which, however, essentially differs from vector potential known in classical electrodynamics. Comparative analysis of the two kinds of vector potentials is completed.

  2. Assessing the potential toxicity of new pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Johnson, D E; Wolfgang, G H


    Optimizing chemical structures to create potentially safe drugs during discovery and early development relies on a combination of predictive algorithms, screening, formal toxicology studies, and early clinical trials. Early in the process three critical questions emerge that must be answered by a detailed "profiling" approach. These questions are: 1) is there a correlation between the chemical structure and potential toxicity that can be used to optimize structures of lead compounds, 2) can specific markers of potential toxicity can be identified carly and used as mechanistic decision-making screens, and 3) will exposures (plasma levels) in animal studies correlate with exposures encountered in the clinic thereby providing "coverage" for safety? Depending on the therapeutic class of compounds being considered and the level of knowledge available, feedback loops of information can be established to guide the development process.

  3. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors. (United States)

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M


    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  4. Numerical matrix method for quantum periodic potentials (United States)

    Le Vot, Felipe; Meléndez, Juan J.; Yuste, Santos B.


    A numerical matrix methodology is applied to quantum problems with periodic potentials. The procedure consists essentially in replacing the true potential by an alternative one, restricted by an infinite square well, and in expressing the wave functions as finite superpositions of eigenfunctions of the infinite well. A matrix eigenvalue equation then yields the energy levels of the periodic potential within an acceptable accuracy. The methodology has been successfully used to deal with problems based on the well-known Kronig-Penney (KP) model. Besides the original model, these problems are a dimerized KP solid, a KP solid containing a surface, and a KP solid under an external field. A short list of additional problems that can be solved with this procedure is presented.

  5. Learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Pedersen, Nicholai Friis; Aaen, Janus Holst

    The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From a sociocult......The aim of this paper is to identify the key learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet. Rather than focusing on mobile technology or the mobility of the learner, the paper emphasises the ubiquity of internet access as a paramount catalyst for new learning in the digital age. From...... a sociocultural perspective the paper discusses different ways in which the use of mobile devices can extend and augment the context of the learner. The learning potentials of the ubiquitous internet relate to the opportunities to extend the context of the learner on three levels: 1) personalisation...

  6. Electronic Quantum Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S


    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limi...

  7. Electric potential microelectrode for studies of electrobiogeophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Riis; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    were needle-shaped, shielded Ag/AgCl half-cells that were rendered insensitive to redox-active species in the environment. Tip diameters of 40 to 100 μm and signal resolution of approximately 10 μV were achieved. A test in marine sediments with active cable bacteria showed an electric potential......Spatially separated electron donors and acceptors in sediment can be exploited by the so-called “cable bacteria.” Electric potential microelectrodes (EPMs) were constructed to measure the electric fields that should appear when cable bacteria conduct electrons over centimeter distances. The EPMs...... increase by approximately 2mV from the sediment-water interface to a depth of approximately 20mm, in accordance with the location and direction of the electric currents estimated from oxygen, pH, and H2S microprofiles. The EPM also captured emergence and decay of electric diffusion potentials...

  8. Symmetric Morse potential is exactly solvable

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Ryu


    Morse potential $V_M(x)= g^2\\exp (2x)-g(2h+1)\\exp(x)$ is defined on the full line, $-\\inftypotential $V(x)= g^2\\exp (2|x|)-g(2h+1)\\exp(|x|)$ is obtained. The quantum mechanical system of this piecewise analytic potential has infinitely many discrete eigenstates with the corresponding eigenfunctions given by the Whittaker W function. The eigenvalues are the square of the zeros of the Whittaker function $W_{k,\

  9. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune


    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  10. [Online-gambling - new hazard potential?]. (United States)

    Yazdi, Kurosch; Yazdi, Karin


    Since the new American psychiatric classification, DSM V, was released, bringing together substance-related disorders and gambling disorder into one chapter, the addictive potential of gambling and sports wagering is beyond all question. Even the neurobiological processes of the brain show similarities in all addictive disorders. Gambling is more and more shifted into the cyberspace owing to the global expansion of the internet. The addictive potential of online-gambling seems to be higher than offline, though, which is also reflected by the patient population of the outpatient clinic for gambling addiction in Linz. This fact poses a challenge for the persons affected, therapists, gambling providers, legislator the society as a whole.

  11. Analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenthaeler, R. (Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Laboratorio do Pelletron, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 20516, 01452-990 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Gomes, L.C. (Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares Instituto de Fisica Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 20516, 01498-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil))


    An analytic extension of the nuclear algebraic potential in the complex energy and angular momentum planes is discussed and an approximation for the algebraic potential in agreement with the known analytic properties of the [ital S]-matrix is proposed. The invariance of the energy spectrum of the Coulomb part of the interaction is established. The results are applied to the Regge pole analysis of the [sup 12]C+[sup 24]Mg elastic collision at [ital E][sub [ital l][ital a][ital b

  12. Pigmy resonances, transfer, and separable potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Kruppa, A; Hao, T V Nhan; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Shubhchintak,


    In this contribution we make a short review of recent progress on topics of current interest in nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. In particular, we discuss a re-analysis of the extraction of the dipole response of the pigmy resonance in $^{68}$Ni based on a continuum discretized coupled-channels calculation in relativistic Coulomb excitation experiments. We also discuss the forthcoming progresses made by our group on the Alt-Sandhas-Grassberber approach to (d,p) reactions and future expectations. The role of separable potentials in solving such equations with a test case based on applications of such potentials to phase-shift analysis is also presented.

  13. Correlation of action potentials in adjacent neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N


    A possible mechanism for the synchronization of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons (ephaptic coupling) is considered. It is shown that this mechanism is similar to the salutatory conduction of the action potential between the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons. The proposed model allows us to estimate the scale of the correlation, i.e., the distance between neurons in the nervous tissue, wherein their synchronization becomes possible. The possibility for experimental verification of the proposed model of synchronization is discussed.

  14. Potential role of tetrandrine in cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Jen


    Tetrandrine, a bisbenylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the dried root of Stephenia tetrandra S Moore, exhibits very broad pharmacological actions, including anti-tumor activity. The beneficial effects of tetrandrine on tumor cell cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and angiogenesis are most promising and deserve great attention. Tetrandrine has potential either as a tumoricidal agent or as an adjunct to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To evaluate the potential clinical efficacy of tetrandrine for cancer therapy,more mechanism-based pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies are required.

  15. Realistic interatomic potential for MD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Eremeichenkova, Y V; Morozov, A F; Eremeichenkova, Yu.V.


    The coefficients of interatomic potential of simple form Exp-6 for neon are obtained. Repulsive part is calculated ab-initio in the Hartree-Fock approximation using the basis of atomic orbitals orthogonalized exactly on different lattice sites. Attractive part is determined empirically using single fitting parameter. The potential obtained describes well the equation of state and elastic moduli of neon crystal in wide range of interatomic distances and it is appropriate for molecular dynamic simulations of high temperature properties and phenomena in crystals and liquids.

  16. Harmonic and Monogenic Potentials in Euclidean Halfspace (United States)

    Brackx, F.; De Bie, H.; De Schepper, H.


    In the framework of Clifford analysis a chain of harmonic and monogenic potentials is constructed in the upper half of Euclidean space Rm+1. Their distributional limits at the boundary are computed, obtaining in this way well-known distributions in Rm such as the Dirac distribution, the Hilbert kernel, the square root of the negative Laplace operator, and the like. It is shown how each of those potentials may be recovered from an adjacent kernel in the chain by an appropriate convolution with such a distributional limit.

  17. On Dirichlet's Derivation of the Ellipsoid Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, W


    Newton's potential of a massive homogeneous ellipsoid is derived via Dirichlet's discontinuous factor. At first we review part of Dirichlet's work in an English translation of the original German, and then continue with an extension of his method into the complex plane. With this trick it becomes possible to first calculate the potential and thereafter the force components exerted on a test mass by the ellipsoid. This is remarkable in so far as all other famous researchers prior to Dirichlet merely calculated the attraction components. Unfortunately, Dirichlet's derivation is to a large extent mathematically unacceptable which, however, can be corrected by treating the problem in the complex plane.

  18. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos


    and complicate measurements on free-standing films. A model of the potential profile in a free-standing strip is derived. It is found that the active length (the length with a given potential change) of the polymer will scale as square root (d sigma /i/sub d/). (d is the thickness, sigma the conductivity...... of the film, and i/sub d/ the diffusion limited current density for oxygen reduction). The active length is typically of the order of millimeters. The model is compared with measurements on a strip of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate...

  19. Potential theory and the Lorenz condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    When potentials are used to calculate the electromagnetic field intensities choices may be made. The present study is carried out in order to outline the various possibilities. It looks like the types of choices and their number depend on the actual situation and the preferences of the researcher....... Also the explanations as to why choices can be made vary. Since potentials probably are more basic than field intensities, it is of some interest to understand whether choices can be related to physical interpretations or computational advantages in specific situations. In particular, it is discussed...

  20. Effects of electron emission on sheath potential (United States)

    Dow, Ansel; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Schamis, Hanna


    We investigate the potential profile of a sheath under the influence of surface electron emission. The plasma and sheath profiles are simulated using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell code. Using one dimensional models we corroborate the analytical relationship between sheath potential and plasma electron and emitted electron temperatures derived earlier. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Potential of Natural Ventilation in Shopping Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Friis, Kristina; Brohus, Henrik;


    The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a fundamental requirement for a well performing shopping centre. This paper contains a pilot study of the potential of using hybrid ventilation (a combination of automatically controlled natural and mechanical ventilation - respectively NV and MV......) in shopping centres with focus on both the achieved IEQ and energy consumptions for air movement. By thermal building simulations it is found that there exists an interesting potential for hybrid ventilation of shopping centres, which can lead to great savings in the electrical energy consumptions...... for ventilation and cooling without compromising IEQ....

  2. Potentially Ineffective Care: Time for Earnest Reexamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Jackson


    Full Text Available The rising costs and suboptimal quality throughout the American health care system continue to invite critical inquiry, and practice in the intensive care unit setting is no exception. Due to their relatively large impact, outcomes and costs in critical care are of significant interest to policymakers and health care administrators. Measurement of potentially ineffective care has been proposed as an outcome measure to evaluate critical care delivery, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act affords the opportunity to reshape the care of the critically ill. Given the impetus of the PPACA, systematic formal measurement of potentially ineffective care and its clinical, economic, and societal impact merits timely reconsideration.

  3. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs. (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H


    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  4. Injury potential in modern ice hockey. (United States)

    Sim, F H; Chao, E Y


    The majority of the damaging forces to the soft tissue, bone, and articular joint structures of modern hockey players during the energetic activities involved in the game are attributable to impact action during high-speed motion. In addition, non-contact musculoligamentous injuries are common because of the complex forces that are involved. The injury potential of this sport is assessed indirectly from the force and motion involved. The experimental method of measuring the kinematic motion and the impact forces inherent to the sport are presented. Although hockey is a fast and furious game with high injury potential, fortunately the number of serious injuries is not as great as one might expect.

  5. Economic Growth in Croatia: Potential and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vamvakidis


    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors and constraints that affect recent and potential growth in Croatia, as well as policies that can influence it. On current productivity trends, it estimates Croatia’s potential growth rate at 4–4½ percent, a result reasonably robust to different methodologies. For growth to be sustained at a significantly higher rate, the business environment needs to be improved through further measures to reduce the administrative burden, legal uncertainties, and corruption. The analysis also emphasizes the importance of attracting more greenfield foreign direct investment, and reforms to reduce the role of the state in the economy through fiscal consolidation and faster privatization.

  6. Semiempirical potentials for positron scattering by atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Walters, H. R. J.; Arretche, Felipe; Dutra, Adriano; Mohallem, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29075-910, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, 89223-100, Joinville, SC (Brazil); Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, PO Box 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    We report calculations of differential and integral cross sections for positron scattering by noble gas and alkaline-earth atoms within the same methodology. The scattering potentials are constructed by scaling adiabatic potentials so that their minima coincide with the covalent radii of the target atoms. Elastic differential and integral cross sections are calculated for Ne, Ar, Be, and Mg, and the results are very close to experimental and best theoretical data. Particularly, elastic differential cross sections for Be and Mg at low energies are reported.

  7. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells (United States)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas


    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  8. Singular Continuous Spectrum for Singular Potentials (United States)

    Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Yang, Fan


    We prove that Schrödinger operators with meromorphic potentials {(H_{α,θ}u)_n=u_{n+1}+u_{n-1}+ g(θ+nα)/f(θ+nα) u_n} have purely singular continuous spectrum on the set {{E: L(E) Lyapunov exponent. This extends results of Jitomirskaya and Liu (Arithmetic spectral transitions for the Maryland model. CPAM, to appear) for the Maryland model and of Avila,You and Zhou (Sharp Phase transitions for the almost Mathieu operator. Preprint, 2015) for the almost Mathieu operator to the general family of meromorphic potentials.

  9. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.


    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  10. Bio-SNG potential assessment: Denmark 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Thomsen, T. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, Betina (Dansk Gasteknisk Center A/S, Hoersholm (Denmark))


    In this project the potential for SNG based on biomass gasification has been sought elucidated. As part of the project a model for simulation of biomass in Denmark has been developed. The conclusion is that SNG can substitute a significant amount of natural gas, but the energy efficiency should be improved. (Author)

  11. De allergene potentie van geneesmiddelen: literatuurstudie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; Vleeming W; de Wildt DJ; van der Laan JW; de Waal EJ; van Loveren H; Garssen J; TOX; LGM; PAT


    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de allergische reacties, die het gevolg zijn van geneesmiddelengebruik. De nadruk is gelegd op ernstige allergische reacties. Een overzicht -ingedeeld volgens de classificatie van Gell en Coombs wordt gegeven van geneesmiddelen met een allergene potentie. Daarn

  12. Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holliger, C.; Alves, M.; Andrade, D.;


    Production of biogas fromdifferent organic materials is a most interesting source of renewable energy. The biomethane potential (BMP) of these materials has to be determined to get insight in design parameters for anaerobic digesters. Although several norms and guidelines for BMP tests exist, int...

  13. Kähler potentials for Planck inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Zavala Carrasco, Ivonne


    We assess which Kahler potentials in supergravity lead to viable single-field inflationary models that are consistent with Planck. We highlight the role of symmetries, such as shift, Heisenberg and supersymmetry, in these constructions. Also the connections to string theory are pointed out. Finally,

  14. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia


    Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen...

  15. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  16. Color Evoked Potentials in Adults and Infants. (United States)

    White, Carroll T.; And Others

    This paper discusses recent studies of the adult visual evoked potential (VEP) which have indicated that specific components of the complex waveform obtained are related to the three basic color processes, and that these components interact in ways that seem to agree with opponent-colors phenomena. The components identified as being related to the…

  17. Classroom Observation of Potential Special Education Children. (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.

    The present study is a portion of a larger study dealing with early identification of children with potential learning or behavioral difficulties. Specifically, the purpose of this phase of the project was (1) to refine classroom observation techniques and procedures and (2) to collect classroom observation data on children in regular classes who…

  18. CALS - What are the Potentials for SMEs ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Larsen, Michael holm; Langer, Gilad;


    is to demonstrate the potentials for improving business processes by effective information management. The three companies involved will demonstrate practical and innovative applications of CALS solutions, that will serve as examples for a wide variety of SMEs.The paper will focus on the industrial results...

  19. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers. Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)


    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies. (author)

  20. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  1. Scattering by a long-range potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar


    The phenomenon of wave tails has attracted much attention over the years from both physicists and mathematicians. However, our understanding of this fascinating phenomenon is not complete yet. In particular, most former studies of the tail phenomenon have focused on scattering potentials which approach zero asymptotically ($x\\to\\infty$) faster than $x^{-2}$. It is well-known that for these (rapidly decaying) scattering potentials the late-time tails are determined by the first Born approximation and are therefore {\\it linear} in the amplitudes of the scattering potentials (there are, however, some exceptional cases in which the first Born approximation vanishes and one has to consider higher orders of the scattering problem). In the present study we analyze in detail the late-time dynamics of the Klein-Gordon wave equation with a ({\\it slowly} decaying) Coulomb-like scattering potential: $V(x\\to\\infty)=\\alpha/x$. In particular, we write down an explicit solution (that is, an exact analytic solution which is n...

  2. Vector Potential, Electromagnetic Induction and "Physical Meaning" (United States)

    Giuliani, G.


    A forgotten experiment by Andre Blondel (1914) proves, as held on the basis of theoretical arguments in a previous paper, that the time variation of the magnetic flux is not the cause of the induced emf; the physical agent is instead the vector potential through the term [equation omitted] (when the induced circuit is at rest). The "good…

  3. Modeling the Clarification Potential of Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan


    We hypothesize that conversational implicatures are a rich source of clarification requests, and in this paper we do two things. First, we motivate the hypothesis in theoretical, practical and empirical terms and formulate it as a concrete Clarification Potential Principle: implicatures may become...

  4. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili


    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure...

  5. Frequency-Dependent Streaming Potentials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jouniaux


    which both formation factor and permeability are measured, is predicted to depend on the permeability as inversely proportional to the permeability. We review the experimental setups built to be able to perform dynamic measurements. And we present some measurements and calculations of the dynamic streaming potential.

  6. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.


    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  7. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  8. Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole (United States)

    Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza


    In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.

  9. Wind erosion potential following application of biosolids (United States)

    The application of biosolids to agricultural land has the potential to improve soil health and crop production. These benefits could also possibly reduce the threat of wind erosion in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, we assessed the impact of biosolids on wind erosion of agricultural land at Li...

  10. Fishery potential of the Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Fishery potential of the interior Gulf of Kachchh and adjacent creek regions was reported for the first time as baseline data for future ecological assessment. The experimental trawling and gill netting indicated that the inner Gulf (av. 7.8 kg...

  11. Measurement of Redox Potential in Nanoecotoxicological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Tantra


    Full Text Available Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO or cerium oxide (CeO2 dispersions were measured using an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP electrode probe. The particles under testing differed in terms of their particle size and dispersion stability in deionised water and in various ecotox media. The ORP values of the various dispersions and how they fluctuate relative to each other are discussed. Results show that the ORP values are mainly governed by the type of liquid media employed, with little contributions from the nanoparticles. Seawater was shown to have reduced the ORP value, which was attributed to an increase in the concentration of reducing agents such as sulphites or the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The lack of redox potential value contribution from the particles themselves is thought to be due to insufficient interaction of the particles at the Pt electrode of the ORP probe.

  12. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimer's disease


    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Zhao, Haitian; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe


    Several epidemiological studies indicate that moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a lower incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Red wine is enriched in antioxidant polyphenols with potential neuroprotective activities. Despite scepticism concerning the bioavailability of these polyphenols, in vivo data have clearly demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol in rodent models for stress and diseases. Furthermore, recent...

  13. Mung Bean: Technological and Nutritional Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahiya, P.K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Khetarpaul, N.; Grewal, R.B.; Nout, M.J.R.


    Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek) has been intensively researched; scattered data are available on various properties. Data on physical, chemical, food processing, and nutritional properties were collected for whole mung bean grains and reviewed to assess the crop’s potential as food and to s

  14. Immunomodulating potential of supplementation with probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, C.N.; Kæstel, P.


    Certain probiotic microorganisms have been found beneficial in the treatment of immune-related diseases and may also affect immune function in healthy people. Intervention studies of probiotics in healthy humans are urgently required. Here, the immunomodulating potential of Bifidobacterium animalis...

  15. Glueball Masses in Relativistic Potential Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shpenik, A; Kis, J; Fekete, Yu


    The problem of glueball mass spectra using the relativistic Dirac equation is studied. Also the Breit-Fermi approach used to obtaining hyperfine splitting in glueballs. Our approach is based on the assumption, that the nature and the forces between two gluons are the short-range. We were to calculate the glueball masses with used screened potential.

  16. Expanding Worldwide Awareness of Creative Potential. (United States)

    Jellen, Hans G.; Urban, Klaus K.


    The article proposes the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production as an appropriate culture-fair assessment to identifying creative potential worldwide. Fifteen sample drawings of children from around the world, all based on the same original stimuli, are provided. (DB)

  17. Estimation of Weighting Potential for a TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Veenhof, R


    In this work, we have computed the three dimensional weighting potential, field and pad response function (PRF) of typical time projection chambers (TPC) using a recently formulated and developed boundary element method solver, namely, the nearly exact BEM solver. A realistic geometry of the device is found to have significant influence on the estimation of signal generation.

  18. Staging the Future--Potentializing the Self (United States)

    Bjerg, Helle


    This article frames a qualitative analysis of how a particular actualization of independent project work may be understood as a "pedagogy of potentialization" that relies on schooling the desire to learn as creation and (self-)transgression. The framework for analyzing school as an affective space draws on conceptualizations of affect,…

  19. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;


    indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...

  20. Potential Applications of Polymer Microchips in Pharmaceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Bao


    Some of the most recent development in polymer based microchips have been reviewed. Different methods used in fabricating ploymer microchips are introduced. The inportance and applications of the ploymer microchip in pharmaceutical and other areas are discussed. Finally, the potential problems and development areas in polymer microchip technology are also addressed.

  1. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  2. Potentials of Arbitrary Forces with Fractional Derivatives (United States)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Alhalholy, Tareq S.; Rousan, Akram

    The Laplace transform of fractional integrals and fractional derivatives is used to develop a general formula for determining the potentials of arbitrary forces: conservative and nonconservative in order to introduce dissipative effects (such as friction) into Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. The results are found to be in exact agreement with Riewe's results of special cases. Illustrative examples are given.

  3. Development of Creative Potential of Cinema Tourism (United States)

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Ilinaa, Elena L.; Latkin, Aleksander N.; Koshelevava, Anna I.


    The relevance of the problem indicated in the article is caused by the fact that under current conditions it is necessary to offer high-quality and demanded tourist products, formed at the combination of various industries on the basis of wide application of creative potential of different industries, including tourism and cinema, a harmonious…

  4. The mechanocaloric potential of spin crossover compounds


    Sandeman, K. G.


    We present a first evaluation of the potential for spin crossover (SCO) compounds to be considered as a new class of giant mechanocaloric effect material. From literature data on the variation of the spin crossover temperature with pressure, we estimate the maximum available adiabatic temperature change for several compounds and the relatively low pressures that may be required to observe these effects.

  5. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.


    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  6. The Potential of Perspectivism for Science Education (United States)

    Pearce, Jacob V.


    Many science teachers are presented with the challenge of characterizing science as a dynamic, human endeavour. Perspectivism, as a hermeneutic philosophy of science, has the potential to be a learning tool for teachers as they elucidate the complex nature of science. Developed earlier by Nietzsche and others, perspectivism has recently re-emerged…

  7. Learning (potential) and social functioning in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woonings, FMJ; Appelo, MT; Kluiter, H; Slooff, CJ; van den Bosch, RJ


    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia has well-known functional consequences. The ability to learn (learning potential). may be an important mediator. This study examines the relationship between learning and functional status in schizophrenia patients before and after participation in a rehabilita

  8. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.P.; Bouter, K.E.C.; Vos, de W.M.; Borody, T.J.; Nieuwdorp, M.


    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditio

  9. Spontaneous Biliteracy: Examining Latino Students' Untapped Potential (United States)

    de la Luz Reyes, Maria


    Cultural deficit theories have long been debunked, yet Spanish continues to be treated as an impediment to Latinos' school success. With over 5 million emerging bilinguals, of which approximately 75% are Spanish speakers, Latinos' biliteracy potential should be examined as a means to support their learning. This article focuses on the spontaneous…

  10. Diamagnetism of quantum gases with singular potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste


    We consider a gas of quasi-free quantum particles confined to a finite box, subjected to singular magnetic and electric fields. We prove in great generality that the finite volume grand-canonical pressure is analytic with respect to the chemical potential and the intensity of the external magnetic...

  11. (Hybrid) Baryons Quantum Numbers and Adiabatic Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R


    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and indicate the flavour, spin, chirality and J^P of (hybrid) baryons. The adiabatic potential is calculated as a function of the quark positions.

  12. Sustainability constraints in determining European bioenergy potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, Ingeborg; Wicke, Birka; Leemans, Rik; Faaij, André


    This paper reviews European land and bioenergy potential studies to 1) identify shortcomings related to how they account for agricultural intensification and its associated environmental effects, and sustainability constraints, and 2) provide suggestions on how these shortcomings can be improved

  13. Random Walk Method for Potential Problems (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.


    A local Random Walk Method (RWM) for potential problems governed by Lapalace's and Paragon's equations is developed for two- and three-dimensional problems. The RWM is implemented and demonstrated in a multiprocessor parallel environment on a Beowulf cluster of computers. A speed gain of 16 is achieved as the number of processors is increased from 1 to 23.

  14. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones (United States)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  15. Spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barnali Chakrabarti


    We present the spectral properties of supersymmetric shape invariant potentials (SIPs). Although the folded spectrum is completely random, unfolded spectrum shows that energy levels are highly correlated and absolutely rigid. All the SIPs exhibit harmonic oscillator-type spectral statistics in the unfolded spectrum. We conjecture that this is the reflection of shape invariant symmetry.

  16. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential (United States)

    Yuan, Jiahai


    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9-14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  17. The Power and Potential of Primary Sources (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.; Rasinski, Timothy V.


    Using primary sources with students has untapped potential for expanding and deepening the reading experiences of elementary and middle grade students. Primary sources expands teachers' palette of reading materials, allows students to connect more closely to topics for learning, and deepens their understanding of the past. This article argues for…

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease: potential therapeutic strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Bregenholt, S;


    This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These ne...

  19. Potential for straw utilisation in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, G.J.; Burke, J.I.; Martindale, L.P.


    Very little statistical information is available on the production and utilisation of straw in Ireland. However, using average cereal production figures, the total straw yield is estimated to be over 1.7 million tonnes annually. Energy markets and the large potential market for direct combustion of biomass fuels, such as cereal straw are discussed.

  20. Tendencies and Prospects in Building Educational Potential (United States)

    Avraamova, E. M.


    Global competition, which has become more acute with the onset of the world financial and economic crisis, is forcing countries to look for resources by means of which the crisis can be overcome and national economies will receive a new impetus of development. It is the growth of the educational potential that constitutes the component of the…

  1. Potential of Microbubbles as Fat Replacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, T.A.M.; Sala, Guido; Linden, Van der Erik; Meinders, M.B.J.


    The potential of microbubbles as fat replacers and texture modifiers was assessed by comparison of the rheological and tribological properties of model food systems that contained (1) microbubbles, (2) emulsion droplets or (3) no added colloidal structures. We used (a) liquids with thickener, (b)

  2. Lichtheimia Species Exhibit Differences in Virulence Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartze, V.U.; Hoffmann, K.; Nyilasi, I.; Papp, T.; Vagvoelgyi, C.; de Hoog, S.; Voigt, K.; Jacobsen, I.D.


    Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of

  3. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熠; 黄筑平


    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  5. Digital Cavities and Their Potential Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga; Widom, Julia R; Marcus, Andrew H; Pullerits, Tonu


    The concept of a digital cavity is presented. The functionality of a tunable radio-frequency/microwave cavity with unrestricted Q-factor is implemented. The theoretical aspects of the cavity and its potential applications in high resolution spectroscopy and synchronization of clocks together with examples in signal processing and data acquisition are discussed.

  6. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between...

  7. Bohr Hamiltonian with time-dependent potential (United States)

    Naderi, L.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.


    In this paper, Bohr Hamiltonian has been studied with the time-dependent potential. Using the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant method appropriate dynamical invariant for this Hamiltonian has been constructed and the exact time-dependent wave functions of such a system have been derived due to this dynamical invariant.

  8. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry


    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  9. Postextrasystolic potentiation in the isolated rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Boogaard, F. van de; Tweel, H. van der; Durrer, D.


    “Postextrasystolic potentiation" of isotonic contractions of the intact isolated rat heart was studied. It was found that the Frank-Starling mechanism does not participate in the increase of the contraction following a premature beat and a compensatory pause. A linear relationship could be demonstra

  10. Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.


    By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu

  11. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment (United States)

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.


    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  12. Pine nuts: the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins. (United States)

    Weidenbörner, M


    The mycobiota of pine nuts was investigated. In total, 1832 fungi belonging to 31 species and 15 genera (Ascomycota, 2; Zygomycota, 3; mitosporic fungi, 10) could be isolated. Cladosporium spp. dominated the mycobiota with 685 isolations followed by Phoma macrostoma with 351 isolations. Overall, 16 potentially mycotoxigenic species were present on pine nuts.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater potential using geospatial techniques (United States)

    Hussein, Abdul-Aziz; Govindu, Vanum; Nigusse, Amare Gebre Medhin


    The issue of unsustainable groundwater utilization is becoming increasingly an evident problem and the key concern for many developing countries. One of the problems is the absence of updated spatial information on the quantity and distribution of groundwater resource. Like the other developing countries, groundwater evaluation in Ethiopia has been usually conducted using field survey which is not feasible in terms of time and resource. This study was conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Wollo Zone, in Gerardo River Catchment district to spatially delineate the groundwater potential areas using geospatial and MCDA tools. To do so, eight major biophysical and environmental factors like geomorphology, lithology, slope, rainfall, land use land cover (LULC), soil, lineament density and drainage density were considered. The sources of these data were satellite image, digital elevation model (DEM), existing thematic maps and metrological station data. Landsat image was used in ERDAS Imagine to drive the LULC of the area, while the geomorphology, soil, and lithology of the area were identified and classified through field survey and digitized from existing maps using the ArcGIS software. The slope, lineament and drainage density of the area were derived from DEM using spatial analysis tools. The rainfall surface map was generated using the thissen polygon interpolation. Finally, after all these thematic maps were organized, weighted value determination for each factor and its field value was computed using IDRSI software. At last, all the factors were integrated together and computed the model using the weighted overlay so that potential groundwater areas were mapped. The findings depicted that the most potential groundwater areas are found in the central and eastern parts of the study area, while the northern and western parts of the Gerado River Catchment have poor potential of groundwater availability. This is mainly due to the cumulative effect of steep topographic and

  14. The Potential of Modern Russian Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Grigor’evna Dobrokhleb


    Full Text Available The paper considers the necessity of socio-demographic approach to assessing the potential of modern generations. The demographic potential of generations is determined by their number, their share in total population, and their life expectancy. Their economic potential is determined by the proportion of representatives of different generations in total employment. Their social potential is determined by the system of values of generations. The rapid growth of differences in these characteristics leads to the break up of intergenerational relations and is connected with the aggravation of social contradictions. The potential of modern generations can be considered in different aspects: number of generations, life expectancy at birth, the share of representatives of different generations that share or do not share the basic social values of the society, including values related to reproductive and other types of demographic behavior. In order to identify existing differences between generations in the framework of the socio-demographic approach, the paper analyzes the dynamics of the number of young people in 1926, 1936, 2014 in the Russian Federation; the authors also carry out a comparative analysis of the secondary and authors’ sociological data of values-related and reproductive attitudes of conditionally parental and child generations. Russian researchers studied the life potential of the population and proved that in 1990–2010, the life potential of Russia’s population decreased. Reduction in the life potential in the population in general is associated with a decrease in this indicator for the younger generation (children’s ages due to the reduction in the number and proportion of this generation in the population structure. The reduction in the life potential has not stopped because the number of the younger generation continues to decrease. However, life expectancy in this period increased. Nevertheless, in general, mortality in

  15. The therapeutic potential of aromatase inhibitors. (United States)

    Miller, W R; Jackson, J


    The third generation aromatase inhibitors are both remarkably potent and specific endocrine agents inhibiting aromatase activity and reducing circulating oestrogen levels in postmenopausal women to levels never previously seen. Their therapeutic potential is consequently much greater than the earlier prototype drugs. Their excellent side-effect profile also allows for potential wider indications in the treatment of oestrogen-related diseases, including breast cancer. It still remains to determine whether their potent endocrine effects translate into increased therapeutic benefit. In advanced breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors have been shown to have improved efficacy and toxicity profiles when compared with progestins, aminoglutethimide and tamoxifen. Aromatase inhibitors have also been used in the neoadjuvant setting, where they have been shown to achieve higher response rates than tamoxifen and to be more successful at downstaging tumours. Early results comparing an aromatase inhibitor with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting in early breast cancer show anastrozole to be superior to tamoxifen in terms of both disease-free survival and a lower incidence of new contralateral tumours. There was also a more favourable side-effect profile, which has implications for potential future prophylactic treatment. Additionally, since aromatase inhibitors have different mechanisms of action, unlike antioestrogens, they may be particularly useful as chemopreventive agents if oestrogens are themselves genotoxic. Aromatase inhibitors have been used to date almost exclusively in postmenopausal women. The potential of combining them with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues allows the possibility of treating premenopausal women with either oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer or benign conditions such as cyclical breast pain, fibroadenomata, recurrent cystic disease or endometriosis. There is also the potential for their use in men with conditions such as

  16. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun


    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  17. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Todd D [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  18. Differential potential noise measurement during crack initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettiarachchi, S. [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Sunol, California (United States)]. E-mail:


    Electrochemical potential and current noise have been used over the past two decades as methods of detecting general corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion, corrosion in concrete and corrosion under coatings. The methods involved the use of self-generated potential noise/current noise or both, of the material of choice in a given environment. In a variety of these studies, data processing involved techniques such as fast fourier transforms (FFT) to generate the power spectrum that provided the unique signature associated with the type of the corrosion process. This paper deals with a more simplistic method of monitoring differential potential noise measured between two identical slow strain rate test (SSRT) specimens placed close to each other, in a high temperature aqueous environment, while one is being subjected to dynamic strain and the other maintained under static conditions. The differential potential noise (DPN) was monitored as the applied load increased on the slow strain rate test specimen. Unlike self-generated noise, differential potential noise is less affected by electrical noise in the surroundings, and is able to signal the point of oxide film cracking or crack initiation more conveniently without extensive data processing. This method also allows the in-situ detection of crack initiation without interruption of the SSRT test. The DPN signal at the crack initiation stage is different from the signals acquired as cracking progressed due to continuing dynamic strain. Furthermore, the nature of the DPN signal response depends on the type of material used in this study, Type 304 stainless steel or Inconel 182. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sazgar


    Full Text Available It has been shown recently that loud clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting sternocleidomastoid muscles. Studies have suggested that these potentials are of vestibular origin, especially of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. A pilot study was undertaken in our hospital to record vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP for the first time in Iran. Eighteen healthy volunteers (32 ears without history of otologic or vestibular disorders were subjected to the VEMP test. Twenty-one patients (26 ears with unilateral (6 patients and bilateral (5 patients high frequency sensorineural hearing loss with unknown etiology, acoustic neuroma (1 patient, Meniere’s disease (4 patients and unilateral low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint (5 patients were also enrolled in this study. VEMP response to clicks was obtained from 84.4% of ears of healthy subjects. These subjects demonstrated short latency waves to click stimuli during tonic neck flexor activation. Mean latencies of first positive (p13 and first negative (n23 potentials in healthy subjects were 12.45 ± 1.9 ms and 20.8 ± 3.5 ms, respectively. Median latencies of these two potentials were 12.1 and 19.3 ms, respectively. We could record VEMP in 5 patients with unilateral and all patients with high and low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint. In the patient with acoustic neuroma VEMP was absent on the affected side. This technique may offer a new method to evaluate otolith and sacculocollic pathways in human.

  20. Slater's nonlocal exchange potential and beyond (United States)

    Howard, I. A.; March, N. H.

    The local density approximation (LDA) to the exchange potential Vx(r), namely the ρ1/3 electron gas form, was already transcended in Slater's 1951 paper. Here, using Dirac's 1930 form for the exchange energy density γx(r), the Slater (Sl) nonlocal exchange potential V Slx(r) is defined by 2γx(r)/ρ(r). In spherical atomic ions, say the Be or Ne-like series, this form V Slx(r) already has the correct behavior in both r → 0 and r → ∞ limits when known properties of the exchange energy density γx(r) and the ground-state electron density ρ(r) are invoked. As examples, some emphasis will first be given to the use of the so-called 1/Z expansion in such spherical atomic ions, for which analytic results can be obtained for both γx(r) and ρ(r) as the atomic number Z becomes large. The usefulness of the 1/Z expansion is directly demonstrated for the U atomic ion with 18 electrons by comparison with the optimized effective potential prediction. A rather general integral equation for the exchange potential is then proposed. Finally, without appeal to large Z, two-level systems are considered, with specific reference to the Be atom and to the LiH molecule. In all cases treated, the Slater potential V Slx(r) is a valuable starting point, even though it needs appreciable quantitative corrections reflecting directly atomic shell structure.

  1. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania (United States)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo


    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  2. Towards a rational definition of potential evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhommel


    Full Text Available The concept of potential evaporation is defined on the basis of the following criteria: (i it must establish an upper limit to the evaporation process in a given environment (the term 'environment' including meteorological and surface conditions, and (ii this upper limit must be readily calculated from measured input data. It is shown that this upper limit is perfectly defined and is given by the Penman equation, applied with the corresponding meteorological data (incoming radiation and air characteristics measured at a reference height and the appropriate surface characteristics (albedo, roughness length, soil heat flux. Since each surface has its own potential evaporation, a function of its own surface characteristics, it is useful to define a reference potential evaporation as a short green grass completely shading the ground. Although the potential evaporation from a given surface is readily calculated from the Penman equation, its physical significance or interpretation is not so straightforward, because it represents only an idealized situation, not a real one. Potential evaporation is the evaporation from this surface, when saturated and extensive enough to obviate any effect of local advection, under the same meteorological conditions. Due to the feedback effects of evaporation on air characteristics, it does not represent the 'real' evaporation (i.e. the evaporation which could be physically observed in the real world from such an extensive saturated surface in these given meteorological conditions (if this saturated surface were substituted for an unsaturated one previously existing. From a rigorous standpoint, this calculated potential evaporation is not physically observable. Nevertheless, an approximate representation can be given by the evaporation from a limited saturated area, the dimension of which depends on the height of measurement of the air characteristics used as input in the Penman equation. If they are taken at a height


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu


    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  4. Statically screened ion potential and Bohm potential in a quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldabekov, Zhandos [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Str., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Schoof, Tim; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Ramazanov, Tlekkabul [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Str., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    The effective potential Φ of a classical ion in a weakly correlated quantum plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature is well described by the random phase approximation screened Coulomb potential. Additionally, collision effects can be included via a relaxation time ansatz (Mermin dielectric function). These potentials are used to study the quality of various statically screened potentials that were recently proposed by Shukla and Eliasson (SE) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165007 (2012)], Akbari-Moghanjoughi (AM) [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022103 (2015)], and Stanton and Murillo (SM) [Phys. Rev. E 91, 033104 (2015)] starting from quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory. Our analysis reveals that the SE potential is qualitatively different from the full potential, whereas the SM potential (at any temperature) and the AM potential (at zero temperature) are significantly more accurate. This confirms the correctness of the recently derived [Michta et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 55, 437 (2015)] pre-factor 1/9 in front of the Bohm term of QHD for fermions.

  5. Scattering solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation for a step potential with hyperbolic tangent potential (United States)

    Rojas, Clara


    We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a step potential with hyperbolic tangent potential. The scattering solutions are derived in terms of hypergeometric functions. The reflection coefficient R and transmission coefficient T are calculated, we observed superradiance and transmission resonances.

  6. Estimate from below for the x^2 y^4 potential and closely related potentials (United States)

    Camus, Brice


    We give a lower bound on the ground-state energy for the 2-dimensional Schrödinger operator with non-confining potential x^2 y^4 on {R}^2. A method for potentials in dimension n>2 with similar scaling properties is given.

  7. Enterprise marketing potential modeling taking into account optimizing and dynamic essence of the potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrashkova Lyudmyla Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to develop models system concerning b2b-enterprise marketing potential result-based estimation, which will consider enterprise potential optimizing essence, its hierarchic structure (i.e. strategic, tactic and operative potential levels and marketing resources dynamics. The results of the analysis. The simulation and optimization models system of the b2b-enterprise marketing potential estimation is suggested. The suggested models system is based on the following theoretical grounds: 1 enterprise marketing potential is interpreted as enterprise ability to satisfy consumers’ needs and to get maximum economic benefits from it; 2 the result-based estimation of the enterprise marketing potential is set of the best results (profit from sales, which sales and marketing enterprise subsystem may achieve in the prognosticative period in the view of environmental conditions variants. The suggested system unites models to estimate three managerial levels of the marketing potential (operative, tactic and strategic, which are different from each other by: the set of the given managerial decisions; the set of the changeable managerial decisions; descriptions of the environment parameters; specification of the resources featured describing. Model of each marketing potential level has the following constituents: - objective function, which is the sum of profit from production realization during the whole prognosticative period; - model of the constrained optimization, oriented to define maximum possible profit value from production realization in each elementary period with given marketing resources features values, environmental parameters and marketing complex parameters; - model of the enterprise marketing resources dynamics. Developed models system belongs to the simulation class, because search of the optimal decisions there is conducted with method concerning controllable parameters alternative variants

  8. A novel potential: the interlayer potential for the fcc (111) plane family. (United States)

    Tian, Fu-Yang; Chen, Nan-Xian; Shen, Jiang; Vitos, Levente


    We propose a novel interlayer potential, which is different from usual interatomic potentials. The interlayer potential represents the interaction between atomic layers in a layered material. Based on the Chen-Möbius inversion method in combination with ab initio calculations, the interlayer interactions are obtained for the face centered cubic (fcc) (111) planes. In order to check the validity of our interlayer potential, we calculate the intrinsic stacking fault energy (γ(sf)) and the surface energy (γ(s)) of five metals: Al, Ni, Cu, Ag and Au. The predicted γ(sf) and γ(s) values are compared with the theoretical results obtained from direct calculations and also with the available experimental data. Using the interlayer potentials, we also investigate the phonon dispersion and phonon density of state in the fcc (111) plane family of the considered metals.

  9. Stabilizing the Higgs potential with a Z′

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Keus, Venus, E-mail:; Lebedev, Oleg


    Current data point toward metastability of the electroweak vacuum within the Standard Model. We study the possibility of stabilizing the Higgs potential in U(1) extensions thereof. A generic Z′ boson improves stability of the scalar potential in two ways: it increases the Higgs self-coupling, due to a positive contribution to the beta-function of the latter, and it decreases the top quark Yukawa coupling, which again has a stabilizing effect. We determine the range of U(1) charges which leads to a stable electroweak vacuum. In certain classes of models, such stabilization is possible even if the Z′ does not couple to the Higgs and is due entirely to the reduction of the top Yukawa coupling. We also study the effect of the kinetic mixing between the extra U(1) and hypercharge gauge fields.

  10. Potential Phosphorus Mobilisation in Peat Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsmann, Ditte M.; Kjærgaard, Charlotte


    Re-establishment of wetlands on peat soils containing phosphorus bound to iron(III)-oxides can lead to an undesirable phosphorus loss to the aquatic environment due to the reductive dissolution of iron(III)-oxides. Thus it is important to be able to assess the potential phosphorus mobilisation from...... peat soils before a re-establishment takes place. The potential phosphorus mobilisation from a peat soil depends not only on the geochemical characteristics but also on the redox conditions, the hydrological regime in the area as well as the hydro-physical properties of the soil. The hypothesis...... for this study is (i) the release of phosphorus in peat is controlled by the geochemistry; (ii) the mobilisation of phosphorus is controlled by both geochemistry and hydro-physics of the soil. For this study, 10 Danish riparian lowland areas with peat soil were selected based on their geochemical characteristics...

  11. Quantum potential physics, geometry and algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio


    Recently the interest in Bohm realist interpretation of quantum mechanics has grown. The important advantage of this approach lies in the possibility to introduce non-locality ab initio, and not as an “unexpected host”. In this book the authors give a detailed analysis of quantum potential, the non-locality term and its role in quantum cosmology and information. The different approaches to the quantum potential are analysed, starting from the original attempt to introduce a realism of particles trajectories (influenced by de Broglie’s pilot wave) to the recent dynamic interpretation provided by Goldstein, Durr, Tumulka and Zanghì, and the geometrodynamic picture, with suggestion about quantum gravity. Finally we focus on the algebraic reading of Hiley and Birkbeck school, that analyse the meaning of the non-local structure of the world, bringing important consequences for the space, time and information concepts.

  12. The Stark effect in linear potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, R W [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail:


    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z > 0 and V(z) = {infinity} for z < 0) and the symmetric linear potential (given by V(z) = F|z|). We show how straightforward use of the most obvious properties of the Airy function solutions and simple Taylor expansions gives closed form results for the Stark shifts in both systems. These exact results are then compared to other approximation techniques, such as perturbation theory and WKB methods. These expressions add to the small number of closed-form descriptions available for the Stark effect in model quantum mechanical systems.

  13. The Stark effect in linear potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett, R W


    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shift in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two 1-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z>0 and V(z) infinite for z<0) and the symmetric linear potential (given by V(z) = F|z|). We show how straightforward use of the most obvious properties of the Airy function solutions and simple Taylor expansions give closed form results for the Stark shifts in both systems. These exact results are then compared to other approximation techniques, such as perturbation theory and WKB methods. These expressions add to the small number of closed-form descriptions available for the Stark effect in model quantum mechanical systems.

  14. Vector Potential Quantization and the Quantum Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Meis


    Full Text Available We investigate the quantization of the vector potential amplitude of the electromagnetic field to a single photon state starting from the fundamental link equations between the classical electromagnetic theory and the quantum mechanical expressions. The resulting wave-particle formalism ensures a coherent transition between the classical electromagnetic wave theory and the quantum representation. A quantization constant of the photon vector potential is defined. A new quantum vacuum description results directly in having very low energy density. The calculated spontaneous emission rate and Lambs shift for the nS states of the hydrogen atom are in agreement with quantum electrodynamics. This low energy quantum vacuum state might be compatible with recent astrophysical observations.

  15. Microbial Exopolysaccharides: Biosynthesis and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Madhuri


    Full Text Available Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs with commercially significant physiological and therapeutic activities. Microbial polysaccharides have also been reported to have potential therapeutic applications. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs due to their numerous health benefits.EPSs from lactic acid bacteria are reported to possess antitumor effects, immunostimulatory activity, and the ability to lower blood cholesterol. EPSs also offer an alternative class of biothickeners that are widely used in the food and dairy industries and have been proven to provide strong emulsifying activity, which is important in many food formulations. It is also important to understand the mechanism of microbial biosynthesis of EPSs in order to enhance their production by genetic alterations. The potential applications and the mode of microbial biosynthesis of the EPSs have been presented in this article.

  16. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  17. Assessing the proarrhythmic potential of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Matz, Jørgen; Volders, Paul G A;


    Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that can occur as an unwanted adverse effect of various pharmacological therapies. Before a drug is approved for marketing, its effects on cardiac repolarisation are examined clinically and experimentally. This paper expresses...... the opinion that effects on repolarisation duration cannot directly be translated to risk of proarrhythmia. Current safety assessments of drugs only involve repolarisation assays, however the proarrhythmic profile can only be determined in the predisposed model. The availability of these proarrhythmic animal...... models is emphasised in the present paper. It is feasible for the pharmaceutical industry to establish one or more of these proarrhythmic animal models and large benefits are potentially available if pharmaceutical industries and patient-care authorities embraced these models. Furthermore, suggested...

  18. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  19. The GOES Microburst Windspeed Potential Index

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, K L


    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (I-M). The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. A GOES sounder-derived wet microburst severity index (WMSI) product to assess the potential magnitude of convective downbursts, incorporating convective available potential energy (CAPE) as well as the vertical theta-e difference (TeD) between the surface and mid-troposphere has been developed and implemented. Intended to supplement the use of the GOES WMSI product over the United States Great Plains region, a GOES Hybrid Microburst Index (HMI) product has also evolved. The HMI product infers the presence of a convective boundary layer by incorporating the sub-cloud temperature lapse rate as well...

  20. On Euclidean designs and the potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Miezaki, Tsuyoshi


    We study Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the potential energy. For a finite set in Euclidean space, We formulate a linear programming bound for the potential energy by applying harmonic analysis on a sphere. We also introduce the concept of strong Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the linear programming bound, and we give a Fisher type inequality for strong Euclidean designs. A finite set on Euclidean space is called a Euclidean a-code if any distinct two points in the set are separated at least by a. As a corollary of the linear programming bound, we give a method to determine an upper bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean a-codes on concentric spheres of given radii. Similarly we also give a method to determine a lower bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean t-designs as an analogue of the linear programming bound.

  1. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents. (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep


    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties.

  2. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia


    The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...... creativity of the common allows for the production of other forms of life. This article explores an alternative model of creative capitalism, whereby the common is expropriated through its marketization and individualization. This model is based on three pillars: the city as the place of creation of new...

  3. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    CERN Document Server

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Krusch, Steffen


    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as all currently known baby Skyrme models must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons whilst at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  4. Hydropower potential of the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szydłowski


    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimate analysis of the hydropower potential of the lower Vistula River from Warsaw to Gdańsk Bay. The calculations were made for a hydraulic model of the lower Vistula which takes into account potential development of barrages in a cascade system. Results obtained from the model simulations and from hydrological calculations were used to estimate the power of hydropower plants and the average annual energy output from the entire cascade system. The results of calculations indicate significant energy benefits resulting from the development of a cascade of hydropower plants in the lower Vistula. This study does not discuss the cascade project’s economic viability or other aspects of its development (inland waterways, flood control, etc..

  5. Morse Potential in the Momentum Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国华; 董世海


    The momentum representation of the Morse potential is presented analytically by hypergeometric function. The properties with respect to the momentum p and potential parameter β are studied. Note that [q2(p)l is a nodeless function and the mutual orthogonality of functions is ensured by the phase functions arg[(p)], It is interesting to see that the [~ (p)[ is symmetric with respect to the axis p = 0 and the number of wave crest of [ (p)[ is equal to n + 1. We also study the variation of ]k(p)l with respect to . The arnplitude of |ψ(p)] first increases with the quantum number n and then deceases. Finally, we notice that the discontinuity in phase occurs at some points of the momentum p and the position and momentum probability densities are symmetric with respect to their arguments.

  6. The cultural and creative industry potential index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The cultural and creative industries are regarded as a strategic sector in today’s knowledge economy and are therefore encouraged by government policies. The link between culture, creativity and economic development has flourished in Spain in recent years, to the extent that by 2014 the sector accounted for 3.5% of the country’s GDP and 3% of all jobs. Such an important sector requires a diagnostic tool to support decision making. A number of indicator systems have been put forward to meet this need, all of which are designed to evaluate creativity in a given field. This article examines and reviews the various indicators that have been proposed and uses them to develop a composite indicator – the Cultural and Creative Industry Potential Index – which measures the sector’s potential from three angles: the cultural base, government policies, and the cultural and creative industries themselves.

  7. Early visual evoked potentials in callosal agenesis. (United States)

    Barr, Melodie S; Hamm, Jeff P; Kirk, Ian J; Corballis, Michael C


    Three participants with callosal agenesis and 12 neurologically normal participants were tested on a simple reaction time task, with visual evoked potentials collected using a high-density 128-channel system. Independent-components analyses were performed on the averaged visual evoked potentials to isolate the components of interest. Contrary to previous research with acallosals, evidence of ipsilateral activation was present in all 3 participants. Although ipsilateral visual components were present in all 4 unilateral conditions in the 2 related acallosal participants, in the 3rd, these were present only in the crossed visual field-hand conditions and not in the uncrossed conditions. Suggestions are made as to why these results differ from earlier findings and as to the neural mechanisms facilitating this ipsilateral activation.

  8. Modeling auditory evoked potentials to complex stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch

    The auditory evoked potential (AEP) is an electrical signal that can be recorded from electrodes attached to the scalp of a human subject when a sound is presented. The signal is considered to reflect neural activity in response to the acoustic stimulation and is a well established clinical...... clinically and in research towards using realistic and complex stimuli, such as speech, to electrophysiologically assess the human hearing. However, to interpret the AEP generation to complex sounds, the potential patterns in response to simple stimuli needs to be understood. Therefore, the model was used...... to simulate auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by classic stimuli like clicks, tone bursts and chirps. The ABRs to these simple stimuli were compared to literature data and the model was shown to predict the frequency dependence of tone-burst ABR wave-V latency and the level-dependence of ABR wave...

  9. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.


    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  10. Vehicle to Grid Services: Potential and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Lotfifard


    Full Text Available Electric Vehicle (EV technology is expected to take a major share in the light-vehicle market in the coming decades. Charging of EVs will put an extra burden on the distribution grid and in some cases adjustments will need to be made. On the other hand, EVs have the potential to support the grid under various conditions. This paper studies possible potential and applications of Vehicle to Grid (V2G services, including active power services, which discharge the EV batteries, and power quality services, which do not engage the battery or require only small amounts of battery charge. The advantages and disadvantages of each service and the likelihood that a given service will be effective and beneficial for the grid in the future are discussed. Further, the infrastructure cost, duration, and value of V2G services are compared qualitatively.

  11. Bacteriocins: Recent Trends and Potential Applications. (United States)

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B; Kennedy, John F


    In the modern era, there is great need for food preservation in both developing and developed countries due to increasing demand for extending shelf life and prevention of spoilage of food material. With the emergence of new pathogens and ability of micro-organisms to undergo changes, exploration of new avenues for the food preservation has gained importance. Moreover, awareness among consumers regarding harmful effects of chemical preservatives has been increased. Globally, altogether there is increasing demand by consumers for chemical-free and minimal processed food products. Potential of bacteriocin and its application in reducing the microbiological spoilages and in the preservation of food is long been recognized. Bacteriocins are normally specific to closely related species without disrupting the growth of other microbial populations. A number of applications of bacteriocin have been reported for humans, live stock, aquaculture etc. This review is focused on recent trends and applications of bacteriocins in different areas in addition to their biopreservative potential.

  12. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  13. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassumspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash R Yende


    Full Text Available Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.

  14. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin. (United States)

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazuo


    Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment classified as a xanthophyll, found in microalgae and seafood such as salmon, trout, and shrimp. This review focuses on astaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Astaxanthin has a unique molecular structure that is responsible for its powerful antioxidant activities by quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. Astaxanthin has been reported to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and adiponectin levels in clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that astaxanthin could exert preventive actions against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) via its potential to improve oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In addition to identifying mechanisms of astaxanthin bioactivity by basic research, much more epidemiological and clinical evidence linking reduced CVD risk with dietary astaxanthin intake is needed.

  15. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications. (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat


    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  16. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;


    : Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS: PCOS women with phenotype BMI > 25 + IR have increased potential of thrombin generation. ETP is associated with total body fat mass, IR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and insulin resistant women with PCOS have elevated level of ETP corresponding to increased risk......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...... cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two major University Hospitals in the Capital region of Denmark. PATIENTS: Hundred forty-eight European women with PCOS were consecutively recruited during April 2010-February 2012. Clinical examination, blood sampling, and DEXA scan were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  17. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  18. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology. (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend


    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as "qualitative psychologists", they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening "McDonaldization" of qualitative research, while the potentials are related to proliferation of new forms of inquiry and a transcending of disciplinary boundaries.

  19. Potentialities of hydrogen production in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudries, R. [CDER, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah Algiers (Algeria); USTHB, El Alia, Algiers (Algeria); Dizene, R. [USTHB, El Alia, Algiers (Algeria)


    The objective of the present study is to estimate the potentialities of hydrogen production in Algeria. Particular attention is paid to the clean and sustainable hydrogen production, i.e., production from renewable energy. First, the present overall energy situation in Algeria is reviewed. Trend in energy demand is analysed taking into account major parameters such as population growth, urbanization, improvement in quality of life and export opportunities. The resources available for hydrogen production are then presented. Finally, the estimation of hydrogen production potential using solar sources, the most important renewable energy sources in Algeria, is presented. This study indicates that the shift to hydrogen economy shows a promising prospect. Not only, it can meet the evergrowing local needs but it will also allow Algeria to keep its share of the energy market. Indeed, as is now the case for natural gas, hydrogen could be delivered to Western Europe through pipelines. (author)

  20. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia


    The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...... social bonds, the production of general intellect and the transformation of public spaces; the precarious multitude as a new class composition opposed to the entrepreneurial conception of creative class; and the cultural commons as an exit strategy from the dichotomy between private and public leading...

  1. New metal complexes as potential therapeutics. (United States)

    Zhang, Christiana Xin; Lippard, Stephen J


    The many activities of metal ions in biology have stimulated the development of metal-based therapeutics. Cisplatin, as one of the leading metal-based drugs, is widely used in treatment of cancer, being especially effective against genitourinary tumors such as testicular. Significant side effects and drug resistance, however, have limited its clinical applications. Biological carriers conjugated to cisplatin analogs have improved specificity for tumor tissue, thereby reducing side effects and drug resistance. Platinum complexes with distinctively different DNA binding modes from that of cisplatin also exhibit promising pharmacological properties. Ruthenium and gold complexes with antitumor activity have also evolved. Other metal-based chemotherapeutic compounds have been investigated for potential medicinal applications, including superoxide dismutase mimics and metal-based NO donors/scavengers. These compounds have the potential to modulate the biological properties of superoxide anion and nitric oxide.

  2. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj;


    he use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  3. Blocking of potentiation of latent inhibition. (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Gabriel


    We present a theory of latent inhibition based on the Pearce-Hall (Pearce & Hall, 1980) model for classical conditioning. Its central features are (1) that the associability of a stimulus declines as it comes to predict its consequences and (2) that nonreinforced exposure to a stimulus engages an associative learning process that makes the stimulus an accurate predictor of its consequences (in this case, the occurrence of no event). A formalization of this theory is shown to accommodate the finding that preexposure in compound with another cue can potentiate latent inhibition to the target cue. It further predicts that preexposure to the added cue will eliminate the potentiation effect. An experiment using rats and the flavor-aversion procedure confirmed this prediction.

  4. Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.


    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

  5. Generic Structure Potential of Christian Apologetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwu Inya


    Full Text Available Religious texts have been examined by scholars from different theoretical standpoints. However, a close survey of the literature reveals that little attention has been paid to Christian apologetics from a linguistic perspective. Also, an examination of studies along the lines of Generic Structure Potential (henceforth GSP shows that the genre status of Christian apologetics has not been indicated. This gap provides the motivation for this paper, which investigates the GSP of Christian apologetics. Twenty texts written by various key contemporary apologetic writers were purposively selected for the study. The following generic structure potential catalogue was generated:The paper reveals that the elements of the GSP concertedly work to advance, argue for or defend the Christian belief system. The paper also suggests that the model could be applied to other forms of apologetic instances.

  6. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  7. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas



    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undi...

  8. Relating membrane potential to impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gheorghiu


    Full Text Available Non-invasive, label-free assessment of membrane potential of living cells is still a challenging task. The theory linking membrane potential to the low frequency α dispersion exhibited by suspensions of spherical shelled particles (presenting a net charge distribution on the inner side of the shell has been pioneered in our previous studies with emphasis on the permittivity spectra. Whereas α dispersion is related to a rather large variation exhibited by the permittivity spectrum, we report that the related decrement presented by the impedance magnitude spectrum is either extremely small, or occurs (for large cells at very small frequencies (~mHz explaining the lack of experimental bioimpedance data on the matter. We stress that appropriate choice of the parameters (as revealed by the microscopic model may enable access to membrane potential as well as to other relevant parameters when investigating living cells and charged lipid vesicles. We analyse the effect on the low frequency of the permittivity and impedance spectra of: I. Parameters pertaining to cell membrane i.e. (i membrane potential (through the amount of the net charge on the inner side of the membrane, (ii size of the cells/vesicles, (iii conductivity of the membrane; II. Parameters of the extra cellular medium (viscosity and conductivity. The applicability of the study has far reaching implications for basic (life sciences (providing non-invasive access to the dynamics of relevant cell parameters as well as for biosensing applications, e.g. assessment of cytotoxicity of a wide range of stimuli. doi:10.5617/jeb.214 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 93-97, 2011

  9. Sustainable Offshore Wind Potential in Continental Portugal


    Costa, P.; Simões, T. (Tânia); Estanqueiro, Ana


    This study intends to depict the availability of the sustainable offshore wind energy for Continental Portugal and identify the preliminary areas for developing offshore wind parks. Two scenarios were performed to distinct the different offshore wind turbine prototypes assembled by the manufactory energy sector – bottom fixed and floating models. The results achieved until now indicate that Portugal has a very large potential for offshore wind deployments ready to be exploited, especial...

  10. e-Manufacturing: Characteristics, applications and potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Cheng; Richard J. Bateman


    In this paper, an engineering oriented approach is proposed towards e-manufacturing and its applications. The characteristics and potential of e-manufacturing are presented with a number of application examples developed by the authors'research group. The advances in e-manufacturing and applications are also highlighted and critically reviewed. The paper concludes with a further discussion on the promises and impact of e-manufacturing technology and philosophy on modem manufacturing industry and the practices.

  11. Gene Therapy: Potential, Pros, Cons and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Nanjunda Rao


    Full Text Available Genetic technology poses risks along with its rewards, just as any technology has in the past. To stop its development and forfeit the benefits gene therapy could offer would be a far greater mistake than forging ahead could ever be. People must always try to be responsible with their new technology, but gene therapy has the potential to be the future of medicine and its possibilities must be explored.

  12. The Optical Potential on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Mai, Maxim; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rusetsky, Akaki


    The extraction of hadron-hadron scattering parameters from lattice data by using the L\\"uscher approach becomes increasingly complicated in the presence of inelastic channels. We propose a method for the direct extraction of the complex hadron-hadron optical potential on the lattice, which does not require the use of the multi-channel L\\"uscher formalism. Moreover, this method is applicable without modifications if some inelastic channels contain three or more particles.

  13. Molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma: potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Renee Parker


    Full Text Available Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas, are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed.

  14. Effective Depletion Potential of Colloidal Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Hua; MA Hong-Ru


    @@ A new semianalytical method, which is a combination of the density functional theory with Rosenfeld density functional and the Ornstein-Zernike equation, is proposed for the calculation of the effective depletion potentials between a pair of big spheres immersed in a small hard sphere fluid. The calculated results are almost identical to the integral equation method with the Percus-Yevick approximation, and are also in agreement well with the Monte Carlo simulation results.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics in Double Square Well Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khomeriki, Ramaz; Ruffo, Stefano; Wimberger, Sandro; 10.1007/s11232-007-0096-y


    Considering the coherent nonlinear dynamics in double square well potential we find the example of coexistence of Josephson oscillations with a self-trapping regime. This macroscopic bistability is explained by proving analytically the simultaneous existence of symmetric, antisymmetric and asymmetric stationary solutions of the associated Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The effect is illustrated and confirmed by numerical simulations. This property allows to make suggestions on possible experiments using Bose-Einstein condensates in engineered optical lattices or weakly coupled optical waveguide arrays.

  16. Modification and characterization of potential bioelectronic interfaces


    Greben, Kyrylo


    In this dissertation, planar biocompatible dielectric and metal surfaces, modified with self-assembling organic monolayers and functionalized gold nanoparticles are studied. In the field of bioelectronics, adhesion and guiding of cells (especially neurons) on a substrate is of great importance, and withal a hard challenge. Optimization and engineering of properties of a carrier (biocompatible inorganic substrates) can potentially improve the contact between cells and substrates, increase ...

  17. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials (United States)

    Robinett, R. W.


    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential…

  18. Alternative energies: Engineering, economics, market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, B.


    Rentability calculations are disappointing for most alternative energies. Technical improvements that might change this are not in sight, so that the dependence on imported oil and gas will hardly be reduced. Producers of solar collectors, heat pumps, solar cells, and cogeneration units must keep in mind that the market will hardly expand. This was the result of a seminar on 'Alternative energy sources: Technology, economics, marketing potential - a critical review', held on May 5 at Haus der Technik, Essen.

  19. Neurophysiological Bases of Event-Related Potentials. (United States)


    the RP has been observed in monkeys (Johnson, 1980; Pieper et al., 1980; Gemba et al., 1979), these studies involved only recordings from the cortical...response effort--this report). During uncued, self-paced responding the monkey also exhibits an SP similar to the human readiness potential ( Gemba et al...conditions from the cortex of monkeys (e.g., Johnson, 1980; Pieper et al., 1980; Gemba et al., 1979), to our knowledge it has not been recorded in

  20. Scalar field collapse with an exponential potential (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya


    An analogue of the Oppenheimer-Synder collapsing model is treated analytically, where the matter source is a scalar field with an exponential potential. An exact solution is derived followed by matching to a suitable exterior geometry, and an analysis of the visibility of the singularity. In some situations, the collapse indeed leads to a finite time curvature singularity, which is always hidden from the exterior by an apparent horizon.