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Sample records for bucharest wwr-s reactor

  1. Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest. Analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor WWR-S Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering has overall responsibilities in decommissioning including actions of contractors, submit a decommissioning plan to the regulatory body for approval and no decommissioning activities shall begin without the appropriate approval of the regulatory body. A very important aspect of decommissioning is analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy. There are three strategies: Immediate Dismantling, Safe Enclosure, and Entombment. These strategies have been analyzed taking into account: - Future use of site and facilities; - Infrastructure of the specific site and facilities; - Waste storage and disposal options; - Financial aspects; - Geographical Location; - National, Local and International Legislation; - Facility characterization; Identification of decommissioning objectives; - Description of alternatives: scope, features, specific end points, release criteria, risks and safety issues, effectiveness, feasibility, nature and amount of waste of generated and disposal plans, material recycling/reusing opportunities, cost, schedule, comparative analysis; - Rationale for selecting the preferred alternative. (authors)

  2. Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor WWR-S Magurele - Bucharest. General presentation of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning project was worked out concerning the nuclear facility research reactor WWR-S Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials and so to exclude any risk for human health and environment. The project involves the four phases named assessment, development, operations and closeout. There are two major parts to the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternative will be analyzed and: the best alternative chosen, final goal identified, risk assessments are evaluated. Also, taken into account are: regulations supporting assessment, land use considerations, financial concerns, disposal availability, public involvement, technology developments. After a decommissioning alternative was chosen, detailed engineering will begin following appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan will include characterisation information, namely: review of decommissioning alternatives; justification for the selected alternative; provision for regulatory compliance; predictions of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations; coordination, documentation, characterization report, feasibility studies, Decommissioning Plan, project daily report, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. The operations imply: identification and sequencing the operations on contaminated materials, storing on site the wastes, awaiting processing or disposal, and packaging of materials for transport to processing or disposal facilities.The key operations are: worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls

  3. Stage of decommissioning of the WWR-S research nuclear reactor at Magurele-Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A decommissioning project is performed on the nuclear facility research reactor WWR-S Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials to avoid any risk to human health and the environment. The project involves four phases, namely: assessment, development, activity implementation and closeout. There are two major parts of the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternatives will be considered, the best alternative chosen, final goal identified, risk assessments evaluated, and issues of regulations supporting assessment, land use considerations, financial problems, disposal availability, public involvement, and technology developments will be appropriately solved. After a decommissioning alternative is chosen, detailed engineering will begin following appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan requires characterisation information, namely: review of decommissioning alternatives; justification for the selected alternative; provision for regulatory compliance; predictions of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are the following: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations, coordination, documentation, characterization, report, feasibility studies, Decommissioning Plan, project report day to day, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. Key concerns in operations are worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls, personal protection and monitoring, environmental protection: air quality, surface water, ground water, shipments, effluent sampling and monitoring, environmental monitoring, site release

  4. Safety report on WWR-S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Safety Report of the WWR-S reactor summarizes findings obtained during the trial and partially also permanent operation of the reactor after two stages of its reconstruction implemented between 1974 and 1976. Most data are presented necessary for assessing probable risks of possible accident conditions whose consequences pose health hazards to individuals of the population, radiation personnel and the facilities themselves. Attention is devoted to the description of the locality, to components and systems, heat removal from the core, design aspects, the quality of new and old parts of the technological circuits, the systems of protection and control, the emergency core cooling system, the problems of radiation safety, and to the safety analyses of the abnormal states envisaged. The Report was compiled with regard to IAEA and CMEA recommendations concerning safe operation of research reactors and to the recommendations and binding decisions of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  5. Study of the WWR-S-NIPNE-HH reactor main components state, after 40 years working, using non-destructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of periodical inspections and verifications of the nuclear research reactor WWR-S were established to be perform some tests and investigations destined to ensure that there are available concordances with the security requirements and that the security state of the reactor didn't decrease given the initial state. Their aim is to obtain information regarding the technical state and the ability of the components, systems and installations to work properly in conditions of high security level in accordance with the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Research Reactor WWR-S from NIPNE-HH, Bucharest (1997), and at the level guaranteed from the initial state. By initial state we mean the state of first commissioning. (author)

  6. Study of the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor main components stare, after 40 years working, using nondestructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of these investigations was to establish the security level after 40 years of working of the WWR-S research reactor of Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele. The purpose of these investigations was: checking the functionality and the physical integrity of the main components of the reactor. The physical integrity of the components is usually affected by slow processes, such as: corrosion, erosion, aging, deformations and initially hidden flaws with very slow evolutions. The methods used to determine the effects of these processes and to infer conclusions about the physical integrity of the facility are: visualizations by optical means (endoscopy and video camera), examination using ultrasounds and gammagraphy. The objective of the endoscopic checking was the view of the state of interior surfaces of the tubes and pipes, specially the inaccessible areas of the non-dismantling parts of the reactor. Big size components, such as reactor vessel, the biologic protection vessel and the main large diameter pipes of the primary cooling system, were investigated using a special device that contains a video camera connected to a PC. To obtain more information regarding the evolution of the corrosion spots, scratches and harmed areas on the investigated surfaces, their depth was checked by ultrasounds, and the welding seams structure was determined by gammagraphy. A table is given with some significant results obtained from ultrasound measurements in different points of reactor vessel, thermal column, horizontal tubes, etc. After these tests, the conclusions are: the maximum corrosion depth is 0.2 mm; - scratches are superficially, not exceeding 0.2-0.5 mm; - the traces of harmed areas are produced by the electromagnetic device utilization used for manipulation of aluminium capsules which contain irradiated substances. They are superficial, with maximum area of about 1 cm2; the

  7. Personnel training program for WWR-S Nuclear Research Reactor - on the radiological characterization and cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this program is the development of competence by training, acquiring, extending and maintaining competence, using fundamental or refreshment training courses. Progress and suited approach are established based on the list with tasks and subjects to be assimilated. According to 'graded approach to training' method the training process will be assessed from initial training-to-training evaluation at the working place. The program responsible of and participants will provide a detailed report that will describe the progress, achieved competence area and the future training necessities. Report form will be given to the participants at the beginning of the training, which will be completed during the program. It will be taken in account that the Nuclear Reactor WWR-S is in the conservation phase for the Nuclear Reactor and the exploitation of the Nuclear Spent Fuel Ponds (Away from Reactor-AFR) - both phases are authorized by the Regulatory Body (CNCAN), as transition phase from the operating-shut-down-conservation phase and the decommissioning preparing: clean-up, maintaining and improvement of the nuclear safety, technical documentation elaboration, maintenance activities. (authors)

  8. Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWER-S Magurele-Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning project is performed on a nuclear facility, the WWR-S research reactor at Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials in order to avoid any risks to human health and the environment. The project involves four phases, namely: assessment, development, activities implementation and closeout. There are two major parts to the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop the project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternative will be analyzed and the best alternative chosen, final goal is identified, risk assessments are evaluated, regulations supporting assessment will be identified, land use will be considered as well as the financial sources, disposal availability, public involvement, and the technology developments. After the decommissioning alternative is chosen, detailed engineering issues will be approached under appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan will include characterisation information, review of decommissioning alternatives, justification for the selected alternative, provision for regulatory compliance, evaluations of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations, coordination, documentation, characterization, report, feasibility studies, decommissioning plan, daily project report, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. The key operations are: worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls, personal protection and monitoring, environmental protection: air quality, surface water, ground water, shipments, effluent sampling and monitoring, environmental monitoring, site release

  9. Decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the

  10. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  11. 1977 Bucharest, Romania Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1,500 reported killed, 10,500 injured, and extensive damage in the Bucharest area. Bulgaria reported 20 killed and 165 injured. Moscow reported some damage in the...

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Control Before Decommissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from Magurele-Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reactor type VVR-S (tank type, water is cooler, moderator and reflector, thermal power- 2 MW, thermal energy- 9. 52 GW d) was put into service in July 1957 and, in December 1997 was shout down. In 2002, Romanian Government decided to put the research reactor in the permanent shut-down in order to start the decommissioning. This nuclear facility was used in nuclear research and radioisotope production for 40 years, without events, incidents or accidents. Within the same site, in the immediate vicinity of the research reactor, there are many other nuclear facilities: Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant, Tandem Van der Graaf heavy ions accelerator, Cyclotron, Industrial Irradiator, Radioisotope Production Center. The objectives of this work were dedicated on the water underground analyses described in the following context: - presentation of the approaches in planning the number of drillings, vertical soil profiles (characteristics, analyses, direction of the flow of underground water, uncertainties in measurements); - presentation of the instrumentation used in analyses of water, soil and vegetation samples - analyses and final conclusions on results of the measurements; - comparison of the results of measurements on underground water from drillings with the measurements results on samples from the town and the system of drinking water - supplied from the second level of underground water. According to the analysis, in general, no values higher than the Minimum Detectable Activity were detected in water samples (MDA) for Pb212, Bi214, Pb214, Ac228, but situated under values foreseen in drinking water. Distribution of Uranium As results of the Uranium determination, values higher than 0,004 mg/l (4 ppb) were detected, values that represent the average contents in the underground water. The higher values, 2-3 times higher than background, were detected in the water from the drillings F15, F12, F5, F13, drillings located between RWTP (Radioactive Waste

  13. Bucharest urban seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important project was carried out in Bucharest area by the National Institute of Research-Development for Earth Physics and Collaborative Research Center 461 (CRC 461) Geophysical Institute from the University of Karlsruhe (Germany) in the period October 2003 - August 2004. The project consists of an array of 33 stations, uniformly arranged in the city of Bucharest and in the outskirts (Magurele, Voluntari, Otopeni, Buftea, etc). The station functioned 24 h/day for a period of 10 months. The number of functioning stations had a little variation in time, some of them had to be moved because some sites became improper in time. The sensors used by the stations were of the type: STS - 2, LE - 3D, 4OT, 3ESP and KS2000. The performance of continuous recording was possible by using on each station a hard disk drive of 120 Gb, which gives independence of 3 month. For preventing some accidental electric power stops a rechargeable battery on each station was used . A service was performed for each station every month to avoid accidental stops, which consisted usually of mechanical bumps. All the recorded data by the stations was saved on DVSs, the final number being around 140. This project helped gathering a large number of seismological data for the city of Bucharest and outskirts from seismic events of magnitude of 4, 3, 2 and ambient noise. (authors)

  14. Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor Fuel: Integrity, Performance and Advanced Concepts. Proceedings of the Technical Meetings held in Bucharest, 24-27 September 2012, and in Mumbai, 8-11 May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven Member States have operating pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), and some of them are also planning new reactors of this type. The current type of PHWR uses natural uranium as the fuel and has an average burnup of 7000 MWd/t (megawatt days per metric tonne). To make these reactors economically competitive with other reactor types, the discharge burnup of PHWR fuel will need to be increased without affecting the integrity of the fuel pin and bundle. A significant increase in the discharge burnup of fuel is possible with the use of advanced fuel cycles in PHWRs. The advanced fuels can be slightly enriched uranium, reprocessed uranium from light water reactors, mixed oxide or thorium based fuels. At the same time, substantial savings in natural uranium resources can also be achieved through the possible extension of the discharge burnup of advanced fuels used in PHWRs without changing reactor hardware. Following the recommendation of the Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology, two technical meetings were held: Technical Meeting on Fuel Integrity during Normal Operation and Accident Conditions in PHWRs, 24–27 September 2012, Bucharest, Romania; and Technical Meeting on Advanced Fuel Cycles in PHWRs, 8–11 April 2013, Mumbai, India. Their objective was to update information on the performance of PHWR fuels, the status and trends in the use of advanced fuels in PHWRs and the technical readiness for the deployment of such fuel cycles in these types of reactor. This publication contains the proceedings of the two technical meetings, including a record of the discussions held during the various technical sessions

  15. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  16. Programme Note: Street Children in Bucharest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Gabriela

    1996-01-01

    Interviewed Bucharest street children, most between 11 and 15 years of age. Found that most left families, not institutions. Half were from intact families characterized by many children, an incarcerated parent, physical violence, sexual abuse, or alcoholism. Most worked either begging or in casual labor, and engaged in substance abuse.…

  17. PROMOTION AND MARKETING OF BUCHAREST - PRAGUE TOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica STEFAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its theme the marketing and promotion of tourism circuit between Bucharest and Prague, unique area in the world because there is a harmonious combination of potential natural and cultural values and historical tourism which attracts many tourists. Also due to the geographical potential tourists coming to Prague can practice sports activities both winter and summer.Both natural resources and the human touch are important sights to attract more tourists in the area, and in Prague, the potential exists.

  18. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild......OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1......,595 schoolchildren aged 10-17 years, randomly allocated by clusters into a stratified sample population. The dental caries were scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical criteria and expressed based on tooth and surface levels [Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth/Surfaces indices (DMFT....../DMFS)]. A questionnaire was administered to the children to determine the education level of their parents and their living standard. RESULTS: The caries prevalence was 75 percent, and 64 percent had untreated caries. The mean DMFT value for the entire sample was 2.8, and its highest component was decayed teeth (mean DT...

  19. Moments of astronomy education in Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mircea V.; Stavinschi, Magda

    2008-09-01

    Selection from past astronomy education, activities, textbooks and curricula will be presented. Didactic aspects and comparison with physics education will be exemplified. The astronomy/science education along the time in Romania was roughly divided in four directions: very broad information texts for everybody, popular science, school textbooks, science fictions and astronomy/science literature, and exemplified using original texts. All categories were intended to extend literacy in science, but in different ways. The trends for different periods were outlined. The teaching of astronomy and astrophysics in high school and universities, with special attention to the Faculty of Physic from University of Bucharest are presented. Suggestions for future improvement of both related fields, physics and astronomy, will be one of the outcomes of our communication.

  20. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  1. BUCHAREST HOTEL MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patricia DODU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The European hospitality industry currently sees an increase in all specific indicators, a fact that shows, on one hand, the ability of this sector to overcome the economic turbulences of recent years, but also the real perspectives for future growth. Today’s hotel industry can no longer rely on the traditional growth methods, and needs to prepare for the major confrontation with the next-generation technological developments that generate modern marketing channels but, by default, incur significantly higher costs for simply „being” on the market. The Bucharest hotel market is no exception; in the recent past, it has witnessed a slight upwards trend generated by the increase of demand in the business tourism area, while also facing the challenge of integration of modern technologies in the hotel business.

  2. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA T. CHICOŞ; ALINA E. HUZUI; ROBERT C. STOICULESCU

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was sh...

  3. Aircraft noise footprint for Bucharest – Sophia flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis MELIVEO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of impact noise have traditionally focused on landing and takeoff procedures in the airports vicinity. Beside these studies, en-route noise is considered an issue when we talk about noise in natural reservation or other populated sensitive areas and when it comes to designing a new aircraft engine. In these cases, the studies are focusing on the impact at ground level of the en route noise produced by aircraft at all the flights stages. This paper presents the results of the measurement performed for an A320 aircraft when flying en-route and the impact map for a flight from Bucharest – Sofia – Bucharest (OTP-SOF-OTP.

  4. THE BRANDING POTENTIAL OF BUCHAREST. STRATEGY AND SUCCESS FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2009-01-01

    Bucharest is still looking for its identity. Reported in the national brand – that is still in an incipient phase, it can play two roles: whether as ingredient for the country brand, the capital becoming an element included on the list of values promoted at national level, or as a landmark, for defining and subsequently for improving the country brand. The unexploited potential must be capitalized in the future by using urban branding and marketing steps adapted to the local specificity.

  5. Near surface shear wave velocity in Bucharest, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    M. von Steht; B. Jaskolla; Ritter, J.R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania with nearly 2 1/2 million inhabitants, is endangered by the strong earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone. To obtain information on the near surface shear-wave velocity Vs structure and to improve the available microzonations we conducted seismic refraction measurements in two parks of the city. There the shallow Vs structure is determined along five profiles, and the compressional-wave velocity (Vp) s...

  6. Romanian Hotel Groups Listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Pop; Cristina Curutiu; Partenie Dumbrava

    2008-01-01

    Hotel industry is an important component of travel and tourism (T&T) sector. However, less studies are dedicated to hotel industry than to the T&T sector as a hole. Even less studies are available on hotel companies or groups listed on stock exchanges around the world. The present study will focus on Romanian hotel groups listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange, compared with the situation in Europe.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE INDICES STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela SUDACEVSCHI

    2013-01-01

    A stock market index is used for measure the stock market activity or the value of a section of the stock market. Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) currently has 7 indices, with different structures, whose evolution reflects the real situation of the most liquid companies listed on the BSE or the price movement of all the companies listed on the BSE regulated market, in fact the situation of the Romanian economy. For investors, stock indices evolution is very important, since highlights the stoc...

  8. Teenage perspectives on urban environments: case studies from contemporary Bucharest

    OpenAIRE

    Florea, Ioana

    2010-01-01

    The urban environment is a product of everyday social practices and interactions but, at the same time, it conditions social practices and interactions. The article explores the position of the youth in this reciprocal process, drawing on a study involving more than 100 children and teenagers (pupils from Grades 4-11) from 2 elementary schools and 2 high schools in Bucharest. The research followed several lines of investigation: their knowledge of and sensitivity to pollution and nature; the ...

  9. SWOT ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Bugheanu Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    European Capital-Bucharest is in a continuous development from all points of view, and the demand for more effective modes of transportation is constantly increasing. The population of the city has increased significantly in recent years, the number of passenger cars registered here exceeds 20% of the total of those registered at the country level, and the transport system has to face all the challenges. The aim of the present research is to conduct an analysis on the public transport network...

  10. The feasibility of using a Fourier RTOF spectrometer at a low-power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of Fourier time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry is discussed using the FSS spectrometer as example. The use of the Fourier reverse TOF spectrometry, as an efficient tool for studying condensed matter, at a 2 MW (WWR-S type) reactor is also assessed. The arrangement of the RTOF spectrometer, which could be successfully used at such type of reactor, is introduced. The suggested arrangement applies a neutron guide tube of 24 m length and allows for effective luminosity 2.4.106 at a flight path distance of 3.6 m. The number of neutrons scattered from a sample (5 cm3 in volume) and incident on the detector system, as estimated for the suggested arrangement, is ∝1.6.103 n/sec. Such high counting rate allows to measure a diffraction spectrum within less than an hour. (orig.) With 12 figs

  11. The Bucharest of tomorrow as imagined in the last century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of Bucharest, but not only them, have always had a nostalgia of a capital comparable to the great European metropolis. Their imaginary related to this issue is, more often than not, bookish, but there have also been competent voices (architects, builders, engineers, or politicians who knew how to lucidly identify the needs and possibilities of the town on the banks of the Dâmboviţa river, to propose viable solutions able to correct the shortcomings of the present and, more rarely, to analyze ways and means by which their city can become a truly modern one. In the majority of cases, the envisioned renewal comes down to building imposing institutional buildings, improving the banks of the river, the development of the transportation network and harnessing the potential of the northern lakes. Few authors have proven to be able to tackle the usual issues of urban plans in a coherent manner (the public space/private space relationship, building height regulations, communication networks and fewer still, mainly professionals, have succeeded in sketching, even concisely, the list of priorities and the steps to be followed for the builders of the future. Not all those who have entered this debate have called for a modernization in the Western sense, some claiming that the loss of the picturesque qualities of the old capital will result in a depersonalization of Bucharest and its transformation into a failed copy of the Western capitals. Although incomplete, superficial or even naive, all these fragments of the imaginary of Bucharest are a testimony of love of the residents for their city and can bring a contribution to a better understanding of today’s realities of the capital of Romania.

  12. Research on Consumer Behaviour in Bucharest Poultry Meat Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Pirvutoiu; Agatha Popescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper goal was to study consumer behaviour for poultry meat. In this purpose 100 individuals participated to a questionnaire based survey  in a supermarket of  Bucharest. Specific methods of marketing research in such a case assured the statistical processing of the respondents’ answers. The results pointed out an increased consumption of poultry meat,  a preference for fresh chicken meat which is daily bought  or 2-3 times a week in a varied amount ranging between 1-1.5 kg depending on c...

  13. Statistical investigation on the IT market in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MITRUT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of a pilot survey conducted on a set of it specialists concerning their behavior on the IT market as buyers. Demand estimation is one of the main purpose of the research. Initial hypothesis were that people in Romania are using Internet and IT systems as a tool to develop social and cultural relations, to be informed more and more compared to classic ways of access to culture and information. The research purpose was also to determine the main cross classification variables as the main influence factors on IT market in Bucharest.

  14. Polarisation of Social Inequalities in Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods of Bucharest Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA T. CHICOŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight into the statistical interpretation of socio-spatial changes of Bucharest urban landscape in connection to the transformations of the urban planning visions across the last decades. Special emphasis is placed on the emergence of disadvantaged neighbourhoods which are defined by a clear homogenisation of certain social classes on a precarious housing infrastructure. This came as a result of a historical hierarchy of the urban social space. Moreover, Bucharest was shaped in relation to different socio-economic and socio-cultural policies that determined the creation of a polarisation between north and south or between centre and periphery which were subject to numerous socio-urban inversions during the communist and post-communist eras. Hence, life in a large metropolis is vulnerable to inequalities appearing within the urban pattern that intensifies, in some cases, towards residential segregation. The historical-geographical analysis of vectors behind clusters of sensitive areas in the 20th and 21st centuries strengthens the importance of social cohesion measures in the future urban policies and territorial planning.

  15. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  16. Strategic Directions for the Bucharest Strategy and City Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Claudia Ţapardel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On the international stage, public administration has become an essential factor, capable of providing a nation with the competitive advantage. Improving standards in local administration in our country has included not only a vigorous and sustained process of reform, but also a drive to modernise and perfect management within the public sector. These aspects are essential, since decisions made by partners and investors are to an ever larger extent influenced by the quality, efficiency and credibility of public administration. Following these considerations, and based upon an empirical research conducted with the aid of a survey and a comparative analysis between the manner in which the branding and development strategies were developed in Vancouver and Bucharest, the present paper aims to identify the main strategic directions and branding elements necessary in elaborating a strategy and in accumulating a dossier of best practices, in order to implement successfully the strategic planning process and the branding strategy in the local communities of Romania.

  17. Creative Industry a Pattern for Growth in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries comprise the creation, production, marketing and distribution of products and services resulting from human creativity. The European cultural and creative industries (CCI represent a significant set of industries. Social, cultural and technological changes have helped fuel our thirst and demand for cultural products, new forms of entertainment, distraction, and inspiration creative and cultural industries manufacturing and production activities are the most regionally concentrated, and consumer oriented activities such as retail the least regionally concentrated. In this paper, we consider that the creative and cultural cannot be seen simply as cyclically dependent service functions to the rest of the economy. In Bucharest Ilfov region the cultural and creative industries is a model of economic development.

  18. Research on Consumer Behaviour in Bucharest Poultry Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pirvutoiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study consumer behaviour for poultry meat. In this purpose 100 individuals participated to a questionnaire based survey  in a supermarket of  Bucharest. Specific methods of marketing research in such a case assured the statistical processing of the respondents’ answers. The results pointed out an increased consumption of poultry meat,  a preference for fresh chicken meat which is daily bought  or 2-3 times a week in a varied amount ranging between 1-1.5 kg depending on consumer’s income for covering the family need. The main factors influencing consumer buying decision are the sensorial meat characteristics, meat quality, origin, price, prepaking grade. As a conclusion producers have to pay more attention to these aspects in their future strategy for producing and commercialising poultry meat.

  19. Entrepreneurial behavior among employees. Pilot study: Employees from Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Constantin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many objective or subjective factors influence the decision to open a business. The most important factors are: the existence of an adequate opportunity or a market, perception that starting a business could be difficult because of bureaucracy, financial barriers or the need to acquire new skills, a lack of money, etc. Also, entrepreneurial behavior is generally influenced by socio-economic status of the family of origin [1]. Thus, children from wealthy families have the “competitive advantage” to receive an education appropriate for managing a business and of course have the necessary financial resources and its start [2]. However, abilities of every individual can “correct’’ these benefits are completely eliminated/reduced exogenous barriers [3]. In this article I will present the results of a pilot study conducted in 2014 at Bucharest employees to observe their entrepreneurial behavior.

  20. GONE FISHIN’ EFFECTS ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA DUMITRIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the presence of Gone Fishin’ Effects on the Romanian Capital Market from January 2000 to July 2013. In this analysis we employ daily values of five main indexes of Bucharest Stock Exchange. We use GARCH models to reveal this seasonality not only on indexes returns but also on the capital market volatility. In order to identify the differences between quiet and turbulent periods of time we split our sample of data into two sub-samples. The first, from January 2000 to December 2006, corresponds to a relative quiet period, while the second, from January 2007 to August 2013, corresponds to a turbulent period. Our results indicate the decline of Gone Fishin’ Effects on returns from the first to the second sub-sample.

  1. Near surface shear wave velocity in Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. von Steht

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bucharest, the capital of Romania with nearly 2 1/2 million inhabitants, is endangered by the strong earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone. To obtain information on the near surface shear-wave velocity Vs structure and to improve the available microzonations we conducted seismic refraction measurements in two parks of the city. There the shallow Vs structure is determined along five profiles, and the compressional-wave velocity (Vp structure is obtained along one profile. Although the amount of data collected is limited, they offer a reasonable idea about the seismic velocity distribution in these two locations. This knowledge is useful for a city like Bucharest where seismic velocity information so far is sparse and poorly documented. Using sledge-hammer blows on a steel plate and a 24-channel recording unit, we observe clear shear-wave arrivals in a very noisy environment up to a distance of 300 m from the source. The Vp model along profile 1 can be correlated with the known near surface sedimentary layers. Vp increases from 320 m/s near the surface to 1280 m/s above 55–65 m depth. The Vs models along all five profiles are characterized by low Vs (<350 m/s in the upper 60 m depth and a maximum Vs of about 1000 m/s below this depth. In the upper 30 m the average Vs30 varies from 210 m/s to 290 m/s. The Vp-Vs relations lead to a high Poisson's ratio of 0.45–0.49 in the upper ~60 m depth, which is an indication for water-saturated clayey sediments. Such ground conditions may severely influence the ground motion during strong Vrancea earthquakes.

  2. Near surface shear wave velocity in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Steht, M.; Jaskolla, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.

    2008-12-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania with nearly 2 1/2 million inhabitants, is endangered by the strong earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone. To obtain information on the near surface shear-wave velocity Vs structure and to improve the available microzonations we conducted seismic refraction measurements in two parks of the city. There the shallow Vs structure is determined along five profiles, and the compressional-wave velocity (Vp) structure is obtained along one profile. Although the amount of data collected is limited, they offer a reasonable idea about the seismic velocity distribution in these two locations. This knowledge is useful for a city like Bucharest where seismic velocity information so far is sparse and poorly documented. Using sledge-hammer blows on a steel plate and a 24-channel recording unit, we observe clear shear-wave arrivals in a very noisy environment up to a distance of 300 m from the source. The Vp model along profile 1 can be correlated with the known near surface sedimentary layers. Vp increases from 320 m/s near the surface to 1280 m/s above 55 65 m depth. The Vs models along all five profiles are characterized by low Vs (<350 m/s) in the upper 60 m depth and a maximum Vs of about 1000 m/s below this depth. In the upper 30 m the average Vs30 varies from 210 m/s to 290 m/s. The Vp-Vs relations lead to a high Poisson's ratio of 0.45 0.49 in the upper ~60 m depth, which is an indication for water-saturated clayey sediments. Such ground conditions may severely influence the ground motion during strong Vrancea earthquakes.

  3. The Impact of Management Structures’ Composition on Performance of Companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Raluca-Georgiana MOSCU

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents several econometric models that explain how the performance of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange is influenced by corporate governance practices of listed companies comply how the principles and recommendations of the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. They raised issues related to the composition and size of the Board of Directors. The research proposes a brief description of the characteristics governing bodies of companies listed o...

  4. Bucharest PhD Training School : Modern Aspects of Quantum Field Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Bucharest 2015 – Modern Aspects of Quantum Field Theory is part of the CERN – SEENET-MTP PhD Training Program, which consists of a number of seminars in theoretical high energy Physics. This is the second seminar organized by this Program. Here are some photos from this event held in Bucharest between 8-14 November 2015. The previous seminar was organized in Belgrade, under the name Belgrade 2015 - Supergravity.

  5. Operation experience with the TRIGA Reactor Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last European TRIGA Users Conference in Bucharest, Romania in September 1992 the TRIGA reactor Vienna operated without any major undesired shutdown. Some problems were centred around the new microprocessor controlled instrumentation installed in summer 1992. The fuel behaviour was excellent, no fuel failures were experienced. The experimental facilities were extensively used for students education and training

  6. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania: 25 years of operation of radioactive waste treatment plant, Bucharest-Magurele, 15 years of operation at national radioactive repository, Baita-Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania is centralised at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). Final disposal is carried out at the National Repository of Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita-Bihor. Wastes containing short-lived radionuclides, which do not require any special treatment, after the temporary storage at the producer for decay period, are transferred as normal non-radioactive wastes. Wastes containing long-lived radionuclides are collected, treated and conditioned at IFIN-HH before final disposal. Radioactive wastes treated at STDR arise from three main sources: 1. Wastes arising from the WWR-S research reactor during operation and future decommissioning operations. 2. Local wastes from other facilities operating at IFIN-HH site. These latter sources include wastes generated during the normal activities of STDR. 3. Wastes from IFIN-HH off-site facilities and activities including medical, biological and industrial applications all over the country. The operational wastes are both liquids and solids. The paper takes into account the following matters: solid waste treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste containers, STDR capacity, temporary storage and final disposal, updating the management infrastructure of institutional radioactive waste. From November 1974 to November 1999 there were treated at STDR nearly 26,000 m3 LLAW, 2,100 m3 LLSW and 4,000 spent sources resulting over 5,500 conditioned drums disposed at DNDR. After 25 years of operation for STDR and 15 years of operation for DNDR an updating programme started in 1990. The Research and Development activities are based on the bi- and multilateral co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and nuclear developed countries through research contracts and technical assistance. In the last years STDR and DNDR benefited from IAEA assistance by a WAMAP mission, training courses and grants for international meetings

  7. Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.

  8. Vrancea early warning system for Bucharest and industrial objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania is an earthquake prone area and it is of crucial importance to obtain quantitative information needed for seismic risk mitigation and related public policies and seismic safety measures. The most damaging earthquakes in Romania concentrate in the Vrancea region, located at the sharp bend of the Eastern Carpathians Arc, in a well confined focal volume at intermediate depths between 60 km and 200 km. Vrancea earthquakes are documented for at least a millennium (since 985 a.c.) and represent very peculiar characteristics. They are a permanent threat for large urban areas on the Romanian territory and extended areas in Europe. Bucharest is among the mega cities mostly affected by destructive earthquakes. The early warning system in Romania is to provide individuals and communities exposed to disaster risk due to strong Vrancea earthquakes, with accurate information about an impending hazard as early as possible, to act in a timely and appropriate manner to reduce probability of suffering, personal damage, death and property losses. The purpose of this early system is to issue messages at sites of interest before the destructive seismic energy arrives. Early warning system is a technological instrument to detect, monitor and issue warnings/alerts. It needs to become part of a management information system for decision - making in the context of national institutional frameworks for disaster management and as a part of national and local strategies for disaster risk reduction. (authors)

  9. THE EU URBAN AGENDA CHALLENGES FOR THE BUCHAREST- ILFOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu\tRÂNCIOAGĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few months before the Barroso’s mandate completion, the European Commission launched the Communication on an urban dimension of the EU Policies. This one comes to support the achievement of the Europe 2020 Strategy, in the middle of its implementation. The revision of the Strategy is expected in the next spring, and the cities’ fundamental role to reach our common policies objectives is recognized. This is expected to be the key for a more inclusive, sustainable and smarter Europe. The meeting of 28 Mayors of the capital cities of EU on October 1 , 2014 in Rome shows the need to urgently adopt an Urban Agenda of the European Union. The administration of Bucharest strongly supports the initiative and considers as priorities in the coming period: the creation of a data base among the capitals comprising the best practices, making permanent the urban dialogue by creating a platform allowing and encouraging citizens’ involvement in the decision-making actions, the promotion of the success examples and strengthening the experience exchange in the context of the similarity of the problems the current society is confronted with. Meanwhile the subsidiarity is expected to be respect and a large part of European investments available over the next 7 years will be allocated to strategic targets concerning research, innovation and promotion of the small and medium enterprises.

  10. Romania: university and politics in the 1980s. Case study: the University of Bucharest, the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rotaru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation I am submitting to your attention focuses on how the University of Bucharest operated during the 1980’s, a very difficult period for Romania. As to be expected, the University of Bucharest, like the entire Romanian education system, took the full blow of communist experimental policies, reflecting quite accurately the general developments of the political system in Romania in the 1980s. The structure of Bucharest University, the curriculum, acceptance of the students via admission exams as well as the process of assignment of graduates from University of Bucharest to production units in the 1980’s, are aspects of university life which were all affected by profound changes during the period subject to the research, leading to a genuine phenomenon in the Romanian society. The way these changes were reflected in the cultural mindset and the traumas generated by them are all points of interest addressed in my presentation

  11. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA - AS A RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT - IN THE BUCHAREST-ILFOV REGION OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Stoicescu, Alina; Alecu, Ioan-Niculae

    2012-01-01

    The paper aimed to present the rural human resources development during the period 2007-2013 in the Bucharest –Ilfov Region of Romania, as a rural development component. It is based on the statistical data provided by our studies regarding HRD projects implemented in this area, financed from structural founds (European Social Found). The data have been processed into the following indicators: number of projects implemented in the Bucharest-Ilfov region promoting long term sustainability of ...

  12. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets in Romania pursuing that in the following paragraphs it will focus strictly on the market of the instruments listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, for which a case study in ALBAPAM JS. has been conducted by performing stock analysis and, after the main legislation is presented, which discusses Rasdaq dismantling, finally, after submitting all the information found in the content of the paper, the findings for each paragraph were presented.

  13. Geological and Geophysical Models Underneath Bucharest City Responsible for the Variability of Seismic Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Balan, S. F.; Arion, C.

    2012-04-01

    Bucharest, the capital of Romania, with more than 2 million inhabitants, is considered after Istanbul the second-most earthquake-endangered metropolis in Europe. It is identified as a natural disaster hotspot by a recent global study of the World Bank and the Columbia University (Dilley et al., 2005). Four major earthquakes with moment-magnitudes between 6.9 and 7.7 hit Bucharest in the last 65 years. The most recent destructive earthquake of 4. March 1977, with a moment magnitude of 7.4, caused about 1.500 casualties in the capital alone. All disastrous earthquakes are generated within a small epicentral area - the Vrancea region - about 150 km north-east of Bucharest. Thick unconsolidated sedimentary layers in the area of Bucharest amplify the arriving seismic shear-waves causing severe destruction. Most of the PGA variation across the city is due to the package of the Quaternary sedimentary layers which amplify the original strong motion arrived from the earthquake. The largest amplification of the soil will occur at the lowest natural frequency or its fundamental period. In situ measurements of shear wave velocity in the soil and the soil thickness, provide a rough measurement of the characteristic site period. Extensively seismic noise measurements proved to be a much accessible method and computed H/V spectral ratio over large periods of time, may provide a good indication on the fundamental period of the site, even if the position of the bedrock is not well defined. Within the NATO-funded Science for Peace Project 981882 "Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania" the drilling and the Vp and Vs (seismic longitudinal and shear-wave velocities) measurements in ten boreholes were done in the years 2006-2008 (Bala et al., 2010). Rock samples were taken from each borehole at different depths for laboratory tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of each sedimentary rock type at the sites. Thus a valuable data base is

  14. Improved seismic risk estimation for Bucharest, based on multiple hazard scenarios, analytical methods and new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Danila, Dragos; Florinela Manea, Elena; Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Bucharest, capital of Romania (with 1678000 inhabitants in 2011), is one of the most exposed big cities in Europe to seismic damage. The major earthquakes affecting the city have their origin in the Vrancea region. The Vrancea intermediate-depth source generates, statistically, 2-3 shocks with moment magnitude >7.0 per century. Although the focal distance is greater than 170 km, the historical records (from the 1838, 1894, 1908, 1940 and 1977 events) reveal severe effects in the Bucharest area, e.g. intensities IX (MSK) for the case of 1940 event. During the 1977 earthquake, 1420 people were killed and 33 large buildings collapsed. The nowadays building stock is vulnerable both due to construction (material, age) and soil conditions (high amplification, generated within the weak consolidated Quaternary deposits, their thickness is varying 250-500m throughout the city). A number of 373 old buildings, out of 2563, evaluated by experts are more likely to experience severe damage/collapse in the next major earthquake. The total number of residential buildings, in 2011, was 113900. In order to guide the mitigation measures, different studies tried to estimate the seismic risk of Bucharest, in terms of buildings, population or economic damage probability. Unfortunately, most of them were based on incomplete sets of data, whether regarding the hazard or the building stock in detail. However, during the DACEA Project, the National Institute for Earth Physics, together with the Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest and NORSAR Institute managed to compile a database for buildings in southern Romania (according to the 1999 census), with 48 associated capacity and fragility curves. Until now, the developed real-time estimation system was not implemented for Bucharest. This paper presents more than an adaptation of this system to Bucharest; first, we analyze the previous seismic risk studies, from a SWOT perspective. This reveals that most of the studies don't use

  15. Analysis Particulars of Financial Instruments for Companies Not Listed in the Bucharest Stock Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor HADA; Teodora Maria AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents the main features on the trading of financial instruments rated on the Unlisted market. The purpose of this paper is to give a general framework to study modalities of stock analysis of unlisted tools on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. In the introduction of the study elements referring to the objectives, research methodology, innovations of this research are presented, specialized literature being also reviewed. The first paragraph summarizes the main stock markets i...

  16. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  17. STUDY OF DETERMINANT FACTORS OF DIVIDEND POLICY PROMOTED BY COMPANIES LISTED ON BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; MOSCU Raluca Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    Dividend policy is one of the most intriguing topics in financial research. Even now, economists provide considerable attention and thought to solving the dividend puzzle, resulting a large number of conflicting hypotheses, theories and explanations. This paper aims to determine the dividend policies for listed companies on Bucharest Stock Exchange and to explain their dividend payment behavior. Ten hypotheses were investigated using a series of models. So this paper investigates why companie...

  18. Using R as an alternative teaching tool in the Ecological University of Bucharest

    OpenAIRE

    Ungureanu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In a global world universities want to offer the best education to their students so that they can be competitive on the labour market both in the country where they studied and beyond its borders. The Romanian education system – currently undergoing reform – attaches great importance to the use of traditional efficient teaching tools, along with new alternative ones. The R data analysis system represents such an alternative method that the Ecological University of Bucharest uses in ord...

  19. Computing seismic damage estimates for buildings within a big city. Bucharest case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Danila, Dragos; Armas, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    The seismic risk analysis of big cities is a very demanding yet necessary task; the modeling of such complex systems requires first of all insightful input data at good resolution, referring to local effects, buildings and socio-economic aspects. Also, seismic risk estimation methods with good confidence levels are needed. Until recently, these requirements were not fulfilled for Bucharest, one of the most endangered capital city in Europe due to earthquakes. Based on 2011 and 2002 census data, standardized according to the framework of the Near-real time System for Estimating the Seismic Damage in Romania (SeisDaRo) through a unique approach and on relevant hazard scenarios, we estimate for the first time the building damage within the city, divided in more than 120 areas. The methodology applied relies on 48 vulnerability curves for buildings, on the Improved Displacement Coefficient Analytical Method included in the SELENA software for computing damage probabilities and on multiple seismic hazard scenarios, including the maximum possible. In order to compare results with real losses we use a scenario based on the 4 March 1977 Vrancea earthquake (7.4 moment-magnitude) that lead to 1424 deaths in Bucharest. By using overlay analysis with satellite imagery and a new methodology integrated in GIS we show how results can be enhanced, reflecting even more local characteristics. Best practices for seismic risk mapping are also expressed. Results are promising and contribute to the mitigation efforts in Bucharest.

  20. Source, propagation and site effects: impact on mapping strong ground motion in Bucharest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achievements in the framework of the NATO SfP project 972266 focused on the impact of Vrancea earthquakes on the security of Bucharest urban area are presented. The problem of Bucharest city security to Vrancea earthquakes is discussed in terms of numerical modelling of seismic motion and intermediate term earthquake prediction. A hybrid numerical scheme developed by Faeh et al. (1990; 1993) for frequencies up to 1 Hz is applied for the realistic modelling of the seismic ground motion in Bucharest. The method combines the modal summation for the 1D bedrock model and the finite differences for the 2D local structure model. All the factors controlling the ground motion at the site are considered: source, propagation and site effects, respectively. The input data includes the recent records provided by the digital accelerometer network developed within the Romanian-German CRC461 cooperation programme and CALIXTO'99, VRANCEA'99, VRANCEA2001 experiments. The numerical simulation proves to be a powerful tool in mapping the strong ground motion for realistic structures, reproducing acceptably from engineering point of view the observations. A new model of the Vrancea earthquake scaling is obtained and implications for the determination of the seismic motion parameters are analyzed. The role of the focal mechanism and attenuation properties upon the amplitude and spectral content of the ground motion are outlined. CN algorithm is applied for predicting Vrancea earthquakes. Finally, implications for the disaster management strategy are discussed. (authors)

  1. DO THE REGIONS OF ROMANIA HAVE POTENTIAL FOR SERVICE INNOVATION? THE CASE OF THE REGION OF BUCHAREST-ILFOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF ALINA-ELENA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on conducting an assessment on one particular region of Romania, namely the region of Bucharest-Ilfov, in relation to service innovation. The paper starts with an introductory section that reveals the region’s position in terms of competitiveness and innovation within the European Union. Afterwards, a short snapshot on innovation and service innovation is included, followed by a SWOT analysis of the Region of Bucharest-Ilfov. Both the socio-economic performance of the region and the regional performance in service innovation are analyzed. The paper ends with the conclusion section that includes an overview on the main characteristics of the region from the perspective of service innovation. The region of Bucharest-Ilfov is showing its performance in service innovation through various indicators, particularly by the share of employees in service innovation intensive industries and knowledge intensive service that overcome the EU average. Particularly, the enterprises from the Bucharest-Ilfov region are mostly encountered into the services sector, but they are at their beginnings in terms of service innovation. Moreover, most of the innovation comes from SMEs that tend to offer both product and process innovation. Consequently, service innovation in the region of Bucharest-Ilfov is mainly expected to be driven by the SMEs, but taking into account that big companies have their contribution too.

  2. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  3. Physics with small and large size facilities at IFIN-HH Bucharest-Magurele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) in Bucharest-Magurele is the prime research institute in Romania. With 12 departments, it combines the entire range of duties of a nuclear physics national laboratory with fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics and with applications based on atomic and nuclear techniques. After a brief presentation of the whole institute, past, present and future, I will concentrate on physics we do with small accelerators and other facilities, with emphasis on areas of environment and cultural heritage study and preservation. (author)

  4. A new and compact system at the AMS laboratory in Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.; Petre, A. R.; Simion, C. A.; Calinescu, C. I.; Ghita, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    AMS research started more than 15 years ago at our National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest. A first facility was constructed based on our multipurpose 9 MV tandem accelerator and was upgraded several times. In May 2012 a new Cockcroft Walton type 1 MV HVEE tandetron AMS system, was commissioned. Two chemistry laboratories were constructed and are routinely performing the target preparation for carbon dating and for other isotope applications such as for geology, environment physics, medicine and forensic physics. Performance parameters of the new system are shown.

  5. OPPORTUNITIESFOR DETERMINING THE EFFICIENCY CURVE IN THE PORTOFOLIO OF COMPANIES LISTED ON BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HADA TEODOR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is organized in four parts. The first part presents theoretical aspects on determining the efficiency curve and the steps to be taken on this. The second part begins with a case study presenting the methods of determining the efficiency curve of a stock portfolio, in the case of several entities listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The third part shows how useful Microsoft Excel is to determine the Markovitz efficiency curve of a stock portfolio. On completion of this work, we present the findings on the methods of determining the Markovitz efficiency curve using Microsoft Excel, and their related interpretations.

  6. BHP UNIVERSALITY HYPOTHESIS VERIFICATION FOR BET-FI INDEX OF BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberiu SOCACIU; Danubianu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show the assumption of BHP universality BET -FI index from BVB (Bucharest Exchange Stock) on the assumption of universality issued paper [4] on the Dow Jones index composition (DJIA30) and Standard & Poors 100 (S & P100) by Gonçalves and Pinto. BHP (S. T. Bramwell, P. C. W. Holdsworth, J. F. Pinton) distribution is a non-parametric probability distribution from GHT (Gumbel-Fisher-Tippett) distributions classes discovered from a magnetization problem. Universality of this dist...

  7. Analysis of the seismic wavefield in the Moesian Platform (Bucharest area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Florinela Manea, Elena; Hobiger, Manuel-Thomas; Michel, Clotaire; Fäh, Donat; -Ortanza Cioflan, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Bucharest is located in the center of the Moesian platform, in a large and deep sedimentary basin (450 km long, 300 km wide and in some places up to 20 km depth). During large earthquakes generated by the Vrancea seismic zone, located approximately 140 km to the North, the ground motion recorded in Bucharest area is characterized by predominant long periods and large amplification. This phenomenon has been explained by the influence of both source mechanism (azimuth and type of incident waves) and mechanical properties of the local structure (geological layering and geometry). The main goal of our study is to better characterize and understand the seismic wave field produced by earthquakes in the area of Bucharest. We want to identify the contribution of different seismic surface waves, such as the ones produced at the edges of the large sedimentary basin or multipath interference waves (Airy phases of Love and Rayleigh waves) to the ground motion. The data from a 35 km diameter array (URS experiment) installed by the National Institute for Earth Physics during 10 months in 2003 and 2004 in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones was used. In order to perform the wave field characterization of the URS array, the MUSIQUE technique was used. This technique consists in a combination of the classical MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms and analyzes the three-component signals of all sensors of a seismic array together in order to analyze the Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves as well as the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curve. The analysis includes 20 regional earthquakes with Mw >3 and 5 teleseismic events with Mw> 7 that have enough energy at low frequency (0.1 - 1 Hz), i.e. in the resolution range of the array. For all events, the greatest energy is coming from the backazimuth of the source and the wave field is dominated by Love waves. The results of the array analyses clearly indicate a significant scattering corresponding to 2D or 3D effects in the

  8. Pinvox Method to Enhance Self-Study in Blended Learning: Experiences at University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Canessa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report results on the first large-scale trial implementation of the new Pinvox algorithm carried out at the Department of Distance Learning (DL of the University of Bucharest to encourage hundreds of Bachelor and Master DL students to perform their self-study. Pinvox is an open source tool that helps to ensure "on-line attendance” and to induce “student's attention��� through the identification of different, randomly selected, brief audio PINs embedded automatically in videos or audio files assigned to each student. We argue that checking how students watched a video lecture has many advantages in the formative assessment work.

  9. Using R as an alternative teaching tool in the Ecological University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a global world universities want to offer the best education to their students so that they can be competitive on the labour market both in the country where they studied and beyond its borders. The Romanian education system – currently undergoing reform – attaches great importance to the use of traditional efficient teaching tools, along with new alternative ones. The R data analysis system represents such an alternative method that the Ecological University of Bucharest uses in order to stimulate the student’s creativity in problem solving.

  10. Reducing Fuel Consumption in Bucharest Terminal Area for Flights Using a Standard Instrument Departure

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    Alin George DIACONU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the standard instrument departure and standard arrival routes at certain airports can bring significant reductions in fuel consumption and level of noise. This can be done either by implementing modern radionavigation aids for terminal areas or by eliminating the flying restrictions over cities and inhabited places and designing of low level of noise procedures for these areas. These solutions have other important benefits like decreasing the workload for the air traffic controllers and reducing the total flight time. The paper describes an operational solution in this manner for Bucharest Henri Coanda International Airport.

  11. Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Urban Areas: Case Study on Bucharest as Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Zamfir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The issues of tourism sustainability and urban development have become major priorities for public policy makers across the globe. Today, maybe more than ever, there is a need for managing sustainable tourism development, and this cannot be attained without taking into account environmental problems and their global dimension. Various problems and requirements of society and of the development of urban areas may be solved by transforming the cities into attractive tourist destinations. Therefore, this study explores how sustainable tourism development in urban areas can be basically achieved and managed. The paper discloses some success factors for managing sustainable tourism development in urban areas and emphasizes a case study regarding Bucharest, the capital of Romania, as a tourist destination. The originality and value of this study consist of identifying the main ways of developing sustainable tourism in Bucharest based upon empirical research conducted with the aid of a survey. The findings of this study may be helpful for upcoming research in the area of managing sustainable urban tourism development.

  12. COMPREHENSIVE COMMUNICATION AND THE QUALITY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATION BUCHAREST STUDENTS BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper will deal with the quality of interpersonal communication in a world in full process of technologization – globalisation. Without underestimating the benefits of information technology and “plethoric” communication we outline the unwanted impact they have when used excessively and exclusively in interpersonal communication. In the second part, we will talk about the connections between the quality of interpersonal relation and the behavioural options of the interlocutors in communication. We will show that achieving a high relational coefficient is an aspect conditioned by practicing comprehensive communication, and empathic listening. The third part synthesises the results of a social survey based on questionnaire. The survey’s goal was to find the behaviours of Bucharest students in their interpersonal communication and to find the way they perceive the quality of communication in Romanian society. It emphasises that in Romanian society the un-comprehensive behaviours are at all levels of society, which limits, blocks, distorts communication, maintaining a general low relational coefficient. Bucharest students experience an emphasised feeling of limitation. This restricts their freedom of expression, suffocating their aspiration to profound first-rate communication.

  13. Improving the shear wave velocity structure beneath Bucharest (Romania) using ambient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Elena Florinela; Michel, Clotaire; Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat; Radulian, Mircea; Balan, Florin Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Large earthquakes from the intermediate-depth Vrancea seismic zone are known to produce in Bucharest ground motion characterized by predominant long periods. This phenomenon has been interpreted as the combined effect of both seismic source properties and site response of the large sedimentary basin. The thickness of the unconsolidated Quaternary deposits beneath the city is more than 200 m, the total depth of sediments is more than 1000 m. Complex basin geometry and the low seismic wave velocities of the sediments are primarily responsible for the large amplification and long duration experienced during earthquakes. For a better understanding of the geological structure under Bucharest, a number of investigations using non-invasive methods have been carried out. With the goal to analyse and extract the polarization and dispersion characteristics of the surface waves, ambient vibrations and low-magnitude earthquakes have been investigated using single station and array techniques. Love and Rayleigh dispersion curves (including higher modes), Rayleigh waves ellipticity and SH-wave fundamental frequency of resonance (f0SH) have been inverted simultaneously to estimate the shear wave velocity structure under Bucharest down to a depth of about 8 km. Information from existing borehole logs was used as prior to reduce the non-uniqueness of the inversion and to constrain the shallow part of the velocity model (Physics and by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology during 10 months in the period 2003-2004. The array consisted of 32 three-component seismological stations, deployed in the urban area of Bucharest and adjacent zones. The large size of the array and the broad-band nature of the available sensors gave us the possibility to characterize the surface wave dispersion at very low frequencies (0.05-1 Hz) using frequency-wavenumber techniques. This is essential to explore and resolve the deeper portions of the basin. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) curves

  14. Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

    2009-04-01

    The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function

  15. Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dragusin Mitica; Pavelescu Octavian Alexandru; Iorga Ioan

    2011-01-01

    The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

  16. The Second Conference of Ministers of Education of European Member States (Bucharest, 1973). International Bureau of Education Reference Service 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    A catalog of the computer-stored data and the SIRE microfiche series relating to the Second Conference of Ministers of Education of European Member States, held in Bucharest in 1973, is presented. Twenty-eight reports on the theme "Higher Education in Europe" are included in the catalog. The broad topics of correspondence courses, educational…

  17. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  18. Preliminary study on epiphytic lichens as an indicator of environmental quality in forests from around Bucharest Municipality (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana VICOL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic lichens were investigated for three forests situated around Bucharest Municipality. The comparative historical background studies concerned with epiphytic lichens in relation to environmental conditions were related. Five variables close related with the distance was analysed within this study, as follow: (1 in close correlation with the distance, the taxonomic analysis reveals a major significance regarding the dominant roll of the genera with a low epiphytic lichens diversity, within the Andronache Forest, unlike Cernica and Pustnicul Forest where, the number of genera is do not significantly owing increasing species number; (2 regarding the substrate, epiphytic lichens species from all investigated forests prefer trees with a roughly rhytidoma. Trees sampled in a great deal belong to the Quercus genus with a roughly rhytidoma facilitating a good growing of epiphytic lichens species because keeps for a long periods of time a high degree of humidity; (3 the analysis of toxi-tolerance degree has shown how the sensitive epiphytic lichens species to pollution is increasing depending on the distance; (4 autsozological categories are marked in a great deal by a great distance from an urban Bucharest area. Thus, the number of rare and disappearing lichens species is increasing direct proportional depending on the distance from the Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests due to improvement of the environmental quality; (5 from geographical distribution of lichens species point of view, take a place an increasing number of epiphytic lichens species which is close correlated with the distance from Bucharest Municipalityarea to investigated forests. In addition, a great importance was conferred the presence of rare and disappearing epiphytic lichensspecies nearest perturbation area of Bucharest Municipality (Andronache Forest. This fact is possible to occur owing to thedirection of prevailed winds. It was used of sensitivity

  19. Identifying and monitoring urban heat island in Bucharest using satellite time series and low cost meteorological sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandric, Ionut; Onose, Diana; Vanau, Gabriel; Ioja, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    The present study is focusing on the identification of urban heat island in Bucharest using both remote sensing products and low cost temperature sensors. The urban heat island in Bucharest was analyzed through a network of sensors located in 56 points (47 inside the administrative boundary of the city, 9 outside) 2009-2011. The network lost progressively its initial density, but was reformed during a new phase, 2013-2015. Time series satellite images from MODIS were intersected with the sensors for both phases. Statistical analysis were conducted to identify the temporal and spatial pattern of extreme temperatures in Bucharest. Several environmental factors like albedou, presence and absence of vegetation were used to fit a regression model between MODIS satellite products sensors in order to upscale the temperatures values recorded by MODIS For Bucharest, an important role for air temperature values in urban environments proved to have the local environmental conditions that leads to differences in air temperature at Bucharest city scale between 3-5 °C (both in the summer and in the winter). The UHI maps shows a good correlation with the presence of green areas. Differences in air temperature between higher tree density areas and isolated trees can reach much higher values, averages over 24 h periods still are in the 3-5 °C range The results have been obtained within the project UCLIMESA (Urban Heat Island Monitoring under Present and Future Climate), ongoing between 2013 and 2015 in the framework of the Programme for Research-DevelopmentInnovation for Space Technology and Advanced Research (STAR), administrated by the Romanian Space Agency Keywords: time series, urban heat island

  20. Multitemporal image analysis of the green space dynamics: raising issues from the Bucharest case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Petrescu, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard; Luca, Oana; Sercaianu, Mihai; Iacoboaea, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of the green space in urban areas are key components for the urban environment monitoring options and of the urban planning strategies. In the European Union, specific regulations provide the quantitative measures for green space areas necessary for each inhabitant of a city. To assess the situation in the case of Bucharest, we used the multitemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery based on Landsat archive available. This enabled us to characterize the possibility to monitor and assess the changes in the vegetation cover over a quarter of a century, and raised a series of issues based on the remote sensing observations and image processing. The quantitative assessment of the green spaces is further developed into proposals related to the green space provisions in urban planning, but also revisions of the quantitative measures used in regulations.

  1. The month-of-the-year effect on Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Panait

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the presence of month-of-the-year effect on Bucharest Stock Exchange using a both a linear regression and a GARCH-M model with dummy variables for both the mean and the variance equation. We have collected monthly returns for five Romanian official exchange indices and for one MSCI Barra country index during May 2007-March 2013, thereby including both the 2007-2009 financial crisis and the recovery that followed during 2009-2013. Our results show that none of the coefficients of the two models are statistically significant, which lead us to conclude that we can not confirm the presence of the January effect or of any other month-of-the-year effect on the Romanian capital market.

  2. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON THE FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SHARES FROM COMPANIES LISTED ON BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina Onica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon passing to a market economy, it became necessary to find out information as accurate as possible regarding the risk of bankruptcy of a certain companyin the future, in order to determine the share of such a risk and the importance of the fundamental analysis within the prediction of the evolution of stock price. In spite of these, specialists say that this type of analysis, in relation to the technical analysis, in the context of the financial crisis, determined an accentuated decrease of the stock exchange indices on an international level. The paper deals with the results of the research and of a comparative study regarding the fundamental analysis of the shares of 6 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB.

  3. Assessment of the Green Infrastructure of Bucharest using CORINE and Urban Atlas data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecology provides the theoretical foundation for assessing the interaction between man and nature in cities. Nature seems to be reduced and malfunctioning, resulting into a decrease in the ecosystem services provided to humans. The new method, based on assessing the green infrastructure, is designed to replace monetary and carbon footprint assessments and be particularly relevant for the urban areas, which grow and change fast and are the main drivers of environmental changes. This study uses 2005-2007 CORINE and Urban Atlas data to look at Bucharest. The results show that, despite of the method, the area occupied by the green infrastructure represents about 1/3 of the total area, corresponding to 50 m2/person, although the green spaces only account for 6.5 m2/person, which is far below the European average (26 m2/person.

  4. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S.; Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L.; Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana; Preoteasa, E. A.; Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M.

    2016-03-01

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. "mineral age" of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  5. SKEWNESS IN STOCK RETURNS: EVIDENCE FROM THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE DURING 2000 – 2011

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    IULIAN PANAIT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the symmetry in stock returns of the 30 most liquid companies traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange during 2000 – 2011 and also the most representative 5 market indices. Our daily data shows that skewness estimates are slightly negative for most indices and individual stocks, but only a few present values significantly different from the characteristics of a normal distribution. We compare our results with skewness estimates for 21 major and emerging stock market indices around the world and find that such results are similar to other low capitalization and trading volume markets. For all the Romanian and international assets studied, the Studentized-Range (St-R and Jarque-Bera (J-B tests reject the hypothesis of normal distribution of daily returns.

  6. Forecast the Impact of Bucharest – Braşov Highway on the Economic and Functional Structure of Human Settlements in Ilfov County

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    PETRONELA NOVĂCESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most publicized issues concerning the infrastructure of Romania is the Bucharest-Braşov highway. The long-awaited project aims to streamline the traffic between the Capital and the central part of the country, representing the central area of the Pan - European Road Corridor IV. The length of the highway on the territory of Ilfov County is 31 km, representing 17% of the total length of Bucharest- Braşov highway. The start of the highway will have strong effects on economic structure and on the way the Bucharest Metropolitan Area will work. We can expect an increase in the disparities between the settlements of Ilfov County. This pattern is also observable on the Bucharest-Ploieşti corridor where, in recent years, much of the Ilfov county's economic activities have migrated to the north, especially along that corridor. Besides economic migration, intense residential migration followed the Bucharest – Ploieşti corridor, residents of the Bucharest itself moving out to the north of Ilfov County. Probably, the future Bucharest – Braşov highway will lead to an increased suburbanization and periurbanization, this in turn giving way to the crowding of the area by businesses eager to have access to the highway. This project will likely increase the gap between north and south of Ilfov County. In addition to changes that may occur at the county level, changes will also have an impact on the localities themselves since the areas located near the highway will have an economic and demographic growth rate superior to more remote areas. In this sense, we conducted a comparative analysis between eight settlements of Ilfov county crossed by the Bucharest-Braşov highway in order to assess the impact. This analysis was based on the information obtained from site and statistical indicators that were processed to obtain a clear picture of the situation in the examined territory.

  7. Spatial polarization at the 2014 Romanian presidential election. A case study on the electoral geography of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgian-Ionuţ GUŢOIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A presidential election was held in Romania on November 2014. The present paper explores the electoral geography of this election in the city of Bucharest. Using spatial statistical modeling our exploratory analysis reveals an important polarization existing at the geographical level. This spatial polarization is highly similar to the polarization that existed at the national political level. These findings suggest that more attention should be given to geographical contexts in understanding Romanian electoral behavior.

  8. Board of Directors Independence and Firm Value: Empirical Evidence Based on the Bucharest Stock Exchange Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Vintila; Stefan Cristian Gherghina

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the influence and causal relationship between board of directors independence, CEO duality, and firm value. By estimating multivariate regression models for panel data, unbalanced, for a sample of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, there resulted a positive influence of the percentage of independent directors on firm value, but down to a threshold of their representation of 47.23 percent, whereupon their influence becomes negative. When we employed fixed-eff...

  9. The Vision and Mission of the University. Case Study – The Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Bratianu; Ionela Jianu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the meaning of the vision and mission statements for a university, in a strategic management reference. We will consider the vision and mission statements of some known world class universities, in order to illustrate the essential points of such formulations. Then, we will perform a critical analysis of the existing vision and mission statements of the Academy of Economic Studies from Bucharest and suggests new statement formulations, as they are essen...

  10. The companies financial architecture and the market values: is there an interlinkage ? The case of Bucharest Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pirtea, Marilen; Bogdan DIMA; Laura Raisa MILOS

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays there is a large debate on whether the financial information proves any relevance for the investors´ prediction of the securities market values/stock prices. The paper focuses, besides reviewing some important literature concerning this issue, on an empirical analysis taking into consideration 44 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange based on pool data linear regressions. It is true that the most recent research state that there is an important evidence of a deterioration of t...

  11. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Göktepe, B. Gül

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since the Bucharest Convention signed in 1992.The Black Sea Region has became a challenging intemational arena for political, scientific and socioeconomic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic ...

  12. Wan light of Lithuania in Bucharest. The sources of a non-declared divorce (1918-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Anghel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Between the Acts of Union and, respectively, of Independence of 1918 and 1926 Romania and Lithuania shared no strategic interests or common regional politics. Although the Bucharest diplomacy insistently asked Warsaw to debate over its Baltic policy, at the end the Romanian-Polish anti-Soviet alliance became one of the most important pieces of so-called “cordon sanitaire” geopolitics, which included Baltic and Black Seas regions countries, but no Lithuania. Both states became locked in cold relations with no contacts and no recognition (until August 1924, which was due to regional politics, but contrary to common interests. The diplomatic relations, officially opened in August 1924, lacked any practical political consequences. The Kaunas coup d’état of December 1926 had little political and media impacts in Bucharest and, in the rarely definitions of Antanas Smetona new nationalist regime, most of Romanians condemned it (contrary with their attitude towards the coup d’état of Warsaw in May 1926. It was only in the last half of the ‘30s that between Bucharest and Kaunas new avenues in bilateral relations had opened, the impact of the fortunate decision of foreign minister Nicolae Titulescu in 1934 to create a Romanian Legation to cover Lithuania.

  13. WHAT MOTIVATES CULTURAL TOURISTS? AN ANALYSIS OF BUCHAREST INHABITANTS' MOTIVATION TO VISIT THE CENTRE REGION

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    Ravar Anamaria Sidonia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism is currently one of the main driving forces of the tourist phenomena, accounting for a significant part of the world's tourist flows. Cultural tourism may take many forms, according to the motivation behind tourists' impetus to travel to a certain destination. Cultural heritage and historical sites, dance, music and theatre performances, art galleries, museums and exhibitions, religious and worship sites and ethnic traditions are the main attractions for tourists motivated by knowledge seeking, self-development and the desire to experience other cultures. Although cultural motivations play an important role in the generation of tourist flows towards cultural tourism destinations, a tourism experience is rarely generated as a result of a single motivation. The act of choosing a specific destination and tourism product is influenced by multiple motivations, not only cultural but also connected to relaxation or family. Furthermore, tourism products are rarely homogeneous – a single holiday may include experiences with cultural content as well as leisure time, sports, adventure or entertainment. Thus, culture is not always the main motivation behind cultural tourism and may in fact be less central to the decision to travel than other factors. This is particularly true in the case of destinations which dispose of various cultural assets, but whose natural tourist resources – such as landscape, climate, access to the sea – also makes them attractive for other types of tourism. The aim of this article is to show that in the case of tourist destinations where cultural attractions represent the vast majority of the areas' tourist heritage, cultural motivations remains central to the decision to travel. Furthermore, we will seek to identify the main types of cultural attractions that motivate cultural tourism in Romania by investigating Bucharest inhabitants' perception of the Centre Region, a cultural destination par excellence in

  14. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  15. Henri H. Stahl’s conception of historical sociology and the Bucharest School of Sociology

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    Nerijus Babinskas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian school of sociology founded by Dimitrie Gusti was a favorable medium for elaborating theoretic ideas. The school became a cradle for at least two prominent theoreticians (Henri H. Stahl and Traian Herseni whose conceptions are worth of attention not only from sociologists but for the theoretically minded historians, too. We should keep in our mind that according to the methodological attitudes of the Bucharest school field researches were highly encouraged. It means that any generalizations, theoretic suggestions or entire conceptions produced by the followers of Gusti were solidly based on empirical data. Stahl started to elaborate his conception of tributalism in the 1960s. Coincidently, at this period the international discussion about the so-called Asiatic mode of production revived so the Stahl‘s theoretic ideas were well-timed. Stahl was not the only Romanian scholar who got involved in the discussion, but his conception was more original: according to him, tributalism should be treated as something different from Oriental despotism although there were some obvious similarities between the two. Despite the fact that the majority of Romanian historian community ignored the Stahl’s innovative conception, there were some attempts in Romania as well as abroad to elaborate (Daniel Chirot or at least to popularize (Miron Constantinescu, Constantin Daniel his ideas.

  16. Information Systems Audit for University Governance in Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies

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    Ion Gh. ROSCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's successful audit leaders never lose sight of the importance of continually assessing and improving the organizations' university governance structure. Focusing on small and large mission, and using practical exercises and individual activities, the auditors will help gain the skills necessary to review and improve university governance structure, while developing techniques to assess risk management activities. Attendees will leave with an understanding of legal and regulatory guidelines as they pertain to university governance and discuss in-depth issues such as business ethics, transparency and disclosure, IT governance and university risks management. Identification, evaluation and management of university risks, is an important element of the university governance system. Today, the Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies is in a complex process to realize a university governance integrate information system. In context of this paperwork there are presented the main aspects for developing and implementing in actual phase information systems audit, to recognize the risks and establish the necessary measures to eliminate them.

  17. Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

  18. Marketing faculty of Bucharest Economic Studies University: historic landmarks, present and future developments

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    Călin Petrică Vegheş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main events that left their mark on the history and evolution of the Marketing Faculty of Bucharest Economic Studies University, an academic body that this will mark its 10th anniversary this fall. As the only school dedicated exclusively to the study of marketing in Romania, as well as one of the few exclusively marketing schools in Europe, the history of the Marketing Department and, subsequently, of the Marketing Faculty overlaps in the last four decades with that of Romanian marketing higher education, as well as with the graduate transformation of Romania’s economy to a post-industrial, information-based and customer centric economy. Part of Economic Sciences domain, marketing contains a set of concepts, tools, methods and techniques through which the organization, irrespective of its profile, analyzes the environment where it lives (marketing research, sets goals and strategies to be achieved (strategic marketing planning, design and execute operational activities (marketing programs in order to maximize profits and to satisfy customer’s and society’s needs at the required level. Marketing as a strategic and operational area, captures the interest of Romanian managers and specialists of international organizations, being a source of competitive advantage and positioning of the company and its portfolio brands, in the mind and soul of current and potential customers

  19. An attempt to appoint a Swedish vice consul to Bucharest (1834-1835

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    Veniamin Ciobanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Sweden at the end of the second decade of the nineteenth century accentuated the interest of the Swedish ruling circles to valorize the new economic potential. A series of measures, as the dissolution of the terrestrial customs between Sweden and Norway in 1825, or the abolition of the protectionist policy in imports, opened the way for the conclusion of certain commercial treaties with other states, such as that with Great Britain in 1826 or with the Ottoman Empire in 1827. Consequently, the commercial fleet, especially the Norwegian one, registered a substantial development. In this context, the Swedish diplomacy continued to pay close attention to Eastern Europe where favorable conditions for the extension of the foreign trade of Sweden and Norway could be found. This space, where the Romanian Principalities were located, had a geostrategic position and economic potential that had to be valorized. In order to achieve this goal, Sweden appointed consuls and vice consuls in the Romanian Principalities. The attempt to appoint a vice consul to Bucharest between 1834 and 1835 circumscribes this effort. The information regarding these demarches came from Swedish diplomatic reports, held in the funds of the National Archives of Sweden (Sveriges Riksarkivet, from Stockholm and offers, among many other details which may serve to broaden the horizon of the research regarding the history of Romanian-Swedish relations in the first half of the nineteenth century, an image of the Lutheran community from the capital of Wallachia.

  20. THE THERMAL COMFORT IN THE SURFACE PUBLIC TRANSPORT FROM BUCHAREST DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

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    D. MORCOTEŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort during the summer period inside the surface public transport from Bucharest. The studies of human biometeorology are few at national level and the existing ones target especially housing or office buildings. This paper aims instead the surface public transport, represented by three categories of vehicles (bus, trolleybus and tram, from a city with over two million passengers per day with this transportation type. The study covers the warm season of the year, because this is the period with the most intense thermal discomfort, due to the excessive daytime heating of the air inside the transport vehicles. This paper is based on the expeditionary measurements undertaken inside seven vehicle models, selected depending on their share in the public transport fleet. A certain transport route was selected for each of those models, and the measurements were performed in certain days, depending on their meteorological characteristics. The study revealed that the construction features of the analyzed vehicles are decisive for the thermal discomfort level of passengers.

  1. Decommissioning the Research Nuclear Reactor Vvr-S Magurele - Analyze, Justification and Selection of Decommissioning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, M.; Popa, V.; Boicu, A.; Tuca, C.; Iorga, I.; Mustata, C.

    2004-09-01

    The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor VVR-S Magurele - Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to permit the facility to be released without representing a further risk to human health and the environment [1-3]. A very important aspect of decommissioning is the analyze, justification and selection of the decommissioning strategy. Two strategies: DECON (Immediate Dismantling) and SAFSTOR (Safe Enclosure) are in study (see Table 1)... Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  2. Linking geological Heritage Conservation to Education and Research at the University of Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasanu, A.

    2012-04-01

    MSc curriculum or intensive courses in geoconservation to form professionals able to provide a holistic view of nature and to work for promotion of geoscience, raise public awareness, educate decision-makers (Andrasanu, 2005, Corte Bacci, 2008, Brihlla, 2009, Zouros and Mckeever, 2009) University of Bucharest developed research and educational projects (Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci) both for geological heritage conservation in the frame of ProGEO and also in fostering geoparks development in Romania. The paper presents geoeducation as part of the geoconservation activities, and the role teaching staff and students are playing in curriculum design, research and educational activities, sustained or developed by University of Bucharest. Three examples were selected to be detailed: (i) a new MSc program Applied Geo-biology in natural and cultural heritage conservation; (ii) Geoconservation as a case study in the frame of the European Virtual Seminar in Sustainable Development (http://www.openuniversiteit.nl), and (iii) Geosciences as part of outdoor learning activities in the frame of the international project In and Out (http://www.viauc.com).

  3. GOVERNANCE ON THE INTERNET. MEASURING THE PERFORMANCES OF E-GOVERNANCE IN BUCHAREST MUNICIPALITIES

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    ANDREI ELVADEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the electronic governance and how it’s functioning in Romania. Being part of a larger institutional reform process, the electronic governance represents a new approach of the relation between Government and the citizen, with the purpose of increasing the participative dimension of the politic action, and as a way to provide more efficient services by the public agencies. E-governance uses information technologies (especially the Internet in the public sector, in order to improve the activity of bureaucratic institutions and encourage citizen participation. This paper analyzes the concept of electronic governance and with a focus on the obvious differences between the ideal model and the way in which these policies are actually implemented in Romania. The analysis was made for the 6 town-halls in Bucharest, but can offer a good sample of how egovernance is made in Romania. The instrument used for measurements is the comprehensive Rutgers egovernance performance index, covered in detail in the article. The areas taken into consideration were the public services offered by the institutions, the usage degree by the citizens and the civic participation dimension, understood as a bi-directional communication between the institutions and the citizen. The final part of the paper is dedicated to explaining the results, with recommendations for the Romanian public institutions. The research has its limits, but the results can draw attention over an institutional process that can represent a huge positive change in the way that governance is usually understood to be made in Romania and a very important improvement in the relation between state and society.

  4. Building competencies for New Gen IV Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator - ALFRED is designed and sustained by several European countries. It is a 300 MWt (125 MWe) reactor, intended to be built in Romania, near the Pitesti site. Pure lead is used as primary coolant and it is foreseen to have a 40% thermal efficiency. Secondary cycle contains superheated water steam at around 450 Celsius degrees. Through ARCADIA cooperation, 26 partners from all over Europe joined their forces to provide the necessary research support for ALFRED. In Romania, several entities are providing nuclear courses but only the University Politechnica of Bucharest is offering a complete training program for nuclear industry but targeted courses for LFR technology need to be developed and implemented. Issues like physics of breeding, coolant analysis and behavior, targeted computer codes, core design and dynamics, safety still needs to be tackled

  5. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  6. Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragusin Mitica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

  7. A new slit stabilization system for the beam energy at the Bucharest tandem Van de Graaff accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moşu, D. V.; Ghiţă, D. G.; Dobrescu, S.; Sava, T.; Mitu, I. O.; Călinescu, I. C.; Naghel, G.; Dumitru, G.; Căta-Danil, Gh.

    2012-11-01

    Recent work has been undertaken to renew the stabilization system for the beam energy at the Bucharest Tandem Accelerator. In the present paper the mechatronic design of the new system is presented and the running consistency of the new electronic circuits is shown. The experimental tests have shown that the new system has improved the quality of the accelerated beams in terms of stability and energy resolution, especially at lower accelerating voltages. As a result of the present development we show an improvement with 20% for the peak to peak medium value of the high voltage ripple on the terminal. This improvement also allowed to lower the minimum stable voltage on the terminal from 1.5 MV to 0.8 MV.

  8. STUDY ON FINANCIAL COMMUNICATIONS FROM PUBLIC RETAIL COMPANIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS – MILANO STOCK EXCHANGE AND BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

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    Veronica R GROSU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis that hit the world economy has shown that for retail companies, growth continued to record only for those who held full control over every point of sale. The objective of our work is focused on the analysis of the most important financial indicators that a retail company should focus on and include in communication with external stakeholders. We make the connection with problems of the real economy through a comparative study of Romania and Italy, in which we analyze retail companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE and a similar number of retail companies listed on the Milan Stock Exchange (MSE. The importance of the topic stems from the fact that it is essential for understanding how consumers relate the various retail companies and how the latter model their structure or behavior depending on the requirements and needs of the former.

  9. Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

    2010-05-01

    In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic

  10. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

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    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  11. Methods to Assess the Site Effects Based on in situ Measurements in large urban Areas. Application in Bucharest City, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Hannich, D.

    2009-04-01

    In seismic microzonation we want to display the variation in seismic response of the subsurface and subsequently determine where the soil is being amplified to a level that may damage existing buildings. Although is not always adequate, frequently peak ground acceleration (PGA)is used to determine the maximum horizontal forces that can be expected. Considering the earthquake of 27.10.2004 (Mw = 6), the PGA map of the horizontal component EW shows variation in the PGA from 16 to 60 cm/s*s in the Bucharest area of 20 km diameter. Most of this variation is due to the package of the Quaternary sedimentary layers which amplify the original strong motion arrived from the earthquake. The largest amplification of the soil will occur at the lowest natural frequency or its fundamental frequency. In situ measurements of shear wave velocity in the soil and the soil thickness, provide a direct measure of the characteristic site period. But the sedimentary layers will also amplify the original frequency content of the earthquake signal arriving at the bedrock during a moderate or strong earthquake. Thus borehole recordings of acceleration during an earthquake is also an important issue. Extensively seismic noise measurements is a much accessible method and computed H/V spectral ratio can also provide a good indication on the fundamental frequency of the site. Within the NATO-funded Science for Peace Project 981882 "Site-effect analyses for the earthquake-endangered metropolis Bucharest, Romania" the drilling and the Vp and Vs (seismic longitudinal and shear-wave velocities) measurements in ten boreholes were done in the years 2006-2007 (Bala et al., 2007). Rock samples were taken from each borehole at different depths for laboratory tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of each sedimentary rock type at the sites. Thus a valuable data base is assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which

  12. The Early Warning System(EWS) as First Stage to Generate and Develop Shake Map for Bucharest to Deep Vrancea Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmureanu, G.; Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, A.; Grecu, B.; Cioflan, C.

    2007-12-01

    EWS made by NIEP is the first European system for real-time early detection and warning of the seismic waves in case of strong deep earthquakes. EWS uses the time interval (28-32 seconds) between the moment when earthquake is detected by the borehole and surface local accelerometers network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area, to deliver timely integrated information in order to enable actions to be taken before a main destructive shaking takes place. Early warning system is viewed as part of an real-time information system that provide rapid information, about an earthquake impeding hazard, to the public and disaster relief organizations before (early warning) and after a strong earthquake (shake map).This product is fitting in with other new product on way of National Institute for Earth Physics, that is, the shake map which is a representation of ground shaking produced by an event and it will be generated automatically following large Vrancea earthquakes. Bucharest City is located in the central part of the Moesian platform (age: Precambrian and Paleozoic) in the Romanian Plain, at about 140 km far from Vrancea area. Above a Cretaceous and a Miocene deposit (with the bottom at roundly 1,400 m of depth), a Pliocene shallow water deposit (~ 700m thick) was settled. The surface geology consists mainly of Quaternary alluvial deposits. Later loess covered these deposits and the two rivers crossing the city (Dambovita and Colentina) carved the present landscape. During the last century Bucharest suffered heavy damage and casualties due to 1940 (Mw = 7.7) and 1977 (Mw = 7.4) Vrancea earthquakes. For example, 32 high tall buildings collapsed and more then 1500 people died during the 1977 event. The innovation with comparable or related systems worldwide is that NIEP will use the EWS to generate a virtual shake map for Bucharest (140 km away of epicentre) immediately after the magnitude is estimated

  13. Leadership Strategies in Promoting the Image of the Mayors on the Websites of Sector Town Halls and of Bucharest City Hall

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    Viorica PĂUȘ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the leadership strategies used by the mayors of the six sectors and the General Mayor of Bucharest in order to represent and promote the organizational image and their own image. The success, performance and competitiveness of sector town halls and Bucharest City Hall also depend on the quality of leadership and the leaders’ ability to use appropriate, attractive and customized online communication strategies in order to inform the citizens and achieve their electoral goals. This research has the following objectives: (a to identify the online strategies used by the seven mayors-leaders; (b to identify the salience of tactics used by the seven mayors; (c to identify the ethos categories within the mayors’ online messages.

  14. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu

    2010-05-01

    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  15. Young generation in Romanian nuclear system - Romanian nuclear organizations implication in nuclear knowledge management at University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest: Results and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The knowledge management should be assumed by the major players within the nuclear community: government, industry and university. Starting from these problems this article gives an overview about Romanian nuclear knowledge management and the Young Generation implications. In Romania there are many government and non-government nuclear institutions such: CNCAN (Romanian Regulatory Body), ROMATOM (Romanian Atomic Forum), AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association), and companies: SNN ('Nuclearelectrica' SA National Company), CITON (Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects), SCN (Institute for Nuclear Research ), ROMAG - PROD ( Romanian Heavy Water Plant). All these institutes and companies are sustaining the national nuclear program and promoting the new technologies in the nuclear industry according with CNCAN and ROMATOM regulations. University 'POLITEHNICA' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - through Nuclear Power Plant Department is the promoter of nuclear knowledge management. It is implied in assuring and maintaining a high - quality training for young staff. Young Generation is implicated in nuclear knowledge management through University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - Nuclear Power Plant Department and AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association). Young Generation Department has special educational programs for attracting and supporting students. It provides adequate information and interacts with potential students. Moreover the article gives results about Romanian nuclear engineers since 1970 till now. An analysis of these data is done. Also it is discussed how University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest, the Romanian Government and the Industry work together to co-ordinate more effectively their efforts to encourage the young generation. (author)

  16. The Metropolitan Area of the Municipality of Bucharest. Present-Day Features Relating to Some Environmental Issues in an International Context

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    INES GRIGORESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of metropolitan areas represents the main characteristic of today’s urban evolution trends. The first initiatives to delimitate and define metropolitan areas have been in the United States since 1910. In Europe, this concept was adopted at the beginning of the1990s when the United States had already had 250 metropolitan areas. Romania adopted the concept of metropolitan area in the late 1990s, namely in 1997 when a study on the Directions, Ways, and Intensities of Development in the Municipality of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Zone. Environmental protection politics appeared. This made public a point of view about the Bucharest metropolitan area, which was legally defined by Law no. 351 of July 6th 2001 regarding the National Territory Management Plan, Section IV – Settlements. But many other limits of this area were also taken into account. The uncontrolled evolution of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area as well as of many other European capital cities can be stopped or stabilized by developing green belts or green areas.

  17. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  18. A “Dynasty” of Hellenists in twentieth-century Bucharest: Demosthene Russo, Ariadna Camariano-Cioran and Nestor Camariano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Rados

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Romanian academic circles became more interested in the study of Greek-Romanian relations towards the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth. Demosthene Russo, a young Greek immigrant to Romania, educated at Constantinople, Athens, Berlin and Leipzig, profited from this favourable trend; he managed to establish at the University of Bucharest, after 1915, a powerful centre for Byzantine and Neohellenic research and to impose his own critical school, based upon a rigorous method, in direct competition with the line directed by the most highly acknowledged Romanian historian, Nicolae Iorga, a researcher with many achievements and famous initiatives in South-East European studies. In the interwar period Russo took on the responsibility for the education of his nephew and niece, Nestor and Ariadna Camariano, to whom he transmitted his appetite for detailed research and critical methods in his field and whom he left to continue his work. The three have deeply marked the study of the history of Hellenism; they distinguished themselves, sometimes under unfavourable circumstances, by their valuable scientific production, opening new directions in the cultural history of South-East Europe.

  19. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE IMPROVEMENT OF MARKETING ACTIVITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IN BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After a prolonged and complex process of reconstruction, extension and modernization, Central University Library "Carol I" in Bucharest has re-opened to public access in November 2001, bringing a new concept on what library services should mean. Under these auspicious circumstances, the library's offer has widened, the quality of services offered has improved, gradually displaying an interest in developing a closer relationship with its customers. The necessity of being more oriented to the marketing tools and techniques has become more apparent. Therefore, the top managers of the Central University Library have included in their three general development strategies produced so far, specific objectives, such as: an increase of the volume of paid serviced provided, promoting the services and work elaborated by its specialists through leaflets, presentations, albums, folders with press extracts. Beyond these actions with positive effects, the efforts of Central University Library for strengthening its position on the market of the providers of information services are diminished by the various malfunctions that characterize the marketing activity of this institution. Therefore, this work intends to contribute to the improvement of the marketing activity of the library by coming up with some solutions that could remove or at least diminish these weak points.

  20. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  1. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model – a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Armaș

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model. Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA. This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  2. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model) - a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Gavriş, A.

    2013-06-01

    In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model) and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model). Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BUCHAREST URBAN AREA CASE STUDY: 1. 07. 2006 – 31.03.2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU NICOLAE CRISTIAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of or inside urban and industrial areas can substantially exceed environmental background levels and can be detrimental to human health and welfare. In this period of analysis (July 2006 – March 2007, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC was exceeded especially at Mihai Bravu and Cercul Militar. The accompanying diagrams showing the time evolution and charts revealing the spatial distribution of CO ambient air concentrations (based on GIS techniques can be useful instruments in identifying the potential risk areas, like the important streets in the center of Bucharest.

  4. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  5. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  6. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  7. THUNDERSTORMS-RISK FACTORS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: AREA OF RESPONSABILITY OF THE BUCHAREST-OTOPENI AERODROME ON 30.06.2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. ŞCHIOPU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms are always dangerous weather phenomena for flight safety and, irrespective of their nature, they have a negative impact on all aviation activities. Thunderstorm clouds can generate severe and rapid changes of various meteorological elements (visibility, cloudiness and cloud lower base, wind, sometimes to such a great extent that landing may become impossible. Thunderstorms are serious weather hazards in aviation and may produce great damage and even casualties. One such unfortunate aviation event took place in the vicinity of the Bucharest-Otopeni Aerodrome, on 30.06.2009, when a military aircraft, which was operating a training flight in the responsibility area of the Bucharest - Otopeni military aerodrome, was struck by lightning at local hour 18:20. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the relevant weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages from that very day. All these materials showed that the airdrome of destination was under the influence of an anti-cyclonic ridge, which accounted for the very poor meteorological conditions. On such severe weather, although the crew members tried to avoid the Cumulonimbus clouds in which a severe thunderstorm was developing, the flight was put in danger since the aircraft was struck by lightning, which simply blurred out the radar system and, therefore, landmarks orientation became almost impossible, thus creating false perceptions to the pilots trying hard to stabilize the plane.

  8. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  9. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  10. Tradition and prospects in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In my talk concerning the commemoration of Professor Horia Hulubei, I would like to recall first of all, that at the beginning of the thirties, being a young visiting scientist in France, Horia Hulubei was among the first pioneers of transmutation reactions by using accelerated beams. Afterwards, I would like to recall, that another link of Horia Hulubei's activities with the Nuclear Physics in the thirties, is his effort directed to the search for transuranium elements in nature. Further I will remind the direct involvement of Professor Horia Hulubei as a chief of school in the Nuclear Physics research, that were initiated in Romania in the late fifties, after the installing of the WWR-S Reactor and of the Cyclotron in Bucharest. Finally, I would like to add some considerations related to present trends in Nuclear Physics at the international level. The paper contains the following sections: 1 Introduction; 2. Horia Hulubei - A pioneer in transmutation reactions with accelerated beams at the beginning of the thirties; 3. Horia Hulubei's researches concerning the identification of transuranic elements in nature; 4. Horia Hulubei - A leader of the Nuclear Physics School at the Institute of Atomic Physics in Romania; 5. Prospects of Nuclear Physics research; 6. Some recent results in the fusion induced by halo nuclei

  11. An integrated strategy for modelling and simulating the transitory regimes in Nuclear Power Plants. Proactive educational and training oriented approach at the University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a brief presentation of the preoccupation of the thermohydraulics modelling and simulating group acting at the Power Plants Department of the Faculty of Power Engineering in Bucharest aiming at creating an integrated software library to study the NPP components in abnormal and transitory regimes. The studies accomplished developed mathematical models which can be solved by using advanced codes (ACSR, MMS, MATLAB) and can be integrated in an evolving strategy for simulation. The basic elements of this strategy are: modular modelling, anticipatory approach of the evolution of the analysed systems and adaptive dynamic control. The global goal of developed simulations is an efficient identification and control of the transitory regimes having an impact on the safety performances of the plant. (author). 2 tabs. 3 figs., 12 refs

  12. STUDY ON DISCLOSURE LEVEL OF COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS: THE CASE OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA GORGAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic globalization, the need for high quality financial information has become a desiderate. Accounting met such needs through a set of high quality standards, the International Financial Reporting Standards. Their global imposing, either through adoption or convergence, make its contribution to proper functioning of capital markets and even of the entire economy. The quality of financial reporting, however, is the result of how they are applied in each country or company. The objective of our study is to analyze the disclosure level of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE in compliance with the presentation requirements of the international accounting standard IAS 38 “Intangible assets”. The empirical study revealed a significant level of non-compliance. In order to determine the degree of compliance with international accounting referential we built a disclosure index. Four hypothesis were tested in order to identify the factors that influence the disclosure level.

  13. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR COMBATING DISCRIMINATION – COURT OF JUSTICE OF EUROPEAN UNION – BUCHAREST COURT OF APPEAL. CAUSE C-81/12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian JURA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this investigation consists in closing the jurisdictional circle initiated in 2010 and analysing the national and European procedural, jurisdictional-administrative issues, in case of notifying some institutions related to certain discriminatory assertions. The investigation relies on assertions made during a radio show. On 12 October 2011 the Bucharest Court of Appeal ruled the notification of the Court of Justice of European Union related to preliminary questions formulated and ordered the suspension of the case until the settlement of the procedure. In 2013, the Bucharest Court of Appeal, although initially accepting the preliminary application of ACCEPT, submitting the case to the Court of Justice of European Union in order to determine the manner of interpretation of communitarian legislation related to the claims of plaintiff, eventually all arguments of CNCD have been accepted that is the warning is an effective, reasonable, dissuasive and (contextual proportional sanction, and such declaration cannot be understood as a discrimination in the labour field. De facto, the assertions of CNCD were in full agreement with the resolution of the Court of Justice of European Union, that is the communitarian legislation does not exclude the application of some sanctions without pecuniary character, such as the sanction with warning, since this kind of sanction does not have only a symbolic character, being a contraventional legal sanction, mainly when associated a relevant degree of advertising (such in the case, and the addressee is addressed, with arguments, directly and expressly the recommendation of meeting the non-discrimination principle, under the implicit effect of a more drastic sanction in case of relapse (discrimination in the same field.

  14. Ground level ozone (O3) associated with radon (222Rn) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Bucharest metropolitan area and adverse health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to contribute with new information in the application of ground based radon (222Rn) observations to atmospheric research, namely its relation with air pollution due to ground-level ozone (O3) and particle matter in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. During January 1-December 31, 2011, ground levels of radon, ozone and particulate matter (PM) have been continuously monitored in synergy with the main meteorological parameters (air temperature, humidity and pressure), and daily global air quality indices. A systematic analysis of surface ozone observations of ground level radon, ozone and PM is presented. Observational results indicate the following yearly daily mean ground level concentrations: 40.26 ± 7.54 Bq/m3 for radon, 90.51 μg/m3 for ozone, 35.96 μg/m3 for PM2.5, and 40.91 μg/m3 for PM10. The assessment of the results showed the influence of local and meteorological conditions on the daily mean radon, ozone and PM concentrations. However, in densely populated metropolitan area of Bucharest the mean daily values of ozone, PM2.5, PM10, and attached 222Rn are sometimes higher than European Community limit values leading to serious public concern during the last years. Due to the high risk of increased levels of O3, PM2.5, PM10, and attached 222Rn on human health respiratory function (especially for children and older persons), and urban green, the results are very useful for atmospheric, radiological protection, epidemiological and environmental studies. (author)

  15. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  16. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  2. Safe operation of a TRIGA reactor in the situation of LEU-HEU core conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanian TRIGA reactor was commissioned in 1980. The location of the research institute is Pitesti, 100 Km west of Bucharest. In fact there are two independent cores sharing the same pool. There are a 14 MW Steady State Reactor (SSR), high flux, and materials testing reactor and an Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR). The SSR reactor is a forced convection reactor cooled via a primary circuit with 4 pumps and 3 heat exchangers. The ACPR is natural convection cooled by the pool water. Modifications performed concerning core configuration resulted in the following. Removal the central pin from the bundle leads to slightly temperature increase of approximately 1% for the corner and edge pins, for the same pin power density. Also, the temperature slightly decreases for the 4 pins adjacent to the water hole. This is caused by the coolant flow redistribution. But, according to preliminary neutronic computations, PPF-s are decreasing, the edge and corner temperatures changes are no more detectable. DNB are decreasing, leading to a safer operation. Fuel management of TRIGA steady state core allows to obtain the requested fluxes for experimental reasons in the safer operation conditions. We can firmly state that the present operation of the reactor and the HEU-LEU core conversion fully respect the provisions of the National Regulatory Body and the IAEA. On the other side, we have to mention the common fact that research reactors cannot sustain themselves in the financial domain. The lack of sufficient financial support leads to shortage of the maintenance programs and to reduce of activities and personnel member; this is a real danger in maintaining the actual standards of nuclear safety. During this transition period, the Romanian TRIGA reactor is used much its capability in the frame of international cooperation this facility can ensure support for various research programmes in the fields of interest

  3. Implementation of Eugene Wigner Training Course at University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest Power Engineering Faculty Nuclear Power Plant Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 'Eugene Wigner Course' Training Course for Reactor Physics Experiments has been supported by the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, and it has been integrated in the ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network) program. This project has been prepared for the future European Nuclear Education schemes and degrees. Starting from a general presentation of the course this paper presents my opinion as a former student about the course impact. Presented is my opinion about the following: The content of theoretical courses; The usefulness of the textbook; The content of the practical experiments; The usefulness of the textbook for the practical experiments, and evaluations. Moreover, parts of this course were implemented to my seminars. Results and also expectations and conclusions about the usefulness of the course are presented. (author)

  4. STRATEGIC OPTIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUCHAREST BRAND THROUGH THE APPLICATION ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS FOR THE URBAN BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUXANDRA IRINA POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality demonstrates that, in the present context, the competition between the cities is harsh, amplified by the economic and politic effects of the globalization. Thecities are fighting to attract investments, influence, businesses, tourists, residents. One of the challenges of the urban management in its efforts to grow the performance is linked around the construction of the urban brand as a solution in the process of the cities’ development. This construction implies the validity, credibility, simplicity, attractiveness and distinctiveness of the city’s image. The answer of the researchers to the need of a critical effective instrument in this area was the creation of the Urban Brand Index. Through these measuring instruments, the actors implied in the administration of the cities can easily understand the perception of the visitors, investors, costumers and future residents upon the image of the city, to identify and apply some pro-active measures to stimulate and improvement of the existing opportunities that have as main result the development of the city. In this study are presented three of these instruments - The City Brands Index, The European Barometer of City Brands and The Global Cities Index - and the way in which these can contribute to the actions for constructing a powerful urban brand of Bucharest, is analyzed.

  5. Estimate of the internal doses received by the population of Bucharest due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr intake in the first five years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the 137 Cs and 90 Sr daily intake between April 1986 and March 1991 as well as the internal doses resulting from ingestion of contaminated food is presented for a group of adults living in Bucharest. The results indicate that the effective doses due to 137 Cs and 90 Sr dietary intake had the highest values in the first year after the Chernobyl accident, namely, 796 μSv as a result of 137 Cs dietary intake and 23 μSv as a result of the 90 Sr dietary intake. The effective doses committed annually due to the Caesium-137 dietary intake decreased very fast from 796 μSv committed in the first year after the accident to 7.3 μSv committed in the fifth year after the accident. Although the effective dose committed in the first year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was much smaller than the dose due to the Caesium-137 (23 μSv), the decrease was slower so that the effective dose committed in the fifth year after the accident due to the Strontium-90 dietary intake was 7.5 μSv. (authors)

  6. The 1921 Agrarian Reform in Transylvania and its Reflection in the Considerations of the Members of the Bucharest School of Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELEGDY, Balázs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1921 agrarian reform aimed to be a significant step towards Romania’s agricultural development. The main motive of this reform – at least on a declarative level – was a socially oriented one: to expropriate a part of the big landowners’ estates, and to distribute in among the poverty-stricken people, with a special concern towards the First World War veterans, or their widows. At the same time, the agrarian reform recognised the differences in development between the different regions of the newly-formed Greater Romania, and as such there were two different laws regulating the reform processes in the Old Kingdom and in the newly annexed territories. The members of the Bucharest School of Sociology, based on the scarce data available to them to the time, approached the economically questionable results of this reform in a critical manner. József Venczel, who had acquired the bases of his professional knowledge at the same school, also proves, with regard to the Transylvanian land reform, that this had a second, national policy oriented goal, and its implementation was also ethnically biased.

  7. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Vanderwert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG or care as usual (CAUG and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8–13 Hz, but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15–30 Hz, except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development.

  8. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. PMID:26724564

  9. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  10. Time-series MODIS satellite and in-situ data for spatio-temporal distribution of aerosol pollution assessment over Bucharest metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.

    2015-10-01

    With the increasing industrialization and urbanization, especially in the metropolis regions, aerosol pollution has highly negative effects on environment. Urbanization is responsible of three major changes that may have impact on the urban atmosphere: replacement of the natural surfaces with buildings and impermeable pavements, heat of anthropogenic origin and air pollution. The importance of aerosols for radiative and atmospheric chemical processes is widely recognized. They can scatter and/or absorb solar radiation leading to changes of the radiation budget. Also, the so-called indirect effect of aerosols describes the cloud-aerosol interactions, which can modify the chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. Their high spatial variability and short lifetime make spaceborne sensors especially well suited for their observation. Remote sensing is a key application in global-change science and urban climatology. Since the launch of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) there is detailed global aerosol information available, both over land and oceans The aerosol parameters can be measured directly in situ or derived from satellite remote sensing observations. All these methods are important and complementary. The objective of this work was to document the seasonal and inter-annual patterns of the aerosol pollution particulate matter in two size fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) loading and air quality index (AQI) over Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania based on in-situ and MODIS (Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer) satellite time series data over 2010-2012 period. Accurate information of urban air pollution is required for environmental and health policy, but also to act as a basis for designing and stratifying future monitoring networks.

  11. Negative Ecodomy in Romanian Politics and Religion: Anti-Muslim Attitudes in the Bucharest Mosque Scandal during the Summer of 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu C. Simuț

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a chronology of events presented by the Romanian media, especially newspapers with national coverage and impact like Gândul and Adevărul, between the first week of June to the first week of September 2015, when the issue of having a mosque erected in Bucharest, the capital city of Romania, was intensely debated by intellectuals, politicians, and religious professionals. The debates were intensely heated from the onset of these events and most of them revealed that most of the participants were driven by anti-Muslim attitudes, xenophobia, and assertive nationalism, a complex of feelings that I called “negative ecodomy”. The concept of “negative ecodomy” presupposes an attempt to built a safe environment, in this case for Romanians in their own country, but the adjective “negative” was added to the the positive idea of “ecodomy” because these efforts to offer a safe context for Romanians were accompanied by the negativity of anti-Muslim, xenophobic, and nationalistic activities. This array of negative ecodomic attitudes were displayed by Romanians not only in online media but also in the street through protests and other similar actions in a country which has been a member of the European Union for almost a decade and was supposed to adhere to the European Union’s basic principles of multiculturalism and the free circulation of persons. The totality of these events show that Romanians are still rather far from accepting the European Union’s fundamental philosophy or perhaps these principles themselves should be reconsidered and reinterpreted in the context of the massive Middle Eastern and African immigration and the constant, if not increasing threat of Islamic terrorism.

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  14. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assemblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters in the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters in the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance

  16. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent shocks exerted on a vent head due to pool-swell caused within a pressure suppression chamber (disposed in a torus configuration around the dry well) upon loss of coolant accident in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The following relationship is established between the volume V (m3) of a dry well and the ruptured opening area A (m2) at the boundary expected upon loss of coolant accident: V >= 30340 (m) x A Then, the volume of the dry well is made larger than the ruptured open area, that is, the steam flow rate of leaking coolants upon loss of coolant accident to decrease the pressure rise in the dry well at the initial state where loss of coolant accident is resulted. Accordingly, the pressure of non-compressive gases jetted out from the lower end of the downcomer to the pool water is decreased to suppress the pool-swell. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Research Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published in English and in French, this large report first proposes an overview of the use and history of research nuclear reactors. It discusses their definition, and presents the various types of research reactors which can be either related to nuclear power (critical mock-ups, material test reactors, safety test reactors, training reactors, prototypes), or to research (basic research, industry, health), or to specific particle physics phenomena (neutron diffraction, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography, semiconductor doping). It reports the history of the French research reactors by distinguishing the first atomic pile (ZOE), and the activities and achievements during the fifties, the sixties and the seventies. It also addresses the development of instrumentation for research reactors (neutron, thermal, mechanical and fission gas release measurements). The other parts of the report concern the validation of neutronics calculations for different reactors (the EOLE water critical mock-up, the MASURCA air critical mock-up dedicated to fast neutron reactor study, the MINERVE water critical mock-up, the CALIBAN pulsed research reactor), the testing of materials under irradiation (OSIRIS reactor, laboratories associated with research reactors, the Jules Horowitz reactor and its experimental programs and related devices, irradiation of materials with ion beams), the investigation of accident situations (on the CABRI, Phebus, Silene and Jules Horowitz reactors). The last part proposes a worldwide overview of research reactors

  1. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  2. National facilities for the management of institutional radioactive waste in Romania: 25 years of operation for radioactive waste treatment plant, Bucharest-Magurele, 15 years of operation for national radioactive repository, Baita-Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes in Romania is centralized at IFIN-HH in the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR) Bucharest-Magurele and the National Repository of Radioactive Waste (DNDR) Baita-Bihor. From November 1974 to November 1999 there were treated at STDR nearly 26,000 m3 LLAW, 2,100 m3 LLSW and 4,000 spent sources resulting over 5,500 conditioned packages disposed at DNDR. After 25 years of operation for STDR and 15 years of operation for DNDR an updating programme started in 1991. The R and D programme will improve the basic knowledge and waste management practices for the increasing of nuclear safety in the field. (authors)

  3. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  4. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  5. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  7. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  8. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  9. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  10. Nuclear reactor repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable free repairing of an arbitrary position in an LMFBR reactor. Constitution: A laser light emitted from a laser oscillator installed out of a nuclear reactor is guided into a portion to be repaired in the reactor by using a reflecting mirror, thereby welding or cutting it. The guidance of the laser out of the reactor into the reactor is performed by an extension tube depending into a through hole of a rotary plug, and the guidance of the laser light into a portion to be repaired is performed by the transmitting and condensing action of the reflecting mirror. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  12. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  13. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  14. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  15. INAA of microelements in plant species from the Danube floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was developed and implemented in the Danube floodplain, as a part of a program dealing with biogeochemistry of metals, to assess the possibility of using the ubiquitous plant species in the soil pollution monitoring activity. The Danube River is heavily polluted by the input from a catchment, which includes 12 countries. Even if the concentrations in the Danube water and sediments reach acute values only in some hot spots, due to the dilution effect, they could have negative consequences by phenomena of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration. The content of Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V and Zn in Bidens tripartita, Rubus caesius, Stachys palustris and Xanthium strumarium ubiquitous plant species, collected from two areas located on different regularly flooded islands of the Danube river was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis method at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. From the statistical point of view, three groups of elements present highly correlated concentrations in the investigated plant samples (p(0.05))//. The first one includes Al, As, Ce, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Th and V, the second one Au, Ca, Cu and Sr, and the third one Br, Cr, Na and Mn. For the elements of the first group, the elemental concentrations are found to be in similar ratios in the species investigated, namely: Xanthium s. < Rubus c. < Bidens t. < Stachys p. as well as for the third group: Bidens t. < Rubus c. < Stachys p. < Xanthium s, suggesting that physiological features of the species could be responsible for the observed patterns of distribution. The soil and dominating plant species were analysed for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Zr by the X-ray fluorescence method at the Institute for Geological Explorations, Bucharest. The elemental content in soil is reflected in the analysed plants for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, but not for Mn. This could be explained by the redox

  16. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  17. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  19. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  1. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  2. Conferinţa Mondială a Populaţiei, Bucureşti 1974. Semnificaţii politice (World Population Conference, Bucharest 1974. Political Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar STANCIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1974, the United Nations organized the first inter-governmental conference dedicated especially to problems of population and demography. Apart from technical issue involved, the conference represented yet another manifestation of disagreements between the industrialized countries, on one hand, and the underdeveloped or developing countries. The first group argued that overpopulation was a major risk as the Earth did not have sufficient resources to feed the ever-growing population and birth control measures were required. The latter group disagreed with this perspective and claimed that population issues could be solved only by the development of the poor countries. Development, argued this group of countries, had to be insured by a restructuring of the international economy and more financial assistance from the developed countries. This paper examines Romania’s position in this context, analyzing how the regime in Bucharest tried to balance between foreign constraints such as its obligation as host country to remain neutral, its effort to build bridges to the underdeveloped or developing countries thus trying to tacitly evade it international status of Warsaw Pact member and gain acceptance in the Group of 77. The World Population Conference in 1974 is a conclusive case study for Romania’s foreign policy after the Soviet-American détente of 1972.

  3. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-09-01

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  4. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Research Reactor No.3 (JRR-3) was the first reactor consisting of 'Japanese-made' components alone except for fuel and heavy water. After reaching its initial critical state in September 1962, JRR-3 had been in operation for 21 years until March 1983. It was decided that the reactor be removed en-bloc in view of the work schedule, cost and management of the reactor following the removal. In the special method developed jointly by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute and Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., the reactor main unit was cut off from the building by continuous core boring, with its major components bound in the block with biological shield material (heavy concrete), and then conveyed and stored in a large waste store building constructed near the reactor building. Major work processes described in this report include the cutting off, lifting, horizontal conveyance and lowering of the reactor main unit. The removal of the JRR-3 reactor main unit was successfully carried out safely and quickly by the en-block removal method with radiation exposure dose of the workers being kept at a minimum. Thus the high performance of the en-bloc removal method was demonstrated and, in addition, valuable knowhow and other data were obtained from the work. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  6. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  7. Research reactor DHRUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DHRUVA, a 100 MWt research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, attained first criticality during August, 1985. The reactor is fuelled with natural uranium and is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. Maximum thermal neutron flux obtained in the reactor is 1.8 X 1014 n/cm2/sec. Some of the salient design features of the reactor are discussed in this paper. Some important features of the reactor coolant system, regulation and protection systems and experimental facilities are presented. A short account of the engineered safety features is provided. Some of the problems that were faced during commissioning and the initial phase of power operation are also dealt upon

  8. TRIGA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General-Atomic) has become the most used research reactor in the world with 65 units operating in 24 countries. The original patent for TRIGA reactors was registered in 1958. The success of this reactor is due to its inherent level of safety that results from a prompt negative temperature coefficient. Most of the neutron moderation occurs in the nuclear fuel (UZrH) because of the presence of hydrogen atoms, so in case of an increase of fuel temperature, the neutron spectrum becomes harder and neutrons are less likely to fission uranium nuclei and as a consequence the power released decreases. This inherent level of safety has made this reactor fit for training tool in university laboratories. Some recent versions of TRIGA reactors have been designed for medicine and industrial isotope production, for neutron therapy of cancers and for providing a neutron source. (A.C.)

  9. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  10. Iris reactor conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V. [Westinghouse Electric Comp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cinotti, L. [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  11. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  12. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  14. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1977 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committee on Reactor Physics. (Author)

  15. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1983 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  16. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities conducted in Reactor Engineering Division in fiscal 1975 are summarized in this report. Works in the division are closely related to the development of multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering research of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Many achievements are described concerning nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  17. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  18. Safety of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of research reactors that have been constructed worldwide for civilian applications is about 651. Of the reactors constructed, 284 are currently in operation, 258 are shut down and 109 have been decommissioned. More than half of all operating research reactors worldwide are over thirty years old. During this long period of time national priorities have changed. Facility ageing, if not properly managed, has a natural degrading effect. Many research reactors face concerns with the obsolescence of equipment, lack of experimental programmes, lack of funding for operation and maintenance and loss of expertise through ageing and retirement of the staff. Other reactors of the same vintage maintain effective ageing management programmes, conduct active research programmes, develop and retain high calibre personnel and make important contributions to society. Many countries that operate research reactors neither operate nor plan to operate power reactors. In most of these countries there is a tendency not to create a formal regulatory body. A safety committee, not always independent of the operating organization, may be responsible for regulatory oversight. Even in countries with nuclear power plants, a regulatory regime differing from the one used for the power plants may exist. Concern is therefore focused on one tail of a continuous spectrum of operational performance. The IAEA has been sending missions to review the safety of research reactors in Member States since 1972. Some of the reviews have been conducted pursuant to the IAEA' functions and responsibilities regarding research reactors that are operated within the framework of Project and Supply Agreements between Member States and the IAEA. Other reviews have been conducted upon request. All these reviews are conducted following procedures for Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) missions. The prime objective of these missions has been to conduct a comprehensive operational safety

  19. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993). The major Department's programs promoted in the year are the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor, the design activities of advanced reactor system and development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the engineering applications including TRU incineration. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on the nuclear data and group constants, the developments of theoretical methods and codes, the reactor physics experiments and their analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project were also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  20. Reactor engineering department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1989 (April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990). One of major Department's programs is the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor and the design activities of advanced reactor system. Development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the nuclear engineering including is also TRU incineration promoted. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on nuclear data and group constants, theoretical methods and code development, on reactor physics experiments and analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics, technology assessment of nuclear energy and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  1. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Test reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Development Program created a need for engineering testing of fuels and materials. The Engineering Test Reactors were developed around the world in response to this demand. The design of the test reactors proved to be different from that of power reactors, carrying the fuel elements closer to the threshold of failure, requiring more responsive instrumentation, more rapid control element action, and inherent self-limiting behavior under accident conditions. The design of the experimental facilities to exploit these reactors evolved a new, specialized, branch of engineering, requiring a very high-lvel scientific and engineering team, established a meticulous concern with reliability, the provision for recovery from their own failures, and detailed attention to possible interactions with the test reactors. This paper presents this technology commencing with the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) through the Fast Flux Test Facility, some of the unique experimental facilities developed to exploit them, but discusses only cursorily the experiments performed, since sample preparation and sample analyses were, and to some extent still are, either classified or proprietary. The Nuclear Engineering literature is filled with this information

  3. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  4. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  5. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  6. nuclear reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work , the sensitivity of different reactor calculation methods, and the effect of different assumptions and/or approximation are evaluated . A new concept named error map is developed to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the accuracy of calculations. To achieve this goal a generalized, multigroup, multi dimension code UAR-DEPLETION is developed to calculate the spatial distribution of neutron flux, effective multiplication factor and the spatial composition of a reactor core for a period of time and for specified reactor operating conditions. The code also investigates the fuel management strategies and policies for the entire fuel cycle to meet the constraints of material and operating limitations

  7. Course on reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany only few students graduate in nuclear technology, therefore the NPP operating companies are forced to develop their own education and training concepts. AREVA NP has started together with the Technical University of Dresden a one-week course ''reactor physics'' that includes the know-how of the nuclear power plant construction company. The Technical University of Dresden has the training reactor AKR-2 that is retrofitted by modern digital instrumentation and control technology that allows the practical training of reactor control.

  8. PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a PWR with a primary circuit, consisting of a reactor pressure vessel, a steam generator and a reactor coolant pump, hot coolant is removed by means of an auxiliary system containing h.p. pumps for feeding water into the primary circuit and being connected with a pipe, originating at the upper part, which has got at least one isolating value. This is done by opening an outlet in a part of the auxiliary system that has got a lower pressure than the reactor vessel. Preferably a water jet pump is used for mixing with the water of the auxiliary system. (orig.)

  9. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  10. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-10

    Uranium-aluminum alloys in which boron is homogeneously dispersed by adding it as a nickel boride are described. These compositions have particular utility as fuels for neutronic reactors, boron being present as a burnable poison.

  12. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  13. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  14. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  15. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  16. Experience with Kamini reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamini is a 233U fuelled, 30 kW(th) research reactor. It is one of the best neutron source facility with a core average flux of 1012 n/cm2/s in IGCAR used for neutron radiography of active and nonradioactive objects, activation analysis and radiation physics research. The core consists of nine plate type fuel elements with a total fuel inventory of 590 g of 233U. Two safety control plates made of cadmium are used for start up and shutdown of the reactor. Three beam tubes, two-thimble irradiation site outside reflector and one irradiation site nearer to the core constitute the testing facilities of Kamini. Kamini attained first criticality on 29th October 96 and nominal power of 30 kW in September 1997. This paper covers the design features of the reactor, irradiation facilities and their utilities and operating experience of the reactor. (author)

  17. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  18. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  19. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  20. Special lecture on nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives a special lecture on nuclear reactor, which is divided into two parts. The first part has explanation on nuclear design of nuclear reactor and analysis of core with theories of integral transports, diffusion Nodal, transports Nodal and Monte Carlo skill parallel computer and nuclear calculation and speciality of transmutation reactor. The second part deals with speciality of nuclear reactor and control with nonlinear stabilization of nuclear reactor, nonlinear control of nuclear reactor, neural network and control of nuclear reactor, control theory of observer and analysis method of Adomian.

  1. Jet-Stirred Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Herbinet, Olivier; Guillaume, Dayma

    2013-01-01

    The jet-stirred reactor is a type of ideal continuously stirred-tank reactor which is well suited for gas phase kinetic studies. It is mainly used to study the oxidation and the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and oxygenated fuels. These studies consist in recording the evolution of the conversion of the reactants and of the mole fractions of reaction products as a function of different parameters such as reaction temperature, residence time, pressure and composition of the inlet gas. Gas chromatogr...

  2. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  3. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities of the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the year 1976. The main items reported on are: a) the process supervision and control which have focused on core monitoring and control, and operator-process communication; b) the fuel performance and safety behavior which have provided data and analytical descriptions of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of fuel under various operating conditions; c) the reactor operations and d) the administration and finance

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  5. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  6. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  7. BWR type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of an emergency core cooling system while suppressing the flow out of coolants upon rapture accidents in a coolant recycling device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: Recirculation pumps are located at a position higher than the reactor core in a pressure vessel, and the lower plenum is bisected vertically by a partition plate. Further, a gas-liquid separator is surrounded with a wall and the water level at the outer side of the wall is made higher than the water level in the inside of the wall. In this structure, coolants are introduced from the upper chamber in the lower plenum into the reactor core, and the steams generated in the reactor core are separated in the gas-liquid separator, whereby the separated liquid is introduced as coolants by way of the inner chamber into the lower chamber of the lower plenum and further sent by way of the outer chamber into the reactor core. Consequently, idle rotation of the recycling pumps due to the flow-in of saturated water is prevented and loss of coolants in the reactor core can also be prevented upon raptures in the pipeway and the driving section of the pump connected to the pressure vessel and in the bottom of the pressure vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the nineteenth annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities at the Project during 1978, the last year of the 1976-1978 Halden Agreement. Work continued in two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer-based process supervision and control. Project research on water reactor fuel focusses on various aspects of fuel behavior under normal, and off-normal transient conditions. In 1978, participating organisations continued to submit test fuel for irradiation in the Halden boiling heavy-water reactor, in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. Work included analysis of the impact of fuel design and reactor operating conditions on fuel cladding behavior. Fuel performance modelling included characterization of thermal and mechanical behavior at high burn-up, of fuel failure modes, and improvement of data qualification procedures to reduce and quantify error bands on in-reactor measurements. Instrument development yielded new or improved designs for measuring rod temperature, internal pressure, axial neutron flux shape determination, and for detecting cladding defects. Work on computer-based methods of reactor supervision and control included continued development of a system for predictive core surveillance, and of special mathematical methods for core power distribution control

  9. Reactor physics and economic aspects of the CANDU reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of the development of the CANDU system is given along with a fairly detailed description of the 600 MW(e) CANDU reactor. Reactor physics calculation methods are described, as well as comparisons between calculated reactor physics parameters and those measured in research and power reactors. An examination of the economics of CANDU in the Ontario Hydro system and a comparison between fossil fuelled and light water reactors is presented. Some physics, economics and resources aspects are given for both low enriched uranium and thorium-fuelled CANDU reactors. Finally the RβD program in Advanced Fuel Cycles is briefly described

  10. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  11. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  12. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  13. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  14. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  15. Reactor coolant cleanup facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depressurization device is disposed in pipelines upstream of recycling pumps of a reactor coolant cleanup facility to reduce a pressure between the pressurization device and the recycling pump at the downstream, thereby enabling high pressure coolant injection from other systems by way of the recycling pumps. Upon emergency, the recycling pumps of the coolant cleanup facility can be used in common to an emergency reactor core cooling facility and a reactor shutdown facility. Since existent pumps of the emergency reactor core cooling facility and the reactor shutdown facility which are usually in a stand-by state can be removed, operation confirmation test and maintenance for equipments in both of facilities can be saved, so that maintenance and reliability of the plant are improved and burdens on operators can also be mitigated. Moreover, low pressure design can be adopted for a non-regenerative heat exchanger and recycling coolant pumps, which enables to improve the reliability and economical property due to reduction of possibility of leakage. (N.H.)

  16. EBT reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m2, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density

  17. Generalities about nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Zoe, the first nuclear reactor, till the current EPR, the French nuclear industry has always advanced by profiting from the feedback from dozens of years of experience and operations, in particular by drawing lessons from the most significant events in its history, such as the Fukushima accident. The new generations of reactors must improve safety and economic performance so that the industry maintain its legitimacy and its share in the production of electricity. This article draws the history of nuclear power in France, gives a brief description of the pressurized water reactor design, lists the technical features of the different versions of PWR that operate in France and compares them with other types of reactors. The feedback experience concerning safety, learnt from the major nuclear accidents Three Miles Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) is also detailed. Today there are 26 third generation reactors being built in the world: 4 EPR (1 in Finland, 1 in France and 2 in China); 2 VVER-1200 in Russia, 8 AP-1000 (4 in China and 4 in the Usa), 8 APR-1400 (4 in Korea and 4 in UAE), and 4 ABWR (2 in Japan and 2 in Taiwan)

  18. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  19. Mimic of OSU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ohio State University research reactor (OSURR) is undergoing improvements in its research and educational capabilities. A computer-based digital data acquisition system, including a reactor system mimic, will be installed as part of these improvements. The system will monitor the reactor system parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital or analog form. The system includes two computers. All the signals are sent to computer 1, which processes the data and sends the data through a serial port to computer 2 with a video graphics array VGA monitor, which is utilized to display the mimic system of the reactor

  20. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  1. MINT research reactor safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad Idris bin Taib [Division of Special Project, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    2000-11-01

    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) Research Reactor Safety Program has been done along with Reactor Power Upgrading Project, Reactor Safety Upgrading Project and Development of Expert System for On-Line Nuclear Process Control Project. From 1993 up to date, Neutronic and Thermal-hydraulics analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment as well as installation of New 2 MW Secondary Cooling System were done. Installations of New Reactor Building Ventilation System, Reactor Monitoring System, Updating of Safety Analysis Report and Upgrading Primary Cooling System are in progress. For future activities, Reactor Modeling will be included to add present activities. (author)

  2. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  3. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  4. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  5. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  6. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  7. Reactor safety equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To positively recover radioactive substances discharged in a dry well at the time of failure of a reactor. Constitution: In addition to the emergency gas treating system fitted to a reactor building, a purification system connected through a pipeline to the dry well is arranged in the reactor building. This purification system is connected through pipes fitted to the dry well to forced circulation device, heat exchanger, and purification device. The atmosphere of high pressure steam gases in the dry well is derived to the heat exchanger for cooling, and then radioactive substances which are contained in the gases are removed by filter sets charged with the HEPA filters and the HECA filters. At last, there gases are returned to dry well by circulation pump, repeat this process. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  9. Welding and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high safety requirements which must be demanded of the quality of the welded joints in reactor technique have so far not been fulfilled in all cases. The errors occuring have caused considerable loss of availability and high material costs. They were not, however, so serious that one need have feared any immediate danger to the personnel or to the environment. The safety devices of reactor plants were only called upon in a few cases and to these they responded perfectly. The intensive efforts to complete and improve the specifications are to contribute to that in future, the reactor plants can be counted even more so as one of the safest technical plants ever. (orig./LH)

  10. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  11. Reactor operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the TRIGA Users Conference in Helsinki 1970 the TRIGA reactor Vienna was in operation without any larger undesired shutdown. The integrated thermal power production by August 15 1972 accumulated to 110 MWd. The TRIGA reactor is manly used for training of students, for scientific courses and research work. Cooperation with industry increased in the last two years either in form of research or in performing training courses. Close cooperation is also maintained with the IAEA, samples are irradiated and courses on various fields are arranged. Maintenance work was performed on the heat exchanger and to replace the shim rod magnet. With the view on the future power upgrading nine fuel elements type 110 have been ordered recently. Experiments, performed currently on the reactor are presented in details

  12. The MNSR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tank-in-pool reactor is based on the same design concept as the Canadian Slowpoke. The core is a right circular cylinder, 24 cm diameter by 25 cm long, containing 411 fuel pin positions. The pins are HEU-Aluminium alloy, 0.5 cm in diameter. Critical mass is about 900 g. The reactor has a single cadmium control rod. The back-up shutdown system is the insertion of a cadmium capsule in a core position. Excess reactivity is limited to 3.5mk. In both the MNSR and Slowpoke, the insertion of the maximum excess reactivity results in a power transient limited by the coolant/moderator temperature to safe values, independent of any operator action. This reactor is used primarily in training and neutron activation analysis. Up to 64 elements have been analyzed in a great variety of different disciplines. (author)

  13. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  14. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  15. Safety systems of heavy water reactors and small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introductional descriptions of heavy water reactors and natural circulation boiling water reactors the safety philosophy and safety systems like ECCS, residual heat removal, protection systems etc., are described. (RW)

  16. AREVA's nuclear reactors portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reasonable assumption for the estimated new build market for the next 25 years is over 340 GWe net. The number of prospect countries is growing almost each day. To address this new build market, AREVA is developing a comprehensive portfolio of reactors intended to meet a wide range of power requirements and of technology choices. The EPR reactor is the flagship of the fleet. Intended for large power requirements, the four first EPRs are being built in Finland, France and China. Other countries and customers are in view, citing just two examples: the Usa where the U.S. EPR has been selected as the technology of choice by several U.S utilities; and the United Kingdom where the Generic Design Acceptance process of the EPR design submitted by AREVA and EDF is well under way, and where there is a strong will to have a plant on line in 2017. For medium power ranges, the AREVA portfolio includes a boiling water reactor and a pressurized water reactor which both offer all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation cost: -) KERENA (1250+ MWe), developed in collaboration with several European utilities, and in particular with Eon; -) ATMEA 1 (1100+ MWe), a 3-loop evolutionary PWR which is being developed by AREVA and Mitsubishi. AREVA is also preparing the future and is deeply involved into Gen IV concepts. It has developed the ANTARES modular HTR reactor (pre-conceptual design completed) and is building upon its vast Sodium Fast Reactor experience to take part into the development of the next prototype. (author)

  17. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  18. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

  19. Nuclear reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Reactor Simulator was projected to help the basic training in the formation of the Nuclear Power Plants operators. It gives the trainee the opportunity to see the nuclear reactor dynamics. It's specially indicated to be used as the support tool to NPPT (Nuclear Power Preparatory Training) from NUS Corporation. The software was developed to Intel platform (80 x 86, Pentium and compatible ones) working under the Windows operational system from Microsoft. The program language used in development was Object Pascal and the compiler used was Delphi from Borland. During the development, computer algorithms were used, based in numeric methods, to the resolution of the differential equations involved in the process. (author)

  20. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  1. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  2. Reactor neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of requirements and possibilities for experimental neutron spectrum determination during the reactor pressure vessel surveil lance programme is given. Fast neutron spectrum and neutron dose rate were measured in the Fast neutron irradiation facility of our TRIGA reactor. It was shown that the facility can be used for calibration of neutron dosimeters and for irradiation of samples sensitive to neutron radiation. The investigation of the unfolding algorithm ITER was continued. Based on this investigations are two specialized unfolding program packages ITERAD and ITERGS written this year. They are able to unfold data from activation detectors and NaI(T1) gamma spectrometer respectively

  3. Perspectives on reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course

  4. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  5. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor construction comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault. Control rods supported from the roof structure are insertable in the core which is carried on a support structure from the wall of the primary vessel. To prevent excessive relaxation of the support structure whereby the control rods would be displaced relative to the core, the support structure incorporates a normally inactive secondary structure designed to become effective in bracing the primary structure against further relaxation beyond a predetermined limit. (author)

  6. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  7. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  8. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  9. Risk prevention during reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During reactor shutdown potential risks are issued of a number of maintenance operations. In this text we analyse these operations and give the modifications of technical specifications to ameliorate the reactor safety. 4 figs

  10. Power calibrations for TRIGA reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a framework for the calorimetric power calibration of TRIGA reactors so that reliable results can be obtained with a precision better than ± 5%. Careful application of the same procedures has produced power calibration results that have been reproducible to ± 1.5%. The procedures are equally applicable to the Mark I, Mark II and Mark III reactors as well as to reactors having much larger reactor tanks and to TRIGA reactors capable of forced cooling up to 3 MW in some cases and 15 MW in another case. In the case of forced cooled TRIGA reactors, the calorimetric power calibration is applicable in the natural convection mode for these reactors using exactly the same procedures as are discussed below for the smaller TRIGA reactors (< 2 MW)

  11. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1982 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Since fiscal 1982, Systematic research and development work on safeguards technology has been added to the activities of the Department. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  12. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  13. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  15. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  16. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  17. Reactor safety in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented to the GRS colloquium refer to the cooperative activities for reactor accident analysis and modification of the GRS computer codes for their application to reactors of the Russian design types of WWER or RBMK. Another topic is the safety of RBMK reactors in particular, and the current status of investigations and studies addressing the containment of unit 4 of the Chernobyl reactor station. All papers are indexed separately in report GRS--117. (HP)

  18. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  19. Thermal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, M.L.; Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-01

    A chemically nonreactive fuel composition for incorporation in aluminum- clad, plate type fuel elements for neutronic reactors is described. The composition comprises a mixture of aluminum and uranium carbide particles, the uranium carbide particles containing at least 80 wt.% UC/sub 2/.

  1. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  2. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  3. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, activities related to fusion focus on environmental tolerance of opto-electronic components. The objective of this program is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour, during and after neutron irradiation, of fusion-reactor materials and components. The main scientific activities for 1997 are summarized

  5. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  6. Nuclear reactor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  7. Studies on reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the peaceful applications of atomic energy are inherently dependent on advances in the science and technology of nuclear reactors, and aspects of this development are part of a major programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The most useful role that the Agency can play is as a co-ordinating body or central forum where the trends can be reviewed and the results assessed. Some of the basic studies are carried out by members of the Agency's own scientific staff. The Agency also convenes groups of experts from different countries to examine a particular problem in detail and make any necessary recommendations. Some of the important subjects are discussed at international scientific meetings held by the Agency. One of the subjects covered by such studies is the physics of nuclear reactors and a specific topic recently discussed was Codes for Reactor Computations, on which a seminar was held in Vienna in April this year. Another The members of the Panel described the development of heavy water reactors, the equipment and methods of research currently used, and plans for further development in their respective countries meeting of Panel of Experts on Heavy Water Lattices was held in Vienna in August 1959

  8. Nuclear power reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude

  9. Cermet fuel reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Cermet fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  12. SRP reactor safety evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant reactors have operated for over 100 reactor years without an incident of significant consequence to on or off-site personnel. The reactor safety posture incorporates a conservative, failure-tolerant design; extensive administrative controls carried out through detailed operating and emergency written procedures; and multiple engineered safety systems backed by comprehensive safety analyses, adapting through the years as operating experience, changes in reactor operational modes, equipment modernization, and experience in the nuclear power industry suggested. Independent technical reviews and audits as well as a strong organizational structure also contribute to the defense-in-depth safety posture. A complete review of safety history would discuss all of the above contributors and the interplay of roles. This report, however, is limited to evolution of the engineered safety features and some of the supporting analyses. The discussion of safety history is divided into finite periods of operating history for preservation of historical perspective and ease of understanding by the reader. Programs in progress are also included. The accident at Three Mile Island was assessed for its safety implications to SRP operation. Resulting recommendations and their current status are discussed separately at the end of the report. 16 refs., 3 figs

  13. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  14. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  15. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1980 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Information on the Department, Summary of the Department's Development during 1980, and Activities of the Department. Lists of staff, publications, computer programs, and test facilities are included. (author)

  16. The AP1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the AP1000 reactor began 20 years ago when Westinghouse launched the AP600 reactor project. In fact by re-assessing AP600's safety margins Westinghouse realized that the its power output could be raised without putting at risk its safety standard. The AP1000 was born, it yields 1100 MWe. The main AP1000's design features is its passive safety (particularly after the Fukushima accident) and its modularity. The passive safety of the AP1000 implies: -) no humane intervention needed for 72 hours at least after the incident; -) no necessity for redundant complex safety systems. The modularity means that the plant, the reactor and other buildings are constructed from a choice of 300 modular units. These units can be built off-site and fit together on site. The modularity allows more construction activities to be led simultaneously and more chances to cope with the construction schedule. The NRC has approved the operation license for 30 years of the first AP1000 being built in the Usa (Vogtle plant in Georgia). 4 AP1000 are being built in China (Sanmen and Haiyang sites) and 6 others are planned in the Usa. Westinghouse is convinced that the AP1000's passive safety makes it more attractive. Let us not forget that Westinghouse was at the origin of the concept of pressurized water reactors, an idea adopted for half the nuclear power stations in the world and for all the plants now active in France. (A.C.)

  17. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  18. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  19. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  20. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  1. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  2. Fast reactors: potential for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed as follows: basic facts about conventional and fast reactors; uranium economy; plutonium and fast reactors; cooling systems; sodium coolant; safety engineering; handling and recycling plutonium; safeguards; development of fast reactors in Britain and abroad; future progress. (U.K.)

  3. Reactor physics problems on HCPWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor physics problems on high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWRs) are discussed. Described in this report are outline of the HCPWR, expected accuracy for the various reactor physical qualities, and method for K-effective calculation in the resonance energy area. And requested further research problems are shown. The target value of the conversion ratio are also discussed. (author)

  4. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  5. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  6. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  7. Reactor physics activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the research activity in reactor physics field in Japan during July, 1992 - July, 1993. The review was performed in the following fields : nuclear data evaluation, calculational method development, fast reactor physics, thermal reactor physics, advanced core design, fusion reactor neutronics, nuclear criticality safety, shielding, incineration of radioactive nuclear wastes, noise analysis and control and national programs. The main references were taken from journals and reports published during this period. The research committee of reactor physics is responsible for the review work. (author)

  8. Advanced reactor experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the NEA has been examining advanced reactor issues and disseminating information of use to regulators, designers and researchers on safety issues and research needed. Following the recommendation of participants at an NEA workshop, a Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) was initiated with the aim of providing an overview of facilities suitable for carrying out the safety research considered necessary for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs) and sodium fast reactors (SFRs), with other reactor systems possibly being considered in a subsequent phase. The TAREF was thus created in 2008 with the following participating countries: Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea and the United States. In a second stage, India provided valuable information on its experimental facilities related to SFR safety research. The study method adopted entailed first identifying high-priority safety issues that require research and then categorizing the available facilities in terms of their ability to address the safety issues. For each of the technical areas, the task members agreed on a set of safety issues requiring research and established a ranking with regard to safety relevance (high, medium, low) and the status of knowledge based on the following scale relative to full knowledge: high (100%-75%), medium (75 - 25%) and low (25-0%). Only the issues identified as being of high safety relevance and for which the state of knowledge is low or medium were included in the discussion, as these issues would likely warrant further study. For each of the safety issues, the TAREF members identified appropriate facilities, providing relevant information such as operating conditions (in- or out-of reactor), operating range, description of the test section, type of testing, instrumentation, current status and availability, and uniqueness. Based on the information collected, the task members assessed prospects and priorities

  9. Reactor simulator development. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a programme in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education and training. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in reactor operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the supply or development of simulation programs and training material, sponsors training courses and workshops, and distributes documentation and computer programs. This publication consists of course material for workshops on development of such reactor simulators. Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in the development of reactor simulation computer codes using a model development system that assembles integrated codes from a selection of pre-programmed and tested sub-components. This provides insight and understanding into the construction and assumptions of the codes that model the design and operational characteristics of various power reactor systems. The main objective is to demonstrate simple nuclear reactor dynamics with hands-on simulation experience. Using one of the modular development systems, CASSIMtm , a simple point kinetic reactor model is developed, followed by a model that simulates the Xenon/Iodine concentration on changes in reactor power. Lastly, an absorber and adjuster control rod, and a liquid zone model are developed to control reactivity. The built model is used to demonstrate reactor behavior in sub-critical, critical and supercritical states, and to observe the impact of malfunctions of various reactivity control mechanisms on reactor dynamics. Using a PHWR simulator, participants practice typical procedures for a reactor startup and approach to criticality. This workshop material consists of an introduction to systems used for developing reactor simulators, an overview of the dynamic simulation

  10. Reactor water spontaneous circulation structure in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gap between the inner wall of a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor and a reactor core shroud forms a down comer in which reactor water flows downwardly. A feedwater jacket to which feedwater at low temperature is supplied is disposed at the outer circumference of the pressure vessel just below a gas/water separator. The reactor water at the outer circumferential portion just below the air/water separator is cooled by the feedwater jacket, and the feedwater after cooling is supplied to the feedwater entrance disposed below the feedwater jacket by way of a feedwater introduction line to supply the feedwater to the lower portion of the down comer. This can cool the reactor water in the down comer to increase the reactor water density in the down comer thereby forming strong downward flows and promote the recycling of the reactor water as a whole. With such procedures, the reactor water can be recycled stably only by the difference of the specific gravity of the reactor water without using an internal pump. In addition, the increase of the height of the pressure vessel can be suppressed. (I.N.)

  11. Safety review, assessment and inspection on research reactors, experimental reactors, nuclear heating reactors and critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the NNSA organized to complete the nuclear safety review on the test loop in-reactor operation of the High-flux Engineering Experimental Reactor (HFEER) and the re-operation of the China Pulsed Reactor and the Uranium-water Criticality Facility. The NNSA conducted the nuclear safety review on the CP application of the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and the siting of China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), and carried out the construction supervision on HTR-10, and dealt with the event about the technological tube breakage of HWRR and other events

  12. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  13. Elk River Reactor dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling program was carried out in three overlapping phases: the planning phase which included the preliminary planning and selection of the dismantling approach, the dismantling phase which included all work performed to remove the reactor facility and restore the site to its pre-reactor condition, and the closeout phase which included the final site survey and efforts necessary to terminate the AEC license and contract. Of particular interest was the use of a remotely operated plasma cutting torch to section the pressure vessel internals, the pressure vessel and the outer thermal shield, the use of explosives in removal of the biological shield and the method of establishment of the criteria for material disposal

  14. BUCHAREST HOTEL MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cristiana PATRICHI

    2014-01-01

    The European hospitality industry currently sees an increase in all specific indicators, a fact that shows, on one hand, the ability of this sector to overcome the economic turbulences of recent years, but also the real perspectives for future growth. Today’s hotel industry can no longer rely on the traditional growth methods, and needs to prepare for the major confrontation with the next-generation technological developments that generate modern marketing channels but, by default, incur sign...

  15. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials includes studies (1) to investigate fracture mechanics of neutron-irradiated beryllium; (2) to describe the helium behaviour in irradiated beryllium at atomic scale; (3) to define the kinetics of beryllium reacting with air or steam; (3) to perform a feasibility study for the testing of integrated blanket modules under neutron irradiation. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported

  17. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon reactor accident, hydrogen and oxygen are generated by water-zirconium reaction and radiolysis of water, which are accumulated in the reactor. If the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen exceeds a burning limit, there is a possibility of hydrogen burning to cause a danger of deteriorating the integrity of the reactor container and the equipments therein. The limit for the occurrence of the detonation is determined by a relationship between the scale of a detonation cell and the size of the container, and if the scale is greater than the container, the detonation does not occur. The scale of the cell is determined by a gas combustion rate and, if the combustion reaction is suppressed, detonation does not occur even in a large container. Then, an appropriate diluent is added to increase heat capacity of a gas mixture to thereby suppress the temperature elevation of the gas. Incombustible gases having a great heat capacity are preferred for the diluent, and CO2 is used. As the concentration of the CO2 gas to be added is increased, the detonation cell is made greater. Thus, occurrence of detonation due to combustion of the accumulated hydrogen can be prevented. (N.H.)

  18. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle of 21st century, the population on the earth is expected to double, and the energy that mankind consumes to triple. The nuclear fusion which is said the ultimate energy source for mankind is expected to solve this energy problem. As for fusion reactors, fuel materials exist inexhaustibly, distributing evenly, they have high safety in principle, the product of burning is harmless nonradioactive substance that does not require the treatment and disposal, and the attenuation of induced radioactivity due to neutrons is quick and the effect to global environment is little. The basic plan of second stage nuclear fusion research and development was decided in 1975, aiming at attaining the critical plasma condition. JT-60 has attained it in 1987. The project of international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) was started, and the conceptual design was carried out. Under such background, the third stage basic plan was decided in 1992, and its objective is self ignition condition, long time burning and the basis of the reactor engineering technology. The engineering design of the ITER is investigated. (K.I.)

  19. High temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a reflector block structure of a high temperature gas reactor in which graphite blocks are not failed even a containing cylinder loaded to a fuel exchanger collides against to secured reflectors upon loading and withdrawing fuel constitutional elements. Namely, a protection plate made of a metal material such as stainless steel is covered on the secured reflector blocks disposed to the upper most step among secured graphite reflector blocks constituting the reactor core. In addition, positioning guide grooves are formed on the protection plate for guiding the containing cylinder loaded to the fuel exchanger to the column of the reactor core constitutional elements. With such a constitution, even if the containing cylinder of fuel exchanger is hoisted down and collided against the inner circumferential edge of the secured reflector blocks due to deviation of the position and the direction upon exchange of fuels, the reflector blocks are not failed since the above-mentioned portion is covered with the metal protection plate. In addition, the positioning guide grooves lead the fuel exchanger to a predetermined column correctly. (I.S.)

  20. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a coolant circulation in BWR type reactors, since the mixed stream of steam fluid undergoes a great resistance, the pressure loss due to the flow rate distribution when the coolants flow from the upper plenum into the stand pipe is increased upon passing stand pipe. Also in the spontaneous recycling reactor, pressure loss is still left upon passing the swirling blade of a gas-liquid separator. In view of the above, a plurality of vertical members each having a lower end opened to a gas-liquid two phase boundary and an upper end directly suspended from a steam dryer to the gas-liquid separator. The liquid droplets from the 2-phase boundary heated in the reactor core and formed into a mixed gas-liquid 2-phase stream is directed in the vertical direction accompanied with the steam. The liquid droplets spontaneously fallen by gravity from greater ones successively and the droplets in the steam abutted against the vertical member are fallen as a liquid membrane. Thus, the gas-liquid separation is conducted, the dry steam is directly flown into the steam dryer, thereby capable of providing a gas-liquid separator having gas-liquid separation performance with lower loss than usual. (N.H.)

  1. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units is provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the ERRATA page. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  2. Fusion reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units are provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the ERRATA page. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  4. OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor project is an agreement between OECD member countries. It was first signed in 1958 and since then regularly renewed every third year. The activities at the Project is centred around the Halden heavy water rector, the HBWR. The reseach programme comprizes studies of fuel performance under various operating conditions, and the application of computers for process control. The HBWR is equipped for exposing fuel rods to temperatures and pressures, and at heat ratings met in modern BWR's and PWR's. A range of in-core instruments are available, permitting detailed measurements of the reactions of the fuel, including mechanical deformations, thermal behaviour, fission gas release, and corrosion. In the area of computer application, the studies of the communication between operator and process, and the surveillance and control of the reactor core, are of particular interst for reactor operation. 1988 represents the 30th year since the Project was started, and this publication is produced to mark this event. It gives and account of the activities and achievements of the Project through the years 1958-1988

  5. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  6. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  7. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this technical paper is to provide status of the United State domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure (RRI) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper states the purpose of the program, lists the universities operating TRIGA reactors that are supported by the program, identifies anticipated fresh fuel needs for the reactor facilities, discusses spent fuel activities associated with the program, and addresses successes and planned activities for the program. (author)

  8. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  9. Applications of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The purpose of the earlier publication, The Application of Research Reactors, IAEA-TECDOC-1234, was to present descriptions of the typical forms of research reactor use. The necessary criteria to enable an application to be performed were outlined for each one, and, in many cases, the minimum as well as the desirable requirements were given. This revision of the publication over a decade later maintains the original purpose and now specifically takes into account the changes in service requirements demanded by the relevant stakeholders. In particular, the significant improvements in

  10. Reactor technology: power conversion systems and reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of advanced fuels permits the use of coolants (organic, high pressure helium) that result in power conversion systems with good thermal efficiency and relatively low cost. Water coolant would significantly reduce thermal efficiency, while lithium and salt coolants, which have been proposed for DT reactors, will have comparable power conversion efficiencies, but will probably be significantly more expensive. Helium cooled blankets with direct gas turbine power conversion cycles can also be used with DT reactors, but activation problems will be more severe, and the portion of blanket power in the metallic structure will probably not be available for the direct cycle, because of temperature limitations. A very important potential advantage of advanced fuel reactors over DT fusion reactors is the possibility of easier blanket maintenance and reduced down time for replacement. If unexpected leaks occur, in most cases the leaking circuit can be shut off and a redundant cooling curcuit will take over the thermal load. With the D-He3 reactor, it appears practical to do this while the reactor is operating, as long as the leak is small enough not to shut down the reactor. Redundancy for Cat-D reactors has not been explored in detail, but appears feasible in principle. The idea of mobile units operating in the reactor chamber for service and maintenance of radioactive elements is explored

  11. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 4, Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA research reactor is thermal heavy water moderated and cooled reactor. Metal uranium 2% enriched fuel elements were used at the beginning of its operation. Since 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide dispersed in aluminium fuel elements were gradually introduced into the core and are the only ones presently used. Reactor core is cylindrical, having diameter 40 cm and 123 cm high. Reaktor core is made up of 82 fuel elements in aluminium channels, lattice is square, lattice pitch 13 cm. Reactor vessel is cylindrical made of 8 mm thick aluminium, inside diameter 140 cm and 5.5 m high surrounded with neutron reflector and biological shield. There is no containment, the reactor building is playing the shielding role. Three pumps enable circulation of heavy water in the primary cooling circuit. Degradation of heavy water is prevented by helium cover gas. Control rods with cadmium regulate the reactor operation. There are eleven absorption rods, seven are used for long term reactivity compensation, two for automatic power regulation and two for safety shutdown. Total anti reactivity of the rods amounts to 24%. RA reactor is equipped with a number of experimental channels, 45 vertical (9 in the core), 34 in the graphite reflector and two in the water biological shield; and six horizontal channels regularly distributed in the core. This volume include detailed description of systems and components of the RA reactor, reactor core parameters, thermal hydraulics of the core, fuel elements, fuel elements handling equipment, fuel management, and experimental devices

  12. The research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper dwells upon the design and the operation of one of the German test reactors, namely, the TRIGA Mainz one (TRIGA: Training Research Isotope Production General Atomic). The TRIGA reactor is a pool test reactor the core of which contains a graphite reflector and is placed into 2 m diameter and 6.25 m height aluminum vessel. There are 75 fuel elements in the reactor core, and any of them contains about 36 g of 235U. The TRIGA reactors under the stable operation enjoy wide application to ensure tests and irradiation, namely: neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, application of a neutron beam to ensure the physical, the chemical and the medical research efforts. Paper presents the reactor basic experimental program lines

  13. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  14. Industrializing the liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial acceptance of the liquid metal reactor had its beginning with the Fermi reactor, over two decades ago. The pattern of industrialization since that time is discussed, contrasting domestic and foreign experience. The recent termination of the Clinch River reactor project marks a watershed in the U.S. approach towards commercialization. The increased emphasis on achieving cost competitive designs reflects an awareness that barriers to industrialization are institutional and financial, and not technological

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  16. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  17. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  18. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  19. Optimal control of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern control theory is applied to the design of control systems for experimental nuclear reactors that do not belong to power reactors, the component forms of optimal control systems for nuclear reactors are demonstrated. The adoption of output quadratic integral criterion and incomplete state feedback technique can make these systems both efficient and economical. Moreover, approximate handling methods are given so as to simplify the calculations in design. In addition, the adoptable reference values of parameters are given in the illustration

  20. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  1. Acceptability of reactors in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System

  2. Advanced Fission Reactor Program objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of an advanced fission reactor program should be to develop an economically attractive, safe, proliferation-resistant fission reactor. To achieve this objective, an aggressive and broad-based research and development program is needed. Preliminary work at Brookhaven National Laboratory shows that a reasonable goal for a research program would be a reactor combining as many as possible of the following features: (1) initial loading of uranium enriched to less than 15% uranium 235, (2) no handling of fuel for the full 30-year nominal core life, (3) inherent safety ensured by core physics, and (4) utilization of natural uranium at least 5 times as efficiently as light water reactors

  3. Reactor safety - an international task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dimensions and the significance of the task of ensuring reactor safety can be defined on the basis of experiences gained from Harrisburg and Chernobyl. The countries that use nuclear energy are tied together to a community by virtue of the risk they share. Therefore the GRS is working in close cooperation with the EC, OECD, IAEO and COMECON. This results in safety examinations of the Greifswald reactor, safety analyses of nuclear reactors in Germany, France and the USA and also considerations on the safety demands to be placed on new reactor concepts. (DG)

  4. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  5. Integrated modular water reactor: IMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Has investigated on a concept on small scale reactor with economical efficiency comparable with large scale one. Aims of development on the integrated modular water reactor (IMR) of a small scale reactor plant concept consist in large construction cost reduction through adoption of technique specific to the small scale reactor and integrated production of plural units and in establishment of high safety target without reality in a large scale reactor to realize reduction of operation and maintenance costs by this reduction to simplification of operation and maintenance. Its concrete developmental targets are to make an integrated reactor with vessel size actually producible and the largest output, to remove feasibility of coolant loss accident (LOCA), to remove an accident with feasibility related to fuel fracture, to remove feasibility of nuclear reactor coolant to leak out from a storage vessel, to secure safety of plant without necessity of human and physical assistances from other plants at all on an accident, to make numbers of operators per unit output equal to those of large scale reactor, and to make working amounts at maintenance per unit output equal to large scale reactor by simplification of apparatus practice of rotation on main apparatus such as SG, and so on. Here were described on design concept and plan to realization. (G.K.)

  6. 3. Interindustry conference on reactor materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains abstracts on papers presented at the Third Interindustry Conference on Reactor Materials Science (Dimitrovgrad, 27-30 October 1992). The subject scope of the papers is a follows: fuel and fuel elements of power reactors; structural materials of fast breeder reactors and thermonuclear reactors; structural materials of WWER and RBMK type reactors; absorbers and moderators

  7. Helias reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Helias reactor is an upgraded version of the Wendelstein 7-X experiment. The magnetic field has 5 field periods and the main optimization principle is the reduction of the Pfirsch-Schlueter currents and the Shafranov shift, which has been verified by computations with the NEMEC and MFBE-codes. The modular coil system comprises 50 coils, which are constructed using NbTi-superconducting cables. The basic dimensions are: major radius 22 m, average plasma radius 1.8 m, magnetic field on axis 5 T, maximum field on the coils 10 T. Forces and stresses in the coil system have been investigated with the aid of the ANSYS code, which found maximum stress values of about 650 MPa in the coil casing. Helias configurations with 4 and 3 field periods have been constructed by starting from the 5-period case and by eliminating one or two periods while the shape of the coils is kept nearly invariant. In a first survey blanket concepts, developed for the DEMO tokamak, have been adapted to the Helias geometry, in particular, the solid breeder concept developed by FZK (Karlsruhe) has been extrapolated to the Helias geometry identifying the drawbacks and advantages of this concept. Furthermore, the liquid breeder concept using Li7-Pb83 and water-cooling is an interesting alternative for the Helias reactor. Maintenance of blanket and plasma facing components is possible through the portholes between modular coils. Numerical simulations of the start-up phase of the Helias reactor using the TOTAL-P code have confirmed the zero-dimensional modeling of the fusion plasma with the aid of empirical scaling laws. (author)

  8. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  9. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units is provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the errata page

  10. FUEL ASSAY REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Sandmeier, H.A.; Martens, F.H.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor having maximum sensitivity to perturbations is described comprising a core consisting of a horizontally disposed, rectangular, annular fuel zone containing enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in graphite, the concentration of uranium dioxide increasing from the outside to the inside of the fuel zone, an internal reflector of graphite containing an axial test opening disposed within the fuel zone, an external graphite reflector, means for changing the neutron spectrum in the test opening, and means for measuring perturbations in the neutron flux caused by the introduction of different fuel elements into the test opening. (AEC)

  11. Shutting down two reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power will be phased out of the swedish energy system during the first decades of the next century. Commissioned by the swedish government, the National Energy Administration reports a study on the possibilities for, and consequences of, an earlier shut down (1994-1996) of two of the twelve swedish power reactors. Some of the questions studied are: How much will the electricity price raise ?; How will the electricity consumption be affected ?; What are the alternatives to nuclear power ?; What will the cost be ? and What will the environmental effects be ?. (L.E.)

  12. Measurement in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor construction has a flux detector comprising a bundle of fibre optics each having a bead incorporating a substance which scintillates on being struck by neutrons or gamma radiations. The other ends of the fibre optics terminate at an image intensifier. The optical fibres may be of glass made from a mixture of silica, alkaline earth metal oxide, cerous oxide and alkali metal oxide. The beads may be incorporated in a disc forming a detector head, which is in a protective guide tube, through which an inert gas may be passed. (author)

  13. TRIGA reactor operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oregon State TRIGA Reactor (OSTR) has been in operation 3 years. Last August it was upgraded from 250 kW to 1000 kW. This was accomplished with little difficulty. During the 3 years of operation no major problems have been experienced. Most of the problems have been minor in nature and easily corrected. They came from lazy susan (dry bearing), Westronics Recorder (dead spots in the range), The Reg Rod Magnet Lead-in Circuit (a new type lead-in wire that does not require the lead-in cord to coil during rod withdrawal hss been delivered, much better than the original) and other small corrections

  14. Reactor system safety assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy of reactor safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operation, special systems should be provided for accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' Additionally, the safety of nuclear power plants relies on ''safety systems'' to assure acceptable response to design basis events. Operating experience has shown the need to study plant response to more frequent upset conditions and to account for the influence of operators and non-safety systems on overall performance. Defense in depth is being supplemented by risk and reliability assessment

  15. The Oklo reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oklo reactors comprise up to nine 235-U depleted zones in an uranium ore in the Republic of Gabon in West Africa. The depletion in fissile U-235 has been proved to have caused by nuclear chain reactions. The study of the Oklo phenomenon indicates that very efficient retardation mechanisms may operate in nature - at least under special conditions. A closer study of these processes ought to be made to establish the limitations to their occurrence. The Oklo sandstone formation today would probably be considered unacceptable as a host rock for a repository. (EG)

  16. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  17. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor

  18. Virtual nuclear reactor for education of nuclear reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of projects that were programmed in the cultivation program for human resources in nuclear engineering sponsored by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the development of a virtual reactor for education of nuclear reactor physics started in 2007. The purpose of the virtual nuclear reactor is to make nuclear reactor physics easily understood with aid of visualization. In the first year of this project, the neutron slowing down process was visualized. The data needed for visualization are provided by Monte Carlo calculations; The flights of the respective neutrons generated by nuclear fissions are traced through a reactor core until they disappear by neutron absorption or slow down to a thermal energy. With this visualization and an attached supplement textbook, it is expected that the learners can learn more clearly the physical implication of neutron slowing process that is mathematically described by the Boltzmann neutron transport equation. (author)

  19. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  20. Reactor system on barge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floating electrical power plants or power plant barges add new dimensions to utility planners and agencies in the world. Intrinsically safe and economical reactors (ISER) employ steel reactor pressure vessels, which significantly reduce the weight as compared with PIUS, and provide siting versatility including barge-mounted plants. In this paper, the outline of power plant barges and barge-mounted ISERs is described. Besides their mobility, power plant barges have the salient advantages such as short delivery time and better quality control due to the outfitting in shipyards. These power plant barges may be temporarily moored or permanently grounded in shallow water at the centers of industrial complexes or the suitable areas adjacent to them, and satisfy the increasing needs for electric power. A cost-effective and technically perfect barge positioning system should be designed to meet the specific requirement for the location and its condition. Offshore siting away from coast may be applicable only to large plants of 1,000 MWe or more, and inshore siting and coastal or river siting are considered for an ISER-200 barge-mounted plant. The system of a barge-mounted ISER plant is discussed in the case of a floating type and the type on a seismic base isolator. (Kako, I.)

  1. Tokamak experimental power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tokamak experimental power reactor has been designed that is capable of producing net electric power over a wide range of possible operating conditions. A net production of 81 MW of electricity is expected from the design reference conditions that assume a value of 0.07 for beta-toroidal, a maximum toroidal magnetic field of 9 T and a thermal conversion efficiency of 30%. Impurity control is achieved through the use of a low-Z first wall coating. This approach allows a burn time of 60 seconds without the incorporation of a divertor. The system is cooled by a dual pressurized water/steam system that could potentially provide thermal efficiencies as high as 39%. The first surface facing the plasma is a low-Z coated water cooled panel that is attached to a 20 cm thick blanket module. The vacuum boundary is removed a total of 22 cm from the plasma, thereby minimizing the amount of radiation damage in this vital component. Consideration is given in the design to the possible use of the EPR as a materials test reactor. It is estimated that the total system could be built for less than 550 million dollars

  2. The EPR reactor NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2006, Electricite de France decided to launch the building of the first EPRR Reactor on the Flamanville site in Normandy. The 'Flamanville 3' EPR unit is the first one to be subjected to the French Ministerial Orders of the 10 November 1999 and of the 13 December 2005 from the design phase. According to these orders, the non destructive examination (NDE) planned for the in service inspection (ISI) and for the pre service inspection (PSI) must be operational with a compulsory formal qualification. The PSI is a complete inspection of the main primary and secondary systems. The PSI's objective is to perform before the first core loading all the NDE planned for the future ISI in the same conditions, in order to have a reliable reference for the detection or for the evaluation of the possible damages during the ISI. The 'Flamanville 3' PSI is planned to start end 2010. The program consists of the development and the qualification of the NDE compatible with this new generation reactor's challenges. The paper is about: - the main EPR's objectives and the technological evolutions, - the main component modifications (which have an impact on the NDE), - the place of ISI in the general safety demonstration, - the main inspection objectives, - the NDE qualification process, - the approach to set up the ISI program, - the ISI program. (authors)

  3. Status of Japanese university reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Yoshiaki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Status of Japanese university reactors, their role and value in research and education, and the spent fuel problem are presented. Some of the reactors are now faced by severe difficulties in continuing their operation services. The point of measures to solve the difficulties is suggested. (author)

  4. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  5. Reactor Neutrino Physics -- An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Felix

    1999-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Long baseline oscillation experiments at Palo Verde and Chooz have provided limits for the oscillation parameters while the recently proposed Kamland experiment at a baseline of more than 100km is now in the planning stage. We also describe the status of neutrino magnetic moment experiments at reactors.

  6. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  7. Cooling system for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively cool a reactor container upon reactor shutdown with no intrusion of metal corrosion products in coolants into the main steam pipe in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: A clean up system comprising a pipeway, a recycling pump, a non-regenerative heat exchanger and a primary coolant purifier and a regenerative heat exchanger is provided branched from a residual heat removing system and the clean up system is connected by way of a valve to a feedwater pipeway, as well as connected by way of the pipeway to the main steam pipeway at the midway of two main steam separation valves outside of the reactor container. This enables to prevent metal corrosion products floating on the surface of reactor water from introducing into the main steam pipe when the pressure vessel is filled with water. Then, since the pressure vessel is filled with primary coolants, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly in a short time. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  9. Directions in advanced reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal, it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focuses upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. These programs are discussed

  10. Simulator for materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time simulator for both reactor and irradiation facilities of a materials testing reactor, “Simulator of Materials Testing Reactors”, was developed for understanding reactor behavior and operational training in order to utilize it for nuclear human resource development and to promote partnership with developing countries which have a plan to introduce nuclear power plant. The simulator is designed based on the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor), and it simulates operation, irradiation tests and various kinds of anticipated operational transients and accident conditions caused by the reactor and irradiation facilities. The development of the simulator was sponsored by the Japanese government as one of the specialized projects of advanced research infrastructure in order to promote basic as well as applied researches. This report summarizes the simulation components, hardware specification and operation procedure of the simulator. (author)

  11. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  12. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (author)

  13. Automated reactor records evaluation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only truly reliable method for core physics code validation is comparison against experimental data – and for power nuclear reactors, the only reasonably acquirable kind of experimental data are the reactor records. However, the amount of the data coming from the reactor operation is often so vast that it can be discouraging for the code developers to use it properly. Thus, the validation package is further reduced because the data is hard to use. This paper presents an elaborate, fully automated framework, which was designed and implemented in our institute, for reactor records processing and its use for core physics code validation. The workflow, implemented as a Web 2.0 application, provides a practical and painless solution for use of reactor records data for code development and validation. (author)

  14. Strategic planning for research reactors. Guidance for reactor managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance on how to develop a strategic plan for a research reactor. The IAEA is convinced of the need for research reactors to have strategic plans and is issuing a series of publications to help owners and operators in this regard. One of these covers the applications of research reactors. That report brings together all of the current uses of research reactors and enables a reactor owner or operator to evaluate which applications might be possible with a particular facility. An analysis of research reactor capabilities is an early phase in the strategic planning process. The current document provides the rationale for a strategic plan, outlines the methodology of developing such a plan and then gives a model that may be followed. While there are many purposes for research reactor strategic plans, this report emphasizes the use of strategic planning in order to increase utilization. A number of examples are given in order to clearly illustrate this function

  15. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  16. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar 1990) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  17. Reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of possible accidents may become characterized by the 'maximum credible accident', which will/will not happen. Similary, the performance of safety systems in a multitude of situations is sometimes simplified to 'the emergency system will/will not work' or even 'reactors are/ are not safe'. In assessing safety, one must avoid this fallacy of reducing a complicated situation to the simple black-and-white picture of yes/no. Similarly, there is a natural tendency continually to improve the safety of a system to assure that it is 'safe enough'. Any system can be made safer and there is usually some additional cost. It is important to balance the increased safety against the increased costs. (orig.)

  18. Reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To enable quick descent of a control rod body even when some relative phase deviation between upper drive means and wrapper tube is produced, while permitting a coolant to effectively flow into a protective tube irrespective of the position of the control rod body. Structure: In a control rod used for a nuclear reactor such as a fast breeder, an orifice which dispenses with a cylindrical guide tube and has a greater inner diameter than the outer diameter of the protective tube of the control rod body is provided on the inner side of a wrapper tube, thus permitting smooth operation of the control rod body and also permitting the coolant to effectively flow into the protective tube irrespective of the control rod body. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Nuclear reactor spacer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed wherein the fuel element receiving and supporting grid is comprised of a first metal, the guide tubes which pass through the grid assembly are comprised of a second metal and the grid is supported on the guide tubes by means of expanded sleeves located intermediate the grid and guide tubes. The fuel assembly is fabricated by inserting the sleeves, of initial outer diameter commensurate with the guide tube outer diameters, through the holes in the grid assembly provided for the guide tubes and thereafter expanding the sleeves radially outwardly along their entire length such that the guide tubes can subsequently be passed through the sleeves. The step of radial expansion, as a result of windows provided in the sleeves having dimensions commensurate with the geometry of the grid, mechanically captures the grid and simultaneously preloads the sleeve against the grid whereby relative motion between the grid and guide tube will be precluded

  20. Nuclear reactor measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument to detect the temperature and flow-rate of the liquid metal current of a coolant fluid sample from adjacent sub-assemblies of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is described. It includes three thermocouple hot junctions mounted in series, each intended for exposure to a sample-current from a single sub-assembly, electromagnetic coils being mounted around an induction core which detects variations in the liquid metal flow-rate by deformation of the lines of flux. The instrument may also include a thermocouple to detect the mean temperature of the sample-current of coolant fluid from several sources, the result being that the temperature of the coolant fluid current in a sub-assembly may be inferred from the three temperature readings associated with this sub-assembly

  1. OECD: Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work at the Project has continued in the two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer based process supervision and control. Organizations participating in the Project continue to have their fuel irradiated in the Halden Reactor in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. The Project's fuel studies continue to focus on specific subjects such as fuel pellet/cladding interaction and heat transfer, fission product release and fuel behavior under loss of coolant conditions. The work on process control and supervision continues in the highly relevant fields of core control and operator-process communication. A system for predictive core control is being developed while special mathematical methods for core power distribution control are being studied. Operator-process communication studies comprise use of computer simulation on colour display as important ingredients, while the work on developing a system for interactive plant disturbance analysis continues

  2. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  3. Safety review, assessment and inspection on research reactors, experimental reactors, nuclear heating reactors and critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized mainly in 1999 to complete the verification loop in core of the high flux experimental reactor with the 2000 kW fuel elements, the re-starting of China Pulsed Reactor, review and assessment on nuclear safety for the restarting of the Uranium-water critical Facility and treat the fracture event with the fuel tubes in the HWRR

  4. Power Reactors. Appendix VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in many countries has evolved into a mature industry that has benefited from experience gained from previous projects and decommissioning costs can now be estimated to a good degree of accuracy. As a result of lessons learned, future decommissioning projects can be performed with higher levels of efficiency. Decommissioning of old power reactors is in progress in several countries. In some cases, decommissioning has been completed (i.e. plant sites have been released from regulatory control), while in other countries decommissioning is still in progress. Several large power reactors have been successfully decommissioned since 1995. The key areas of particular importance for decommissioning are decontamination, radiation protection, dismantling and demolition. The technologies which can be used for these tasks are commonly available on the market, but effective decommissioning still depends on an optimal choice of technologies, including site specific developments. It is not possible to recommend the use of a single specific technology for dismantling, demolition, segmentation or decontamination; rather, it is good practice to take into account as much information as possible from other decommissioning projects and to draw comparisons between various techniques in order to choose the one with the best performance in a particular situation. The exchange of information on all types of decommissioning experience, including decommissioning techniques and their applicability as well as disadvantages for specific tasks, is taking place on various levels, such as: — Collaborative working groups established by international organizations such as the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission and the publication of technical reports by such organizations; — National and international conferences; — Bilateral or multilateral cooperation and information exchange between organizations with responsibilities for

  5. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  7. Nuclear reactor fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refuelling machine described comprises a rotatable support structure having a guide tube attached to it by a parellel linkage mechanism, whereby the guide tube can be displaced sideways from the support structure. A gripper unit is housed within the guide tube for gripping the end of a fuel assembly or other reactor component and has means for maintenance in the engaging condition during travel of the unit along the guide tube, except for a small portion of the travel at one end of the guide tube, where the inner surface of the guide tube is shaped so as to maintain the gripper unit in a disengaging condition. The gripper unit has a rotatable head, means for moving it linearly within the guide tube so that a component carried by the unit can be housed in the guide tube, and means for rotating the head of the unit through 1800 relative to its body, to effect rotation of a component carried by the unit. The means for rotating the head of the gripper unit comprises ring and pinion gearing, operable through a series of rotatable shafts interconnected by universal couplings. The reason for provision for 1800 rotation is that due to the variation in the neutron flux across the reactor core the side of a fuel assembly towards the outside of the core will be subjected to a lower neutron flux and therefore will grow less than the side of the fuel assembly towards the inside of the core. This can lead to bowing and possible jamming of the fuel assemblies. Full constructional details are given. See also BP 1112384. (U.K.)

  8. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  9. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards

  11. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  12. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Ageing management for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past several years, ageing of research reactor facilities continues to be an important safety issue. Despite the efforts exerted by operating organizations and regulatory authorities worldwide to address this issue, the need for an improved strategy as well as the need for establishing and implementing a systematic approach to ageing management at research reactors was identified. This paper discusses, on the basis of the IAEA Safety Standards, the effect of ageing on the safety of research reactors and presents a proactive strategy for ageing management. A systematic approach for ageing management is developed and presented together with its key elements, along with practical examples for their application. (author)

  14. Fueling of tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the fueling requirements for experimental and demonstration tandem mirror reactors (TMRs), reviews the status of conventional pellet injectors, and identifies some candidate accelerators that may be needed for fueling tandem mirror reactors. Characteristics and limitations of three types of accelerators are described; neutral beam injectors, electromagnetic rail guns, and laser beam drivers. Based on these characteristics and limitations, a computer module was developed for the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (TMRSC) to select the pellet injector/accelerator combination which most nearly satisfies the fueling requirements for a given machine design

  15. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  16. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  17. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  18. BR2 reactor neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of reactor neutron beams is becoming increasingly more widespread for the study of some properties of condensed matter. It is mainly due to the unique properties of the ''thermal'' neutrons as regards wavelength, energy, magnetic moment and overall favorable ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sections. Besides these fundamental reasons, the impetus for using neutrons is also due to the existence of powerful research reactors (such as BR2) built mainly for nuclear engineering programs, but where a number of intense neutron beams are available at marginal cost. A brief introduction to the production of suitable neutron beams from a reactor is given. (author)

  19. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  20. Reactor Safety Commission Code of Practice for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Commission of the Federal German Republic has summarized in the form of Official Guidelines the safety requirements which, in the Commission's view, have to be met in the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power station equipped with a pressurized water reactor. The Third Edition of the RSK Guidelines for pressurized water reactors dated 14.10.81. is a revised and expanded version of the Second Edition dated 24.1.79. The Reactor Safety Commission will with effect from October 1981 use these Guidelines in consultations on the siting of and safety concept for the installation approval of future pressurized water reactors and will assess these nuclear power stations during their erection in the light of these Guidelines. They have not however been immediately conceived for the adaptation of existing nuclear power stations, whether under construction or in operation. The scope of application of these Guidelines to such nuclear power stations will have to be examined for each individual case. The main aim of the Guidelines is to simplify the consultation process within the reactor Safety Commission and to provide early advice on the safety requirements considered necessary by the Commission. (author)

  1. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  2. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  3. Research reactors: design, safety requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of reactors: research reactors or power reactors. The difference between the research reactor and energy reactor is that the research reactor has working temperature and fuel less than the power reactor. The research reactors cooling uses light or heavy water and also research reactors need reflector of graphite or beryllium to reduce the loss of neutrons from the reactor core. Research reactors are used for research training as well as testing of materials and the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and for industrial application. The difference is also that the research reactor smaller in terms of capacity than that of power plant. Research reactors produce radioactive isotopes are not used for energy production, the power plant generates electrical energy. In the world there are more than 284 reactor research in 56 countries, operates as source of neutron for scientific research. Among the incidents related to nuclear reactors leak radiation partial reactor which took place in three mile island nuclear near pennsylvania in 1979, due to result of the loss of control of the fission reaction, which led to the explosion emitting hug amounts of radiation. However, there was control of radiation inside the building, and so no occurred then, another accident that lead to radiation leakage similar in nuclear power plant Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, has led to deaths of 4000 people and exposing hundreds of thousands to radiation, and can continue to be effect of harmful radiation to affect future generations. (author)

  4. Conceptual design study of JSFR reactor building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ohya, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Hara, H.; Akiyama, Y. [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc. MFBR, 34-17, Jingumae 2-chome, Shibuya, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planning to adopt the new concepts of reactor building. One is that the steel plate reinforced concrete is adopted for containment vessel and reactor building. The other is the advanced seismic isolation system. This paper describes the detail of new concepts for JSFR reactor building and engineering evaluation of the new concepts. (authors)

  5. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  6. Light water reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the technology of light water reactors (LWR) was being commercialized, the German Federal Government funded the reactor safety research program, which was conducted by national research centers, universities, and industry, and which led to the establishment, in early 1972, of the Nuclear Safety Project in Karlsruhe. In the seventies, the PNS project mainly studied the loss-of-coolant accident. Numerous experiments were run and computer codes developed for this purpose. In the eighties, the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center contributed to the German Risk Study, investigating especially core meltdown accidents under the impact of the events at Three Mile Island-2 and Chernobyl-4. Safety research in the nineties is concentrated on the requirements of future reactor generations, such as the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) or potential approaches which, at the present time, are discernible only as tentative theoretical designs. (orig.)

  7. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  8. Fuel for advanced CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. In 1985 for example, four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. This excellent operating record requires an equivalent performance record of the low-cost, natural uranium fuel. Future CANDU reactors will be an evolution of the present design. Engineering work is under way to refine the existing CANDU 600 and to incorporate state-of-the-art technology, reducing the capital cost and construction schedule. In addition, a smaller CANDU 300 plant has been designed using proven CANDU 600 technology and components but with an innovative new plant layout that makes it cost competitive with coal fired plants. For the long term, work on advanced fuel cycles and major system improvements is underway ensuring that CANDU plants will stay competitive well into the next century

  9. Conceptual design of RFC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametic analysis and a preliminary conceptual design for RFC reactor (including cusp field) with and without alpha particle heating are described. Steady state operations can be obtained for various RF ponderomotive potential in cases of alpha particle heating. (author)

  10. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...... microorganism into methane. In thermophilic biogas reactors,, acetate oxidizing cultures occupied the niche of Methanothrix species, aceticlastic methanogens which dominate at low acetate concentrations in mesophilic systems. Normally, thermophilic biogas reactors are operated at temperatures from 52 to 560 C....... Experiments using biogas reactors fed with cow manure showed that the same biogas yield found at 550 C could be obtained at 610 C after a long adaptation period. However, propionate degradation was inhibited by increasing the temperature....

  11. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  12. RA reactor operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes the final report on RA reactor operation and utilization of the experimental facilities in 1962, detailed analysis of the system for heavy water distillation and calibration of the system for measuring the activity of the air

  13. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author)

  14. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  15. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  16. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  17. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  18. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  19. Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all the R D works of gas-cooled fast breeder reactor in the world were terminated at the end of the year 1980. In order to show that the R D termination was not due to technical difficulties of the reactor itself, the present paper describes the reactor plant concept, reactor performances, safety, economics and fuel cycle characteristics of the reactor, and also describes the reactor technologies developed so far, technological problems remained to be solved and planned development schedules of the reactor. (author)

  20. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  1. Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  3. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, recycling flow rate of coolants is increased and the amount of entrained bubbles are increased as the driving force is increased, so that bubbles are not separated completely even if a stagnation region is disposed. Then, a space opened only at the upper portion is disposed at the outer circumference of the upper end of a riser for storing overflown coolants temporarily. The flow of coolants incorporating steam bubbles uprising in the riser turns into the horizontal direction at the upper end of the riser wall and flows into the coolant reservoir. In the coolant reservoir, since the momentum of the coolants is lost and the flow is stagnated, the bubbles are easily released to the upper space. Coolants, after releasing the bubbles, further overflow and descend in the downcomer. Then, the bubbles can be separated undergoing no influence of the driving force caused as the sum of the uprising force in the riser and the water head pressure in the downcomer, to prevent increase of carry under due to increase of the driving force. (N.H.)

  4. Reactor Simulator Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  5. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  6. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  7. OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is both the oldest and the only one still in operation of the three major joint undertakings established at the inception of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication has been printed in connection with its twenty-fifth anniversary as an international project. After presentation of the history and organization of the project, a thorough description of the past and present activities in the field of fuel performance and process control and surveillance is given. The projects's fuel testing programme is now focuessed on an investigation to define safety margins under normal operations as well as under various kinds of accident situations. Fuel research is also concerned with the characterisation of long term effects with regard to efficiency, operational safety and mapping of reliability and durability in the case of accidents with loss of coolant. In the field of process control and surveillance, research work is directly linked to the use of computers and colour graphics as tools in the control room. A fullscale simulator-based model and experimental control room has been constructed. The first experiments to be carried out in this laboratory will investigate the advantage of analysing alarms before they are presented to the operator. (RF)

  8. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas containing vessel has a water pool which is in communication with a dry well containing a reactor pressure vessel by way of a communication pipe is disposed. A capacity of a gas phase portion of the gas containing chamber, a capacity of the dry well, a water depth of a bent tube communicating the dry well with a pressure suppression pool of a pressure suppression chamber and a water depth of the communication pipe are determined so as to satisfy specific conditions. Since the water depth of the communication pipe is less than the water depth of the bent tube, incondensible gases and steams in the dry well flow into the water pool of the gas containing chamber at the initial stage of loss of coolant accident. Subsequently, steams in the dry well flow into the pressure suppression pool of the pressure suppression chamber by way of the bent tube. Accordingly, since the incondensible gases in the dry well do not flow into the pressure suppression chamber, pool swelling phenomenon in the pressure suppression chamber is not caused even if the water depth of the bent tube which leads to the pressure suppression chamber is great. Further, pressure increase due to transfer of the incondensible gases is decreased. (I.N.)

  9. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major part of the current research programme is devoted to irradiation experiments with a wide variety of heavily instrumented test fuel assemblies, in order to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of fuel rods through in-core measurements, in particular various forms of deformation of cladding and fuel as related to operational conditions and fuel rod design parameters. From these measurements mathematical models are being developed to explain quantitatively the deformation behavior, as well as the thermal properties of the fuel. During 1974, fifty-six instrumented fuel assemblies were irradiated in these experiments. Another major part of the Halden programme is aimed at the development and demonstration of advanced computer-based methods for plant and reactor core control, for safety and protection, and for overall supervision of nuclear power stations. Both the control methods themselves and the associated measurement and control apparatus are being elaborated, and during the year particular progress was made with the ''OPCOM'' process operator communication system

  10. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  11. Meeting on reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting 'Reactor Safety Research' organized for the second time by the GRS by order of the BMFT gave a review of research activities on the safety of light water reactors in the Federal Repulbic of Germany, international co-operation in this field and latest results of this research institution. The central fields of interest were subjects of man/machine-interaction, operational reliability accident sequences, and risk. (orig.)

  12. Fractals in Power Reactor Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the non- lineal dynamic problem of power reactor is analyzed using classic concepts of fractal analysis as: attractors, Hausdorff-Besikovics dimension, phase space, etc. A new non-linear problem is also analyzed: the discrimination of chaotic signals from random neutron noise signals and processing for diagnosis purposes. The advantages of a fractal analysis approach in the power reactor noise are commented in details

  13. Stellarator fusion reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stellarator system offers a distinct alternative to the mainline approaches to magnetic fusion power and has several potentially major advantages. Since the first proposal of the stellarator concept many reactor studies have been published and these studies reflect the large variety of stellarator configurations. The main representatives are the continuous-coil configurations and the modular-coil configurations. As a continuation of the LHD experiment two reactor configurations, FFHR1 and FFHR2, have been investigated, which use continuous helical windings for providing the magnetic field. The modular coil concept has been realized in the MHH-reactor study (USA 1997) and in the Helias reactor. The Helias reactor combines the principle of plasma optimisation with a modular coil system. The paper also discusses the issues associated with the blanket and the maintenance process. Stellarator configurations with continuous coils such as LHD possess a natural helical divertor, which can be used favourably for impurity control. In advanced stellarators with modular coils the same goal can be achieved by the island divertor. Plasma parameters in the various stellarator reactors are computed on the basis of presently known scaling laws showing that confinement is sufficiently good to provide ignition and self-sustained burn. (author)

  14. Materials requirements for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once the physics of fusion devices is understood, one or more experimental power reactors (EPR) are planned which will produce net electrical power. The structural material for the device will probably be a modification of an austenitic stainless steel. Unlike fission reactors, whose pressure boundaries are subjected to no or only light irradiation, the pressure boundary of a fusion reactor is subjected to high atomic displacement-damage and high production rates of transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen. The design data base must include irradiated materials. Since in situ testing to obtain tensile, fatigue, creep, crack-growth, stress-rupture, and swelling data is currently impossible for fusion reactor conditions, a program of service-temperature irradiations in fission reactors followed by postirradiation testing, simulation of fusion conditions, and low-fluence 14 MeV neutron-irradiation tests are planned. For the Demonstration Reactor (DEMO) expected to be built within ten years after theEPR, higher heat fluxes may require the use of refractory metals, at least for the first 20 cm. A partial data base may be provided by high-flux 14 MeV neutron sources being planned. Many materials other than those for structural components will be required in the EPR and DEMO. These include superconducting magnets, insulators, neutron reflectors and shields, and breeding materials. The rest of the device should utilize conventional materials except that portion involved in tritium confinement and recovery

  15. The safety of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The central part of the book is devoted to methods and results of safety analysis. Some significant events are described, notably the Three Mile Island accident. The book concludes with a chapter on the PIUS principle of inherent reactor safety as applied to the SECURE type of reactor developed in Sweden. (G.B.)

  16. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  17. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 2: Advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings for this conference are contained in 5 volumes. This volume is divided into the following areas: advanced reactor requirements; advanced reactor design and analysis; arrangement and construction; specific reactor designs; demonstration testing; safety systems and analysis; component demonstration testing; advanced reactor containment design; licensing topics and updates; accelerator applications and spallation sources; and advanced reactor development. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  18. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  19. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  20. Analysis of higher power research reactors' parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this monograph was to analyze and compare parameters of different types of research reactors having higher power. This analysis could be used for decision making and choice of a reactor which could possibly replace the existing ageing RA reactor in Vinca. Present experimental and irradiation needs are taken into account together with the existing reactors operated in our country, RB and TRIGA reactor

  1. Calibration of a special neutron dosemeter based on solid-state track detectors and fission radiators in various neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calibration of a personnel neutron dosemeter in different neutron fields is described. The badge-like dosemeter contains 5 detectors: polycarbonate foil (10 μm, Makrofol KG), 232Th, natural uranium, natural uranium with boron, and natural uranium with cadmium. Detector sensitivity and calibration factors have been calculated and measured in radiation fields of 252Cf fission neutrons, WWR-S reactor neutrons with and without Cd and Fe shielding, 3-MeV (d,t) generator neutrons, and 238PuBe neutrons. Measurement range and achievable accuracy are discussed from the point of view of applying the dosemeter in routine and emergency uses

  2. Impact of proposed research reactor standards on reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Standards Committee on Operation of Research Reactors, (ANS-15), sponsored by the American Nuclear Society, was organized in June 1971. Its purpose is to develop, prepare, and maintain standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training. Of the 15 original members, six were directly associated with operating TRIGA facilities. This committee developed a standard for the Development of Technical Specifications for Research Reactors (ANS-15.1), the revised draft of which was submitted to ANSI for review in May of 1973. The Committee then identified 10 other critical areas for standards development. Nine of these, along with ANS-15.1, are of direct interest to TRIGA owners and operators. The Committee was divided into subcommittees to work on these areas. These nine areas involve proposed standards for research reactors concerning: 1. Records and Reports (ANS-15.3) 2. Selection and Training of Personnel (ANS-15.4) 3. Effluent Monitoring (ANS-15.5) 4. Review of Experiments (ANS-15.6) 5. Siting (ANS-15.7) 6. Quality Assurance Program Guidance and Requirements (ANS-15.8) 7. Restrictions on Radioactive Effluents (ANS-15.9) 8. Decommissioning (ANS-15.10) 9. Radiological Control and Safety (ANS-15.11). The present status of each of these standards will be presented, along with their potential impact on TRIGA reactor operation. (author)

  3. Prometheus Project Reactor Module Final Report, For Naval Reactors Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) led the development of a power plant for a civilian nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system concept as part of the Prometheus Project. This report provides a summary of the facts, technical insights, and programmatic perspectives gained from this two-year program. The Prometheus Project experience has been extensively documented to better position the US for future space reactor development. Major Technological and engineering challenges exist to develop a system that provides useful electric power from a nuclear fission heat source operating in deep space. General issues include meeting mission requirements in a system that has a mass low enough to launch from earth while assuring public safety and remaining safely shutdown during credible launch accidents. These challenges may be overcome in the future if there is a space mission with a compelling need for nuclear power to drive development. Past experience and notional mission requirements indicate that any useful space reactor system will be unlike past space reactors and existing terrestrial reactors

  4. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  5. Operating experiences of the research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research reactors are devices of wide importance, being used for different scientific research tasks, for testing and improving reactor systems and components, for the production of radioisotopes, for the purposes of defence, for staff training and for other purposes. There are three research reactors in Yugoslavia: RA, RB and TRIGA. Reactors RA and RB at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of Nuclear Sciences are of heavy water type power being 6500 and 10 kW, and maximum thermal neutron flux of 1014 and 1011(n/cm2s), respectively. TRIGA reactor at the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana is of 250 kW power and maximum thermal neutron flux of 1013(n/cm2s). Reactors RA and RB use soviet fuel in the form of uranium dioxide (80% enriched) and metallic uranium (2%). Besides, RB reactor operates with natural uranium too. TRIGA reactor uses american uranium fuel 70% and 20% enriched, uranium being mixed homogeneously with moderator (ZrH). Experiences in handling and controlling the fuel before irradiation in the reactor, in reactor and after it are numerous and valuable, involving either the commercial arrangements with foreign producers, or optimal burn up in reactor or fuel treatment after the reactor irradiation. Twenty years of operating experience of these reactors have great importance especially having in mind the number of trained staff. Maintenance of reactors systems and fluids in continuous operation is valuable experience from the point of view of water reactor utilization. The case of the RA reactor primary cycle cobalt decontamination and other events connected with nuclear and radiation security for all three reactors are also specially emphasized. Owing to our research reactors, numerous theoretical, numerical and experimental methods are developed for nuclear and other analyses and design of research and power reactors,as well as methods for control and protection of radiation. (author)

  6. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)

    2006-02-15

    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  7. Nordic study on reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, 14 nuclear power reactors are in operation and 2 under construction in the Nordic countries. So far, the reactor waste originating from day-to-day operation of these plants has been stored in solidified form at the reactor sites. Within a few years a satisfactory disposal procedure needs to be established. While the main R and D effects in the waste field have earlier been devoted to the question of irradiated fuel and waste from reprocessing, there is therefore now an increased interest in reactor waste with its much lower radioactivity but somewhat larger volumes. Since 1977, efforts have been made in a joint Nordic study to examine which facts need to be known in order to perform a comprehensive safety assessment of a reactor waste management system. In the present study a Reference system related to the waste generated over 30 years from six 500 MW-reactors is examined. The dominating radionuclides during storage and transportation accident scenarios are Cs-134, Cs-137 and Co-60. For most of the release scenarios from repositories Cs-137 and Sr-90 are dominating. Some scenarios are, however, dominated by the very longlived nuclides I-129 and C-14. A closer examination of the concentration in the waste of these nuclides and of their leaching properties indicates that their small - but significant - influence, as calculated, is probably grossly overestimated. The mechanical stability obtained in routine solidification processes of reactor waste products in conjunction with the outer container (steel drum, transport container, etc.) turns out to be sufficient. Difficulties were encountered in applying ICRP methodology and available dose calculation methods to calculation of population doses due to small activity releases, and effects extending into the far future. (EG)

  8. When reactors reach old age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the battle over whether to build new nuclear plants has quieted in recent times, a second struggle is shaping up in the United States as reactors approach a new stage of life: retirement. Four decades into the nuclear power age, questions of how best to dismantle and dispose of a nuclear power plant remain largely unanswered. The debates have been mainly academic until now - although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning retired reactors has simply not been fully planned in this country. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first large-scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debates in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. Virtually all groups involved in decommissioning a reactor in the United States - the utility, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state public service commissions, and citizen organizations - agree that for the most part the technology to dismantle and dispose of a reactor safely is available. They disagree, however, on which technical option is the safest or cheapest and on who should pay for dismantlement. And there are further complications: Which regulations must be complied with. How much radiation exposure for workers and the public is acceptable. Even with answers to these questions, uncertainty about where to dispose of the radioactive waste and about how much residual radiation can be left at a former reactor site plagues the architects of decommissioning. This article discusses these questions

  9. Market introduction of innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the development of evolutionary and passive LWR, also that of innovative reactors is attractive, because other applications (new markets) besides base load electricity generation can be thought of, and interesting new features on the area of safety or waste incineration can be shown. For market introduction however, a (partial) new infrastructure and a demonstration plant are required. Taking the abundance of fossil fuels and the accompanying low fuel prices today and in the near future into account, the funds to finance this will only become available when 1)the projected energy generating costs will be substantially lower than those of today, and 2)the costs of market introduction (i.e. the demonstration plant and the required infrastructure) will be limited. Generally speaking, there are two ways to seek competitiveness of a reactor type: 1)application of economy of scale, and 2)simplification. In this paper, an example of the second possibility is pursued for an innovative reactor type. The HR1 is a 40 MWth high temperature gas cooled reactor for heat and power cogeneration, a simplified version of the German HTR Module. The power level is chosen so small that additional safety features become apparent. For example, after a total loss of coolant the fuel remains fully intact, even if the reactor shutdown system fails and the reactor goes critical again after a number of hours. These safety features are used to omit certain components, like the emergency core cooling system, or to select a cheaper version of components, e.g. replacing the containment building by a confinement. Moreover, degradation of the safety class of certain components comes within the realm of possibilities. The cost reduction offered by these two measures are used to more than offset the economy-of-scale disadvantage of this small reactor system. (author)

  10. University of Florida training reactor. Annual progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual progress report of the University of Florida Training Reactor discusses: reactor operation; personnel; modifications made to the reactors; reactor maintenance; and testing of reactor systems

  11. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  12. Fast Reactor Development Strategy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the largest developing countries, China needs a reliable energy supplement. At the same time, China should improve the energy structure to decrease CO2 emissions. Nuclear and renewable energies are the main solutions to these issues. According to the research results, the nuclear capacity should increase to 400 GW(e) up to 2050. Fast reactors must be developed considering the limitation of uranium resources. In order to deploy fast reactor technology, the ‘experimental reactor, demonstration reactor and commercial reactor’ strategy has been suggested. China has finished the construction of the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) and gained necessary experience about fast reactors. The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) has begun to design the CFR-600, a 600 MW(e) demonstration fast reactor. This reactor will be put into operation before 2025. After that, a larger commercial reactor will be constructed. Besides fast reactors, all of other key sectors of fuel cycle will be developed at the same time such as reprocessing, fast reactor fuel, etc. There are two main tasks of fast reactors, one of which is to raise the utility ratio of uranium, and the other one is to transmute the long life waste of light water reactors. The fast reactor will be designed as a breeder and burner, respectively. (author)

  13. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  14. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  15. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  16. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  17. Water shielding nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor container of the present invention contains a reactor pressure vessel, and has double steel plate walls endurable to elevated inner pressure and keeping airtightness, and shielding water is filled inside from a water injection port. It is endurable to a great inner pressure satisfactorily and keep airtightness by the two spaced relatively thin steel plates. It exhibits radiation shielding effect by filling water substantially the same as that of a conventional reactor container made of iron reinforced concretes. Then, it is no more necessary to use concretes for the construction of the reactor container, which shortens the term of the construction, and saves the construction cost. In addition, a cooling effect for the reactor container is provided. Syphons are disposed contiguously to a water injection port and the top end of the syphon is immersed in an equipment temporarily storage pool, and further, pipelines are connected to the double steel plate walls or the syphons for supplying shielding water to enhance the cooling effect. (N.H.)

  18. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Economic analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents several methods for estimating the power costs of nuclear reactors. When based on a consistent set of economic assumptions, total power costs may be useful in comparing reactor alternatives. The principal items contributing to the total power costs of a nuclear power plant are: (1) capital costs, (2) fuel cycle costs, (3) operation and maintenance costs, and (4) income taxes and fixed charges. There is a large variation in capital costs and fuel expenses among different reactor types. For example, the standard once-through LWR has relatively low capital costs; however, the fuel costs may be very high if U3O8 is expensive. In contrast, the FBR has relatively high capital costs but low fuel expenses. Thus, the distribution of expenses varies significantly between these two reactors. In order to compare power costs, expenses and revenues associated with each reactor may be spread over the lifetime of the plant. A single annual cost, often called a levelized cost, may be obtained by the methods described. Levelized power costs may then be used as a basis for economic comparisons. The paper discusses each of the power cost components. An exact expression for total levelized power costs is derived. Approximate techniques of estimating power costs will be presented

  20. Simplifying Microbial Electrosynthesis Reactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloelle G.S. Giddings

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata, which reduces carbon dioxide to acetate. In traditional ‘H-cell’ reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a poteniostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  1. Spherical tokamak research for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between ITER and the commercial fusion reactor, there are many technological problems to be solved such as cost, neutron and steady-state operation. In the conceptual design of VECTOR and Slim CS reactors it was shown that the key is 'low aspect ratio'. The spherical tokamak (ST) has been expected as the base for fusion reactors. In US, ST is considered as a non-superconducting reactor for use in the neutron irradiation facility. Conceptual design of the superconducting ST reactor is conducted in Japan and Korea independently. In the present article, the prospect of the ST reactor design is discussed. (author)

  2. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  3. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  4. Thermochemical data for reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a computer database of thermochemical properties of nuclear reactor materials to be used for source term calculations in reactor accident codes. In the first part, the structure and the content of the computer file is described. In the second part a set of thermochemical data is presented pertaining to chemical reactions occurring during severe nuclear reactor accidents and involving fuel (uranium dioxide), fission products and structural materials. These data are complementary to those collected in the databook recently published by Cordfunke and Potter after a study supported by the Commission of the European Communities. The present data were collected from review articles and databanks and follow a discussion on the uncertainties and errors involved in the calculation of complex chemical equilibria in the extrapolated temperature range

  5. Reactor vessel stud thread protector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a stud thread protector for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The vessel has a removable closure head, the closure head being sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel by a plurality of stud bolts, an upper end thereof having a threaded section for threadingly engaging a nut and a vertical bore being disposed within the stud bolt. The stud thread protector encloses the exposed upper portion of the bolt and associated nut projecting above the closure head. The reactor vessel stud thread protector is comprised of: a tubular wall portion being opened at its lower end and substantially closed at its upper end; a drip pan associated with the outer surface of the protector, the drip pan being disposed radially inwardly with respect to the outer periphery of the vessel head, whereby the drip pan collects any fluid being emitted from the reactor vessel; and means for fastening the stud thread protector to an associated stud

  6. Coolant recirculation device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To surely remove gases in coolants by the provision of a gas separator having a coolant stay chamber in the midway of coolant flow circuit. Constitution: In an LMFBR type reactor, a gas separator for taking out incompressible gases contained in coolants is provided in the midway of coolant flow circuit comprising a coolant flowing pipeway connected to a reactor, a heat exchange and a coolant recycling pump. The gas separator comprises a vessel-shaped coolant stay chamber, inlet and exit ports of coolants opened to the stay chamber, and a take out port for taking out gases separated from the coolants in the stay chamber. Since the incompressible gases in the coolants have lower density than the coolants, they are collected in the upper cover gas plenum and can surely be eliminated to thereby prevent the gases from flowing into the reactor. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. The Extrap fusion reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT A study has recently been initiated to assess the fusion reactor potential of the Extrap high-beta toroidal z-pinch concept. A reactor model is defined that fullfills certain economic and operational criteria that are characteristic of compact toroidal systems, including moderately large electric power output, high power density, high first wall loading, and simple construction. This model is applied to Extrap, and a 1000 MWe reference reactor having a first wall neutron loading of 10 MW/m2 is outlined. The minor plasma radius is 1.5 m, the major radius 4.5 m and the pinch current 10 MA. A 0.7 m thick blanket/refletor/shield is chosen to achieve sufficient breeding of tritium, good energy multiplication, and shielding of normal copper coils. (author). 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  8. On fast reactor kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of the Russian Academy of Sciences IBRAE (Russian Federation); Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space kinetics experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point kinetics equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)

  9. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  10. Research reactor education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CORYS T.E.S.S. and TECHNICATOME present in this document some of the questions that can be rightfully raised concerning education and training of nuclear facilities' staffs. At first, some answers illustrate the tackled generic topics: importance of training, building of a training program, usable tools for training purposes. Afterwards, this paper deals more specifically with research reactors as an actual training tool. The pedagogical advantages they can bring are illustrated through an example consisting in the description of the AZUR facility training capabilities followed by the detailed experiences CORYS T.E.S.S. and TECHNICATOME have both gathered and keeps on gaining using research reactors for training means. The experience shows that this incomparable training material is not necessarily reserved to huge companies or organisations' numerous personnel. It offers enough flexibility to be adapted to the specific needs of a thinner audience. Thus research reactor staffs can also take advantages of this training method. (author)

  11. Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, ∼2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges

  12. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  13. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  14. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Nuclear Engineering has shown expertise in the field of nuclear and energy systems ad correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained over decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in the design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. The Nuclear Fuel Center is responsible for the production of the nuclear fuel necessary for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor. Development of new fuel technologies is also a permanent concern

  15. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  16. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  17. A survey on new nuclear legislative documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concerning personnel instruction for emergency situations, applicable to nuclear field also; 12. National strategy of civil protection in Romania; 13. Gov. D. concerning classification of administrative units, public institutions and economic units from civil protection point of view as a function of specific types of risks: 14. Gov. D. concerning Romania's sharing subscription for participation in the CERN Experiments; 15. Gov. D. referring to financing the activities of safe conditioning and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting in the cleaning and preparation for decommissioning the WWR-S-Bucharest reactor of IFIN-HH; 16. Gov. D. on the Romania's contribution to the Fund for preventing and combat the nuclear terrorism of IAEA ; 17. Gov. D. concerning public access to environmental information on nuclear activities inclusive; 18. Statute of organization and functioning of the National Research-Development Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, I.C.S.I. at Ramnicu Valcea; 19. Statute of organization and functioning of the National Research-Development Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering at Bucharest; 20. CNCAN Order referring to Standards for the limiting levels for release of radioactive effluents in the environment; 21. Environmental license for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. Each document in this listing is shortly explained and commented

  18. Research Reactors Types and Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor, in gross terms, is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate. The nuclei of fuel heavy atoms (mostly 235U or 239Pu), when struck by a slow neutron, may split into two or more smaller nuclei as fission products,releasing energy and neutrons in a process called nuclear fission. These newly-born fast neutrons then undergo several successive collisions with relatively low atomic mass material, the moderator, to become thermalized or slow. Normal water, heavy water, graphite and beryllium are typical moderators. These neutrons then trigger further fissions, and so on. When this nuclear chain reaction is controlled, the energy released can be used to heat water, produce steam and drive a turbine that generates electricity. The fission process, and hence the energy release, are controlled by the insertion (or extraction) of control rods through the reactor. These rods are strongly neutron absorbents, and thus only enough neutrons to sustain the chain reaction are left in the core. The energy released, mostly in the form of heat, should be continuously removed, to protect the core from damage. The most significant use of nuclear reactors is as an energy source for the generation of electrical power and for power in some military ships. This is usually accomplished by methods that involve using heat from the nuclear reaction to power steam turbines. Research reactors are used for radioisotope production and for beam experiments with free neutrons. Historically, the first use of nuclear reactors was the production of weapons grade plutonium for nuclear weapons. Currently all commercial nuclear reactors are based on nuclear fission. Fusion power is an experimental technology based on nuclear fusion instead of fission.

  19. Spatial Kinetics in Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor neutronic calculations designed for calculating of unsteady processes in a real 3D geometry require processing of a large amount of information. They cannot consist of simple models, as they should reflect the processes of variations of all local reactor characteristics. The model complexity and the significant time needed for numerical solution of neutron-transport equations limit the choice of methods that can achieve the required accuracy. Thus there is an urgent need for the development of various methods enabling the solution of unsteady neutron-transport equations and estimates of their errors, spent time and consistency with the experimental data. (author)

  20. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  1. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  2. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  3. Reactor production of Thorium-229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Susan; Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen; Denton, David; Owens, Allison; Haverlock, Tamara J; Garland, Marc; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-08-01

    Limited availability of (229)Th for clinical applications of (213)Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, (229)Th is produced from neutron transmutation of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (227)Ac and (228)Th. Irradiations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (227)Ac targets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor result in yields of (229)Th at 26 days of 74.0±7.4MBq/g, 260±10MBq/g, and 1200±50MBq/g, respectively. Intermediate radionuclide yields and cross sections are also studied. PMID:27163437

  4. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  5. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  6. Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants of the IAEA Member States since 1970. In order to facilitate an analysis of nuclear power plant performance as well as to produce relevant publications, all previously collected data supplied from the questionnaires were computerized in 1980 and the Power Reactor Information System was implemented. PRIS currently contains production records for the years up to and including 1990 and about 98% of the reactors-years operating experience in the world is contained in PRIS. (orig.)

  7. Small intrinsically safe reactor implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing the history of nuclear power, it is found that peaceful uses of nuclear power are children of the war-like atom. Importance of special growth in a shielded environment is emphasized to exploit fully the advantages of nuclear power. Nuclear power reactors must be safe for their assimilation into society from the points of view of both technology and social psychology. ISR/ISER is identified as a missing link in the development of nuclear power reactors from this perspective and advocated for international development and utilization, being unleashed from the concerns of politicization, safety, and proliferation

  8. Research reactor modernization and refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many recent, high profile research reactor unplanned shutdowns can be directly linked to different challenges which have evolved over time. The concept of ageing management is certainly nothing new to nuclear facilities, however, these events are highlighting the direct impact unplanned shutdowns at research reactors have on various stakeholders who depend on research reactor goods and services. Provided the demand for these goods and services remains strong, large capital projects are anticipated to continue in order to sustain future operation of many research reactors. It is within this context that the IAEA organized a Technical Workshop to launch a broader Agency activity on research reactor modernization and refurbishment (M and R). The workshop was hosted by the operating organization of the HOR Research Reactor in Delft, the Netherlands, in October 2006. Forty participants from twenty-three countries participated in the meeting: with representation from Africa, Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, North America, South America and Western Europe. The specific objectives of this workshop were to present facility reports on completed, existing and planned M and R projects, including the project objectives, scope and main characteristics; and to specifically report on: - the project impact (planned or actual) on the primary and key supporting motivation for the M and R project; - the project impact (planned or actual) on the design basis, safety, and/or regulatory-related reports; - the project impact (planned or actual) on facility utilization; - significant lessons learned during or following the completion of M and R work. Contributions from this workshop were reviewed by experts during a consultancy meeting held in Vienna in December 2007. The experts selected final contributions for inclusion in this report. Requests were also distributed to some authors for additional detail as well as new authors for known projects not submitted during the initial 2006 workshop

  9. Liquid-cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen can be added to nuclear reactors with a liquid hydrogen-containing coolant on the suction side of a high pressure pump in the purification system. According to the invention this is performed by means of a liquid jet condenser which uses the coolant as liquid and which is preferably charged from the pressure side of the high pressure pump and conveys the liquid to a mixer connected in series with the high pressure pump. The invention is to be used especially in pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  10. Safety of thermal water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports on the latest European research into the safety of thermal water reactors, based on the presentation and evaluation of results obtained from research projects undertaken in different national laboratories of the European Community. Information is included under the following areas of research: 1.) The loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and the functioning and performance of the emergency core cooling system; 2.) The protection of nuclear power plants against external gas cloud explosions; and 3.) The release and distribution of radioactive fission products in the atmosphere following a reactor accident

  11. Power reactor information system (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the very beginning of commercial operation of nuclear power plants, the nuclear power industry worldwide has accumulated more than 5000 reactor years of experience. The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants since 1970 which were computerized in 1980. The Agency has undertaken to make Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) available on-line to its Member States. The aim of this publication is to provide the users of PRIS from their terminals with description of data base and communication systems and to show the methods of accessing the data

  12. Advanced fuels for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In addition to traditional fast reactor fuels that contain Uranium and Plutonium, the advanced fast reactor fuels are likely to include the minor actinides [Neptunium (Np), Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm)]. Such fuels are also referred to as transmutation fuels. The goal of transmutation fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a traditional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. Oxide, metal, nitride, and carbide fuels are candidates under consideration for this application, based on historical knowledge of fast reactor fuel development and specific fuel tests currently being conducted in international transmutation fuel development programs. Early fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high density and potential for breeder operation. The focus of pressurized water reactor development on oxide fuel and the subsequent adoption by the commercial nuclear power industry, however, along with early issues with low burnup potential of metal fuel (now resolved), led later fast reactor development programs to favor oxide fuels. Carbide and nitride fuels have also been investigated but are at a much lower state of development than metal and oxide fuels, with limited large scale reactor irradiation experience. Experience with both metal and oxide fuels has established that either fuel type will meet performance and reliability goals for a plutonium fueled fast spectrum test reactor, both demonstrating burnup capability of up to 20 at.% under normal operating conditions, when clad with modified austenitic or ferritic martensitic stainless steel alloys. Both metal and oxide fuels have been shown to exhibit sufficient margin to failure under transient conditions for successful reactor operation. Summary of selected fuel material properties taken are provided in the paper. The main challenge for the development of transmutation fast reactor

  13. Imperial College Reactor Centre annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the following matters: research topics (reactor engineering; neutron and gamma dosimetry; nuclear physics; stable and radiotracer studies; neutron activation analysis (medicine; the environment; archaeology; geology)); personnel; publications; overseas visits; research contracts; teaching; reactor operations. (U.K.)

  14. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors - the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. This report examines the safety objective established by the Department of Energy for the production reactors and the process the Department of its contractors use to implement the objective; focuses on a variety of uncertainties concerning the production reactors, particularly those related to potential vulnerabilities to severe accidents; and identifies ways in which the DOE approach to management of the safety of the production reactors can be improved

  15. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor started in 1986 were fulfilled except the exchange of the complete reactor instrumentation. Since 1992, due to economic and political reasons, RA reactor is in a difficult situation. The old RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled. Decision about the future status of the reactor should be made because the aging of all the components is becoming dramatic. Control and maintenance of the reactor components was done regularly and efficiently. The most important activity and investment in 1998 was improvement of conditions for spent fuel storage in the existing pools at the RA reactor. Russian company ENTEK and IAEA are involved in this activity which was initiated 1997. Fuel inspection by the IAEA safeguards inspectors was done on a monthly basis. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 2000 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection

  16. Research nuclear reactor RA - Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities related to revitalisation of the RA reactor started in 1986 were fulfilled except the exchange of the complete reactor instrumentation. Since 1992, due to economic and political reasons, RA reactor is in a difficult situation. The old RA reactor instrumentation was dismantled. Decision about the future status of the reactor should be made because the aging of all the components is becoming dramatic. Control and maintenance of the reactor components was done regularly and efficiently. The most important activity and investment in 1998 was improvement of conditions for spent fuel storage in the existing pools at the RA reactor. Russian company ENTEK and IAEA are involved in this activity which was initiated 1997. Fuel inspection by the IAEA safeguards inspectors was done on a monthly basis. Research reactor RA Annual report for year 1998 is divided into two main parts to cover: (1) operation and maintenance and (2) activities related to radiation protection

  17. Health requirements for nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health prerequisites established for the qualification of nuclear reactor operators according to CNEN-NE-1.01 Guidelines Licensing of nuclear reactor operators, CNEN-12/79 Resolution, are described. (M.A.)

  18. Annual report 1986 Interfacultary Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary- and detailed reports are presented of Current research during 198? of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics, and reactor physics. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  20. Status of national programmes on fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the International Working Group on Fast reactors (IWGFR) members' request, the IAEA organized a special meeting on Fast Reactor Development and the Role of the IAEA in May 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss the status and recent development, to present major changes in fast reactor programmes and to recommend future activities on fast reactors. The IWGFR took note that in some Member States large prototypes have been built or are under construction. However, some countries, due to their current budget constraints, have reduced the level of funding for research and development programmes on fast reactors. The IWGFR noted that in this situation the international exchange of information and cooperation on the development of fast reactors is highly desirable and stressed the importance of the IAEA's programme on fast reactors. These proceedings contain important and useful information on national programmes and new developments in sodium cooled fast reactors in Member States. Refs, figs and tabs