WorldWideScience

Sample records for buccal extension designs

  1. Design and evaluation of chitosan/ethylcellulose mucoadhesive bilayered devices for buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuñán-López, C; Portero, A; Vila-Jato, J L; Alonso, M J

    1998-11-13

    This paper describes the preparation of new buccal bilayered devices comprising a drug-containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug-free backing layer, by two different methods. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation technique and bilayered tablets were obtained by direct compression. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of a mixture of drug and chitosan, with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer (polycarbophil, sodium alginate, gellan gum), and the backing layer was made of ethylcellulose. The double-layered structure design was expected to provide drug delivery in a unidirectional fashion to the mucosa and avoid loss of drug due to wash-out with saliva. Using nifedipine and propranolol hydrochloride as slightly and highly water-soluble model drugs, respectively, it was demonstrated that these new devices show promising potential for use in controlled delivery of drugs to the oral cavity. The uncrosslinked chitosan-containing devices absorbed a large quantity of water, gelled and then eroded, allowing drug release. The bilaminated films showed a sustained drug release in a phosphate buffer (pH 6.4). Furthermore, tablets that displayed controlled swelling and drug release and adequate adhesivity were produced by in situ crosslinking the chitosan with polycarbophil.

  2. Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy.

  3. Design and evaluation of buccal-adhesive system made of modified xanthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffleur, Flavia; Michalek, Martina; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Ijaz, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Introducing the concept of mucoadhesion in the 1980s, application of mucoadhesive polymers for buccal drug delivery has been the subject of pharmaceutical interest. The purpose of this study was to modify well-known xanthan in order to remarkably boost its suitability for buccal adhesiveness. Xanthan (X) was chemically modified by covalent binding of L-cysteine (SH) exhibiting sulfhydryl groups on the polymeric backbone via amide bond formation. Cytotoxicity, stability properties and mucoadhesiveness, respectively, of sulfhydryl-modified xanthan (H-SH) was investigated compared with unmodified xanthan (X). According to cell viability studies X-SH was safe to use. X-SH revealed 1.61-fold higher stability in comparison to unmodified xanthan. Thereafter, mucoadhesion of X-SH augmented 8.35-fold in case of rotating cylinder assay. Tensile study showed 2.65-fold higher total work of adhesion when comparing X-SH with X. In completion, novel sulfhydryl-modified xanthan proved itself being a useful and promising excipient for buccal-adhesive delivery systems.

  4. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  5. Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing-guided Endodontic Surgery: Guided Osteotomy and Apex Localization in a Mandibular Molar with a Thick Buccal Bone Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Sunil; Karabucak, Bekir; Kim, Euiseong

    2018-01-18

    A mandibular molar with a thick buccal bone plate is a challenging problem in endodontic surgery despite the increase in the success rate of endodontic surgery nowadays. This report describes the application of a surgical template to guide osteotomy and facilitate apex localization in a mandibular molar with a thick buccal bone plate. A 57-year-old woman visited the authors' clinic for pain in tooth 19 and was diagnosed with symptomatic apical periodontitis in this previously treated tooth. Nonsurgical retreatment was performed; however, 2 years later, the patient reported pain in the same tooth. A periapical lesion was confirmed using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging, and endodontic surgery on the mesial root of tooth 19 was planned. After CBCT imaging and cast scan data were transferred to implant surgical planning software, the data were superimposed. In the superimposed model, an anchor pin was designed to target the mesial root apex of tooth 19. The surgical template was then printed using a 3-dimensional printer. Endodontic microsurgery included application of this printed surgical template. A computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-guided surgical template minimized the extent of osteotomy and enabled precise targeting of the apex in this case. There were no postoperative complications. A CAD/CAM-guided surgical template is useful in endodontic surgery for complicated cases. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibrolipoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Khubchandani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipoma is a very common benign tumor of adipose tissue, but its presence in the oral and oropharyngeal region is relatively uncommon. Fibrolipoma, a histological variant of lipoma, mostly affect the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. Hence, accurate histopathological examination of lipomas is important for a correct treatment plan. This article describes a case of 10 year old girl with fibrolipoma of the buccal mucosa with a relevant review of tumors.

  7. Subsystem Design Guidelines for Extensible General-Purpose Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Magee, J.N.; Perry, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss subsystem design for extensible general-purpose information systemswe extract guidelines from a case study of the redesign and extension of an advanced workflow management system and place them into the context of existing software engineering research. Key aspect is the distinction

  8. Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Topology Design for Directional Range Extension Networks with Antenna Blockage Thomas Shake MIT Lincoln Laboratory shake@ll.mit.edu Abstract...associated electronics into small aircraft to perform such range extension. In particular, the paper examines trade-offs in network topology design...aircraft, and the topology characteristics of the aerial relay network. The analysis suggests that low-degree air topologies such as rings and strings

  9. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery...... system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via......, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses....

  10. An Extensive QFD and Evaluation Procedure for Innovative Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Tzuoh Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic innovation procedure has been developed based on quality function deployment and extension method. Besides, the evaluation method for design decision making has also been discussed and developed. The major procedure of QFD is to identify the customers’ needs for the product and then convert into appropriate technical measures to fulfill the needs based on the company’s competitive priorities. The priorities of product characteristics can be obtained by translating important technical measures. According to their characteristics, the prior engineering parameters will be identified and selected as the key requirements to redesign. This paper will focus on the integration of QFD and extension method. With the help of “matter element theory and extension method,” customer requirements (CRs can be transferred into product design attributes more comprehensively and deeply. According to the idea of loss function of Taguchi quality design method, the criteria for design decision making have also been developed in this paper. An innovative design case, bicycle, successfully demonstrates that the proposed design process is feasible and efficient.

  11. Negative extensibility metamaterials: Occurrence and design-space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Eduard G.; Danso, Larry A.; Klein, John T.

    2017-08-01

    A negative extensibility material structure pulls back and contracts when the external tensile load reaches a certain critical level. In this paper, we reveal basic mathematical features of the nonlinear strain energy function responsible for this unusual mechanical property. A systematic discussion leads to a comprehensive phase diagram in terms of design parameters for a simple unit cell structure that provides a panoramic view of all possible nonlinear mechanical behaviors. A negative extensibility region clearly is identified in the diagram. The sought property is seen to be rare, occurring only for a very narrow range of the design parameters. Nonetheless, due to the simplicity of the studied structure we suggest that the negative extensibility should be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. It can appear in simple bistable cells made of only several linearly elastic links, although at some peculiar combinations of their properties. These bistable unit cells can be used to design periodic mechanical metamaterials whose examples are shown as well as innovative architectural metastructures.

  12. Variation in buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molars

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    M Simratvir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The buccal bulge of the deciduous first molars has always been a restorative challenge to the pediatric dentist. Morphologically it may vary from a slight prominence to a well-developed cusp-like structure. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the variable buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molar and its clinical relevance. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted whereby 2016 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of dental hospital over 1 year were evaluated. Any variation in buccal surface morphology of the deciduous first molars was recorded photographically or by replicating in dental stone. Results: Varied morphological patterns on buccal surface were observed for which a new classification scheme has been proposed. Conclusion: The surface morphology of deciduous teeth crowns must be studied carefully as it may be indicative of pulpal extensions and accessory roots, requiring consideration during restorative treatment planning.

  13. [The extended free lateral arm flap for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Xu-Dong; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Qin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    To summary the application of the extended free lateral arm flaps for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer. From January to August 2011, three patients underwent the operation of buccal defect reconstruction using the extended free lateral arm flap in one-stage. PRCA was identification with the Doppler probe. According to the mark of PRCA, size and shape of defects, the flaps were designed and extended to the lateral epicondyle of humerus. The flap size ranged from 9 cm x 5 cm to 10 cm x 6 cm with a pedicle of 10 cm in length. The wounds at donor sites were closed directly. Vascular crisis happened in one case due to local negative pressure, which resolved after emergency management. All the flaps survived completely. The patients were followed up for 6 to 10 months with no recurrence. Both the esthetic and functional results were satisfactory. Two cases suffered from numb feeling in donor sites which alleviated six months later. The extended free lateral arm flap has reliable blood supply with appropriate thickness. It is an optional method for reconstruction of buccal defects after ablation of buccal cancer.

  14. Design, implementation, and extension of thermal invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    A thermal invisibility cloak, as inspired by optical invisibility cloaks, is a device which can steer the conductive heat flux around an isolated object without changing the ambient temperature distribution so that the object can be "invisible" to external thermal environment. While designs of thermal invisibility cloaks inherit previous theories from optical cloaks, the uniqueness of heat diffusion leads to more achievable implementations. Thermal invisibility cloaks, as well as the variations including thermal concentrator, rotator, and illusion devices, have potentials to be applied in thermal management, sensing and imaging applications. Here, we review the current knowledge of thermal invisibility cloaks in terms of their design and implementation in cloaking studies, and their extension as other functional devices.

  15. Design and Implementation of an Extensible Learner-Adaptive Environment

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    Kiyoshi Nakabayashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a flexible architecture that is capable of extending the functions of a learner-adaptive self-learning environment. A “courseware object”, which is a program module that is used to implement various educational functionalities, has been newly introduced to ensure both function extensibility as well as content reusability. A prototype system was designed and implemented to investigate the feasibility of the proposed architecture and to identify the core behavior and interaction schema of courseware objects. The results from this trial indicated that several learner-adaptive functionalities including the SCORM 2004 standard specifications will be able to be successfully implemented into the proposed architecture.

  16. Poverty and pastoral counselling: Design for an extensive research project

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    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is arguably the most common and devastating social disease in the world. It is not, however, only a social, political or economic problem. Knowing how to respond to the calling of caring for the poor is an incredible charge for the church. It is not only a matter of Christian charity but also a matter of pastoral care. Extensive research on such a phenomenon needs careful planning and precise execution. It was therefore decided to conduct participatory action research with informed researchers. It is hoped that the input of these informed participators will help the researcher to design a methodology that will be able to dig deeper than the surface of the problem and to uncover the most important driving forces and basic needs of poverty. This article serves as an introduction to a four-year research project on poverty, financially supported by a generous bursary from the National Research Fund.

  17. The Hamster Buccal Pouch Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Kowshik, Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well-characterized animal tumor models used as a prelude to investigate multistage oral carcinogenesis and to assess the efficacy of chemointervention. Hamster buccal pouch carcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) show extensive similarities to human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HBP model offers a number of advantages including a simple and predictable tumor induction procedure, easy accessibility for examination and follow-up of lesions, and reproducibility. This model can be used to test both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Effect of buccal dwell time on the pharmacokinetic profile of fentanyl buccal tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, M; Kirby, M; Jiang, J G

    2007-09-01

    The time fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) takes to completely dissolve after placement on the buccal mucosa (i.e., 'dwell time') could exceed the time to onset of analgesia. To examine the relationship between FBT dwell time and fentanyl pharmacokinetic parameters. This was a post hoc exploratory analysis of data from two randomized, open-label, crossover, pharmaco-kinetic studies that were designed to assess dose proportionality within the anticipated therapeutic dose range. Healthy adults received single FBT doses of 200-1080 microg in Study 1 (n = 28) and 270-1300 microg in Study 2 (n = 42). Assessments included buccal dwell time, defined as the duration of FBT presence in the oral cavity, and the following pharmacokinetic measures: maximum serum concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (T(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC; exposure) from 0 minutes to median T(max) adjusted for the dose (T(max')) (AUC(0 T(max'))). Spontaneously reported adverse events were recorded. Mean buccal dwell time for FBT across the dose range varied from 14 to 25 minutes (range 3 - 62 minutes). There was no evidence of an association between FBT dwell time and values for T(max) (medians 45 - 60 minutes), dose-normalized C(max) (means 0.42-0.66 pg/ml/200 microg) or dose-normalized AUC(0 T(max')) (means 0.24-0.38 pg x h/ml/200 microg) over the range of FBT doses delivered. All adverse events reported were mild to moderate; none were unexpected or serious. The pharmacokinetic parameters of FBT did not appear to be related to its buccal dwell time.

  19. Gender-Sensitive Approaches to Extension Programme Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafry, Tahseen; Sulaiman, V. Rasheed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Though women are engaged in farming and play a major role in almost every agricultural operation, they continue to receive very limited extension support. While several interventions have been made to address this "gender" bias in extension delivery, there continues to be a shortfall between the kind of support that is provided…

  20. Ketobemidone prodrugs for buccal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of studies aiming at developing a ketobemidone prodrug suitable for buccal or sublingual administration, the potential impact of saliva enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of various ester prodrugs was assessed. The hydrolysis of three ketobemidone esters in human whole saliva, obtained under...... at pharmacologically relevant prodrug concentrations, degradation of the esters by saliva enzymes was predicted to occur to only a minor extent (1-6%) under conditions similar to those prevailing in vivo after administration of buccal or sublingual tablets of the esters. The mode of administration of tablets for use...... in the mouth and their rate of disintegration were shown to have some influence on the rate of saliva secretion and hence on saliva esterase activity but not to an extent compromising the efficient buccal or sublingual delivery of the ketobemidone prodrugs....

  1. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-11-22

    The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples.

  2. Towards designing a new agricultural extension service for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is in the process of rectifying the social injustices of the past and building a new future towards “equitable access and participation” in the agricultural sector (DoA, 2001) through the transference of farmland to emergingblack farmers and communities. This new class of farmers needs an effective extension ...

  3. The design of low cost structures for extensive ground arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, H. A.; Leonard, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of conceptual designs of solar array support structures and their foundations including considerations of the use of concrete, steel, aluminum, or timber are reported. Some cost trends were examined by varying selected parameters to determine optimum configurations. Detailed civil/structural design criteria were developed. Using these criteria, eight detailed designs for support structures and foundations were developed and cost estimates were made. As a result of the study wind was identified as the major loading experienced by these low height structures, whose arrays are likely to extend over large tracts of land. Proper wind load estimating is considered essential to developing realistic structural designs and achieving minimum cost support structures. Wind tunnel testing of a conceptual array field was undertaken and some of the resulting wind design criteria are presented. The SPS rectenna system designs may be less sensitive to wind load estimates, but consistent design criteria remain important.

  4. Loratadine bioavailability via buccal transferosomal gel: formulation, statistical optimization, in vitro/in vivo characterization, and pharmacokinetics in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; El Menshawe, Shahira F; Abou-Taleb, Heba A; Elkarmalawy, Marwa H

    2017-11-01

    Loratadine (LTD) is an antihistaminic drug that suffers limited solubility, poor oral bioavailability (owing to extensive first-pass metabolism), and highly variable oral absorption. This study was undertaken to develop and statistically optimize transfersomal gel for transbuccal delivery of LTD. Transfersomes bearing LTD were prepared by conventional thin film hydration method and optimized using sequential Quality-by-Design approach that involved Placket-Burman design for screening followed by constrained simplex-centroid design for optimization of a Tween-80/Span-60/Span-80 mixture. The transferosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and shape. Optimized transferosomes were incorporated in a mucoadhesive gel. The gel was characterized for rheology, ex vivo permeation across chicken pouch buccal mucosa, in vitro release, and mucoadhesion. Pharmacokinetic behavior of LTD formulations was investigated in healthy volunteers following administration of a single 10-mg dose. Optimal transferosomes characterized by submicron size (380 nm), spherical shape and adequate loading capacity (60%) were obtained by using quasi-equal ratio surfactant mixture. In terms of amount permeated, percentage released, and mucoadhesion time, the transferosomal gel proved superior to control, transferosome-free gel. Bioavailability of the transferosomal gel was comparable to Claritin® oral tablets. However, inter-individual variability in Cmax and AUC was reduced by 76 and 90%, respectively, when the buccal gel was used. Linear Correlation of in vitro release with in vivo buccal absorption fractions was established with excellent correlation coefficient (R2>0.97). In summary, a novel buccal delivery system for LTD was developed. However, further clinical investigation is warranted to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness and utility.

  5. Design of an extensive information representation scheme for clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deléger, Louise; Campillos, Leonardo; Ligozat, Anne-Laure; Névéol, Aurélie

    2017-09-11

    Knowledge representation frameworks are essential to the understanding of complex biomedical processes, and to the analysis of biomedical texts that describe them. Combined with natural language processing (NLP), they have the potential to contribute to retrospective studies by unlocking important phenotyping information contained in the narrative content of electronic health records (EHRs). This work aims to develop an extensive information representation scheme for clinical information contained in EHR narratives, and to support secondary use of EHR narrative data to answer clinical questions. We review recent work that proposed information representation schemes and applied them to the analysis of clinical narratives. We then propose a unifying scheme that supports the extraction of information to address a large variety of clinical questions. We devised a new information representation scheme for clinical narratives that comprises 13 entities, 11 attributes and 37 relations. The associated annotation guidelines can be used to consistently apply the scheme to clinical narratives and are https://cabernet.limsi.fr/annotation_guide_for_the_merlot_french_clinical_corpus-Sept2016.pdf . The information scheme includes many elements of the major schemes described in the clinical natural language processing literature, as well as a uniquely detailed set of relations.

  6. Biosocial models of adolescent problem behavior: extension to panel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigotas, S M; Udry, J R

    1993-01-01

    We extended the biosocial model of problem behavior tested by Udry (1990) to a panel design, following a sample of over one hundred boys in adolescence for three years. We found the expected results for sociological variables, but weaker effects for testosterone than Udry found on cross-sectional data. Using panel models with lagged hormone effects, we identified relationships between Time-1 testosterone and problem behavior one year or more later. The relationship between testosterone and problem behavior was not present for subsequent measures of testosterone, either in cross-section or with time-lagged models. Therefore we cannot interpret the results as showing testosterone effects on problem behavior. Rather it appears that testosterone level in early adolescence is a marker for a more general growth trajectory of early development.

  7. LYMPHANGIOMA OF THE BUCCAL MUCOSA

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    Shashidevi HARANAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital hamarto‑ mas of the lymphatic system, usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60% and, by the age of 2 years, 80% to 90% are present. Tongue, palate, gingiva, lip, alveolar ridge and buccal mucosa are the most commonly affected sites in the oral cavity. Various methods have been tried for the treat‑ ment of lymphangioma, including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. This paper reports a case of lymphangioma in a 28 year-old female patient.

  8. Adapting the buccal micronucleus cytome assay for use in wild birds: age and sex affect background frequency in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G L; Somers, C M

    2012-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) formation has been used extensively as a biomarker of damage from genotoxic exposures. The Buccal MN Cytome (BMCyt) assay provides a noninvasive means of quantifying MN frequency in humans, but it has not been developed for use in wildlife. We adapted the BMCyt assay for use in wild birds, with a focus on feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential indicator species. Five of six urban bird species sampled using oral cavity swabs produced sufficient buccal cells for the BMCyt assay. The body size of species sampled ranged almost 100-fold (~60 to 5,000 g), but was a not major factor influencing the number of buccal cells collected. Pigeon cells were stained and scored following published BMCyt assay protocols for humans, but with a modified fixation approach using heat and methanol. Pigeons had the same common nuclear abnormalities reported in human studies, and a similar background MN formation frequency of 0.88 MN/1,000 cells. Adult pigeons had on average a threefold higher rate of MN formation than juveniles, and males had a 1.4- to 2.2-fold higher frequency than females. Domestic and feral pigeons did not differ in overall MN frequency. Our results indicate that the BMCyt assay can be used on wild birds, and could provide a means of assessing environmental genotoxicity in pigeons, a useful indicator species. However, bird age and sex are important factors affecting background MN frequency, and thereby the design of environmental studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  10. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB06 Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...

  11. BUCCAL MUCOSA URETHROPLASTY FOR BULBAR URETHRAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tients (90%) had no evidence of recurrent stric- ture. Randomized studies comparing the dorsal and ventral approaches for buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty have not been published so far. Andrich et al.9 treated 71 patients with bul- bar urethral strictures with buccal mucosa patch urethroplasty. The approach was dorsal.

  12. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  13. Overview and Future Potential of Buccal Mucoadhesive Films as Drug Delivery Systems for Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Morales, Javier O

    2017-01-01

    The main route of administration for drug products is the oral route, yet biologics are initially developed as injectables due to their limited stability through the gastrointestinal tract and solubility issues. In order to avoid injections, a myriad of investigations on alternative administration routes that can bypass enzymatic degradation and the first-pass effect are found in the literature. As an alternative site for biologics absorption, the buccal route presents with a number of advantages. The buccal mucosa is a barrier, providing protection to underlying tissue, but is more permeable than other alternative routes such as the skin. Buccal films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Conventionally, buccal films for biologics are manufactured by solvent casting, yet recent developments have shown the potential of hot melt extrusion, and most recently ink jet printing as promising strategies. This review aims at depicting the field of biologics-loaded mucoadhesive films as buccal drug delivery systems. In light of the literature available, the buccal epithelium is a promising route for biologics administration, which is reflected in clinical trials currently in progress, looking forward to register and commercialize the first biologic product formulated as a buccal film.

  14. Buccal Mucosa Elasticity Influences Surgical Margin Determination in Buccal Carcinoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pai-Tai; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Wu, Chi-Tsung; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about whether buccal mucosa elasticity influences the determination of surgical margins for buccal carcinomas. This study investigated whether there is a difference in elasticity of the buccal mucosa in patients with buccal carcinoma compared with controls without the disease. A case-and-control study comprised of patients with buccal carcinoma and controls without the disease was conducted. In each patient, 2 gutta-percha points were attached to the buccal mucosa horizontally and examined twice by lateral cephalometry, once with the mouth closed and once during maximal mouth opening (MMO). Changes in distance between the gutta-percha points were used as a measurement of buccal elasticity. Information on age, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, smoking habits, oral submucosa fibrosis (OSF), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) subluxation, and interincisal distance at MMO (IDMMO) was collected. The results were analyzed using independent-sample and paired-sample t tests. Ten patients with buccal carcinoma and another 11 patients without buccal carcinoma were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in magnification percentage in patients with carcinoma (32.35%; P elasticity; magnification was 29.20% (P = .013). Magnification was significantly higher in patients with TMJ subluxation (54.50%; P = .041) than in the controls. Age, alcohol consumption, smoking, OSF, and IDMMO did not affect buccal mucosa elasticity. Buccal mucosa elasticity increased considerably at MMO in patients with buccal carcinoma. This elasticity should be taken into account when calculating adequate surgical margins for transoral resection of buccal carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Findings Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Conclusion Contamination of buc...

  16. Principles of Designing and Implementing Agricultural Extension Programs for Reducing Post-harvest Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest losses represent a significant threat to food security and farmer incomes worldwide. It is an inefficiency in the global food production system that is avoidable. In deducing principles of designing and implementing agricultural extension programs to reduce post-harvest losses, valuable lessons can be gleaned from the handful of previous extension projects and programs addressing post-harvest loss. Abstracting principles from previous experiences and using this to inform future post-harvest loss prevention programs is an evidence-based approach to arrive at solutions to this problem. This paper reviews extension programs for post-harvest loss prevention, before presenting key principles abstracted from the review that should be taken into consideration for future post-harvest loss prevention programs. This paper aims to contribute to knowledge on the role of agricultural extension in the design of post-harvest loss reduction efforts in developing countries.

  17. [Urethral reconstruction using buccal mucosa transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, O; Ahyai, S; Rink, M; Eichelberg, C; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M

    2013-05-01

    Buccal mucosa is the ideal material for urethral reconstruction because it is easy to harvest, is accustomed to permanent moisture and can be used at any location in the urethra. Stricture length and local conditions of the urethra have to be considered to decide which technique is required to reconstruct the urethra. Open urethroplasty with buccal mucosa has a success rate over 85% and should be used after unsuccessful internal urethrotomy and primarily in longer strictures.

  18. Reconstruction of the bulbar urethra using dorsal onlay buccal mucosal grafts: New concepts and surgical tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barbagli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa onlay graft urethroplasty represents one of the most widespread methods for the repair of strictures in the bulbar urethra, because of its thick and highly vascular spongiosum tissue. Recently the location of the patch has become a contentious issue, since we described our original techniques of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. The design rationale for this approach was based on the concept that the corporeal body remains a healthy host for receiving a free transplanted tissues. Moreover, graft fixation onto a defined surface may decrease graft shrinkage and sacculation. The success rate using buccal mucosa grafts for the repair of bulbar urethral strictures has generally been high with dorsal or ventral onlay grafts or using an augmented roof-strip anastomotic urethroplasty. We describe here the fundamental concepts of the bulbar urethra reconstruction using buccal mucosal grafts, presenting a new surgical technique of dorsal onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty using fibrin glue.

  19. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  20. Design of a wearable hand exoskeleton for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Inseong; Lee, Jeongsoo; Park, Yeongyu; Bae, Joonbum

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, design of a wearable hand exoskeleton system for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers, is proposed. The exoskeleton was designed with a simple and wearable structure to aid finger motions in 1 degree of freedom (DOF). A hand grasping experiment by fully-abled people was performed to investigate general hand flexion/extension motions and the polynomial curve of general hand motions was obtained. To customize the hand exoskeleton for the user, the polynomial curve was adjusted to the joint range of motion (ROM) of the user and the optimal design of the exoskeleton structure was obtained using the optimization algorithm. A prototype divided into two parts (one part for the thumb, the other for rest fingers) was actuated by only two linear motors for compact size and light weight.

  1. An attached flow design of a noninterfering leading edge extension to a thick delta wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, F.; Lamar, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical procedure presented for leading edge extension (LEE) determination, in keeping with such design criteria as noninterference at the wing design point, is applied to thick delta wings. The LEE device thus defined is to be mounted on a wing along a dividing stream surface that is associated with an attached flow design lift coefficient greater than zero. The delta wing in question is of twisted and cambered type. It is demonstrated that span reductions for the candidate LEEs has the most detrimental effect on overall aerodynamic efficiency, irrespective of area or shape.

  2. Design flood estimation in ungauged basins: probabilistic extension of the design-storm concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Mario; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Design flood estimation in ungauged basins is an important hydrological task, which is in engineering practice typically solved with the design storm concept. However, neglecting the uncertainty in the hydrological response of the catchment through the assumption of average-recurrence-interval (ARI) neutrality between rainfall and runoff can lead to flawed design flood estimates. Additionally, selecting a single critical rainfall duration neglects the contribution of other rainfall durations on the probability of extreme flood events. In this study, the design flood problem is approached with concepts from structural reliability that enable a consistent treatment of multiple uncertainties in estimating the design flood. The uncertainty of key model parameters are represented probabilistically and the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) is used to compute the flood exceedance probability. As an important by-product, the FORM analysis provides the most likely parameter combination to lead to a flood with a certain exceedance probability; i.e. it enables one to find representative scenarios for e.g., a 100 year or a 1000 year flood. Possible different rainfall durations are incorporated by formulating the event of a given design flood as a series system. The method is directly applicable in practice, since for the description of the rainfall depth-duration characteristics, the same inputs as for the classical design storm methods are needed, which are commonly provided by meteorological services. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Trauchgauer Ach catchment in Bavaria, SCS Curve Number (CN) and Unit hydrograph models are used for modeling the hydrological process. The results indicate, in accordance with past experience, that the traditional design storm concept underestimates design floods.

  3. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization.

  4. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet for the Treatment of Breakthrough Pain: Pharmacokinetics of Buccal Mucosa Delivery and Clinical Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Darwish

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of breakthrough pain (BTP, a transitory exacerbation of pain that occurs on a background of otherwise-controlled, persistent pain, requires an opioid formulation and/or method of administration that can provide rapid and extensive systemic exposure. Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; FENTORA®, Cephalon, Inc. employs OraVescent® drug delivery technology, which enhances the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption. OraVescent technology enhances the oral dissolution and buccal absorption of fentanyl, which facilitates rapid uptake of fentanyl into the bloodstream, reducing gastrointestinal absorption and minimizing extensive first-pass metabolism. The resulting pharmacokinetic profile of FBT is characterized by greater bioavailability and a higher early systemic exposure compared with the earlier oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate formulation. In clinical studies of opioid-tolerant patients with cancer-related and noncancer- related BTP, FBT has provided consistent and clinically relevant improvements in pain intensity and pain relief relative to placebo, with a safety and tolerability profile that is generally typical of that observed with other potent opioids. The pharmacokinetic properties of FBT allow for meaningful clinical efficacy, with an onset of action that closely matches the onset of BTP.

  5. Buccal space lesions: a new classification based on CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Han, Moon Hee; Moon, Min Hoan [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2004-02-01

    To present a new classification based on the CT and MR imaging findings of buccal space lesions, and to propose guidelines for their radiologic differentiation. Sixty-two histopathologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed buccal space lesions were classified on the basis of their morphologic appearance and extension to adjacent space as either (1) a mass with a distinct margin, confined to the buccal space; (2) a mass with surrounding infiltration, confined to the buccal space; or (3) a multi-space occupying mass. Type 1 included pleomorphic adenoma, ex-pleomorphic adenoma, carcinoma, B-cell lymphoma, acinic cell carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, glomus tumor and ameloblastoma, and differentiation between malignant and benign neoplasms was not possible. Type 2 included adenoid cystic carcinoma, abscess, complicated dermoid cyst, and Kimura disease. T-cell lymphoma, neurofibroma, vascular malformation, inflammation, and foreign body granuloma pertained to type 3, and each type-3 entity showed different imaging characteristics. This new classification based on CT and MR imaging characteristics may provide useful guide-lines for predicting the differential diagnosis of buccal space lesions.

  6. Cerrobend shielding stents for buccal carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Yangchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common oral malignant neoplasms, especially in the South Asian region. Radiotherapy, which plays a significant role in the treatment of this carcinoma, has severe adverse effects. Different types of prosthesis may be constructed to protect healthy tissues from the adverse effects of treatment and concentrate radiation in the region of the tumor mass. However, the technique for fabrication of shielding stent with Lipowitz's alloy (cerrobend/Wood's alloy has not been well documented. This article describes detailed technique for fabrication of such a stent for unilateral buccal carcinoma patients to spare the unaffected oral cavity from potential harmful effects associated with radiotherapy.

  7. Treatment of Bilateral Buccal Nonocclusion and Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment aims to improve esthetics, function and structural balance. In some rare circumstances, the clinician may not be able to achieve the ideal treatment goals because of complex multiple orthodontic problems, which may include significant mutilation of the dentition. Brodie bite, a complete buccal posterior crossbite is a problem, which confronts clinicians with often complex variable etiology. The following case report demonstrates treatment of bilateral buccal nonocclusion that is mainly due to a maxillary dental arch issue rather than mandibular retrognathism.

  8. Secure architecture for extensible mobile internet transport services (SAFEMITS) design and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Patrick W.; Das, Digen K.; Hash, Larry J.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to design and implement the functional requirements of three important distributed services in a secure mobile ad-hoc network. The three distributed services are described: lookup services, adaptation services and composition services. Further, research was required to implement security at various layers to enhance the overall security of the SAFEMITS network. This required an extensive analysis of the security features of lookup server which functions as the controller of the mobile ad hoc network. Finally a technique was designed to select a super node, and a performance test was performed using both the Windows and Linux operating systems.

  9. How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Buccal mucosa;. Cheek;. Surgical technique;. Urethroplasty;. Complications. Abstract. The paper provides the reader with the step by step of our current technique of harvesting ... suggested a new technique for harvesting buccal mucosa from the ..... The use of buccal mucosa patch graft in the management.

  10. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist.

  11. Formulation and Evaluation of Rifampicin Liposomes for Buccal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankalapalli, Srinivas; Tenneti, V S Vinai Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery through liposomes offers several advantages, but still challenging to the researchers for the use of liposomes as carriers in drug delivery due to their poor physical stability, unpredictable drug encapsulation and systemic availability of the loaded drug. The present investigation was planned with an objective to prepare Rifampicin loaded liposomes by using response surface methodology of statistical 32 factorial design and further to formulate them into pastilles for deliver through buccal route thereby to enhance systemic absorption. Rifampicin liposomes were prepared by using different ratios of soya lecithin and cholesterol by solvent Injection method. These liposomes were characterized by using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro and ex vivo drug release. Main effects and interaction terms of the formulation variables were evaluated quantitatively using a mathematical statistical model approach showing that both independent variables have significant (P value membrane (P value: 0.0047) and percentage drug release through porcine buccal membrane (P value: 0.0019). The statistical factorial design of liposomal formulations fulfilled all the requirements of the target set and exhibited suitable values for the selected test parameters. Pastilles were prepared for liposomes using glycerol gelatin base and were found to be soft, smooth with uniform drug content and drug release.

  12. Clinical and Radiographic comparative evaluation of buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy in periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics with surgical bur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Addanki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a clinical procedure that combines selective corticotomy, particulate grafting, and application of orthodontics. It reduces treatment time, increases stability of teeth, and prevents relapse of orthodontic tooth moment. The present study was aimed to explore the clinical and radiographic comparison of bone density changes, retraction time differences in buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy which was done by surgical bur. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth was designed in 16 patients and divided into right (buccal and palatal corticotomy (Group I, left (buccal corticotomy (Group II sides. In both groups, decortication was done with surgical bur. Clinical parameters such as gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Bone density changes were measured by computed tomography at baseline and after 6 months after surgery and also used for evaluating differences in bone density changes between two groups. Retraction time differences were also measured in both groups. Results: In both groups, there was significant difference between bone density changes at baseline and 6 months after surgery. However, the difference between two groups was not significant. The difference in clinical parameters between two groups was not significant. The difference in retraction time differences was not significant. Conclusion: Within limits of the study, it may be concluded that there was difference between bone density changes before and 6 months after surgery. Difference in total treatment time found to be no significant between two groups.

  13. An analytical design procedure for the determination of effective leading edge extensions on thick delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, F.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical design procedure for leading edge extensions (LEE) was developed for thick delta wings. This LEE device is designed to be mounted to a wing along the pseudo-stagnation stream surface associated with the attached flow design lift coefficient of greater than zero. The intended purpose of this device is to improve the aerodynamic performance of high subsonic and low supersonic aircraft at incidences above that of attached flow design lift coefficient, by using a vortex system emanating along the leading edges of the device. The low pressure associated with these vortices would act on the LEE upper surface and the forward facing area at the wing leading edges, providing an additional lift and effective leading edge thrust recovery. The first application of this technique was to a thick, round edged, twisted and cambered wing of approximately triangular planform having a sweep of 58 deg and aspect ratio of 2.30. The panel aerodynamics and vortex lattice method with suction analogy computer codes were employed to determine the pseudo-stagnation stream surface and an optimized LEE planform shape.

  14. An Attached Flow Design of a Noninterferring Leading Edge Extension to a Thick Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, John E.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    1985-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of the shape of a Leading-Edge Extension (LEE) which satisfies design criteria, including especially noninterference at the wing design point, has been developed for thick delta wings. The LEE device best satisfying all criteria is designed to be mounted on a wing along a dividing stream surface associated with an attached flow design lift coefficient (C(sub L,d)) of greater than zero. This device is intended to improve the aerodynamic performance of transonic aircraft at C(sub L) greater than C(sub L,d) system emanating from the LEE leading edge. In order to quantify this process a twisted and cambered thick delta wing was chosen for the initial application of this design procedure. Appropriate computer codes representing potential and vortex flows were employed to determine the dividing stream surface at C(sub L,d) and an optimized LEE planform shape at C(sub L) greater than C(sub L,d), respectively. To aid in the LEE selection, the aerodynamic effectiveness of 36 planforms was investigated at C(sub L) greater than C(sub L,d). This study showed that reducing the span of the candidate LEEs has the most detrimental effect on overall aerodynamic efficiency, regardless of the shape or area. Furthermore, for a fixed area, constant-chord LEE candidates were relatively more efficient than those with sweep less than the wing. At C(sub L,d), the presence of the LEE planform best satisfying the design criteria was found to have no effect on the wing alone aerodynamic performance.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  16. Extensions to the time lag models for practical application to rocket engine stability design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Matthew J.

    The combustion instability problem in liquid-propellant rocket engines (LREs) has remained a tremendous challenge since their discovery in the 1930s. Improvements are usually made in solving the combustion instability problem primarily using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and also by testing demonstrator engines. Another approach is to use analytical models. Analytical models can be used such that design, redesign, or improvement of an engine system is feasible in a relatively short period of time. Improvements to the analytical models can greatly aid in design efforts. A thorough literature review is first conducted on liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE) throttling. Throttling is usually studied in terms of vehicle descent or ballistic missile control however there are many other cases where throttling is important. It was found that combustion instabilities are one of a few major issues that occur during deep throttling (other major issues are heat transfer concerns, performance loss, and pump dynamics). In the past and again recently, gas injected into liquid propellants has shown to be a viable solution to throttle engines and to eliminate some forms of combustion instability. This review uncovered a clever solution that was used to eliminate a chug instability in the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE), a modified RL10 engine. A separate review was also conducted on classic time lag combustion instability models. Several new stability models are developed by incorporating important features to the classic and contemporary models, which are commonly used in the aerospace rocket industry. The first two models are extensions of the original Crocco and Cheng concentrated combustion model with feed system contributions. A third new model is an extension to the Wenzel and Szuch double-time lag model also with feed system contributions. The first new model incorporates the appropriate injector acoustic boundary condition which is neglected in contemporary

  17. Optimization of piribedil mucoadhesive tablets for efficient therapy of Parkinson's disease: physical characterization and ex vivo drug permeation through buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Burak; Özdemir, Samet; Barla Demirkoz, Aslı; Üner, Melike

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was optimization of buccal piribedil (PR) mucoadhesive tablets to improve its low bioavailability and provide controlled release for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Buccal tablets were prepared by direct compression method using carbomer (CP), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as mucoadhesive polymers. Physical properties of powder mixtures and buccal tablets were evaluated. Physicochemical compatibility between ingredients was investigated with infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. In vitro dissolution profiles and drug release kinetics of buccal tablets were investigated. Mucoadhesion and ex vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep buccal mucosa. Powder mixtures demonstrated sufficient flow properties and physical characteristics of all tablet formulations were within compendia limits. Tablet ingredients were absent of any chemical interactions. CP tablets displayed slower drug release compared to HPMC tablets with zero order release, while CMC tablets lost their integrity and released entire drug after 6 h following Higuchi model. All formulations displayed adequate mucoadhesion and steady state flux of PR through buccal mucosa were higher with HPMC compared to CP-containing tablets. Overall, HPMC was found to combine desired controlled release and mucoadhesion characteristics with sufficient pharmaceutical quality for optimization of buccal tablets. Piribedil mucoadhesive buccal tablets designed for the first time may introduce a new alternative for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  18. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...- registrants at local offices. ] Am I eligible to receive an automatic 6-month extension of my current EAD from March 9, 2012 through September 9, 2012? You will receive an automatic 6-month extension of your EAD if...

  19. Single-flap approach with buccal access in periodontal reconstructive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, Leonardo; Farina, Roberto; Franceschetti, Giovanni; Calura, Giorgio

    2009-02-01

    New surgical techniques have been developed to optimize primary closure as well as to minimize the surgical trauma in the reconstructive procedures of periodontal intraosseous defects. Recently, we proposed a minimally invasive procedure, the single-flap approach (SFA), specifically indicated when the defect extension is prevalent on the buccal or oral side. The basic principle of the SFA is the elevation of a flap to access the defect only on one side (buccal or oral), leaving the opposite side intact. The present case series reports preliminary data on the clinical effectiveness of SFA with buccal access in conjunction with a collagen membrane and a hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biomaterial in the reconstructive treatment of deep periodontal intraosseous defects. Ten intraosseous defects in 10 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a collagen membrane and an HA-based graft biomaterial. The follow-up period following the regenerative procedure ranged from 6 to 14 months (mean: 10.0 +/- 3.0 months). Clinical attachment level (CAL) decreased from 11.2 +/- 2.6 mm presurgery to 6.4 +/- 1.9 mm post-surgery. Probing depth was 9.0 +/- 2.8 mm before surgery and 3.8 +/- 1.5 mm post-surgery. Gingival recession increased from 2.2 +/- 1.9 mm presurgery to 2.6 +/- 1.3 mm post-surgery. Challenging intraosseous defects, surgically accessed with a buccal SFA and treated with a combined graft/guided tissue regeneration technique, may heal with a substantial CAL gain. Limited postsurgical recession indicates that SFA may represent a suitable option to surgically treat defects in areas with high esthetic demands.

  20. Microemulsion containing triamcinolone acetonide for buccal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, C; Telò, I; Di Ianni, A; Pescina, S; Nicoli, S; Santi, P

    2018-03-30

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of microemulsions for the buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide. Microemulsions were developed by the construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams, using the aqueous titration method. Among all microemulsions prepared and tested for stability, three were selected and submitted to characterization and in vitro permeation/retention experiments, using pig esophageal epithelium, an accepted model of the buccal mucosa. Furthermore, one microemulsion was added of excipients (stearylamine, CTAB and chitosan) able to alter the charge of droplets. The results obtained show that the permeation of triamcinolone acetonide across pig esophageal epithelium was not influenced by the droplet size nor by the composition, but only by the presence of chitosan, polysaccharide able to increase the transport across mono and stratified epithelia. The determination of the permeation parameters allowed us to show that chitosan acts on the diffusion parameter across the tissue and not on the partitioning parameter; for the same reason the tissue retention of triamcinolone acetonide was not modified. Triamcinolone flux (2.6 μg cm -2  h -1 ) was too low to make systemic administration feasible (dose required 2.5 to 60 mg/day). The amount of triamcinolone acetonide recovered in the mucosa after only 10 min. of microemulsion application was much higher than after overnight application of the commercial paste Omicilon® A. This suggests that triamcinolone acetonide microemulsions can be an interesting alternative to the commercial formulation to treat diseases of the buccal mucosa. Owing to the fast uptake by the tissue, the formulation can be used as a mouthwash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing a light fabric metamaterial being highly macroscopically tough under directional extension: first experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Marek; Grygoruk, Roman; Greco, Leopoldo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study a metamaterial constructed with an isotropic material organized following a geometric structure which we call pantographic lattice. This relatively complex fabric was studied using a continuous model (which we call pantographic sheet) by Rivlin and Pipkin and includes two families of flexible fibers connected by internal pivots which are, in the reference configuration, orthogonal. A rectangular specimen having one side three times longer than the other is cut at 45° with respect to the fibers in reference configuration, and it is subjected to large-deformation plane-extension bias tests imposing a relative displacement of shorter sides. The continuum model used, the presented numerical models and the extraordinary advancements of the technology of 3D printing allowed for the design of some first experiments, whose preliminary results are shown and seem to be rather promising. Experimental evidence shows three distinct deformation regimes. In the first regime, the equilibrium total deformation energy depends quadratically on the relative displacement of terminal specimen sides: Applied resultant force depends linearly on relative displacement. In the second regime, the applied force varies nonlinearly on relative displacement, but the behavior remains elastic. In the third regime, damage phenomena start to occur until total failure, but the exerted resultant force continues to be increasing and reaches a value up to several times larger than the maximum shown in the linear regime before failure actually occurs. Moreover, the total energy needed to reach structural failure is larger than the maximum stored elastic energy. Finally, the volume occupied by the material in the fabric is a small fraction of the total volume, so that the ratio weight/resistance to extension is very advantageous. The results seem to require a refinement of the used theoretical and numerical methods to transform the presented concept into a promising technological

  2. KYSTE DERMOÏDE DU PLANCHER BUCCAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. Le kyste dermoïde du plancher buccal représente 1,6% des kystes dermoïdes cervico-faciaux. Il s'agit le plus sou- vent d'un kyste congénital mais découvert généralement entre la 2ème et la 3ème décennie de la vie. Nous rappor- tons l'observation d'un nourrisson, chez qui nous avons.

  3. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...

  4. Design, objectives, execution and reporting of published open-label extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan, Bowers; Pickering, Ruth M; Weatherall, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Open-label extension (OLE) studies following blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmaceuticals are increasingly being carried out but do not conform to regulatory standards and questions surround the validity of their evidence. OLE studies are usually discussed as a homogenous group, yet substantial differences in study design still meet the definition of an OLE. We describe published papers reporting OLE studies focussing on stated objectives, design, conduct and reporting. A search of Embase and Medline databases for 1996 to July 2008 revealed 268 papers reporting OLE studies that met our eligibility criteria. A random sample of 50 was selected for detailed review. Over 80% of the studies had efficacy stated as an objective. The most common methods of allocation at the start of the OLE were for all RCT participants to switch to one active treatment or for only participants on the new drug to continue, but in three studies all participants were re-randomized at the start of the OLE. Eligibility criteria and other selection factors resulted in on average of 74% of participants in the preceding RCT(s) enrolling in the OLE and only 57% completed it. Published OLE studies do not form a homogenous group with respect to design or retention of participants, and thus the validity of evidence from an OLE should be judged on an individual basis. The term 'open label' suggests bias through lack of blinding, but slippage in relation to the sample randomized in the preceding RCT may be the more important threat to validity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. 76 FR 19129 - Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection Systems); Extension of... information collection requirements contained in the Standard on Excavations (Design of Cave-in Protection... use protective systems to prevent cave-ins during excavation work; these systems include sloping the...

  6. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    -smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine......(app) values and non-ionised nicotine, which indicates that the nicotine transfer occurred by means of passive diffusion. P(app) values of 0.60 x 10(-4) and 6.18 x 10(-4)cms(-1) were obtained for the mono-protonated and non-ionised species of nicotine, respectively. The analysis of the parotid saliva samples...... indicated that these samples might be useful in the assessment of systemic absorption of nicotine. Previous buccal in vitro models underestimated the in vivo human permeability of nicotine. However, the in vitro models were capable of predicting the effect of pH on the nicotine permeability....

  7. Influence of masseter muscle thickness on buccal corridor space and craniofacial morphology: A correlative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harneet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of masseter muscle thickness on buccal corridor space and underlying craniofacial morphology. Materials and Methods: Forty-six young adults (23 males and 23 females in the age group of 18–23 years having intact dentitions and Class I molar relationship were included in the study. Masseter muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography in relaxed, smiling, and contracted states. Posed smile photographs were taken to measure the buccal corridor space. Standardized frontal and lateral cephalograms were taken to determine craniofacial morphology in all three dimensions. Results: The mean masseter muscle thickness was 10.54 (±1.92 mm, 12.00 (±2.06 mm, and 14.04 (±1.99 mm in relaxed, smiling, and contracted states, respectively. Statistically significant correlation also was noted between masseter muscle thickness, during contracted state and buccal corridor width ratio. There was a strong association of masseter muscle thickness on both vertical as well as transverse craniofacial morphologies. Conclusions: Masseter muscle thickness is positively correlated with the buccal corridor width and influences both vertical as well as transverse facial dimensions.

  8. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  9. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transmucosal buccal delivery has been investigated for various drugs including protein and peptides [14-17]. Various TMDDS like tablets, films, patches, disks, strips, ointments and gels have been investigated [14-21]. Out of these transmucosal buccal films have been reported to be more flexible, comfortable with relatively ...

  10. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of metoprolol succinate and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo bioadhesion. Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations were tested for in vitro ...

  11. Sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiwakar, Muthuswamy; Khan, Zubair A

    2016-12-01

    The need for and consequence of sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy is unknown. We sought to determine the indication, frequency, and functional outcome of buccal branch sacrifice. We conducted a prospective study of all cases of parotidectomy at a tertiary referral center. Of 100 consecutive cases of parotidectomy, the buccal branch was sacrificed in 23 cases. This subgroup was more likely to have anterior or deep lesions (p < .001), retrograde facial nerve dissection (p = .037), and immediate postoperative upper and lower facial weakness (p = .051 and .002, respectively). However, if the temporozygomatic and cervicomandibular branches were anatomically preserved, full facial (including buccal) function was restored. Deep or anterior lesions may warrant sacrifice of the buccal branch for adequate access and excision. However, this does not result in long-term impairment of facial function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1821-1825, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The fate of buccal bone around dental implants. A 12-month postloading follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merheb, Joe; Vercruyssen, Marjolein; Coucke, Wim; Beckers, Ludovic; Teughels, Wim; Quirynen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Buccal bone thickness is considered to be an important factor during implant surgery. Its resorption might have an effect on the soft tissue stability and eventually on implant survival. This study aimed to investigate the resorption of the buccal bone over the first 12 months after implant loading. Twenty-four subjects (47 implants) were included. The buccal bone thickness was measured during implant surgery at several distances from the implant shoulder using a specifically designed device which allows buccal bone thickness measurements without the elevation of a muco-periostal flap. These measurements were repeated after 12 months of loading. Sixteen implants were placed flapless and 31 with the elevation of a flap. Of the latter, 19 were placed following a one-stage protocol and 12 following a two-stage protocol. The mean reduction in buccal bone thickness, when all groups pooled, was 0.26, 0.36, 0.35 and 0.27 mm at the shoulder and 2, 4 and 6 mm apically. Implants with initial bone thickness flapless procedure leads to less bone resorption compared to an open-flap procedure (P = 0.03). However, the number of surgeries (one stage vs. two stages) did not influence the rate of bone resorption (P = 0.23). Within the limitations of this study, one might question the necessity of having a thick bone plate at the vestibular site of the implant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells of Young Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke(WTS is an unhealthy life style that may increase the risk of genotoxic responses and chronic diseases such as cancer. Micronucleus test is a successful and reliable method which is used for screening of genetotoxic responses of whole body and also for screening those people who had already exposed to genotoxic compounds. In this study, specific questionnaires were designed and used for studying the role of shisha smoking on the extent of genotoxic responses and cases were looked for MNs with this biomonitoring method. The study population was 20 young adults (12men and 8 women who born and lived in Tehran and had continuously smoked shisha more than 2 times weekly for more than 2 years . The associations between all recorded background, environmental and nutritional factors and increased incidence of Micronucleus in buccal cells of all cases were considered by statistical methods. In order to count Micronucleus levels, buccal cells were collected from buccal mucosa of these people with small-headed toothbrush and was placed the head of tooth brush into buccal cell buffer, slides were prepared and cells were stained with Schiff’s reagent and light green .Finally 1000 differentiated cells were recorded by optical microscope in each slide and the mean level of MN was determined for each volunteer . All steps were performed according to the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay protocol. Increased incidence of Micronucleus was associated with the extent of shisha smoking per week (p=0.021, alcohol consumption ( p=0.021 and BMI ( p=0.027. The other effective factor in the occurrence of Micronucleus was gender/sex ( p=0.011 but nutritional factors didn’t change the level of Micronucleus in our cases. The relationship between other background and environmental factors were not significant too. It seems that long term consumption of shisha in both genders could increase the risk of genetic toxicity and occurrence of

  14. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  15. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  16. Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary...

  17. New Clasp Assembly for Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures: The Reverse RPA Clasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkoum, Mohammad Ayham

    2016-07-01

    Several clasp types are used in distal extension removable partial dentures. In some cases the terminal abutments have only distal retentive undercuts that can be occupied by bar clasps; however, bar clasps may be contraindicated with no suitable alternative. This article presents a reasonable solution by introducing a new clasp design as a modification to the well-known RPA clasp. The design includes a mesial rest, proximal plate, and buccal retentive arm arising from the rest and extending to reach the distal retentive undercut. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. [Anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of defects after en bloc resection of buccal cancer : a retrospective study of 23 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi-Yuan; Fang, Xiao-Dan; Pan, Hao; Hu, Yan-Jia; Tang, Zhan-Gui

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed to observe the effects of anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of tissue defects after en bloc resection of buccal cancer. Twenty-three patients with soft tissue defects after en bloc resection of buccal cancer underwent simultaneous reconstruction with anterolateral thigh flap from May, 2013 to May, 2015 were observed. Anterolateral thigh flaps were designed and harvested in form of single or multiple islands to restore the defect in buccal region after surgery. The appearance and function of both the oral and maxillofacial region and the donor site were recorded and evaluated. All the 23 flaps survived. Only 3 of them experienced vascular crisis within 24 hours after surgery, and recovered gradually after salvage. The success rate was 100%. One to three years of follow-up showed satisfying morphology and function for both the receipt sites and the donor sites. Buccal abscess was observed in 1 patient and recovered after rinsing and drainage. Two patients died of recurrence. Good effects can be achieved using anterolateral thigh flap to reconstruct buccal defects after en bloc resection of cancer, which is suitable for application in clinical practice.

  19. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  20. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations ... and nucleic acids possessing superior pharmacological efficacy, site specificity and ... Metoprolol succinate was obtained as a gift from Aarti Pharmaceuticals, India while.

  1. Extensions of D-optimal Minimal Designs for Symmetric Mixture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Raghavarao, Damaraju; Chervoneva, Inna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of mixture experiments is to explore the optimum blends of mixture components, which will provide desirable response characteristics in finished products. D-optimal minimal designs have been considered for a variety of mixture models, including Scheffé's linear, quadratic, and cubic models. Usually, these D-optimal designs are minimally supported since they have just as many design points as the number of parameters. Thus, they lack the degrees of freedom to perform the Lack of Fit tests. Also, the majority of the design points in D-optimal minimal designs are on the boundary: vertices, edges, or faces of the design simplex. Also a new strategy for adding multiple interior points for symmetric mixture models is proposed. We compare the proposed designs with Cornell (1986) two ten-point designs for the Lack of Fit test by simulations.

  2. Entrainment control in the Aplysia buccal ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, John D.; Milton, John G.

    2000-03-01

    Many dynamical systems, such as neural networks, can be pushed into or out of an entrained state by varying a system parameter. However, implementing this control strategy in a real biological system remains a difficult problem since many biological effectors have multiple effects. An example is an inhibitory interneuron that generates a postsynaptic current with a constant component, which alters the firing rate of its target, and a time-varying component, which can have a variety of effects. Here we explore the effects of an inhibitory interneuron on the ability of a regularly spiking Aplysia buccal motoneuron to synchronize to an external periodic input. After measuring the Arnold tongue structure of the motoneuron's response to sinusoidal input, we drive the motoneuron to and from an entrained state (onto and off of a tongue) by using the interneuron as a rate controller. These observations indicate that rate control of synchronization is robust even in the case when effectors have multiple actions. Moreover, these results provide direct evidence that inhibitory interneurons can serve as a sensitive mechanism to control the synchronization of neural populations by producing only slight changes in neural firing rate.

  3. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

  4. Autologous buccal mucosa graft augmentation for foreshortened vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Bradshaw, Karen; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal foreshortening after pelvic surgery or radiotherapy may lead to dyspareunia and decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, little literature exists regarding treatment options for this debilitating problem. Autologous buccal mucosal grafting has been previously reported for creation of a total neovagina and the repair of postvaginoplasty vaginal stenosis. Autologous buccal mucosa offers several advantages as a replacement material for vaginal reconstruction. Vaginal and oral buccal mucosa are both hairless, moist, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Buccal mucosa has a dense layer of elastic fibers, imparting both elasticity and strength, and acquires a robust neovascularity with excellent graft take. The graft material is readily available and donor site scars are hidden in the mouth. A 60-year-old woman had vaginal foreshortening to 4.5 cm 15 years after radical hysterectomy and brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. She was unable to have intercourse despite attempted vaginal dilation. Her foreshortened vagina was successfully augmented with autologous buccal mucosa grafting at the apex, increasing her vaginal length to 8 cm and permitting pain-free intercourse. Even in the face of an altered surgical field after radical hysterectomy and radiation, autologous buccal mucosa is an option for vaginal reconstruction for vaginal foreshortening.

  5. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  6. Mathematical and Metaheuristic Applications in Design Optimization of Steel Frame Structures: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Polat Saka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of mathematical modeling selected for the optimum design problems of steel skeletal frames affects the size and mathematical complexity of the programming problem obtained. Survey on the structural optimization literature reveals that there are basically two types of design optimization formulation. In the first type only cross sectional properties of frame members are taken as design variables. In such formulation when the values of design variables change during design cycles, it becomes necessary to analyze the structure and update the response of steel frame to the external loading. Structural analysis in this type is a complementary part of the design process. In the second type joint coordinates are also treated as design variables in addition to the cross sectional properties of members. Such formulation eliminates the necessity of carrying out structural analysis in every design cycle. The values of the joint displacements are determined by the optimization techniques in addition to cross sectional properties. The structural optimization literature contains structural design algorithms that make use of both type of formulation. In this study a review is carried out on mathematical and metaheuristic algorithms where the effect of the mathematical modeling on the efficiency of these algorithms is discussed.

  7. How participation is practiced? –Extension of Participatory Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation of participat......Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation...

  8. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team

  9. Design of a wind turbine swept blade through extensive load analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Kim, Taeseong; Murcia, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this work is to offer an extensive investigation regarding the use of backward swept blades for passive load alleviation on wind turbines. Sweeping blades backward produces a structural coupling between flapwise bending towards the tower and torsion towards feathering....... This coupling mitigates loads on the wind turbine structure due to a decrease in the angle of attack. The load alleviation can be achieved by changing the blade geometry according to three parameters: starting point for the change of shape along the blade span, blade tip sweep, and blade forward sweep...

  10. Vegetation resources inventory of southwest Alaska: development and application of an innovative, extensive sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the vegetation resources of southwest Alaska was made by using an inventory design developed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station. Satellite imagery (LANDSAT MSS), high-altitude aerial photography, and ground sampling were the major components of the design. Estimates of area for all land cover classes in the southwest region were produced....

  11. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  12. Design and Analysis of Metal-to-Composite Nozzle Extension Joints Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the operational demands of liquid rocket engines increases, so too does the need for improved design and manufacturing methods for metal-to-composite nozzle...

  13. Lateral Oropharyngeal Wall Coverage with Buccinator Myomucosal and Buccal Fat Pad Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok Ki Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after resection of oropharyngeal cancer is a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to introduce reconstruction using a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap and a buccal fat pad flap after cancer excision and to discuss the associated anatomy, surgical procedure, and clinical applications.MethodsIn our study, a combination of a buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap was utilized for reconstruction after resection of oropharyngeal cancer, performed between 2013 and 2015. After oropharyngectomy, the defect with exposed vital structures was noted. A buccinator myomucosal flap was designed and elevated after an assessment of the flap pedicle. Without requiring an additional procedure, a buccal fat pad flap was easily harvested in the same field and gently pulled to obtain sufficient volume. The flaps were rotated and covered the defect. In addition, using cadaver dissections, we investigated the feasibility of transposing the flaps into the lateral oropharyngeal defect.ResultsThe reconstruction was performed in patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The largest tumor size was 5 cm×2 cm (length×width. All donor sites were closed primarily. The flaps were completely epithelialized after four weeks, and the patients were followed up for at least six months. There were no flap failures or postoperative wound complications. All patients were without dietary restrictions, and no patient had problems related to mouth opening, swallowing, or speech.ConclusionsA buccinator myomucosal flap with a buccal fat pad flap is a reliable and valuable option in the reconstruction of oropharyngeal defects after cancer resection for maintaining functionality.

  14. An extensible operating system design for large-scale parallel machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian

    2009-04-01

    Running untrusted user-level code inside an operating system kernel has been studied in the 1990's but has not really caught on. We believe the time has come to resurrect kernel extensions for operating systems that run on highly-parallel clusters and supercomputers. The reason is that the usage model for these machines differs significantly from a desktop machine or a server. In addition, vendors are starting to add features, such as floating-point accelerators, multicore processors, and reconfigurable compute elements. An operating system for such machines must be adaptable to the requirements of specific applications and provide abstractions to access next-generation hardware features, without sacrificing performance or scalability.

  15. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... environmental disaster within that country, specifically the devastation resulting from Hurricane Mitch. See 64... the environmental disaster that prompted the January 5, 1999 designation persist. In October 1998... facilities, water supply and sanitation facilities, and the agricultural sector. Living conditions remain...

  16. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... March 9, 2001, the Attorney General designated El Salvador for TPS based on an environmental disaster... earthquakes, other recent destructive environmental events and its weak economy, El Salvador cannot adequately... crisis that threatens to undermine sustained development and confidence in democratic governance, as well...

  17. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Jung, J; Yong, C S; Rhee, C; Lee, M; Han, J; Park, K; Kim, C

    2000-09-03

    For the development of omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets, we studied the release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by buccal adhesive tablets composed of sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), magnesium oxide and croscarmellose sodium. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets. The analysis of the release mechanism showed that croscarmellose sodium changed the release profile of omeprazole from first- to zero-order release kinetics by forming porous channels in the tablet matrix. However, it decreased the bioadhesive forces and stability of omeprazole tablets in human saliva. The tablet is composed of omeprazole-sodium alginate-HPMC-magnesium oxide-croscarmellose sodium (20:24:6:50:10 mg). It may be attached to the human cheek without collapse and it enhanced the stability of omeprazole in human saliva for at least 4 h, giving a fast release of omeprazole. The plasma concentration of omeprazole in hamsters increased to reach a maximum of 370 ng/ml at 45 min after buccal administration and remained at the high level of 146-366 ng/ml for 6 h. The buccal bioavailability of omeprazole in hamsters was 13.7+/-3.2%. These results demonstrate that the omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet would be useful to deliver omeprazole which degrades very rapidly in acidic aqueous medium and undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration.

  18. Performance Evaluation and Design Considerations of Electrically Activated Drain Extension Tunneling GNRFET: A Quantum Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza; Taghavi, Neda

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a tunneling graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically activated drain extension, namely, EA-T-GNRFET, is proposed. The proposed structure includes a side gate at the drain side with a constant voltage and length of 0.4 V and 15 nm, respectively. Simulations are performed based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method coupled with the Poisson equation in the mode space representation. This side gate creates an additional step in potential profile at the drain side, which increases and decreases the width of tunneling barrier and leakage current, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed structure has lower drain induced barrier thinning, lower sub-threshold swing (SS) and higher I ON/ I OFF ratio than the conventional structure. Also, other characteristics of the device such as switching delay ( τ ), power delay product (PDP) and unity-gain frequency ( f t) are improved in the proposed device. These advantages make EA-T-GNRFET more suitable for digital and analog applications.

  19. An extensive research on the design methodology and site performance of bitumen emulsion-treated materials

    OpenAIRE

    SERFASS, Jean Pierre; De La Roche, Chantal; Wendling, Louisette; ODIE, Lionel; Gaudefroy, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In many respects, mixtures manufactured with bitumen emulsion behave in a specific way, differing from that of hot mix asphalt. The tests and design methods developed for hot mixtures, which are now well validated, cannot be applied as they stand to cold or warm emulsion mixtures. In the short and medium term, the specific behaviour of emulsion mixtures is governed by peculiarities, like the presence of water, aggregate-emulsion chemical reactivity, etc. The result is that the mechanical prop...

  20. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  1. Hydrogel Design for Supporting Neurite Outgrowth and Promoting Gene Delivery to Maximize Neurite Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Stevans, Alyson C.; Holland, Samantha; Wang, Christine E.; Shikanov, Ariella; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels capable of gene delivery provide a combinatorial approach for nerve regeneration, with the hydrogel supporting neurite outgrowth and gene delivery inducing the expression of inductive factors. This report investigates the design of hydrogels that balance the requirements for supporting neurite growth with those requirements for promoting gene delivery. Enzymatically-degradable PEG hydrogels encapsulating dorsal root ganglia explants, fibroblasts, and lipoplexes encoding nerve growth factor were gelled within channels that can physically guide neurite outgrowth. Transfection of fibroblasts increased with increasing concentration of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion sites and decreasing PEG content. The neurite length increased with increasing RGD concentration within 10% PEG hydrogels, yet was maximal within 7.5% PEG hydrogels at intermediate RGD levels. Delivering lipoplexes within the gel produced longer neurites than culture in NGF-supplemented media or co-culture with cells exposed to DNA prior to encapsulation. Hydrogels designed to support neurite outgrowth and deliver gene therapy vectors locally may ultimately be employed to address multiple barriers that limit regeneration. PMID:22038654

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory swellings of buccal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The main objective of the study was a to differentiate cellulitis and abscess in buccal space region, b to study the ultrasonographic anatomy of cheek region and c to investigate the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of inflammatory swellings of cheek region. Patients and Methods : The study consisted of 25 patients with unilateral buccal space inflammatory swellings of odontogenic origin. The contra lateral side was used as control. Toshiba ultrasonographic device with a linear array transducer (5-8 MHz was used. The areas of interest were scanned under both transverse and longitudinal sections and were interpreted by a single observer. The clinical diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess was confirmed by the absence or presence of pus respectively both sonographically and by aspiration. Also various anatomical structures present in buccal space were studied. Results : Clinically 23(92% were diagnosed as buccal space abscess and 2 (8% were cellulitis. Ultrasonographically and therapeutically 24 (96% were buccal space abscess and 1 (4% was cellulits. The sensitivity of clinical criteria over ultrasonographic diagnosis was 96% with a specificity of 100%. Also the cheek thickness in males and females varied from 8.2 to 17.1mm with a mean of 11.6mm±2.1 (SD and 8.2 mm to 14.2 mm with a mean of 11±1.8 (SD. The subcutaneous tissue appeared moderately echogenic, buccinator - highly echogenic, deep adipose tissue - less echogenic and parotid duct was appreciated as a thin hyperechogenic band crossing the buccinator muscle. Buccal space, masticator space and parotid space were appreciated. Conclusion : This study supports the ultrasonographic method of imaging of orofacial inflammatory swellings with high sensitivity and specificity. This imaging modality can also help in aspiration of pus in different spaces. We have described the ultrasonographic anatomy of the above mentioned spaces which can help a beginner in this field.

  3. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w/v. S....... Keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed no increase in proliferation after stimulation with increased concentrations of ST. The results suggest that HGF and KGF may play an important role as a paracrine growth factor in epithelial hyperplasia in ST lesions....

  4. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  5. Buccal-sided mandibular angle exostosis - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Basha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. They are painless and self-limiting, but occasionally may become several centimeters across and then contribute to periodontal disease of the adjacent teeth by forcing food during chewing in toward the teeth instead of away from them, as is normally the case. The following paper presents a very rare case of buccal-sided mandibular angle exoxtosis and its management with surgical exploration.

  6. Anthropometric analysis of maxillary anterior buccal bone of Korean adults using cone-beam CT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Seung-Lok; Kim, Hee-Jung; Son, Mee-Kyoung; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of buccal and palatal alveolar bone and buccal bony curvature below root apex in maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults using Cone-beam CT images...

  7. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts.

  8. Oral Mucoadhesive Buccal Film of Ciprofloxacin for Periodontitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method records the time required for complete erosion or dislodgement of the film from the mucosal surface (segments of porcine buccal mucosa glued on a .... Sitzman C. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs. J Vet Dent. 2013; 30(3):150155. 6. Agarwal S, Venkatesh M, Udupa N. Controlled ...

  9. Buccal Mucosal Graft for Crippled Hypospadias (Experience in 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypospadias is defined as the incomplete virilization of the genital tubercle causing an incomplete development of the tissues forming the ventral urethra. Objective: Free buccal mucosal graft is an excellent option if the genital tissue is fibrous or deficient. We would like to present our small experience with ...

  10. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... steroids, topical or systemic, can control the disease and prevent progression. Surgical ... flexible cystoscopy [14] and ultrasonography [15]. The depth and ... In pursuit for the best graft material, bladder mucosa and buccal mucosal grafts .... and manual handling, resistance to infection, compatibility with a.

  11. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved Cardiac Drug Delivery: Preparation and Characterization. Wen-Shuai He, Hao-Wei Xiong, Dan Xi, Tian-Tian Luo, Hao Lu, Meng-Hao Li, Ji-Cheng Liu, Zhi-Gang Guo ...

  12. Buccal versus intranasal midazolam sedation for pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbul, Nada; Delvi, Mohamed Bilal; Zahrani, Tariq Al; Salama, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the behavioral differences resulting from the sedative effects of atomized buccal (transmucosal) and atomized intranasal (parenteral) midazolam (0.3 mg/kg) as a method for sedation of pediatric dental patients. Twenty-five 36- to 72-month-old patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups that were sedated with either atomized buccal in the first visit or intranasal midazolam in the second visit (0.3 mg/kg). Patient be- havior was rated, and drug acceptance by method of administration was determined. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups in maximum working time. There were significant differences between both groups in drug acceptance (P=.008) and onset time (P=.00). The statistical differences between the two groups were not significant in all behavior rating scales, except for the crying rating scale, since the buccal group showed more crying. Atomized buccal and intranasal midazolam are both effective for sedation of pediatric dental patients and have the same maximum working time. However, atomized intranasal is more acceptable by children, has faster onset time, and children demonstrate less crying.

  13. Review: How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek | Barbagli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper provides the reader with the step by step of our current technique of harvesting buccal mucosa from the cheek. We describe how to prepare the patients, the use of the Kilner-Doughty mouth retractor, the Stensen duct identification, the size and the shape of the graft. We discuss how to repair the donor site and ...

  14. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... Association. skin [2]. Again the results were unsatisfactory till 1995, when Duck- ett et al. successfully used buccal mucosa for urethral reconstruction ... subdivided into three categories (based on function and histology);. Masticatory, Lining and ... anatomy should be accurately determined. The location and ...

  15. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be used for penile urethral stricture repair and different types of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty for bulbar urethral stricture repair. The current paper describes, step by step, Barbagli technique of dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. The preoperative patient evaluation and postoperative course ...

  16. Initial experience of buccal mucosa urethroplasty in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present the experience with the use of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective review of 53 consecutive patients who presented with urethral strictures seen by the author from January 2002 to December 2003 and were managed with different forms of urethral ...

  17. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the ongoing role of ventral onlay oral mucosa free graft in the treatment of bulbar urethral stricture. Methods: Detailed review of technical consideration and outcomes from the author's institution along with review of other peer reviewed literature. Results: Of 62 patients undergoing ventral onlay buccal ...

  18. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J; Sesnie, Steven E; Olsson, Aaryn D; Dickson, Brett G

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1) detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2) characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The sampling methods

  19. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophelia Wang

    Full Text Available Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1 detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2 characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The

  20. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa J; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-07-01

    To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 using the search terms "mifepristone and medical abortion" and "buccal and misoprostol." Studies were included if they presented clinical outcomes of medical abortion using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 70 days of gestation. Studies with duplicate data were excluded. We included 20 studies with a total of 33,846 women through 70 days of gestation. We abstracted efficacy and ongoing pregnancy rates as an overall rate and by gestational age in days in reference to completed weeks (eg, 49 days or less, 50-56 days, 57-63 days, 64-70 days) and adverse effects when reported. The overall efficacy of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol is 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.5-96.8%) and the continuing pregnancy rate is 0.8% (95% CI 0.7-0.9%) in approximately 33,000 pregnancies through 63 days of gestation. Only 332 women with pregnancies between 64 and 70 days of gestation are reported in the literature with an overall efficacy of 93.1% (95% CI 89.6-95.5%) and a continuing pregnancy rate of 2.9% (95% CI 1.4-5.7%). Currently available data suggest that regimens with a 24-hour time interval between mifepristone and buccal misoprostol administration are slightly less effective than those with a 24- to 48-hour interval. Rates of surgical evacuation for reasons other than ongoing pregnancy range from 1.8% to 4.2%. Severe adverse events like blood transfusion (0.03-0.6%) and hospitalization (0.04-0.9%) are uncommon. Outpatient medical abortion regimens with mifepristone followed in 24-48 hours by buccal misoprostol are highly effective for pregnancy termination through 63 days of gestation. More data are needed to

  1. CT ANATOMY OF BUCCAL FAT PAD AND ITS ROLE IN VOLUMETRIC ALTERATIONS OF FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Guryanov

    2015-05-01

    unsatisfying because cannot exclude completely the migration of superficial tissues. In following experiments it was shown that the intensive pressure on the cheek area in vertical position produce the volume excess in the temporal area similar and more exaggerate than in gravity test. To correlate the excess of tissue with underlying anatomical structures we had acquired the CT’s of some probationers, performed 3D reconstruction of bony structures, Bichat fat pad, and aligned with the previous surface scans. The projection of this excess in both experiments corresponds with the temporal process of Bichat fat pad. That means that the leading mechanism of these changes is protrusion of temporal process of Bichat fat pad through the leaves of temporal fascia due to pressure on the buccal extension: in these conditions, the buccal fat pad works as a communicating vessel between the cheek area and temporal fossa. This fact has suggested us that the phenomenon of the deepening of temporal area during the ageing could be produced as by the atrophy of buccal fat pad as by the migration of the fat pad to the cheek area due to ptosis.

  2. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    cannot exclude completely the migration of superficial tissues. In following experiments it was shown that the intensive pressure on the cheek area in vertical position produce the volume excess in the temporal area similar and more exaggerate than in gravity test. To correlate the excess of tissue with underlying anatomical structures we had acquired the CT's of some probationers, performed 3D reconstruction of bony structures, Bichat fat pad, and aligned with the previous surface scans. The projection of this excess in both experiments corresponds with the temporal process of Bichat fat pad. That means that the leading mechanism of these changes is protrusion of temporal process of Bichat fat pad through the leaves of temporal fascia due to pressure on the buccal extension: in these conditions, the buccal fat pad works as a communicating vessel between the cheek area and temporal fossa. This fact has suggested us that the phenomenon of the deepening of temporal area during the ageing could be produced as by the atrophy of buccal fat pad as by the migration of the fat pad to the cheek area due to ptosis.

  3. LDPC FEC Code Extension for Unequal Error Protection in DVB-T2 System: Design and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kondrad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Video Broadcasting organisation has recently introduced the second generation of terrestrial broadcast transmission standards, DVB-T2. The newly introduced tools ensure significant gain in performance of DVB-T2 compared to the first generation variant of the standard. One of these tools is the new physical layer concatenated forward error correction code. The inner among the concatenated codes is the Low-Density Parity Check code. The paper proposes a method to extend this code so varying coding strength inside one physical layer pipe of DVB-T2 is enabled in a backward compatible way. As consequence, unequal error protection transmission scheme at a physical layer of DVB-T2 can be efficiently deployed. The paper provides a step-by-step description of the design procedure of the extension. Moreover, the modification to the processing chain and the framing structure of DVB-T2, that ensures backward compatibility to the legacy system, is provided. The proposed method is evaluated under AWGN channel and TU6 channel. Experiments performed on four different video sequences show significant improvements in quality of experience when the proposed extension is used to achieve UEP transmission.

  4. Carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A site specific clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, V; Jayade, B V; Anehosur, V; Gopalkrishnan, K; Kumar, N

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of buccal mucosa is the most common cancer of the oral cavity in India. Treatment of oral cancer poses unique reconstructive challenges, owing to the dynamic architecture of the oral cavity. Despite current progress in various treatment modalities, over the past 50 years survival rates have not improved drastically. Although, philosophy on treatment of buccal mucosa carcinoma remains well-established, due to the relative paucity of reported data, retrospective reviews of institutional experiences are of prime importance. This study provides a detailed insight on this site specific cancer of the oral cavity in the Indian population. The aim of this study is to analyze our experience with the management of carcinoma of buccal mucosa; associated clinical presentation, outcomes and prognostic factors. A retrospective chart review was performed of all cases of primary buccal mucosa carcinoma treated surgically between years 2008 and 2012 in SDM Craniofacial Unit, Karnataka, India. All cases were analyzed based on patient characteristics, clinical presentation, surgical and adjuvant therapy rendered and treatment outcomes. A retrospective chart review was carried out using the hospital's data base for the same. Kaplan-Meier methods were used for analyzing disease free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed with log rank test. The significant variables in univariate analysis were: Overall stage, T-stage (T1/T2 vs. T3/T4) and nodal status (N0 vs. N+). We found that staging, tumor size and nodal status were significant prognostic factors for DFS. The strong influence of overall disease stage, tumor size, nodal status, final histopathological report and habits of tobacco/betel quid chewing, on prognosis; emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and prevention of carcinoma of buccal mucosa in the Indian population.

  5. Design and construction of a quadruple-resonance MAS NMR probe for investigation of extensively deuterated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Kelsey A; Sengupta, Suvrajit; Espinosa, Catalina A; Kelly, John E; Kelz, Jessica I; Martin, Rachel W

    2017-12-01

    Extensive deuteration is frequently used in solid-state NMR studies of biomolecules because it dramatically reduces both homonuclear ( 1 H- 1 H) and heteronuclear ( 1 H- 13 C and 1 H- 15 N) dipolar interactions. This approach greatly improves resolution, enables low-power rf decoupling, and facilitates 1 H-detected experiments even in rigid solids at moderate MAS rates. However, the resolution enhancement is obtained at some cost due the reduced abundance of protons available for polarization transfer. Although deuterium is a useful spin-1 NMR nucleus, in typical experiments the deuterons are not directly utilized because the available probes are usually triple-tuned to 1 H, 13 C and 15 N. Here we describe a 1 H/ 13 C/ 2 H/ 15 N MAS ssNMR probe designed for solid-state NMR of extensively deuterated biomolecules. The probe utilizes coaxial coils, with a modified Alderman-Grant resonator for the 1 H channel, and a multiply resonant solenoid for 13 C/ 2 H/ 15 N. A coaxial tuning-tube design is used for all four channels in order to efficiently utilize the constrained physical space available inside the magnet bore. Isolation among the channels is likewise achieved using short, adjustable transmission line elements. We present benchmarks illustrating the tuning of each channel and isolation among them and the magnetic field profiles at each frequency of interest. Finally, representative NMR data are shown demonstrating the performance of both the detection and decoupling circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of buccal shields on mandibular dental arch parameters: a clinical and cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Kambiz; Bishara, Samir E

    2007-01-01

    The lip bumper is a vestibular functional appliance designed to extend bilaterally between the mandibular buccal tubes and contact the inner surface of the lower lip and cheeks. It functions to eliminate the pressure on the incisors, canines, and premolars, and to transmit distally directed forces to the molars. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of the buccal shield modification of the lip bumper design on various mandibular dental arch parameters, as well as on the inclination of the mandibular incisors. Included in the present study were 44 consecutively treated patients, consisting of 29 females and 15 males from a private orthodontic practice. Student and paired t tests were used to evaluate the changes over time for the various measurements. The results indicated a significant (P < .0001) increase in all arch parameters measured. The greatest mean expansion was observed at the first (5.0 +/- 2.2 mm) and second (3.4 +/- 2.2 mm) premolar width measurements. Less expansion occurred in the intercanine (2.4 +/- 2.0 mm) and intermolar (2.4 +/- 2.6 mm) arch widths. Arch length increased on average 1.6 +/- 2.1 mm. These were significantly (P <.0001) greater than the normal age-related changes in the corresponding parameters.

  7. [Adhesion of clinical Candida albicans isolate to buccal epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal adherence and germ tube formation are considered to be important virulence factors of C. albicans. Adherence is a precondition for colonisation and invasion. We investigated 11 clinical isolates (among them 5 cases recovered from oesophageal thrush) for quantification of the two characteristics and correlated the results with clinical data. Adherence was measured on buccal epithelial cells and the continuous flow culture was used for quantification of germ tube formation. Adherence of strains recovered from clinically, culturally and serologically confirmed oesophageal thrush adhered stronger to buccal epithelial cells than isolates from patients with heavy colonisation without signs of candidosis. Strains with stronger adherence showed a significantly faster and an increased germ tube formation in the continuous flow culture. Strains from oesophageal thrush therefore show a more marked expression of the investigated virulence factors. Therefore a good adherence is a necessity for infection of the oesophagus by C. albicans. The preferential isolation of C. albicans from oesophageal thrush (> 90%) supports this assumption.

  8. An adult juvenile xanthogranuloma in the buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXGs are a type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that commonly affects infants and children. Adult oral JXGs are very rare. A 32-year-old Taiwanese male presented with the chief complaint of a solitary, firm, painless, non-tender swelling over the right buccal mucosa for about 2 weeks. An excisional biopsy of the lesion revealed a mixture of histiocytes, inflammatory cells, and Touton giant cells, and immunohistochemical positivity for CD68 and negativity for S-100 and CD1a confirmed the diagnosis of a JXG. Therefore, the current case report documents, to our knowledge, the first occurrence of an adult oral JXG in the buccal mucosa. It is also the first case of an adult oral JXG to be reported from Taiwan. The clinical characteristics of adult oral JXGs are also briefly reviewed.

  9. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach was assessed by studies of bioactivation, in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption. The bioactivation of various morphine-3-esters was studied in human plasma and saliva. The in vitro permeation of morphine...... of 0.2. This discrepancy could however be explained by the enzymatic stability of the two esters in saliva, since it was found that morphine-3-propionate was more rapidly hydrolysed in saliva than was morphine-3-acetate. The study demonstrates that the buccal delivery of morphine can be markedly...... Improved by using ester prodrugs with higher lipophilicity than morphine itself. However, the enzymatic stability of the prodrugs in saliva also play an important role for the overall improvement in absorption properties....

  10. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  11. Optimal design of an individual endoprosthesis for the reconstruction of extensive mandibular defects with finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Shen, Longduo; Li, Jia; Liang, Rui; Tian, Weidong; Tang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the finite element analysis (FEA) approach to assess biomechanical performance of individual endoprostheses used in the reconstruction of extensive mandibular defects, and to explore an available strategy for the optimal design of prostheses. A female patient experienced fracture of a titanium mandibular endoprosthesis one year after reconstructive surgery. The endoprosthesis was placed during resection of a mandibular carcinoma. Using CT data, a finite element analysis (FEA) of the implant was performed to identify potential causes for this mechanical failure. Based on the first FEA analysis, modifications of the prosthesis geometry and screw configuration were carried out. FEA was performed for each subsequent modification until no stress concentration areas were identified. The final version of the titanium prosthesis was implanted during the second mandibular reconstruction. The FEA model was constructed, based on the geometrical data of the patient. Two areas of stress concentration were identified in the original prosthesis: - at the top surface of the left stem, 1.5 cm away from the corner (the peak stress was 616 MPa) and - on the exterior surface of the right stem, close to the mandibular stump margin. The mechanical failure occurred at the top surface of the left stem. Some common characteristics of the biomechanical performance were noted in the two models, but lower overall stress was achieved in the second, optimized prosthesis. By thickening the recognized high stress areas, and attenuating those areas subject to less stress, then adopting a quadrilateral screw configuration, this dispersed the stress more evenly in the optimized endoprosthesis. Function in the optimized reconstructed mandible was observed for 3 years without significant endoprosthesis related complication. In some patients with extensive mandibular defects, the individually tailored endoprosthesis constructed with regard to minimizing stress

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Bilayered Tablets of Salbutamol

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. N.G Raghavendra Rao; Gururaj S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Salbutamol is a short-acting 2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The salbutamol buccal mucoadhesive tablets were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. Salbutamol mucoadhesive bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression method using the bioadhesive polymers such as xanthan gum, sodium alginate and carbopol 937P along with ethyl...

  13. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive tablets containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tilak, R

    2008-04-01

    Buccal bioadhesive tablets of clotrimazole (CTZ) and clotrimazole: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CTZ-HPbetaCD) complex were prepared by using polymer xanthan gum in combination with carbopol 974P. The prepared buccal bioadhesive tablet formulations were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics (weight, hardness, friability, diameter, and drug content), swelling index, microenvironment pH, in-vitro drug release, bioadhesion strength, residence time and duration of antifungal activity (in-vitro). The dissolution of CTZ from the prepared tablets into phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) was controlled up to 8 h. All the prepared tablets gave reasonable in-vitro residence time (7.13 - 9.34 h). X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the CTZ-HPbetaCD complex, made by kneading and freeze-dried method, showed no CTZ crystal signals, demonstrating the inclusion of CTZ in the hydrophobic cavity of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and formation of amorphous inclusion complex. Duration of the antifungal activity was measured by the inhibition zone of Candida albicans by agar diffusion assay. It is evident from the results obtained, the prepared buccal bioadhesive tablets of CTZ would markedly prolong the duration of the antifungal activity and may prove to be a viable alternative to the conventional local oral medication.

  15. Three Dimensional Analysis of Pier Extension and Guide Wall Design Alternatives to Mitigate Local Scour Risk at the BNSF Railroad Bridge Downstream of the Prado Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinha, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kerenyi, K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The primary objectives of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis are (1) to verify that the design concept of using wedge shaped pier extensions to divert flow around piers as a scour counter measure has the intended effect on the flow, (2) to refine the design of the length and orientation of the pier extensions within the channel and (3) to optimize the guide walls that will protect a set of outer piers and the abutments on each side of the channel. The original proposed design is shown in Figure 1.3. The results of this effort are the recommended designs that are judged to be the best designs based on results from the set of test cases run combined with engineering judgment. The refined designs from the CFD analysis are expected to be tested in a limited set of physical model experiments to verify that they work well.

  16. Bone response to buccal tooth movements-with and without flapless alveolar decortication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Stephen; Campbell, Phillip M; Rossmann, Jeffrey; Opperman, Lynne A; Taylor, Reginald W; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the biological response of alveolar bone surrounding maxillary second premolars to flapless alveolar decortication and moderate, continuous forces in a buccal direction. Using a randomized split-mouth experimental design, unilateral alveolar decortication was performed with a piezosurgery unit around the maxillary second premolars of six female dogs. The contralateral side received a sham surgery. The maxillary second premolars were moved buccally with archwires (initial 163.9 cN expansive force) for 9 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of consolidation. Intraoral, radiographic, and model measurements were performed to evaluate tooth movements; the amount and quality of surrounding bone were quantified using micro-CT; bone formation was evaluated histologically. The experimental premolars were expanded and tipped significantly (P decortication, in combination with archwire expansion, increased tooth movements and tipping and produced less bone, less dense bone, and less mature bone. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evaluation of polyvinyl alcohols as mucoadhesive polymers for mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared by direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Ishihara, Chizuko; Onishi, Hiraku

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate polyvinyl alcohols (PVAs) as a mucoadhesive polymer for mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared by direct compression. Various polymerization degree and particle diameter PVAs were investigated for their usability. The tensile strength, in vitro adhesive force, and water absorption properties of the tablets were determined to compare the various PVAs. The highest values of the tensile strength and the in vitro adhesive force were observed for PVAs with a medium viscosity and small particle size. The optimal PVA was identified by a factorial design analysis. Mucoadhesive tablets containing the optimal PVA were compared with carboxyvinyl polymer and hydroxypropyl cellulose formulations. The optimal PVA gives a high adhesive force, has a low viscosity, and resulted in relatively rapid drug release. Formulations containing carboxyvinyl polymer had high tensile strengths but short disintegration times. Higher hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration formulations had good adhesion forces and very long disintegration times. We identified the optimal characteristics of PVA, and the usefulness of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing this PVA was suggested from their formulation properties.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of an extensive lifestyle management intervention (ELMI following cardiac rehabilitation: study design and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiess Marla

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRP represent comprehensive interventions that are typically limited to four months. Following completion of CRP, it appears that risk factors and lifestyle behaviours may deteriorate. The Extensive Lifestyle Management Intervention (ELMI Following Cardiac Rehabilitation trial will investigate the benefits of a randomized intervention to prevent these adverse changes. Methods Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD were randomized following a standard CRP to the ELMI or to usual care. The ELMI program is a case-managed intervention aimed at individualizing risk factor and lifestyle management based on current treatment guidelines. The program consists of cardiac rehabilitation sessions, telephone follow-up and risk factor and lifestyle counselling sessions. Health professionals work with participants using behavioural counselling and communications with participants' family physicians. Usual care participants return to their family physicians' care, and come to the study clinic only to undergo annual outcomes assessment. The primary outcome is change in IHD global risk after four years. Secondary outcomes include combined cardiovascular events, health care utilization, lifestyle adherence, quality of life and risk factors. Results Over 28 months, 302 men and women were randomized. This represented 29% of the total population screened. The average age of study participants is 64 years, 18% are women, 53% have had a previous myocardial infarction, 73% have undergone previous revascularization and 20% have diabetes mellitus. Ischemic heart disease risk factors for the entire cohort improved significantly after subjects had gone through previous CRPs. Baseline risk factors, lifestyle behaviours and medications were similar between the groups. Conclusions This study population is representative of patients completing a standard CRP. Results of the ELMI trial will provide valuable information for

  19. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  20. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  1. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    Full Text Available Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  3. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendekal Mohamed S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC. Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal

  4. Development and Characterization of Chitosan-Polycarbophil Interpolyelectrolyte Complex-Based 5-Flurouracil Formulations for Buccal, Vaginal and Rectal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Pendekal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study:The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-flurouracil(5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer andsurpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPECMethods:Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability,weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies.Results:FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit.3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU.Conclusion:The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and

  5. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in a reoperative and reconstructive challenge hypospadias: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa graft is usually used in a second operation. A buccal mucosa graft from the lower lip was used for large fistula reconstruction in one patients. The patient previously had been operated on several times at another center. The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in complex urethroplasties is a successful method with a low incidence of complications.

  6. Enhanced delivery of ketobemidone through porcine buccal mucosa in vitro via more lipophilic ester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro penetration of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs through porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber was investigated in order to support the selection of a prodrug derivative with optimal buccal absorption. The nine esters studied included carboxylic acid and carbonate...... a plateau or a slight decrease occurred. No toxic effects of ketobemidone or the prodrugs on the buccal membrane were observed as judged from monitoring of the electrical properties of the membrane....

  7. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. An Iterative and Targeted Sampling Design Informed by Habitat Suitability Models for Detecting Focal Plant Species over Extensive Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Olsson, Aaryn D.; Dickson, Brett G.

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scal...

  9. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni; N.G RaghavendraRao; D.Narasimhareddy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesiv...

  11. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (pssmoking-responsive biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Songül Budak; Ergene, Serap

    2010-04-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and 'broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  13. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Budak Diler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronucleus (MN assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and 'broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  14. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  15. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Kirby, Mary; Thompson, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets (FEBT) are designed to enhance the rate and efficiency of fentanyl absorption through the buccal mucosa. This study was undertaken to characterise the pharmacokinetics and assess the dose proportionality of FEBT in healthy volunteers within the potential therapeutic dose range. Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age 33 years) completed a single-dose, randomised, open-label, four-dose, four-period, crossover study of FEBT. They were administered FEBT 200, 500, 810 or 1080microg. The subjects in this study were not opioid tolerant; therefore, naltrexone was administered to block any opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl. Venous blood samples for measurement of serum fentanyl concentrations were obtained over 36 hours following dosing. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The pharmacokinetics of FEBT were characterised by an absorption phase with a median time to reach maximum serum concentration (tmax) of 0.75-0.99 hours that was consistent irrespective of dose. Mean serum fentanyl concentrations exhibited a biexponential decline from peak after FEBT 200 and 500microg doses and a triexponential decline after FEBT 810 and 1080microg doses. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of fentanyl was proportional up to and including the 810microg dose. The increase in Cmax was 20% less than proportional at the 1080microg dose. Systemic exposure to fentanyl, as measured by the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinfinity), increased proportionally with increasing doses of FEBT (200-1080microg). No serious adverse events were reported during the study. The pharmacokinetics of FEBT were characterised by a high early fentanyl concentration as a result of absorption across the buccal mucosa of the oral cavity, which results in bypassing first-pass metabolism. This high early tmax contributed to enhanced early systemic fentanyl exposure. Maximum concentration and AUCinfinity of FEBT

  16. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Ajila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinomas are deceptive malignancies that show slow growth and local invasion with recurrences seen many years after diagnosis. Upto 50% of these tumors occur in the intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate. Buccal mucosal tumors are relatively rare. We determined the incidence of buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinoma by reviewing the number of reported cases in the literature. This is the first article to analyze the occurrence of adenoid cystic carcinomas in the buccal mucosa through a review of 41 articles. Our review revealed 178 buccal mucosal adenoid cystic carcinomas among a total of 2,280 reported cases. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma occurring in the left buccal mucosa of a 45-year-old female.

  18. Perceptions of laypersons and orthodontists regarding the buccal corridor in long- and short-face individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Suguino, Rosely

    2011-01-01

    To determine the perception of orthodontists and laypersons regarding the size of the dark spaces in the buccal corridors and how that affects smile esthetics in individuals with long and short faces. Images of eight smiling individuals were modified to create five sizes of dark spaces in the buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%) and were submitted to a group of laypersons and a group of orthodontists. Laypersons were more critical in their evaluation than orthodontists. Laypersons could not distinguish the gradation of dark spaces in the buccal corridor unless it was very plain. Orthodontists perceived this gradation beginning at 15%. Female evaluators were more critical than male evaluators in both groups. The presence or absence of dark spaces in the buccal corridors has little influence over smile esthetics. While this aspect must be considered in the orthodontic diagnosis, there is no justification for expanding the buccal corridor to eliminate dark spaces unless they are very evident.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of nano-based films for buccal delivery of zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Essa AL-DHUBIAB

    Full Text Available Abstract Insomnia is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world general population. Therapies used by patients include over-the-counter therapies, herbal and dietary supplements, and pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments. Among these, zolpidem is a pharmacological treatment popularly used for insomnia. Zolpidem is well tolerated and especially efficacious for initiation of sleep, and therefore is effective for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate zolpidem nanoparticle-impregnated buccal films to prolong the duration of its action. Zolpidem nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation and then loaded into buccoadhesive films (Z1-Z4 comprised of different concentrations of HPMC K100, Eudragit® RL 100, and carbopol 974P. The prepared films were characterized for physicomechanical properties, mucoadhesion, percent hydration, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, and in vivo studies. In vitro drug release was found to depend upon film composition. Ex vivo studies showed that film Z4 had the highest flux. In vivo studies revealed that administration of zolpidem nanosphere-impregnated film enhanced absorption of the drug (p < 0.0001, with a higher peak plasma concentration (52.54 ± 8.22 ng/mL and area under the curve from time 0 to α (236.00 ± 39.51 ng.h/mL than oral administration. The increase in time taken to reach the maximum drug concentration (1.5 h further signifies the potential of these films to provide prolonged drug release. Given these promising results, we concluded that these buccal films could be an alternative route for effective zolpidem delivery.

  20. An evaluation of buccal shield treatment. A clinical and cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Kambiz; Bishara, Samir E

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term effects of the buccal shield modification of the lip-bumper design and on various mandibular dental arch parameters and to determine whether the changes in arch widths are due to the tipping or bodily movements of the teeth involved. This study included 45 consecutively treated patients (29 girls and 16 boys) from a private orthodontic practice. Student's and paired t-tests were used to test the null hypothesis of no change over time for the various measurements. Linear regression analyses were used to determine whether treatment time was a significant predictor of arch width expansion. Significance for all statistical tests was predetermined at P < or = .05. Student's t-test results indicated the presence of a significant (P < .0001) increase in all the arch parameters measured. The greatest mean expansion was observed at the first (5.0 +/- 2.2 mm) and second (3.4 +/- 2.2 mm) premolar width measurements. The changes in arch width parameters were significantly (P < .0001) greater than the normal age-related changes in the corresponding parameters. There was no significant difference between arch width expansion of the occlusal vs gingival levels, indicating a bodily and not tipping movement. Only 30% of the lower incisors demonstrated an increase in their proclination beyond normal values. When using the buccal shield appliance, the mandibular arch width parameters can be expanded in the mixed dentition with bodily movement of teeth. The expanded arch width dimensions are greater than what would be expected as a result of normal growth.

  1. Internal urethrotomy in patients with recurrent urethral stricture after buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Clemens M; Schmid, Marianne; Ludwig, Tim A; Kluth, Luis A; Reiss, Philip; Dahlem, Roland; Engel, Oliver; Chun, Felix K-H; Riechardt, Silke; Fisch, Margit; Ahyai, Sascha A

    2015-09-01

    To determine the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the treatment of short stricture recurrence after buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU). Patients who underwent DVIU for the treatment of short, "veil-like" recurrent urethral strictures (<1 cm) after BMGU between October 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively identified within our urethroplasty database. Stricture recurrence was defined as maximum flow rate (Q max) <15 ml/s and a consecutively verified stricture in a combined retro- and antegrade voiding cystography or cystoscopy at a follow-up visit. The success rate of DVIU was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable Cox regression analyses evaluated risk factors for stricture recurrence following DVIU. Forty-three patients underwent DVIU for short stricture recurrence after BMGU for bulbar (81.3 %), penile (14.0 %) and membranous (4.7 %) strictures. Relapse had occurred proximally to the buccal mucosa graft in 28 (65.1 %) and distally in 12 (27.9 %) patients, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 11.7 (±9.7) months, stricture recurrence was observed in 48.8 % of our patients. Stricture recurrence was significantly associated with weak urinary stream (9.3 ml/s vs. no recurrence 19.5 ml/s) and patient dissatisfaction (66.7 % vs. no recurrence 18.1 %; both p < 0.001). The overall success rate was 60.5 % 15 months after DVIU. The main limitations of this study are its retrospective design, the small sample size and the short follow-up. DVIU after BMGU showed a moderate success rate and therefore might be a viable treatment option in selected patients with very short strictures after BMGU. However, longer follow-up is warranted to prove long-term effectiveness.

  2. Comparison of equivalent doses of fentanyl buccal tablets and arteriovenous differences in fentanyl pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2006-01-01

    The fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is designed to enhance the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption through the buccal mucosa. To evaluate the bioequivalence of microg-equivalent doses of FBT administered as single and multiple tablets and assess differences in the arterial and venous pharmacokinetics of FBT in healthy volunteers. Twenty-seven healthy adults, aged 19-45 years, participated in the randomised, open-label, three-period, crossover study. In the first two periods, FBT was administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously or one FBT 400 microg to assess bioequivalence. Venous blood samples were obtained over a 72-hour period to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations. In the third period, arterial and venous blood samples were obtained simultaneously from before administration of one FBT 400 microg through 4 hours after administration to evaluate the impact of arterial versus venous sampling on the pharmacokinetic profile. As subjects were not opioid tolerant, naltrexone was administered to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl. Adverse events were recorded throughout. Maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) on average were approximately 12% and 13% higher, respectively, for FBT administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously compared with one FBT 400 microg. Maximum plasma concentrations in the arterial circulation were approximately 60% higher and occurred 15 minutes earlier than those measured from the venous circulation. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Despite small differences in C(max) and AUC(infinity) (on average 12% and 13%, respectively), FBT administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously compared with one 400 microg tablet did not meet the criteria for bioequivalence. An increased surface area exposure with four tablets compared with one tablet may account for the slightly higher maximum

  3. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  4. A novel dosage form for buccal administration of bupropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Maria Galvão Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is an antidepressant used in the treatment of smoking. The purpose of this study was to prepare controlled-release hydrogel films for buccal administration of bupropion and investigate its physicochemical and cytotoxic properties. The films were prepared from ultrapure sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M, and medium-viscosity chitosan. Evaluation of film physicochemical characteristics was based on scanning electron microscopy, bupropion content, mechanical strength (burst strength, relaxation, resilience, and traction, and cytotoxicity. Bupropion content in bilayer films was 121 mg per 9 cm2. The presence of bupropion modified film mechanical strength, but did not compromise the use of this pharmaceutical form. As shown by the cytotoxicity results, films containing bupropion did not cause cellular damage. Bupropion administration in the form of hydrogel films is a potentially useful alternative in the treatment of smoking.

  5. Use of Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad for Cranial Base Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadre, Pushkar; Ghadge, Murarji Tanaji; Singh, Divya; Gadre, Kiran

    2017-03-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction for closure of skull base defects after removal of anterior cranial base lesions is challenging. Persistent skull base defect produces extremely high risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and consecutive infectious complications. The authors' article focuses on the use of pedicled buccal fat pad for the reconstruction of anterior cranial base defects using combined endoscope-assisted approach and Lefort I access osteotomy. High effectiveness and minimal invasiveness are principal advantages of the technique. Other benefits include proximity of donor site to defect, simplicity of surgical technique, minimal postoperative discomfort, and very low risk of benign complications. Local pedicled grafts are the preferred material for plasty, adding aesthetic results in an ablative surgery using intraoral incision and access osteotomy. Thus, the technique solves the problem of relying on complex alloplastic reconstruction of anterior craniobasal defects.

  6. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration.

  7. Design and optimization of linearly graded-doping junction termination extension for 3.3-kV-class IGBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaping, Jiang; Wanjun, Chen; Chuang, Liu; Zugang, Rao; Bin, Dong; Bo, Zhang

    2011-12-01

    A linearly graded-doping junction termination extension (LG-JTE) for 3.3-kV-class insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) was proposed and experimentally investigated. Unlike conventional multi-implantation utilizing more than one photolithography step, a single mask with injection window widths varied linearly away from the main junction to the edge was implemented in this proposed structure. Based on the simulation results, IGBTs with LG-JTE structures were successfully fabricated on the domestic process platform. The fabricated devices exhibited a 3.7 kV forward-blocking voltage, which is close to the theoretical value of an ideal parallel plane case. This is the first success in fabrication 3.3-kV-class IGBT in a domestic application.

  8. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  9. A literature review of applied adaptive design methodology within the field of oncology in randomised controlled trials and a proposed extension to the CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pankaj; Dunn, Janet A; Marshall, Andrea

    2017-07-18

    The application of adaptive design methodology within a clinical trial setting is becoming increasingly popular. However the application of these methods within trials is not being reported as adaptive designs hence making it more difficult to capture the emerging use of these designs. Within this review, we aim to understand how adaptive design methodology is being reported, whether these methods are explicitly stated as an 'adaptive design' or if it has to be inferred and to identify whether these methods are applied prospectively or concurrently. Three databases; Embase, Ovid and PubMed were chosen to conduct the literature search. The inclusion criteria for the review were phase II, phase III and phase II/III randomised controlled trials within the field of Oncology that published trial results in 2015. A variety of search terms related to adaptive designs were used. A total of 734 results were identified, after screening 54 were eligible. Adaptive designs were more commonly applied in phase III confirmatory trials. The majority of the papers performed an interim analysis, which included some sort of stopping criteria. Additionally only two papers explicitly stated the term 'adaptive design' and therefore for most of the papers, it had to be inferred that adaptive methods was applied. Sixty-five applications of adaptive design methods were applied, from which the most common method was an adaptation using group sequential methods. This review indicated that the reporting of adaptive design methodology within clinical trials needs improving. The proposed extension to the current CONSORT 2010 guidelines could help capture adaptive design methods. Furthermore provide an essential aid to those involved with clinical trials.

  10. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  11. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis, JF; Scheenstra, R; Peeters, PMJG; Albers, MJIJ

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus

  12. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  13. Buccal absorption of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Jorgensen, A.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The buccal absorption of ketobemidone, a strong narcotic analgesic, and various carboxylate and carbonate ester prodrugs was studied in rats. The compounds were administered in the form of aqueous solutions of pH 7.4. The absolute bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal dosing was 26......% whereas the bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal administration of the prodrugs ranged from 37 to 98%. The highest bioavailability was obtained with the ethyl carbonate ester. An apparent parabolic correlation between bioavailability and lipophilicity of the compounds was seen. All esters were...... rapidly hydrolyzed to ketobemidone after both buccal and intravenous administration. The acute toxicity of the esters after i.v. administration to mice and rats was similar to that of the parent drug. It is concluded that esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group in ketobemidone to give a more...

  14. Long buccal nerve block injection pain in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pain associated with needle insertion (with or without topical anesthetic) and solution deposition for the long buccal nerve block injection in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Initial pain and any differences by age and gender were also studied. One hundred twelve emergency patients with irreversible pulpitis received long buccal nerve block injections using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The patients recorded pain of needle insertion and solution deposition on a Heft-Parker visual analog scale (VAS). Moderate-to-severe pain occurred from 41% to 46% of the time with the long buccal nerve block. The use of topical anesthetic did not statistically decrease the pain of needle insertion. In conclusion, 41% to 46% of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis have the potential for moderate-to-severe pain with the long buccal nerve block. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Buccal midazolam spray as an alternative to intranasal route for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Mittal, Meenu; Bansal, Kalpana; Chaudhuri, Payal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptance of midazolam spray through buccal route as compared to intranasal route and compare the efficacy of the drug through both the routes. 30 patients aged 2-8 years with Grade I or II Frankl's Behaviour Rating Scale were selected who required similar treatment under local anesthesia on two teeth. Midazolam spray was administered randomly through buccal or intranasal routes for the two appointments. Scoring was done for the acceptance of drug and Houpt's score was recorded for the behaviour of patients during the treatment. Acceptance of drug through buccal route was significantly better than the intranasal route (p 0.05). Midazolam spray can be effectively used through the buccal mucosa in children who give poor compliance with the intranasal administration.

  16. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yaz c, Ay e Canan

    2009-01-01

    ...) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group...

  17. Human buccal epithelium acquires microbial hyporesponsiveness at birth, a role for secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, Celia L; Hol, Jeroen; Simons-Oosterhuis, Ytje; Raatgeep, H Rolien C; de Ruiter, Lilian F; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Korteland-van Male, Anita M; El Aidy, Sahar; van Lierop, Pieter P E; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Groeneweg, Michael; Kraal, Georg; Elink-Schuurman, Beatrix E; de Jongste, Johan C; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Samsom, Janneke N

    OBJECTIVE: Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now

  18. Human buccal epithelium acquires microbial hyporesponsiveness at birth, a role for secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menckeberg, C.L.; Hol, J.; Simons-Oosterhuis, Y.; Raatgeep, H.R.; Ruiter, de L.F.; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D.J.; Korteland-van Male, A.M.; Aidy, El S.F.; Lierop, van P.P.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Groeneweg, M.; Kraal, G.; Elink-Schuurman, B.E.; Jongste, de J.C.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Samsom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repetitive interaction with microbial stimuli renders epithelial cells (ECs) hyporesponsive to microbial stimulation. Previously, we have reported that buccal ECs from a subset of paediatric patients with Crohn's disease are not hyporesponsive and spontaneously released chemokines. We now

  19. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    (app)) of the hydrophilic marker mannitol due to exposure to solutions with pH values or osmolality values different from the physiological values was studied. As in studies with solutions of either taurocholate (TC), glycocholate (GC) or glycodeoxycholate (GDC) the results were compared to the increase in P......(app) of mannitol obtained in analog studies using porcine buccal mucosa in an Ussing chamber. The effect of the exposure on the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa was measured, and the degree of protein leakage due to GC exposure was investigated in the TR146 cell...... culture model. The porcine buccal mucosa was approximately ten times less permeable to mannitol than the TR146 cell culture model. The P(app)TC. Increased P(app) values correlated with a decrease in the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa. GC was shown...

  20. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  1. Effects of occlusal rest design on pressure distribution beneath the denture base of a distal extension removable partial denture-an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Hanako; Kubo, Kei; Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pressure distribution beneath the denture bases of removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different occlusal rest designs (ORDs) by in vivo measurement. Four types of detachable occlusal rests (mesial and distal, distal, mesial, and nonrest) were placed on the direct abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs in four patients with free-end edentulous mandibles. Pressure measurements were obtained by using thin and flexible tactile sensors. The results showed significant variances with different ORDs in all four patients (P < .05), leading to the conclusion that the pressure distribution on the residual ridge beneath the RPD base was dependent on the ORD.

  2. Virtual transplantation in designing a facial prosthesis for extensive maxillofacial defects that cross the facial midline using computer-assisted technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-hong; Dong, Yan; Bai, Shi-zhu; Wu, Guo-feng; Bi, Yun-peng; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Yi-min

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to demonstrate a novel approach to designing facial prostheses using the transplantation concept and computer-assisted technology for extensive, large, maxillofacial defects that cross the facial midline. The three-dimensional (3D) facial surface images of a patient and his relative were reconstructed using data obtained through optical scanning. Based on these images, the corresponding portion of the relative's face was transplanted to the patient's where the defect was located, which could not be rehabilitated using mirror projection, to design the virtual facial prosthesis without the eye. A 3D model of an artificial eye that mimicked the patient's remaining one was developed, transplanted, and fit onto the virtual prosthesis. A personalized retention structure for the artificial eye was designed on the virtual facial prosthesis. The wax prosthesis was manufactured through rapid prototyping, and the definitive silicone prosthesis was completed. The size, shape, and cosmetic appearance of the prosthesis were satisfactory and matched the defect area well. The patient's facial appearance was recovered perfectly with the prosthesis, as determined through clinical evaluation. The optical 3D imaging and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing system used in this study can design and fabricate facial prostheses more precisely than conventional manual sculpturing techniques. The discomfort generally associated with such conventional methods was decreased greatly. The virtual transplantation used to design the facial prosthesis for the maxillofacial defect, which crossed the facial midline, and the development of the retention structure for the eye were both feasible.

  3. Changes in Morphology of Alveolar Buccal Walls Following Atraumatic Internal Root Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Wilfried; Beltrán, Víctor; Decco, Oscar; Valdivia-Gandur, Iván; Navarro, Pablo; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The buccal alveolar wall represents the most important structure to provide shape and volume of the alveolous following tooth extraction. The aim of the study was the evaluation of buccal alveolar bone structures following minimally invasive surgery. In 15 patients (3 male, 12 female), aged 20–67 years, 3 central incisors, 5 lateral incisors, and 7 bicuspids were removed using flapless enucleation. The enucleation comprised endoscopically assisted mesiodistal root sectioning with inw...

  4. Perceptions of laypersons and orthodontists regarding the buccal corridor in long- and short-face individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Zange, Sabrina Elisa; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido [UNESP; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Suguino, Rosely

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the perception of orthodontists and laypersons regarding the size of the dark spaces in the buccal corridors and how that affects smile esthetics in individuals with long and short faces.Materials and Methods: Images of eight smiling individuals were modified to create five sizes of dark spaces in the buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%) and were submitted to a group of laypersons and a group of orthodontists.Results: Laypersons were more critical in their eva...

  5. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy mobile phone users aged 18–30 y.o. provided exfoliated buccal cells samples from the right and left inner cheeks. A total of 2000 cells per subject were screened for the presence of micronuclei as a sign of genotoxic damage, according to the mobile phone use profile of each user. Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Exfoliated buccal cells, Feulgen stain

  6. Fibrolipoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayasu Iwase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms derived from mature adipose tissue. However, they rarely arise in the oral cavity. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mainly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic issues. This article describes the case of a 71-year-old male with a fibrolipoma of the left buccal mucosa and a review of previous articles about fibrolipoma.

  7. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  8. Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Kurup

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient.

  9. Structure determination of Murine Norovirus NS6 proteases with C-terminal extensions designed to probe protease–substrate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. They encode an NS6 protease that cleaves a viral polyprotein at specific sites to produce mature viral proteins. In an earlier study we obtained crystals of murine norovirus (MNV NS6 protease in which crystal contacts were mediated by specific insertion of the C-terminus of one protein (which contains residues P5-P1 of the NS6-7 cleavage junction into the peptide binding site of an adjacent molecule, forming an adventitious protease-product complex. We sought to reproduce this crystal form to investigate protease–substrate complexes by extending the C-terminus of NS6 construct to include residues on the C-terminal (P′ side of the cleavage junction. We report the crystallization and crystal structure determination of inactive mutants of murine norovirus NS6 protease with C-terminal extensions of one, two and four residues from the N-terminus of the adjacent NS7 protein (NS6 1′, NS6 2′, NS6 4′. We also determined the structure of a chimeric extended NS6 protease in which the P4-P4′ sequence of the NS6-7 cleavage site was replaced with the corresponding sequence from the NS2-3 cleavage junction (NS6 4′ 2|3.The constructs NS6 1′ and NS6 2′ yielded crystals that diffracted anisotropically. We found that, although the uncorrected data could be phased by molecular replacement, refinement of the structures stalled unless the data were ellipsoidally truncated and corrected with anisotropic B-factors. These corrections significantly improved phasing by molecular replacement and subsequent refinement.The refined structures of all four extended NS6 proteases are very similar in structure to the mature MNV NS6—and in one case reveal additional details of a surface loop. Although the packing arrangement observed showed some similarities to those observed in the adventitious protease-product crystals reported previously, in no case were specific protease–substrate interactions

  10. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  11. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  12. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, M; Sallal, A-K; Darmani, H

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and the adhesion of this bacterium to human buccal epithelial cells. Different concentrations of an aqueous extract of thyme were prepared and the effects investigated on growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also investigated and compared with the effects of chlorhexidine digluconate. The data revealed that exposure of S. mutans to thyme extract showed a time and concentration-dependent decrease in bacterial viability. The greatest effect was observed when S. mutans had been exposed to 20% thyme extract for a period of 48 h which resulted in 96% inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, the adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also reduced when either buccal epithelial cells or S. mutans had been pre-incubated with different concentrations of aqueous thyme extracts (83-98% and 75-89% inhibition respectively). There was also greater reduction in the adherence of bacterial cells to buccal epithelial cells after mouth rinsing with 20% aqueous thyme extract compared to rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (45% and 89% inhibition of bacterial adhesion respectively). The diminished adherence of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells after exposure to various concentrations of aqueous thyme extract as well as the antimicrobial properties of this plant may have clinical relevance.

  13. Immediate implant placement: the fate of the buccal crest. A retrospective cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, E; Staas, T A; Graauwmans, F E J; Bronkhorst, E; Verhamme, L; Maal, T; Meijer, G J

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest. After application of the bone substitute, the buccal crest increased in thickness from 0.9mm to 2.4mm (mean). At a mean of 103 weeks after IIP, late postoperative CBCT scans showed that the thickness of the buccal crest was compacted to 1.8mm. In the same period, the height of the buccal crest increased by 1.6mm (mean) to, on average, 1.2mm above the implant shoulder. The aesthetic outcome was analysed using the White and Pink Esthetic Score (WES and PES). Both scored high: 8.4 and 11.8, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the results of this IIP protocol are promising. Long-term prospective research on this topic on a large number of patients is necessary. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follo...... with similar survival compared to extensive surgery, but with advancing age conservative surgery increased the risk of relapse and death....

  15. Shear-bond strength between a new format of intra-buccal acrylic bioadhesive drug delivery system and adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, V; Del Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H; Lara, E Helena Guimarães; Issa, J P Mardegan; Do Nascimento, C

    2009-04-01

    An intra-buccal acrylic bioadhesive device designated for drug programmed release that can stay adhered to dental enamel, and also on removable prosthetic restorations, with preventive and/or therapeutic purpose for a large clinical applications based on polymethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate/2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PMMA/MMA/HEMA) was developed, using the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This bioadhesive was evaluated for its shear bond strength when bonded with different adhesive systems. Two substrates (recently extracted human teeth and acrylic prosthesis basis) were used to obtain the 96 test-specimens. Four adhesive systems (Cyanoacrylate ester, 3M Concise Enamel Bond Resin with or without previous enamel etching, MMA/HEMA or PMMA/MMA/ HEMA) were chosen for the fixation of the bioadhesives to substrate. Artificial saliva or distilled water was used as medium for maintaining the specimens until test. Statistical analysis showed that the interaction bioadhesives/acrylic prosthesis basis/cyanoacrylate ester adhesive was the most resistant to the physical removal by shearing. The newly rounded semi-convex format of acrylic device developed in this study presented satisfactory shear bond strength and might contribute to the comfort of intra-buccal use.

  16. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  17. The Extension of Quality Function Deployment Based on 2-Tuple Linguistic Representation Model for Product Design under Multigranularity Linguistic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a customer-driven approach for product design and development. A QFD analysis process includes a series of subprocesses, such as determination of the importance of customer requirements (CRs, the correlation among engineering characteristics (ECs, and the relationship between CRs and ECs. Usually more than group of one decision makers are involved in the subprocesses to make the decision. In most decision making problems, they often provide their evaluation information in the linguistic form. Moreover, because of different knowledge, background, and discrimination ability, decision makers may express their linguistic preferences in multigranularity linguistic information. Therefore, an effective approach to deal with the multi-granularity linguistic information in QFD analysis process is highly needed. In this study, the QFD methodology is extended with 2-tuple linguistic representation model under multi-granularity linguistic environment. The extended QFD methodology can cope with multi-granularity linguistic evaluation information and avoid the loss of information. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  18. Optimization of Life Cycle Extension of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures in regard to Material Properties, Structural Design, and Economic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of ACM life cycle is defined with respect to traffic load acting on the pavement and road class for a period of about 20 years. In practice, reconstruction is usually pending until the end of the life cycle after which the reconstruction takes place and the original materials are replaced by new materials. Life cycle of the pavement construction in road structure is significantly longer than that of the ACM; it is therefore necessary to consider ACM from a long term viewpoint, that is, exceeding their life expectancy. This paper describes a methodology which consists of analytical calculations, experimental measurements, and optimization of the ACM life cycle with the use of a rehabilitation action to provide new physical properties of pavement surfacing in different periods of the original life cycle. The aim is to attain maximal economic effectiveness, by minimizing financial costs for rehabilitation and maintenance and economic costs of road user. Presented method allows deriving optimal life cycle from various rehabilitation alternatives for particular ACM with the fact that all the necessary parameters are derived from specific experimental measurements and calculations. The method is applicable to all types of ACM materials; however, for each material, it is necessary to carry out the necessary measurements and tests. The article describes the methodology and case study results for a particular type of ACM material.

  19. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics of Single- and Multiple-dose Buprenorphine Buccal Film in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Stephen A; Xiang, Qinfang; Finn, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Buprenorphine, a partial μ-receptor agonist, is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain, but it has low oral bioavailability. Two open-label studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of buprenorphine from buccal film formulations of buprenorphine. Both studies enrolled healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, who received concurrent oral naltrexone to reduce adverse events (AEs); subjects with a history or evidence of substance abuse or current use of any product affecting cytochrome P450 3A4 activity were excluded. The first study (n = 25) was a 5-period crossover trial with 4 single doses (75 and 300 and 300 and 1200 μg) of 2 formulations (F14 and F24) of buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) and a 300-μg intravenous dose of buprenorphine with a 7-day washout between periods. In the second study, each subject (n = 10) received 6 doses of 4 BBUP strengths (60, 120, 180, and 240 μg BID) in a dose-escalation design. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine were assayed, and pharmacokinetics were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed by using a linear mixed effects model (single-dose study). AEs were recorded. In the single-dose study, the 2 formulations exhibited comparable bioavailability of 46% to 51% that was independent of dose, with a single buprenorphine peak concentration from each BBUP dose occurring at 2.5 to 3 hours. The mean buprenorphine Cmax across the doses ranged from 0.17 ng/mL for the 75-µg dose to 1.43 ng/mL for the 1200-µg dose. AUC0-∞, AUC0-last, and Cmax were proportional to the dose of BBUP administered. Cmax of norbuprenorphine after BBUP administration was approximately one tenth that of buprenorphine Cmax. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached within 3 days of BID dosing. There was a linear increase in exposure across the dose range from 60 to 240 μg BID. Treatment-emergent AEs in both studies were consistent with those reported with opiate administration to

  20. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  1. Buccal Cell Micronucleus Frequency Is Significantly Elevated in Patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Almarales, Dany A; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimé; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Zayas-Feria, Pedro; Laffita-Mesa, José M; González-Zaldívar, Yanetza; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Estupiñán, Annelié; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is part of a group of at least nine dominantly inherited disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of specific neuronal populations and a shared mutational mechanism involving the expansion of a CAG repeat tract in coding regions of novel genes. Efforts have been made to identify biomarkers of disease progression, which would allow timely preventive therapeutic interventions. In the present study was assessed the influence of several genome instability biomarkers on SCA2 clinical severity. A case-control design was applied on exfoliated epithelial buccal cells to determine micronuclei frequency and others nuclear anomalies, using 5% Giemsa stains. The slides were analyzed under 1000X magnification and nuclei morphological anomalies were identified according to Tolbert PE, et al. (1992) and Bolognesi C, et al. (2013) criteria. It was found a highly significant increase in micronuclei frequency in cases related to age and sex-matched healthy controls (p 0.05). Our results are consistent with report previous in similar neurodegenerative diseases, and suggest that micronuclei and binucleated cells constitute potential peripheral biomarkers for SCA2. These results should be validated by other studies. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  3. Buccally Administered Intranasal Desmopressin Acetate for the Treatment of Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smego, Allison R; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4.5 mo) with neurogenic DI treated at a tertiary care center. Treatment was with diluted IN DDAVP formulation (10 mcg/mL) administered buccally via a tuberculin syringe to the buccal mucosa. After initial DDAVP titration of 2-3 days, IN DDAVP doses ranged from 1 to 5 mcg twice daily given buccally. Mean serum sodium concentration at DI diagnosis was 159 ± 6.6 mmol/L (range, 151-178) and improved to 142 ± 3.5 mmol/L (range, 137-147) with the buccally administered IN DDAVP. Normal sodium concentrations were established without major fluctuations. Serum sodium was then maintained in the outpatient setting at a mean of 145.7 ± 4.8 mmol/L (mean duration of follow-up, 11 mo). Buccally administered IN formulation of DDAVP provides a practical and safe treatment alternative for neurogenic DI in infancy. Our approach avoided severe hypo- and hypernatremia during DDAVP titration and ongoing outpatient management of DI. The possibility for smaller dosage increments and ease of administration make IN DDAVP administered buccally preferable over other DDAVP treatment options in infants.

  4. Timed Extensions for SDL

    OpenAIRE

    Bozga, Marius; Graf, Susanne; Mounier, Laurent; Ober, Iulian; Roux, Jean-Luc; Vincent, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose some extensions necessary to enable the specification and description language SDL to become an appropriate formalism for the design of real-time and embedded systems. The extensions we envisage concern both roles of SDL: First, in order to make SDL a real-time specification language, allowing to correctly simulate and verify real-time specifications, we propose a set of annotations to express in a flexible way assumptions and assertions on tim...

  5. Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on age-related physiological changes and tobacco-related pathological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Ghanate, A D; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2012-12-01

    Biophysical techniques play an important role in detecting physiological alterations during pathogenesis. Raman spectroscopy has shown immense potential in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Classification of normal, inflammatory, premalignant and malignant conditions has been demonstrated using ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Feasibility of recording in vivo spectra in clinically implementable time has also been shown. Translation of this technology to clinics requires extensive validation of methodologies, building of robust models and testing the same under stringent conditions as well as on diverse populations. In this context, the ability of Raman spectroscopy in identifying subtle changes in oral mucosa with increasing age, and the influence of these aging related changes on classification with tobacco-related pathological changes was evaluated. A total of 451 spectra from 62 subjects were recorded from buccal mucosa of healthy subjects of 4 different age groups (aged 20-60 years). Also, 478 spectra from 85 subjects belonging to 4 different categories, tobacco exposed mucosa, contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), premalignant patches and tumors on buccal mucosa were recorded using fiber optic probe-coupled commercial Raman spectrometer. Differences in spectra were explored by unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), followed by Leave one out cross validation. Results indicate feasibility of classifying early and late age groups. Also, clear classification is observed between healthy and pathological groups, thus inherent heterogeneity in healthy groups seems to have no bearing on classification of normal with abnormal conditions. Findings of the study indicate high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting subtle mucosal changes, further supporting efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral cancer applications. Prospectively, more vigorous validation

  6. Proposal to negotiate extensions to four collaboration agreements for the design of key components of the beam-delivery and linac systems for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) for a duration of two years

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate extensions to four collaboration agreements for the design of key components of the beam-delivery and linac systems for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) for a duration of two years

  7. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereci, Omür; Cimen, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Use of the buccal fat [corrected] pad for vocal cord augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Etsuyo; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nishimura, Masaki

    2008-02-01

    We performed therapeutically successful intracordal injection of autologous fat harvested from the buccal fat pad. Autologous fat has been used increasingly for intracordal injection as vocal rehabilitation in patients with deficient glottal closure. Adipose tissues used have been harvested mostly from the lower abdomen. However, patients differ considerably in the amount of fat available from the lower abdomen, and it is often difficult to obtain sufficient fat in patients with a low body mass index (BMI). Moreover, the scar visible after harvesting can be cosmetically undesirable. As an alternative, we evaluated harvesting of the buccal fat pad, as in plastic surgery. From January to December 2005, intracordal buccal fat injection was performed for 10 patients, who were subsequently followed up for over 6 months. Buccal mucosa was incised under general anesthesia to expose and harvest the buccal fat pad. This fat was cut into small pieces and injected into the vocal cord. Maximum phonation time and glottal aerodynamics were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Glottal closure and mucosal vibration were examined stroboscopically. Except in one patient, no postoperative complications such as swelling or infection followed either harvesting or injection. After injection, phonation showed notable improvement that was maintained throughout follow-up.

  10. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  11. DNA from buccal swabs suitable for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; O'Callaghan, Michael E; Goldwater, Paul N; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Haan, Eric A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2009-12-01

    We sought a convenient and reliable method for collection of genetic material that is inexpensive and noninvasive and suitable for self-collection and mailing and a compatible, commercial DNA extraction protocol to meet quantitative and qualitative requirements for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) multiplex analysis on an automated platform. Buccal swabs were collected from 34 individuals as part of a pilot study to test commercially available buccal swabs and DNA extraction kits. DNA was quantified on a spectrofluorometer with Picogreen dsDNA prior to testing the DNA integrity with predesigned SNP multiplex assays. Based on the pilot study results, the Catch-All swabs and Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit were selected for our high-throughput application and extended to a further 1140 samples as part of a large cohort study. The average DNA yield in the pilot study (n=34) was 1.94 microg +/- 0.54 with a 94% genotyping pass rate. For the high-throughput application (n=1140), the average DNA yield was 2.44 microg +/- 1.74 with a >or=93% genotyping pass rate. The Catch-All buccal swabs are a convenient and cost-effective alternative to blood sampling. Combined with the Isohelix buccal DNA isolation kit, they provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for high-throughput SNP multiplex analysis.

  12. Mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing silymarin Eudragit-loaded nanoparticles: formulation, characterisation and ex vivo permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahas, Amira E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2017-08-01

    Eudragit-loaded silymarin nanoparticles (SNPs) and their formulation into buccal mucoadhesive tablets were investigated to improve the low bioavailability of silymarin through buccal delivery. Characterisation of SNPs and silymarin buccal tablets (SBTs) containing the optimised NPs were performed. Ex vivo permeability of nominated SBTs were assessed using chicken pouch mucosa compared to SNPs and drug suspension followed by histopathological examination. Selected SNPs had a small size (77%) with drug release of about 90% after 6 h. For STBs, all physicochemical parameters were satisfactory for different polymers used. DSC and FT-IR studies suggested the presence of silymarin in an amorphous state. Ex vivo permeation significantly emphasised the great enhancement of silymarin permeation after NPs formation and much more increase after formulating into BTs relative to the corresponding drug dispersion with confirmed membrane integrity. Incorporation of SNPs into BTs could be an efficient vehicle for delivery of silymarin.

  13. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-01-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability...... model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9...

  14. QM/MM Geometry Optimization on Extensive Free-Energy Surfaces for Examination of Enzymatic Reactions and Design of Novel Functional Properties of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigehiko; Uchida, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Higashi, Masahiro; Kosugi, Takahiro; Kamiya, Motoshi

    2017-05-01

    Many remarkable molecular functions of proteins use their characteristic global and slow conformational dynamics through coupling of local chemical states in reaction centers with global conformational changes of proteins. To theoretically examine the functional processes of proteins in atomic detail, a methodology of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free-energy geometry optimization is introduced. In the methodology, a geometry optimization of a local reaction center is performed with a quantum mechanical calculation on a free-energy surface constructed with conformational samples of the surrounding protein environment obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation with a molecular mechanics force field. Geometry optimizations on extensive free-energy surfaces by a QM/MM reweighting free-energy self-consistent field method designed to be variationally consistent and computationally efficient have enabled examinations of the multiscale molecular coupling of local chemical states with global protein conformational changes in functional processes and analysis and design of protein mutants with novel functional properties.

  15. QM/MM Geometry Optimization on Extensive Free-Energy Surfaces for Examination of Enzymatic Reactions and Design of Novel Functional Properties of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigehiko; Uchida, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Taisuke; Higashi, Masahiro; Kosugi, Takahiro; Kamiya, Motoshi

    2017-05-05

    Many remarkable molecular functions of proteins use their characteristic global and slow conformational dynamics through coupling of local chemical states in reaction centers with global conformational changes of proteins. To theoretically examine the functional processes of proteins in atomic detail, a methodology of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free-energy geometry optimization is introduced. In the methodology, a geometry optimization of a local reaction center is performed with a quantum mechanical calculation on a free-energy surface constructed with conformational samples of the surrounding protein environment obtained by a molecular dynamics simulation with a molecular mechanics force field. Geometry optimizations on extensive free-energy surfaces by a QM/MM reweighting free-energy self-consistent field method designed to be variationally consistent and computationally efficient have enabled examinations of the multiscale molecular coupling of local chemical states with global protein conformational changes in functional processes and analysis and design of protein mutants with novel functional properties.

  16. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  19. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  20. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    if permeability barriers for small molecules (nicotine and diazepam) were maintained after freezing porcine buccal mucosa with cryoprotectants to -80°C. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide, bovine serum albumin, glycerol and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. The permeability of nicotine and diazepam across...... tissue. Freezing with or without cryoprotectants did not significantly affect the flux of diazepam compared to fresh tissue. Only minor histological changes were seen in frozen/thawed porcine buccal mucosa compared to fresh tissue. In conclusion, permeability barriers for nicotine and diazepam were...

  1. Micronuclei assay of exfoliated oral buccal cells: Means to assess the nuclear abnormalities in different diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronuclei assay (MA in exfoliated buccal cells is an innovative genotoxicity technique, which holds promise for the study of epithelial carcinogens. Micronuclei are suitable internal dosimeters for revealing tissue-specific genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to carcinogenic mixtures. This article reviews the MN assay with respect to oral buccal mucosa, which has been used since the 1980s to demonstrate cytogenetic effects of environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle factors, dietary deficiencies, and different diseases along with the characteristics of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.

  2. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...... with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates...... automation of DNA sequencing....

  3. Azone® decreases the buccal mucosal permeation of Diazepam in a concentration-dependent manner via a reservoir effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Jin, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine concentration-dependent effects of Azone® (AZ) on the buccal absorption of diazepam (DIAZ). Porcine buccal mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers and pretreated with 10 μL of 0%, 5%, 20%, and 50% (w/v) AZ in ethanol. DIAZ was administered to the donor...

  4. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S V S G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6-14 years. A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. To test the mean difference between two groups, Students' t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars.

  6. Effect of Flapless Immediate Implantation and Filling the Buccal Gap with Xenograft Material on the Buccal Bone Level: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following tooth extraction, soft and hard tissue alterations occur; Different factors can affect this process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gap filling on buccal alveolar crestal bone level after immediate implant placement after 4- to 6-month observation period.Materials and Methods: This   randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients (mean age of 38.8 years requiring tooth extraction in a total of 27 areas in the anterior maxilla. The treatment strategy was as follows: atraumatic flapless tooth extraction, implant placement, insertion of a graft (test group or no material (control group between the implant and the socket wall, connection healing abutment placement and suturing the area. Clinical and cone beam computed tomographic examinations were performed before implant placement (baseline, 24 hours after surgery and 4-6 months (T2 after implant placement, to assess the buccal plate height (BH and implant complications.Results: After 4 months of healing, a reduction in different bone measurements was noticed in the two groups. No statistically significant differences were assessed in bone height measurements between the test and control groups at different time points. The study demonstrated that immediate implantation resulted in 1.30 and 1.66 mm reduction in buccal bone plate in the test and control groups, respectively.Conclusions: The study demonstrated that immediate implantation in the extraction socket together with xenograft failed to prevent bone resorption.

  7. Attractiveness of variations in the smile arc and buccal corridor space as judged by orthodontists and laymen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Sanjay Manhar; Fields, Henry W; Beck, Michael; Rosenstiel, Stephen

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate changes in attractiveness on the basis of computerized variations of smile arcs and buccal corridors for male and female smiles judged by orthodontists and laypersons. Using a visual analog scale in a Web-based survey, orthodontists and laypersons rated the attractiveness of nine digitally altered smile arc and buccal corridor variations of male and female smiles. The variations were accomplished in a clinically relevant manner and based on standards set by experienced orthodontists in a pilot web-based survey. The results indicate that both laypersons and orthodontists prefer smiles in which the smile arc parallels the lower lip and buccal corridors are minimal. Significantly lower attractiveness ratings were found for smiles with flat smile arcs and excessive buccal corridors. Flattening of the smile arc overwhelms the deleterious effects of excessive buccal corridors on attractiveness ratings. On the basis of the results of this study, care should be taken not to produce an excessively flat smile arc during orthodontic treatment.

  8. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B

    2014-01-01

    significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups...

  9. [Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Liu, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Jincai; Cai, Dehong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shiyi; Zhong, Huilan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets on halitosis induced by oral conditions. With Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum as the testing bacteria, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets was determined using minute amount serial dilution test. The production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) was measured using sulfide detector halimeter in the anaerobic bacteria culture at 4 and 8 h after addition of the tablets. The effect of the tablets in suppressing odor production by mouth-borne halitosis bacteria was assessed using cysteine challenge test in healthy volunteers, and the effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the reduction in VSCs production and the duration of the effect. Cetylpyridinium chloride buccal tablets inhibited the growth of all the 3 bacteria. The tablets obviously inhibited VSCs production by the 3 bacteria with a effect similar to chlorhexidine. Compared with distilled water gargle, the buccal tablets significantly reduced cysteine-induced VSCs production level in the healthy volunteers (Phalitosis and produce good effects in the treatment of halitosis induced by oral conditions.

  10. Hypoxic regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human buccal mucosa fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2015-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is regarded as a pre-cancerous condition with fibrosis in oral subepithelial connective tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α regulates a wide variety of profibrogenic genes, which are closely associated with tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to compare HIF-1α expression in normal buccal mucosa tissues and OSF specimens and further explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to the induction of HIF-1α expression. Twenty-five OSF specimens and six normal buccal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HIF-1α from fibroblasts cultured from OSF and normal buccal mucosa was measured by Western blot. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, was challenged to normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) to elucidate whether HIF-1α expression could affect by arecoline. In addition, the effects of arecoline on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 expression were evaluated in environmental hypoxia. HIF-1α expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts derived from OSF were found to exhibit higher HIF-1α protein expression than BMFs (P oral submucosa leading to fibrosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Periodontal Biotype: Gingival Thickness as It Relates to Probe Visibility and Buccal Plate Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Natalie A; Mealey, Brian L; Jones, Archie A; Huynh-Ba, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Probe visibility is the clinical gold standard to discriminate thick from thin biotype but is prone to subjective interpretation. The primary objective of this study is to determine at what objective gingival thickness the probe becomes invisible through the tissue. A secondary objective is to compare mean buccal plate thickness between thick and thin biotypes as determined by probe visibility. Maxillary anterior teeth (n = 306) were studied in 56 human patients. Biotype was determined by probe visibility through the tissue. Gingival thickness was measured via transgingival sounding. Buccal plate thickness was measured (n = 66 teeth) by cone beam computed tomography. For the primary objective, the gingival thickness that best corresponded with probe invisibility was selected using the receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity. For the secondary objective, mean buccal plate thickness was compared between sites in which the probe was visible and when it was not (Student t test, α= 0.05). The gingival thickness that most closely corresponded with probe invisibility was >0.8 mm (0.666 AUC, 67.7% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity). When the probe was visible, mean gingival thickness was 0.17 mm less (P biotype) and those in which it was not (i.e., thick biotype). Probe visibility was associated with thinner measurements of gingival thickness and showed a tendency to be associated with a thinner buccal plate.

  12. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  13. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface.

  14. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue: two cases involving the tongue and the buccal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Bilde, Anders

    2008-01-01

    for these heterotopias. The first lesion was located in the buccal area in an 8-year-old boy and the second lesion in the tongue of a 2-year-old boy. They had relatively small lesions with few clinical symptoms. Complete excision was made and the follow-up was unremarkable. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue is considered...

  15. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil AL; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:27893201

  16. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  17. Formulation and evaluation of anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To formulate and evaluate anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods: Buccal patches were formulated by using different hydrophilic polymers by solvent casting technique. Buccal patches were evaluated by seven physical appearances, in addition to in vitro drug release study. Results: All patches were uniform and translucent, and had smooth surface. In vitro release studies were conducted for montelukast buccal patches proved that release in the range of 75.26%-92.30% in 8 h. Emission of montelukast from all patches simulated zero order and diffusion mechanism. Finally it can be concluded that F3, F15 and F16 are the best formulation. Conclusions: The investigation concluded that patch of 5 mg of montelukast sodium were formulated by using sodium alginate with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium alginate (F3, F15 and F16 formulations were the best formulations.

  18. Human vaginal mucosa as a model of buccal mucosa for in vitro permeability studies: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Pieter; van Eyk, Armorel D

    2004-04-01

    The buccal cavity is attractive for noninvasive, controlled transmucosal delivery of both local and systemic therapeutically active compounds. Administering drugs via this route is advantageous due to the rich vasculature of the oral mucosa, and the absence of gastrointestinal and "first-pass" hepatic degradation. Moreover, the barrier properties of the oral mucosa against noxious substances and its role in disease require further investigation. However, the scarcity of sizeable specimens of human oral mucosa for in vitro experimental studies has hampered research on this tissue. For this reason we developed a model in which human vaginal mucosa is used as a substitute for buccal mucosa. In this article the quality and predictive value of the human vaginal/buccal in vitro model with respect to a number of drugs and other chemical compounds differing widely in molecular size and lipophilicity, including water, arecoline, arecaidine, benzo[a]pyrene, 17beta-estradiol, sumatriptan, vasopressin and dextrans, are reviewed. In addition some applications of the model for investigating the effect of areca nut extract on epithelial barrier properties, temperature effects on water and 17beta-estradiol flux rates, and cyclosporin diffusion through mucosal membranes are described. The permeability characteristics of vaginal mucosa, as a model of buccal mucosa, are compared with those of other human tissue, including mucosae from the small intestine and colon.

  19. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  20. Characterization of the contribution of buccal absorption to internal exposure to bisphenol A through the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Davy; Gauderat, Glenn; Gayrard, Véronique; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Puel, Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Viguié, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The gavage route is often used for the toxicological evaluation of food contaminants. This route does not take into account absorption of the toxicants through the buccal mucosa, as evidenced in dogs for bisphenol A (BPA). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of buccal BPA absorption during dietary exposure. Four ewes received BPA by nasogastric gavage (100 mg/kg) and through food pellets (10 mg/kg), 13 days apart. The time course of serum concentrations of BPA and its main metabolite BPA-G was submitted to non-compartmental analysis. The dietary route led to 3-fold higher bioavailability as compared to gavage. The ratio of BPA-G to BPA concentrations varied greatly over time after the food administration, but not after gavage, suggesting a delayed metabolism of BPA after dietary exposure. The maximum entrance rate of BPA in the systemic circulation, determined by deconvolution analysis, was much higher after dietary administration than after gavage and a biphasic pattern of BPA entry was observed in 3 of the 4 ewes. Our results evidenced a dual mechanism of BPA absorption (buccal and digestive) after dietary exposure and highlight the necessity to take buccal absorption into account when evaluating food contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pedicled buccal fat pad flap for intraoral malignant defects: A series of 29 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Jayanta; Tekriwal, Rohit; Ganguli, Arun; Ghosh, Saradindu; Mishra, Pranay K

    2009-01-01

    A buccal fat pad (BFP) as a flap for reconstruction of defects in the oral cavity has been described for a variety of benign conditions. We describe the indications, advantages, and complications of the BFP flap and report our clinical experience with the flap for intraoral reconstruction after tumor removal. From 2005 to 2008, we analyzed 29 patients in the age range of 32 to 82 years old who underwent a pedicled BFP flap reconstruction for oral defects after intraoral tumor removal. Postoperative wound healing and complications including any recurrence was followed-up prospectively. Most of the patients had an uneventful immediate postoperative period with signs of buccal fat pad epithelialization by the end of the first week and complete epithelialization at the end of the first month. On continued follow-up, a linear band of fibrous tissue under the epithelialized mucosa replaced the once reconstructed buccal fat pad. Three patients had varying degrees of hemorrhage: one of them had hematoma that healed with severe fibrosis and of the remaining two, one had a partial flap loss and one had a complete flap loss. Judicious use of buccal fat pad reconstruction offers a simple, convenient, and reliable way to reconstruct small to medium defects of the oral cavity with low morbidity, even in older patients who would not be able to tolerate time-consuming flap reconstruction procedures.

  2. PREPARATION AND IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS MUCOSA-ADHESIVE FILMS FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED-AL1REZA MORTAZAVI REZA ABOOFAZELI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine various polymers considered to have mucosa-adhesive properties for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and their in vitro evaluation. A number of materials, such as cellulose derivatives, carbopols and natural polymers, were employed for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films. Aqueous solutions containing the mucosa-adhesive polymer and a plasticizer were prepared and used to prepare films by the "solvent cast" method. Prepared films were then evaluated in terms of their physical appearance and film forming ability, in vitro mucosa-adhesive strength and duration of mucosa-adhesion. Results showed that among the various materials examined, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC formed very flexible films with the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength. Further studies showed that the combination of carbopols and CMC, along with glycerin as the plasticizer, resulted in the formation of films with desirable appearance and a relatively stronger mucosa-adhesive strength than films containing CMC alone. In vitro studies showed that films containing carbopol 934P, CMC and glycerin gave the greatest mucosa-adhesive strength and longer mucosa-adhesion. In conclusion, this formulation is proposed as a good base for the preparation of buccal-adhesive films and patches. Furthermore, it is suggested that in the development of buccal-adhesive drug delivery systems, and in particular films and patches, duration of mucosa-adhesion determined by in vitro experiments is a critical factor in the selection of the ultimate formulation.

  3. Closure of oro-antral fistula with pedicled buccal fat pad. A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the use of BFP in the repair of chronic oro-antral fistula. Methods: A case of a chronic oro-antral fistula of 5- year duration in a 56- year old man successfully repaired with pedicled buccal fat pad after unsuccessful several attempts with other local flaps is presented. A review of relevant literature ...

  4. The Effect Of Salinity Stress On Buccal Ventilatory Rate In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Salinity Stress On Buccal Ventilatory Rate In The African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens Owen. AI Okafor, LO Chukwu, LO Chukwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Research International Vol. 2 (1) 2005 pp. 252-254. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  6. Chemokine production by buccal epithelium as a distinctive feature of pediatric Crohn disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, GM; Hol, J; de Ruiter, L.; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M; van der Woude, J; Laman, JD; Hop, WCJ; Buller, HA; Escher, JC; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    Objectives: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent an aberrant immune response by the mucosal immune system to luminal bacteria. Because the oral mucosa harbors the first epithelial cells that interact with microorganisms, we assessed the immunologic activity of buccal epithelium in children

  7. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...

  8. Buccal Fat Pad: An Effective Option for Facial Reconstruction and Aesthetic Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Sasidaran, Ramesh

    2017-12-01

    Autogenous grafting with lipoaspirate and dermo-fat grafting are popular techniques employed by plastic surgeons for correcting small volume facial defects and contour deformities. These techniques however present certain disadvantages. In this article, we present the use of the buccal fat pad graft as an alternative method of correcting such facial deformities. Free buccal fat pad grafting was carried out in 15 patients in our institution. All were harvested using an intraoral approach. The buccal fat pad graft was used to correct periorbital contour depressions, nasal tip deformities, as a camouflage graft over exposed silicon nasal implants and as a filler in the depression deformity after mass excision. All 15 patients demonstrated good contour deformity correction without a significant graft resorption up to 3 years of follow-up. There were no donor site complications. The amount used ranged from 1 to 5 cc in volume as a spacer or barrier for the moderate-sized volume defect or depression, even though more than 5 cc of fat graft could be harvested if required. In conclusion, the buccal fat pad graft represents an easy, expedient and exceptional tool for the correction of contour deformities, volume replacement or for aesthetic augmentation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of Cresco-Ti laser-welded joints and stress analyses using finite element models of fixed distal extension and fixed partial prosthetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hakan; Kurtoglu, Cem; Gurbuz, Riza; Tutuncu, Naki

    2005-03-01

    The Cresco-Ti System uses a laser-welded process that provides an efficient technique to achieve passive fit frameworks. However, mechanical behavior of the laser-welded joint under biomechanical stress factors has not been demonstrated. This study describes the effect of Cresco-Ti laser-welding conditions on the material properties of the welded specimen and analyzes stresses on the weld joint through 3-dimensional finite element models (3-D FEM) of implant-supported fixed dentures with cantilever extensions and fixed partial denture designs. Twenty Grade III (ASTM B348) commercially pure titanium specimens were machine-milled to the dimensions described in the EN10002-1 tensile test standard and divided into test (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. The test specimens were sectioned and laser-welded. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and percent elongation (PE). The Knoop micro-indentation test was performed to determine the hardness of all specimens. On welded specimens, the hardness test was performed at the welded surface. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t test (alpha=.05). Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy to characterize the mode of fracture and identify defects due to welding. Three-dimensional FEMs were created that simulated a fixed denture with cantilever extensions supported by 5 implants (M1) and a fixed partial denture supported by 2 implants (M2), 1 of which was angled 30 degrees mesio-axially. An oblique load of 400 N with 15 degrees lingual-axial inclinations was applied to both models at various locations. Test specimens fractured between the weld and the parent material. No porosities were observed on the fractured surfaces. Mean values for YS, UTS, PE, and Knoop hardness were 428 +/- 88 MPa, 574 +/- 113 MPa, 11.2 +/- 0.4%, 270 +/- 17 KHN, respectively, for the control group and 642 +/- 2 MPa, 772 +/- 72

  10. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  11. Genotoxicity of waterpipe smoke in buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes as determined by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amrah, Hadba Jar-Allah; Aboznada, Osama Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; ElAssouli, M-Zaki Mustafa; Mujallid, Mohammad Ibrahim; ElAssouli, Sufian Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe smoke causes DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes and in buccal cells of smokers. To determine the exposure effect of waterpipe smoke on buccal cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in regard to DNA damage using comet assay. The waterpipe smoke condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study was performed on 20 waterpipe smokers. To perform comet assay on bucaal cells of smokers, 10 µl of cell suspension was mixed with 85 µl of pre-warmed 1% low melting agarose, applied to comet slide and electrophoresed. To analyze the effect of smoke condensate in vitro, 1 ml of peripheral blood was mixed with 10 µl of smoke condensate and subjected for comet assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4on, nicotine, hydroxymethyl furancarboxaldehyde and 3-ethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde in the smoke condensates. Waterpipe smoking caused DNA damage in vivo in buccal cells of smokers. The tail moment and tail length in buccal cells of smokers were 186 ± 26 and 456 ± 71, respectively, which are higher than control. The jurak and moassel smoke condensates were found to cause DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. The moassel smoke condensate was more damaging. There is wide misconception that waterpipe smoking is not as harmful as cigarette smoking. This study demonstrated that waterpipe smoke induced DNA damage in exposed cells. Waterpipe smokes cause DNA damage in buccal cells. The smoke condensate of both jurak and moassel caused comet formation suggesting DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  12. A randomized clinical trial comparing oral, aerosolized intranasal, and aerosolized buccal midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eileen J; Brown, Julie C; Kobayashi, Ana; Osincup, Daniel; Seidel, Kristy

    2011-10-01

    We determine whether aerosolized intranasal or buccal midazolam reduces the distress of pediatric laceration repair compared with oral midazolam. Children aged 0.5 to 7 years and needing nonparenteral sedation for laceration repair were randomized to receive oral, aerosolized intranasal, or aerosolized buccal midazolam. Patient distress was rated by blinded review of videotapes, using the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Score. Secondary outcomes included activity scores, sedation adequacy, sedation onset, satisfaction, and adverse events. For the 169 subjects (median age 3.1 years) evaluated for the primary outcome, we found significantly less distress in the buccal midazolam group compared with the oral route group (P=.04; difference -2; 95% confidence interval -4 to 0) and a corresponding nonsignificant trend for the intranasal route (P=.08; difference -1; 95% confidence interval -3 to 1). Secondary outcomes (177 subjects) favored the intranasal group, including a greater proportion of patients with an optimal activity score (74%), a greater proportion of parents wanting this sedation in the future, and faster sedation onset. Intranasal was the route least tolerated at administration. Adverse events were similar between groups. When comparing the administration of midazolam by 3 routes to facilitate pediatric laceration repair, we observed slightly less distress in the aerosolized buccal group. The intranasal route demonstrated a greater proportion of patients with optimal activity scores, greater proportions of parents wanting similar sedation in the future, and faster onset but was also the most poorly tolerated at administration. Aerosolized buccal or intranasal midazolam represents an effective and useful alternative to oral midazolam for sedation for laceration repair. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Updated anatomy of the buccal space and its implications for plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Thilo L; Koban, Konstantin C; Schlattau, Alexander; Frank, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Giunta, Riccardo E; Roth, Malcolm Z; Gaggl, Alexander; Gotkin, Robert H; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The buccal space is an integral deep facial space which is involved in a variety of intra- and extra-oral pathologies and provides a good location for the harvest of the facial artery. The age-related anatomy of this space was investigated and compared to previous reports. We conducted anatomic dissections in 102 fresh frozen human cephalic specimens (45 males, 57 females; age range 50-100 years) and performed additional computed tomographic, magnetic resonance and 3-D surface volumetric imaging studies to visualize the boundaries and the contents of the buccal space after injection of contrast enhancing material. The mean vertical extent of contrast agent injected into the buccal space was 25.2 ± 4.3 mm and did not significantly differ between individuals of different age (p = 0.77) or gender (p = 0.13). The maximal injected volume was 10.02 cc [range: 3.09-10.02] without significant influence of age (p = 0.13) or gender (p = 0.81). The change in surface volume was 3.64 ± 1.04 cc resulting in a mean surface-volume-coefficient of 0.87 ± 0.12 without being statistically significant influenced by age (p = 0.53) or gender (p = 0.78). The facial artery was constantly identified within the buccal space whereas the facial vein was found to course within its posterior boundary. The buccal space did not undergo age-related changes in volume or size which highlights this space is a reliable and predictable landmark for various plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and buccal administration in cats, and effects on thermal threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, A R; Pypendop, B H; Shilo-Benjamini, Y; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine, following i.v. and buccal administration, and the relationship between buprenorphine concentration and its effect on thermal threshold. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered intravenously or buccally to six cats. Thermal threshold was determined, and arterial blood sampled prior to, and at various times up to 24 h following drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the concentration-thermal threshold data. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than baseline 44 min after buccal administration, and 7, 24, and 104 min after i.v. administration. A two- and three-compartment model best fitted the data following buccal and i.v. administration, respectively. Following i.v. administration, mean ± SD volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg), clearance (mL·min/kg), and terminal half-life (h) were 11.6 ± 8.5, 23.8 ± 3.5, and 9.8 ± 3.5. Following buccal administration, absorption half-life was 23.7 ± 9.1 min, and terminal half-life was 8.9 ± 4.9 h. An effect-compartment model with a simple effect maximum model best predicted the time-course of the effect of buprenorphine on thermal threshold. Median (range) ke0 and EC50 were 0.003 (0.002-0.018)/min and 0.599 (0.073-1.628) ng/mL (i.v.), and 0.017 (0.002-0.023)/min and 0.429 (0.144-0.556) ng/mL (buccal). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. FIELD TEST INSTRUCTION 100-NR-2 OPERABLE UNIT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR SEQUESTRATION OF SR-90 SATURATED ZONE APATITE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER EXTENSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWLES NA

    2010-10-06

    The objective of this field test instruction is to provide technical guidance for aqueous injection emplacement of an extension apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRE) for the sequestration of strontium-90 (Sr-90) using a high concentration amendment formulation. These field activities will be conducted according to the guidelines established in DOE/RL-2010-29, 100-NR-2 Design Optimization Study, hereafter referred to as the DOS. The DOS supports the Federal Facility Agreement Consent Order (EPA et al., 1989), Milestone M-16-06-01, and 'Complete Construction of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at 100-N.' Injections of apatite precursor chemicals will occur at an equal distance intervals on each end of the existing PRE to extend the PRB from the existing 91 m (300 ft) to at least 274 m (900 ft). Field testing at the 100-N Area Apatite Treatability Test Site, as depicted on Figure 1, shows that the barrier is categorized by two general hydrologic conceptual models based on overall well capacity and contrast between the Hanford and Ringold hydraulic conductivities. The upstream portion of the original barrier, shown on Figure 1, is characterized by relatively low overall well specific capacity. This is estimated from well development data and a lower contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formations. Comparison of test results from these two locations indicate that permeability contrast between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation is significantly less over the upstream one-third of the barrier. The estimated hydraulic conductivity for the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation over the upstream portion of the barrier based on observations during emplacement of the existing 91 m (300 ft) PRB is approximately 12 and 10 m/day (39 and 32 ft/day), respectively (PNNL-17429). However, these estimates should be used as a rough guideline only, as significant variability in hydraulic conductivity is likely to be observed in

  17. Three Dimensional Analysis of the Final Design of Pier Extensions and West Guide Wall to Mitigate Local Scour Risk at the BNSF Railroad Bridge Downstream of the Prado Dam Supplemental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinha, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kerenyi, K. [Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, McLean, VA (United States); Sharp, Jeremy [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MI (United States), Coastal and Hydraulics Lab

    2016-06-01

    This report is a supplement to a previous report [ref] covering optimization of wedge shaped pier extensions to streamline large bluff body piers as a local scour countermeasure for the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe (BNSF) Railroad Bridge over the Santa Ana River downstream of Prado Dam in Riverside County, CA. The optimized design was tested in a 1/30 scale physical model at U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) in Vicksburg, MS, and the optimized design was used as the base for the construction design. Constructability issues having to do with both materials and site conditions including access underneath the BNSF bridge yielded a construction design that required making the pier extensions wider and either moving the western curve of the west guide wall upstream or changing its geometry.

  18. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...

  19. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  20. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  1. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA, as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells′ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

  2. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  3. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey...... (logD(oct; 7.4)) and capacity factor (k') and to their polar water accessible surface area (PWASA). For water, mannitol, testosterone and some of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, the permeability enhancement across the TR146 cell culture model in the presence of sodium glycocholate (GC......) was determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165...

  5. A prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay; Ansari, Irfan; Kohli, Sarita

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-four adult patients participated in this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. The patients were divided into 3 treatment groups on a random basis. Twenty-eight patients received a PSA nerve block, 33 patients received buccal infiltrations, and 33 patients received buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Success was recorded as "none" or "mild" pain. Statistical analysis using nonparametric chi-square tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the anesthetic success of PSA nerve blocks (64%), buccal infiltrations (54%), and buccal plus palatal infiltrations (70%). None of the tested methods gave 100% anesthetic success rates in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  7. An Unreported Cause of Buccal Mucosal Hematoma: A Rare Complication After Heparin Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving anti-coagulants such as heparin can suffer from significant complications of these medications. Herein, we report a buccal mucosal hematoma in a heparinized patient with chronic renal failure.

  8. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    .... To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents...

  9. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used....... Reconstructed sagittal images (2.0 and 5.0 mm thickness) were evaluated by three examiners, using a dichotomous scale when assessing the condition of the buccal bone around the implants. A multivariate logistic regression was performed using examiners' detection of the buccal bone condition as the dependent...

  10. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyun-A; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Jae-Young; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The enamel knot (EK), which is located in the center of bud and cap stage tooth germs, is a transitory cluster of non-dividing epithelial cells. The EK acts as a signaling center that provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps by inducing secondary EKs. The morphological, cellular, and molecular events leading to the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs have not been described clearly. This study investigated the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs in the maxillary and mandibular first molars of mice. The location of the primary EK and secondary EKs was investigated by chasing Fgf4 expression patterns in tooth germ at some intervals of in vitro culture, and the relationship between the primary EK and secondary EK was examined by tracing the primary EK cells in the E13.5 tooth germs which were frontally half sliced to expose the primary EK. After 48 hr, the primary EK cells in the sliced tooth germs were located on the buccal secondary EKs, which correspond to the future paracone in maxilla and protoconid in mandible. The Bmp4 expression in buccal part of the dental mesenchyme might be related with the lower growth in buccal epithelium than in lingual epithelium, and the Msx2 expressing area in epithelium was overlapped with the enamel cord (or septum) and cell dense area. The enamel cord might connect the primary EK with enamel navel to fix the location of the primary EK in the buccal side during the cap to bell stages. Overall, these results suggest that primary EK cells strictly contribute to form the paracone or protoconid, which are the main cusps of the tooth in the maxilla or mandible.

  11. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the

  12. Buccal mucosal graft onlay repair for a ureteric ischemic injury following a pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with long stricture in the left upper ureter following a pyeloplasty causing persistent flank pain. A left PCNL with an antegrade endopyelotomy was attempted in view of a concomitant left renal 1.5 cm calculus in the lower calyx but it failed. Subsequently, a buccal mucosal onlay graft was applied on the strictured ureter. Follow-up at 3 months showed good uptake of the graft with patent passage for urine drainage.

  13. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  14. Alternative of pedicle buccal fat pad for reconstruction defect in cleft palate patient

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayat; Muhammad Ruslin

    2016-01-01

    Various surgical techniques have been employed for closure of the defect in the oral cavity. The type and size of defects in the oral cavity determine the techniques to use. Pedicle Buccal Fat Pad (BFP) is one alternative tissue graft for defect reconstruction in oral cavity. The objective of this paper is to determine an alternative defect reconstruction in cleft palate using pedicle BFP. In conclusion, the use of BFP for the defect reconstruction in cleft palate patients shows satisfactory ...

  15. Le lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal étendu a la région ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons le cas clinique d'un lymphangiome kystique du plancher buccal ayant survenu chez un adulte de 28 ans et qui s'est étendu progressivement vers la région sous mandibulaire gauche .la tumeur suspecté cliniquement a été bien exploré à la tomodensitométrie. Le traitement a consisté en une exérèse ...

  16. Kyste Dermoïde Du Plancher Buccal | Ghorbel | Journal Tunisien d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le kyste dermoïde du plancher buccal est une entité rare. Il touche essentiellement le sujet jeune. Nous rapportons l\\'observation d\\'un nourrisson âgé de 9 mois qui a été amené par ses parents pour fistule sous mentale sans aucune gêne fonctionnelle associée. L\\'examen clinique a révélé une voussure du plancher ...

  17. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  18. The nerve supply of zygomaticus major: Variability and distinguishing zygomatic from buccal facial nerve branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, A; Engelmann, S; Bauer, R; Taeger, C; Grechenig, S; Kehrer, M; Prantl, L; Tamm, E R; Bleys, R L A W; Mandlik, V

    2018-01-11

    The zygomaticus major (ZM) is important for the human smile. There are conflicting data about whether the zygomatic or buccal branches of the facial nerve are responsible for its motor innervation. The literature provides no precise distinction of the transition zone between these two branch systems. In this study, a definition to distinguish the facial nerve branches at the level of the body of the zygoma is proposed. In the light of this definition, we conducted an anatomical study to determine how the source of innervation of the ZM was distributed. A total of 96 fresh-frozen cadaveric facial halves were dissected under loupe magnification. A hemiparotidectomy was followed by antegrade microsurgical dissection. Any branch topographically lying superficial to the zygoma or touching it was classed as zygomatic, and any neighboring inferior branch was considered buccal. The arborization of the facial nerve was diffuse in all cases. In 64 out of 96 specimens (67%, 95% CI: 56% to 76%), zygomatic branches innervated the ZM. Buccal branches innervated ZM in the other 32 facial halves (33%, 95% CI: 24% to 44%). There were no differences in respect of sex or facial side. All facial halves displayed additional branches, which crossed the muscle on its inner surface without supplying it. In 31 specimens, a nerve branch ran superficial to ZM in its cranial third. According to our classification, the zygomaticus major is innervated by zygomatic branches in 67% of cases and by buccal branches in 33%. Clin. Anat. 00:000-000, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effects of the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group (10 females and 5 males, mean age 14.74 years at T1) received buccal segment distalization with ZAS and the second group (8 females and 7 males, mean age 15.26 years at T1) with CH. The skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes were measured on cephalograms obtained before (T1) and after (T2) distalization, and these changes were statistically evaluated using a repeated measures analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon test. The Class II buccal segment relationship was corrected to a Class I in an average period of 9.03 +/- 0.62 months in the ZAS group and 9.00 +/- 0.76 months in the CH group. Significant distalization was observed for the posterior teeth in both groups (P Class II malocclusions.

  1. Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content.

  2. Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics

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    Ayşe Ülgey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital.

  3. Manufacture and characterization of chitosan/PLGA nanoparticles nanocomposite buccal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Talitha Caldas Dos; Rescignano, Nicoletta; Boff, Laurita; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; de Campos, Angela Machado; Mijangos, Carmen Ugarte

    2017-10-01

    Oral bioavailability of C-glycosyl flavonoid enriched fraction of Cecropia glaziovii (EFF-Cg) is limited due to its chemical complexity. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of chitosan buccal films impregnated with EFF-Cg-loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment or for buccal administration. EFF-Cg-loaded PLGA nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticles were embedded into buccoadhesive chitosan films in different concentrations in order to obtain nanocomposite films. Films were characterized in term of morphology, mechanical properties and water absorption test. Furthermore a cytotoxicity assay was analyzed to evaluate the biocompatibility of systems. The results obtained from these analyses revealed that nanocomposite films present transparent appearance in all composition and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images show a continuous and compact section structure. Compared to the control film, mechanical responses of nanocomposites presented lower tensile strength values and no significant effect on the elongation at break. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests indicated that increasing of NP concentration caused decreased stiffness and an increased of glass transition temperature values. Direct cytotoxicity test shows that nanoparticles and chitosan films not induce cytotoxic effect. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film impregnated with EFF-Cg-loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of EFF-Cg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktunc, Erol; Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Altinyazar, Cevdet; Koca, Rafet; Bostan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet's disease patients with those of healthy controls. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet's disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients' cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls' cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Behçet's disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques.

  5. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet’s Disease Patients

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    Erol Aktunc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet’s disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet’s disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients’ cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls’ cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet’s disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques.

  6. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyalakshmi, S; Nirmal, R Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V; Santhadevy, A; Aravindhan, R; Sumathy

    2016-07-01

    The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals.

  7. Noninvasive buccal swab antigen sample and molecular testing provides extended antigen typing for patients with hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Angeli; Hampton, Kisha; Duncan, Natalie; Roberson, Chris; Slayten, Jayanna; Davisson, Suzanne; Aronowitz, Jessica; Shapiro, Amy

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing a noninvasive, molecular-based red blood cell (RBC) antigen test on infants and very young children with sickle cell disease as part of a statewide newborn screening follow-up program. A prospective pilot project was conducted using a noninvasive buccal swab and test kit to perform DNA-based, extended RBC phenotyping in 92 children participating in a newborn hemoglobinopathy screening follow-up program. Reported data include the extended panel of antigens detected by molecular analysis compared with unaffected population estimates. Molecular-based RBC antigen testing was successful, with extended RBC typing generated for all subjects. Molecular testing detected several rare negative or rare positive phenotypes, demonstrating the utility of obtaining an extended antigen panel. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing antigen testing on buccal swab specimens from children with sickle cell disease as part of a newborn screening follow-up program with the aim of allowing specific unit matching to prevent alloimmunization with RBC transfusions. The general applicability of testing may be limited by a lack of uniform insurance coverage for buccal swab testing, however. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence

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    Chiou Wen-Yen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most treatment failure of buccal mucosal cancer post surgery is locoregional recurrence. We tried to figure out how close the surgical margin being unsafe and needed further adjuvant treatment. Methods Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition were treated with surgery alone (n = 32, surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38 or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40. Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control. Results The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months. The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04 but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22 was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019. Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control. Conclusions Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested.

  9. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

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    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  10. Early postoperative healing following buccal single flap approach to access intraosseous periodontal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Roberto; Simonelli, Anna; Rizzi, Alessandro; Pramstraller, Mattia; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the early postoperative healing of papillary incision wounds and its association with (1) patient/site-related factors and technical (surgical) aspects as well as with (2) 6-month clinical outcomes following buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the treatment of intraosseous periodontal defects. Forty-three intraosseous defects in 35 patients were accessed with a buccal SFA alone or in combination with a reconstructive technology (graft, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), graft + EMD, or graft + membrane). Postoperative healing was evaluated at 2 weeks using the Early Wound-Healing Index (EHI). EHI ranged from score 1 (i.e., complete flap closure and optimal healing) to score 4 (i.e., loss of primary closure and partial tissue necrosis). SFA resulted in a complete wound closure at 2 weeks in the great majority of sites. A significantly more frequent presence of interdental contact point and interdental soft tissue crater, and narrower base of the interdental papilla were observed at sites with either EHI > 1 or EHI = 4 compared to sites with EHI = 1. No association between EHI and the 6-month clinical outcomes was observed. At 2 weeks, buccal SFA may result in highly predictable complete flap closure. Site-specific characteristics may influence the early postoperative healing of the papillary incision following SFA procedure. Two-week soft tissue healing, however, was not associated with the 6-month clinical outcomes.

  11. Nasal and Buccal Treatment of Midazolam in Epileptic Seizures in Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ülgey, Ayşe; Aksu, Recep; Bicer, Cihangir

    2012-01-01

    Acute seizure and status epilepticus constitute major medical emergencies in children. Four to six percent of children will have at least one seizure in the first 16 years of life. Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency in childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The early application of antiepileptic treatment is very important. Because early treatment prevents the status epilepticus formation and shortens the duration of seizure activity. For this reason administration of anticonvulsant therapy in the prehospital setting is very important. Seizures generally begin outside the hospital, and thus parents and caregivers need simple, safe and effective treatment options to ensure early intervention. The only special preparation used for this purpose is rectal diazepam but has some disadvantages. Midazolam is a safe, short-acting benzodiazepin. It is suitable to use oral, buccal, nasal, im and iv routes. This provides a wide area for clinical applications. Recently there are many clinical studies about the usage of nasal and buccal midazolam for treatment of pediatric epileptic seizures. The nasal and buccal applications in pediatric seizures are very practical and effective. Parents and caregivers can apply easily outside the hospital. PMID:23641166

  12. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

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    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  13. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

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    Lavínia Tércia Magalhães Dórea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P<0.0001. They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P<0.0001. Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P<0.0001. These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia.

  14. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

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    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  15. Prediction of outcome in buccal cancers treated with radical radiotherapy based on the early tumor response

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    G V Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Aim was to assess the clinical significance of the rate of tumor regression in carcinoma buccal mucosa undergoing radical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty six patients were enrolled in the study with proven buccal cancers requiring radical radiotherapy, from 1990 to 1996. Radiotherapy was delivered using a combination of external beam and brachytherapy with preloaded cesium 137 needles. The response to the radiation was assessed at the completion of external beam radiation and 6 weeks after brachytherapy. An analysis correlating various parameters influencing the long term disease free survival and overall survival was done. Results: Response assessed at the end of external beam radiation correlated strongly with the overall survival and the disease free interval (P=0.000. No other factor influenced the survival. Conclusion: The rate of the tumor regression can predict the overall outcome in patients with buccal cancers treated with radiation. Completion of the planned course of radiation in patients who do not show a substantial reduction in size by 4.5 weeks of conventional radiation does not improve the results.

  16. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-13

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type.

  17. Gramine inhibits angiogenesis and induces apoptosis via modulation of TGF-β signalling in 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Arunkumar; Kathiresan, Suresh; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen

    2017-09-15

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and its receptors are considered as a novel target in cancer chemotherapy. Gramine, an indole alkaloid, possesses various pharmacological properties including antiproliferative and anticancer. However, the anti-angiogenic property remains unexplored. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic and apoptosis induction properties of gramine through inhibiting TGF-β on DMBA induced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP). The effects of gramine on TGF-β signalling in DMBA induced carcinogenic events such as angiogenesis and apoptosis were analysed by studying the mRNA expression using RT-PCR, protein expression by western blot and histopathological analysis using haematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Gramine significantly inhibited phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2 and Smad4 by blocking activity of the TGFβ-RII, RI and activation of inhibitory Smad7. Gramine inhibited angiogenic markers such as MMP-2, MMP-9, HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 as well as increased TIMP-2 expression. Furthermore, gramine induced apoptosis in DMBA induced tumour bearing animals by up regulating the pro apoptotic proteins Bax, cytochrome C, apaf-1, caspase-9 caspase-3 and PARP. In this study, we clearly demonstrated that gramine treatment diminishes angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by modulating TGF-β signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of supplementary buccal infiltrations and intraligamentary injections to inferior alveolar nerve blocks in mandibular first molars with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, M; Sadr, S; Nakhaee, N; Abbott, P V; Askarifard, S

    2014-10-01

    This randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis with or without supplementary buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection. Eighty-two patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received either a combination of intraligamentary injection + buccal infiltration+ IANB or with traditional IANB injection in mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Each patient recorded their pain score on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale before commencing treatment, in response to a cold test 15 min after the designated anaesthetic injection, during access cavity preparation and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analysed by chi-square test. At the final stage of treatment, 69 of the 82 patients were eligible to be included in the study. No significant difference was found between age (P = 0.569) and gender (P = 0.570) amongst the patients in the two groups. The success rate of anaesthesia in the IANB and the combination groups were 22% and 58%, respectively. The success rate of anaesthesia in the combination group was significantly higher than the traditional IANB injection (P = 0.003). A combination of anaesthetic techniques can improve the success rate of anaesthesia for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Anaesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine mandibular buccal infiltration compared to 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in children with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arali, Veena; P, Mytri

    2015-04-01

    Lidocaine is the gold standard anaesthetic solution that has been used since its inception into dentistry till date. Around 80% of failures have been reported when lignocaine has been used for inferior alveolar nerve block in children and adults with irreversible pulpitis. There is a need to use newer drugs which are available which have been reported to be effective like lignocaine, such as articaine. Although articaine has been used in adults, literature supporting its use in children is sparse. The purpose of this study is to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in children with irreversible pulpitis. It also aims to assess the need for supplemental intrapulpal injections. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross over trial comparing the anaesthetic effectiveness of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine IAN block anaesthesia. The study subject and the pediatric dentist performing the pulpectomy procedures were blinded to the study. A sample size of 40 subjects in the age group of 5-8 y was included in the study. The onset of anaesthesia with 4% articaine was faster as compared to 2% lignocaine. The duration of anaesthesia with articaine infiltration was shorter. The need for supplemental injection in the articaine group was less. Four percent articaine infiltration can be used in children with irreversible pulpitis. It can be used to replace the IAN block in children thereby reducing the post anaesthetic complications like lip biting.

  20. Genotoxic assessment of chlorhexidine mouthwash on exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in chronic gingivitis patients

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    Saif Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX is the gold standard of all chemical plaque control agents and the most commonly prescribed mouthwash. However, several studies have shown cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHX on various eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have used micronuclei as a biomarker of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells of chronic gingivitis patients who were given adjunct 0.2% CHX for plaque control. Materials and Methods: Chronic gingivitis patients who were exclusively on mechanical plaque control methods were taken as control (Group A (n = 101, and chronic gingivitis patients who along with mechanical plaque control measures were taking 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash as adjunct were taken as cases (Group B (n = 255. The Group B was further divided into 5 subgroups (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 (n = 51 on increasing duration of usage of CHX from ≤1 week to 24 weeks. Buccal epithelial cells were gently scrapped from the buccal mucosa using soft toothbrush. The epithelial cells were collected in buffer solution and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 min. The buccal epithelial cells were air dried, fixed, and stained with 5% Giemsa stain on preheated glass microscopic slides and observed under microscope to screen 2000 nucleated cells per individual for number of micronucleated cells and micronuclei as genotoxic measure. Results: The mean number of micronucleated cells was found to be 0.41 ± 0.71 for Group A as compared values ranging from 1.65 ± 2.09 (Group B1 to 11.7 ± 1.87 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B, and similarly, the mean number of micronuclei was found to be 0.48 ± 0.80 for Group A as compared to values ranging from 2.57 ± 1.64 (Group B1 to 14.5 ± 2.49 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B using analysis of variance (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that CHX mouthwash is genotoxic to buccal epithelial cells and there is incremental trend in genotoxicity as the duration of usage is increased.

  1. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

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    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in

  2. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-01-31

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to "address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction." (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to "include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction." (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  3. The presence of teleost-type angiotensin components in lamprey buccal gland suggests a role in endocrine mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marty K S; Sower, Stacia A; Takei, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Previous characterization of a native lamprey angiotensin II (LpAng II) that possesses a different sequence and function than teleost-type angiotensin II (Ang II) has raised a question as to the role of teleost-type angiotensin peptides in lampreys. In this study, teleost-type angiotensin like-peptides were identified in the buccal gland of lampreys by immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. The possible sources of angiotensin like-peptides were investigated in lampreys by manipulating their choice of host and food. Ang II immunoreactivity (irAng II) was detected in the buccal gland and plasma of feeding phase sea lampreys exposed to Atlantic cod, but was mostly absent in fasting lamprey. Qualitatively, the HPLC profiles of irAng II observed in the plasma, when present, were highly similar to those in buccal gland, implying that the buccal gland could be a source of plasma Ang II. Japanese lampreys force-fed with dogfish blood had significantly elevated concentrations of irAng II in their buccal glands when compared to unfed individuals, suggesting that feeding stimuli may have enhanced buccal gland activity. Teleost-type Ang II-containing proteins, other than angiotensinogen, are present in the buccal gland as trypsinization generated Ang II in vitro, and the HPLC profile of these irAng II was highly comparable to those naturally present in the buccal gland. [Asn(1), Val(5), Thr(9)]-Ang I that was identified in the buccal gland of Japanese lampreys has the same amino acid sequence to those previously isolated from the incubation of plasma and kidney extract, providing an alternative explanation for the previous isolation of teleost-type Ang I in lampreys. irAng I and irAng II were localized in the granule-like structures in the apical region of the secretory epithelia, suggesting that these peptides may be active components of lamphredin. The teleost-type angiotensin peptides in the buccal gland secretion suggested that these host-specific peptides could be part

  4. Mucoadhesive Interpolyelectrolyte Complexes for the Buccal Delivery of Clobetasol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera R. Garipova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the feasibility to design: (a a mucoadhesive interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC loaded with clobetasol propionate (CP intended to treat oral lichen planus and (b individuate an orodispersible dosage form suitable for its administration. IPECs were synthesized by mixing Eudragit® E PO (EPO and different grades of cross-linked polyacrylate derivatives, in different molar ratios, namely 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1. All IPECs resulted at nanoscale independently of their composition (120–200 nm. Both zeta-potentials (ζ and mucoadhesive performances were influenced by the ratio between polymers. On the bases of the preliminary data, IPECs made of Polycarbophil and EPO in the 1:2 ratio were loaded with CP. The encapsulation efficiency was up 88% independently of the CP-IPEC ratio. The drug encapsulation caused IPEC destabilization in water, as it was noticed by the increase of ζ values and the formation of aggregates. Oral lyophilisates were prepared by freeze-drying slurries made of placebo or CP loaded IPECs, maltodextrin with a dextrose equivalent 38 and Span®80. The optimized formulation permitted to obtain a fast disintegration upon contact with water reducing the tendency of IPECs to aggregate. Moreover, oral lyophilisates allowed improving the apparent solubility of CP throughout the in vitro release experiment.

  5. Extract of haruan (Channa striata extract increasing reepithelialisation count in wound healing process on wistar rat’s buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devintha Ayu Mellyana Tamales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Haruan is Kalimantan’s indigenous fish which has the potency to accelerate wound healing. Haruan extract has substantial properties such as albumin, Zn, Cu, and Fe to accelerate wound healing. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of haruan extract on reepithelialization of wistar rats’ buccal mucosa wound healing on day 3, 5, 7, and 10 histopathologically. This study was true experimental with posttest with control design. Samples were divided in 16 treatment groups, haruan extract 25%, 50%, 100% treatment groups and aquadest treatment group as negative control, each treatment was performed for 10 days. Epithelial thickness count reached its peak on day 10. Mean epithelial thickness scoring of each group was 50.40 µm; 56.85 µm; 62.81 µm; 38.28 µm respectively. Two way Anova and Post Hoc LSD tests presented there was a significant difference between negative control and haruan extract groups. Haruan extract treatment significantly increases epithelial thickness count in wound healing process.

  6. Beyond-use date determination of buprenorphine buccal solution using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren Madden; Brown, Stacy D

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study included developing and validating a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection for the determination of buprenorphine in a buccal solution for veterinary use, and applying that method to determine the stability of a 3 mg/ml buprenorphine preparation in room temperature and refrigerated storage conditions. This preparation, intended for buccal administration in feline patients, plays an important role in pain management in cats. A stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for system suitability, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, specificity, linearity and robustness based on US Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter . The method was then applied to the study of potency changes over 90 days in a buccal buprenorphine solution stored at two temperatures. All HPLC-UV method data met acceptable criteria for the quantification of buprenorphine in a buccal solution formulation. The buprenorphine concentrations found in each stability sample remained within the 90-110% of label claim throughout the 90 days of study. All stability test bottles of the buprenorphine buccal solution retained their original appearance. For the room temperature bottles, some white particulate matter was noted in the threads of the container bottles starting at day 21. The pH of the preparations during the course of the study was in the range of 3.57-4.06 and 4.01-4.16 for the room temperature and refrigerated samples, respectively. Pharmacists have compounded a concentrated 3 mg/ml buccal solution to use easily in the home care or outpatient setting for treatment of feline pain. Prior to this investigation, pharmacists empirically assigned beyond-use dates to this formulation based on standards in USP General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding - Nonsterile Preparations. This study of a 3 mg/ml buprenorphine buccal solution indicates stability through 90 days. © ISFM and

  7. Laparoscopic creation of neovagina and neocervix, followed by their reconstruction with polytetrafluoroethylene graft/buccal mucosa and pudendal artery perforator flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cervical agenesis of is a rare Müllerian anomaly that may be associated with partial or complete vaginal aplasia and renal anomalies. Symptoms such as amenorrhea and abdominal pain usually develop shortly after menarche, when the absence or obstruction of the cervical canal results in blood accumulation in the uterus and fallopian tubes, and finally in the peritoneal cavity. Physical examination sometimes reveals normally developed external sex organs. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may potentially result in extensive endometriosis, which may potentially cause severe adhesion and damage to reproductivity. Such consequences could complicate further the management of the disease. Traditionally, hysterectomy has been the treatment of choice in these cases because of the high failure rate of canalization procedures and risk of serious ascending infection. With advanced laparoscopic techniques, conservative management seems feasible and has been recommended. We herein present a patient with complete cervical and vaginal agenesis. Creation of a neovagina and uterovaginal anastomosis were performed first under the guidance of laparoscopy (Figure 1. A neocervix was composed of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft and a piece of oral mucosa retrieved from the buccal area. The neovagina was reconstructed with an external pudendal artery perforator flap. A cervical Fr 16 size Foley was left in place as a stent. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery and fair wound healing at the outpatient follow-up. Congenital agenesis of the uterine cervix and vagina can be differentiated accurately and reconstructed laparoscopically. Using mesh-buccal mucosa composite and pudendal perforator flap is a practical way to reconstruct neocervix and neovagina after their creation.

  8. Effect of buccal gap distance on alveolar ridge alteration after immediate implant placement: a microcomputed tomographic and morphometric analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsakunthai, Warunee; Le, Bach; Kasugai, Shohei

    2015-02-01

    The buccal bone resorption and the deformation of soft tissue contour are major problems of immediate implant treatment. This study aims to examine the changes of alveolar bone and soft tissue after immediate implant placement in different buccal gap distances. Eight implants were placed randomly in the mandibular premolar sockets of 6 hybrid dogs with 1, 2, and 3 mm buccal gap distances. The dogs were killed after 2 or 4 months for morphometric and microcomputed tomography analyses. After 2 months, the 3-mm group had the highest buccal bone volume (BV), buccal bone/soft tissue thickness, and the lowest bone resorption. The wider the buccal gap, the more buccal bone and soft tissue were formed in this experimental setting. After 4 months, the buccal BV had decreased significantly in the 1-mm and the 2-mm groups, whereas the 3-mm group resisted to buccal bone resorption. This difference was more pronounced at the crest. The 3 mm is the optimal gap distance among the groups examined, which drastically influences the healing of bone and soft tissue surrounding the implants.

  9. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  10. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy Th; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety-enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions.

  11. Malar Augmentation with Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad in Orthognathic Surgery: Three-Dimensional Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Valls-Ontañón, Adaia; Blasco-Palacio, Julia C; Guijarro-Martínez, Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Contemporary orthognathic surgery contemplates three-dimensional facial soft-tissue harmonization as one of the basic pillars in treatment planning. In particular, prominent malar regions are regarded as a sign of beauty and youth by Western societies. The aim of this article was to perform a subjective and objective three-dimensional evaluation of the pedicled buccal fat pad technique for malar augmentation in the context of orthognathic surgery. Six consecutive patients with underlying dentofacial anomalies and bilateral malar hypoplasia were managed with simultaneous orthognathic surgery and pedicled buccal fat pad malar augmentation. Patient morbidity and satisfaction with the procedure were evaluated with a visual analogue scale. Cone-beam computed tomographic data were used to perform a volumetric analysis at 1- and 12-month follow-up by means of image superimposition. Subjective analysis revealed excellent patient satisfaction and minimal pain. Mean malar volume was 115,480.91 mm preoperatively, 124,586.32 mm 1 month after surgery, and 119,008.77 mm 12 months after surgery. Thus, the final mean increase 1 year after surgery was 3527.86 mm and the average amount of resorption was 5577.55 mm. The median variations in volume were 7.77 percent at 1-month follow-up and 3.52 percent at 12-month follow-up. In conclusion, the pedicled buccal fat pad technique is a reasonable alternative for malar augmentation in the context of orthognathic surgery. The results of this preliminary report suggest that it provides satisfactory soft-tissue augmentation; avoids the use of foreign materials; and has minimal morbidity, high patient satisfaction, and adequate stability at 12-month follow-up. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Morphologic and cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : It is now known that the disease process of diabetes has effects on various tissues of the body. The following study was done to analyze the effects of diabetes on oral tissues. Aims : To study the morphology and cytomorphometry of the cells obtained in cytologic smears from the buccal mucosa of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods : Smears were obtained from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 50 randomly selected diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic and the out-patient department and of five healthy subjects as control. Smears were stained using Papanicolaou method, and using a micrometer mean values of nuclear diameter (ND, cell diameter (CD, cytoplasmic diameter (CyD and nucleus: cytoplasm ratio (N: C ratio were obtained for each patient. Diabetic patients were divided into four groups based on the glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb values for comparison. Statistical analysis used : Student′s T-test and Fisher′s F-test. Results : Statistically significant increase in ND (P=0.0367 was found in diabetic patients compared to controls. Degree of glycemic control significantly affected ND (P=0.0042 and N: C ratio (P=0.0055. In general, as the severity of diabetes increases, ND and N: C ratio rise gradually. Conclusions : Diabetes produces definite morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in the buccal mucosa of patients. However, further research in this direction is indicated, to analyze the significance of these findings as a tool for diabetes detection, as well as to obtain deeper insights into its effects on various tissues.

  13. Outcomes of Ventral Onlay Buccal Mucosa Graft Urethroplasty in Patients after Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, Sascha A; Schmid, Marianne; Kuhl, Marie; Kluth, Luis A; Soave, Armin; Riechardt, Silke; Chun, Felix K-H; Engel, Oliver; Fisch, Margit; Dahlem, Roland

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated stricture-free survival and functional outcomes of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in patients with urethral stricture disease after radiotherapy. We reviewed our urethroplasty database for patients with a radiotherapy history who underwent buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty between January 2009 and October 2013. We reviewed patient charts and the institutional, standardized, nonvalidated questionnaires administered to each patient postoperatively. Study end points included 1) the success rate, 2) continence status, 3) erectile function and 4) patient satisfaction postoperatively. Success was defined as stricture-free survival. Of 38 men included in the study prostate cancer was the most common indication for radiotherapy in 35 (92.1%). External beam radiotherapy was performed in 24 cases (64.9%), brachytherapy was done in 8 (21.6%) and a combination of the 2 treatments was performed in 6 (13.5%). Strictures were in the bulbar/bulbomembranous urethra and had a median length of 3.0 cm (range 1.0 to 8.0). The overall success rate was 71.1% at a median followup of 26.5 months (range 1.0 to 50.0). Median time to stricture recurrence was 17.0 months (range 3.0 to 44.0). De novo urinary incontinence was observed in 4 patients (10.5%). Erectile function remained mostly unchanged compared to preoperative status. Study limitations include the small sample size and the lack of validated questionnaires. At short-term to mid-term followup the success rate of ventral onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in patients with radiotherapy history seems acceptable. However, patients must be counseled about the increased risk of urinary incontinence. Longer followup is warranted to address long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of medical abortion using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 63 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatter, Mary; Cleland, Kelly; Nucatola, Deborah L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the safety and efficacy of an evidence-based medical abortion regimen utilizing 200 mg of mifepristone orally followed by home use of 800 mcg misoprostol buccally 24-48 h later through 63 days estimated gestational age. We analyzed outcomes in women presenting for medical abortion between April 1, 2006, and May 31, 2011, using an evidence-based alternative to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved regimen. Cases were identified for this descriptive study from our electronic practice management (EPM) database, and our electronic database on adverse events was queried for information on efficacy and safety. The primary outcome was successful abortion. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of successful abortion. Among the 13,373 women who completed follow-up, efficacy of the regimen was 97.7%. Efficacy was highest at 29 to 35 days (98.8%) and 36 to 42 days (98.8%) of gestation and lowest at 57 to 63 days (95.5%). The odds of needing aspiration for any reason were greatest at higher gestational ages. Rates of infection requiring hospitalization and rates of transfusion were 0.01 and 0.03%, respectively. An evidence-based regimen of 200 mg of mifepristone orally followed by home use of 800 mcg of buccal misoprostol 24-48 h later is safe and effective through 63 days estimated gestational age. Further, the need for aspiration for any reason was low, and hospitalization was rare. This study reinforces the safety and efficacy of the evidence-based regimen for medical abortion (200 mg mifepristone orally followed by home use of 800 mcg of misoprostol buccally 24-48 h later) through 63 days estimated gestational age, and contributes to the existing evidence against restrictions requiring use of the FDA-approved regimen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single buccal sulcus approach with fluoroscan assistance for the management of simple zygomatic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Mao, Shih-Hsuan; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2015-05-01

    Zygomatic fractures are associated with functional and aesthetic problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of management and the surgical satisfaction of patients with simple zygomatic fractures treated through a single buccal sulcus approach and fluoroscan assistance. Between 2008 and 2012, 42 patients with simple zygomatic fractures were included in the study. The surgical procedure was performed through a single buccal sulcus incision. The fracture sites were aligned under direct vision and fluoroscan assistance and stabilized with rigid internal fixation. The adequacy of reduction was evaluated based on postoperative plain radiographic films and computed tomographic scans using mirror image analyses. The satisfaction of functional and aesthetic results was also evaluated subjectively using a visual analog scale during follow-up. Twenty-nine male and thirteen female patients with a mean age of 33.2 years were evaluated. Motorcycle crashes (78.6%) were the most common mechanism of trauma. Based on follow-up imaging studies, 2 patients had inadequate reduction of zygomatic body, and there was a slight depression of the zygomatic arch in one patient. Ninety-three percent (39/42) of patients had satisfactory results, although one patient complained of malar asymmetry and another felt a depression in the arch area. Two patients complained of persistent hypesthesia during follow-up at 6 months. Our results suggest that a single buccal sulcus approach without lower eyelid or lateral eyebrow incision in the repair of simple fractures of the zygoma can be achieved with high patient satisfaction if the reduction and fixation are adequate and stable.

  16. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Omar Delgado-Guay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Marvin Omar Delgado-GuayDivision of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, The University of Texas, Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed. Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients.Keywords: fentanyl buccal soluble film, cancer pain

  17. Oro-buccal symptoms (dysphagia, dysarthria, and sialorrhea) in patients with Parkinson's disease: preliminary analysis from the French COPARK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, S; Nègre-Pagès, L; Ojero-Senard, A; Damier, P; Destée, A; Tison, F; Merello, M; Rascol, O

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal oro-buccal functions including dysarthria, sialorrhea and dysphagia commonly affect patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). To estimate the prevalence of such oro-buccal symptoms at baseline in the first 419 patients with PD included in the COPARK cohort and to analyze their correlations with patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, and drugs consumption. Patients were assessed using the Unified PD Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDQ-39. Dysarthria, sialorrhea, and dysphagia were defined as UPDRS items 5, 6, or 7 ≥ 1. Dysarthria, sialorrhea, or dysphagia were present in 51%, 37%, or 18% out of the 419 patients, respectively. At least one of these symptom was present in 267/419 patients (65%), whilst a combination of symptoms was present in 136/419 (33%). Logistic regression showed that the presence of each of the three oro-buccal symptoms was significantly correlated with that of the two others. Other correlations included male gender, hallucinations, disease severity, levodopa use and lack of opiates consumption for dysarthria; disease severity, orthostatic hypotension and absence of antidepressants consumption for sialorrhea; female gender, motor fluctuations, and depressive symptoms for dysphagia. None of the three oro-buccal symptoms were associated with a reduced PDQ-39 score. Oro-buccal symptoms were present in two of three patients with moderate PD, the presence of each symptoms being significantly correlated with that of the two others. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  18. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  19. Radiographic monitoring of healing process of buccal bifurcation cysts after marsupialization: two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    This report is to show healing process of two cases of buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) developed from the mandibular deciduous second molars. Extracting the involved deciduous teeth led to marsupialization of the cysts and promoted eruption of the associated successors without orthodontic force. The cyst-associated premolars in the two cases erupted faster than the premolars on the contralateral noncyst side. The cysts were completely filled with normal bone. The monitoring radiographs showed bone healing, root formation, and path of eruption of the associated teeth after marsupialization of BBC.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose gel after buccal transmucosal administration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotscheck, Ursula; Boothe, Dawn Merton; Little, Amy A; Erb, Hollis N

    2010-01-01

    Alternatives to intravenous administration of opioids are needed in veterinary medicine. Previous research suggests that opioids can be administered through the buccal mucosa in dogs. This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine HCl (0.05 mg/kg) administered transmucosally in six dogs compared with those of buprenorphine HCl (0.015 mg/kg) administered intravenously. The results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine HCl administered intravenously or transmucosally are similar and that transmucosal administration may be considered as a noninvasive alternative to intravenous administration.

  1. Verruciform xanthoma of buccal mucosa: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhalerao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verruciformxanthoma (VX is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown etiology. It appears as a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous surface and variable color from reddish pink to gray. It occurs primarily in the masticatory mucosa. Histologically, VX is characterized by the presence of parakeratinized epithelium with thin rete ridges and connective tissue papillae extending up to the surface. The papillae characteristically consist of foam cells, also called xanthoma cells. We report a case of VX in the buccal mucosa and discuss their clinical and histopathological findings.

  2. Alternative of pedicle buccal fat pad for reconstruction defect in cleft palate patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Various surgical techniques have been employed for closure of the defect in the oral cavity. The type and size of defects in the oral cavity determine the techniques to use. Pedicle Buccal Fat Pad (BFP is one alternative tissue graft for defect reconstruction in oral cavity. The objective of this paper is to determine an alternative defect reconstruction in cleft palate using pedicle BFP. In conclusion, the use of BFP for the defect reconstruction in cleft palate patients shows satisfactory results with good healing. BFP can be an alternative method in the treatment of cleft palate defect.

  3. Reconstruction of palate with buccal fat pad secondary to resection of desmoplastic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimappa Mallappa Rudagi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA is an unusual variant of ameloblastoma exhibiting important differences in the anatomical distribution, radiographic features and histologic appearance compared with the classic type of ameloblastoma. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of DA in the anterior left maxilla and to describe a simple method of reconstruction with the use of buccal fat pad (BFP. BFP is an excellent choice for reconstruction of small to medium sized defects. It should be manipulated gently and hemostasis should be achieved meticulously during this surgery. It should not be sutured under tension.

  4. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noala Vicensoto Moreira Milhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma.

  5. An Extension for ESO Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.

  6. Buccal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Edens Hurst, MD, MS, Assistant Professor in Medical Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. ... Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial ... Read more Latest Health News Read more ...

  7. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... apply the systems after you eat breakfast and brush your teeth, and after dinner. Follow the directions on your ... must be removed after 12 hours.You may brush your teeth; use mouthwash; use tobacco products; chew gum; eat; ...

  8. Two-piece customized mold technique for high-dose-rate brachytherapy on cancers of the buccal mucosa and lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Hara, Marina; Unetsubo, Teruhisa; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Katsui, Kuniaki; Katayama, Norihisa; Yoshio, Kotaro; Takenobu, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using a customized mold is a minimally invasive treatment for oral cancer; however, it is difficult to use this technique for buccal and lip cancers involving the commissura labiorum, owing to its anatomic form. The purpose of this study was to introduce an improved customized mold consisting of 2 pieces to allow the fixation of molds to these sites. Five patients with buccal carcinoma and 1 patient with lip carcinoma were treated with this technique after external beam radiotherapy. One patient with neck metastasis underwent both neck dissection and partial tumor resection before HDR brachytherapy. At the end of the follow-up period, 5 patients had no tumor recurrence, and 1 patient had suffered local recurrence. Our technique is a viable therapeutic option for patients with buccal and lip carcinomas for whom the therapeutic modalities are limited by age, performance status, and other factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  10. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds agricultural extension theory and contributes to the practice of extension worldwide. Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the ...

  11. A study on cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliative buccal cells in iron deficiency anemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sumanthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the quantitative changes in nuclear diameter (ND, cytoplasmic diameter (CD and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C in cytological buccal smears of iron deficiency anemic patients by comparing with normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 40 healthy individuals and 40 iron deficiency anemic patients who were selected on clinical history, hematological investigations, and confirmed by serum ferritin levels. Exfoliative buccal smears stained with PAP stain were evaluated for cytoplasimic, nuclear diameters, and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C using Image Proexpress Version 6.0 image analysis system. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using unpaired ′t′ test. Results: A significant increase is seen in the average nuclear diameter (ND and N/C ratio of the anemic group when compared to the control group. The average cytoplasmic diameter (CD did not show any statistical difference among the two groups. Conclusion: Oral exfoliative cytological techniques could possibly be a noninvasive alternative diagnostic tool for iron deficiency anemia.

  12. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pmobile phone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  14. A case report on buccal mucosa graft for upper ureteral stricture repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilas Pandurang Sabale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of ureteric stricture especially long length upper one-third poses a challenging job for most urologists. With the successful use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG for stricture urethra leads the foundation for its use in ureteric stricture also. A 35-year-old male diagnosedcase of left upper ureteric stricture, postureteroscopy with left percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN in situ. Cysto-retrograde pyelography and nephrostogram done simultaneously suggestive of left upper ureteric stricture of 3 cm at L3 level. On exploration, diseased ureteral segment exposed, BMG harvested and sutured as onlay patch graft with supportive omental wrap. The treatment choice for upper ureteric long length stricture is inferior nephropexy, autotransplantation, or bowel interposition. With PCN in situ, inferior nephropexy becomes technically difficult, other two are morbid procedures. Use of BMG in this situation is technically better choice with all the advantages of buccal mucosa. Onlay BMG for ureteral stricture is technically easy, less morbid procedure and can be important choice in future.

  15. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  16. Buccal Bone Thickness Overlying Maxillary Anterior Teeth: A Clinical and Radiographic Prospective Human Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Joe; Ghosn, Nabil; Mokbel, Nadim; Naaman, Nada

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to measure the facial bone thickness overlying maxillary anterior teeth according to the periodontal biotype, the tooth position, and the bucco-palatal inclination of the tooth. CBCTs of 47 patients were included. The periodontal biotype and the bucco-palatal inclination were examined for all maxillary anterior teeth as well as the sagittal tooth position according to the classification of Kan et al. Buccal bone thickness was measured at 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm apical to the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). At 4 mm from the CEJ, mean buccal bone thickness was 1.0 mm for all teeth and it decreased gradually and significantly in apical direction (6, 8, and 10 mm). A thin biotype was associated with a labial plate thickness half that of a thick biotype at all 4 distances from the CEJ. Class IV of Kan et al classification presented the thinnest facial bone (0.32-0.54 mm), whereas Class III demonstrated the thickest one (1.26-2.09 mm) at all distances from the CEJ. At 10 mm from the CEJ, the facial bone thickness increased with the vestibulo-palatal inclination of the tooth. A thin facial bone wall overlies almost all maxillary anterior teeth.

  17. A CBCT atlas of buccal cortical bone thickness in interradicular spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Patrick B.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide a road map of buccal cortical bone thickness in interradicular locations where miniscrew implants are commonly placed. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 100 study quadrants (50 maxillary and 50 mandibular) were studied. Cortical bone thickness was measured at the most mesial point, the midpoint, and the most distal point in interradicular areas from the canine to the first molar in both arches at 4 mm and 6 mm from the alveolar ridge. Indicator variables of whether the cortical bone thickness was thinner than 1 mm and thicker than 1.5 mm were constructed and analyzed in a general linear mixed model. Results Buccal cortical bone was significantly thinner at a point bisecting two teeth than the bone adjacent to the teeth (P 1.5 mm (50%) was in the mandible adjacent to the first molar (distal to the midpoint of the second premolar and first molar) at 6 mm from the alveolar crest. Conclusion Cortical bone thickness is significantly thinner centrally between two teeth than in the areas adjacent to the roots. PMID:25760885

  18. Buccal dental-microwear and dietary ecology in a free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) from southern Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Alice M; Romero, Alejandro; Galbany, Jordi; Nsi Akoue, Gontran; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of dental micro- and macro-wear offer valuable information about dietary adaptations. The buccal surface of the teeth does not undergo attrition, indicating that dental microwear may directly inform about food properties. Only a few studies have, however, investigated the environmental and individual factors involved in the formation of such microwear in wild animals. Here, we examine variation of buccal microwear patterns of mandibular molars in a large free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). We first explore the influence of seasonality and individual's sex, age and tooth macrowear-expressed as the percent of dentine exposure (PDE)-on six microwear variables. Second, we analyze the interplay between individual's diet and PDE. In a last analysis, we revisit our results on mandrills in the light of other primate's microwear studies. We show that the average buccal scratch length and the frequency of vertical buccal scratches are both higher during the long dry season compared to the long rainy season, while we observe the inverse relationship for disto-mesial scratches. In addition, females present more disto-mesial scratches than males and older individuals present higher scratch density, a greater proportion of horizontal scratches but a lower proportion of vertical scratches than young animals. PDE yields similar results than individual's age confirming earlier results in this population on the relationship between age and tooth macrowear. Because seasonality and individual characteristics are both known to impact mandrills' diet in the study population, our results suggest that buccal microwear patterns may inform about individual feeding strategies. Furthermore, PDE increases with the consumption of potentially abrasive monocotyledonous plants, independently of the individuals' age, although it is not affected by food mechanical properties. Finally, buccal scratch densities by orientation appear as relevant proxies for discriminating

  19. Buccal dental-microwear and dietary ecology in a free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx from southern Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Percher

    Full Text Available Analyses of dental micro- and macro-wear offer valuable information about dietary adaptations. The buccal surface of the teeth does not undergo attrition, indicating that dental microwear may directly inform about food properties. Only a few studies have, however, investigated the environmental and individual factors involved in the formation of such microwear in wild animals. Here, we examine variation of buccal microwear patterns of mandibular molars in a large free-ranging population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx. We first explore the influence of seasonality and individual's sex, age and tooth macrowear-expressed as the percent of dentine exposure (PDE-on six microwear variables. Second, we analyze the interplay between individual's diet and PDE. In a last analysis, we revisit our results on mandrills in the light of other primate's microwear studies. We show that the average buccal scratch length and the frequency of vertical buccal scratches are both higher during the long dry season compared to the long rainy season, while we observe the inverse relationship for disto-mesial scratches. In addition, females present more disto-mesial scratches than males and older individuals present higher scratch density, a greater proportion of horizontal scratches but a lower proportion of vertical scratches than young animals. PDE yields similar results than individual's age confirming earlier results in this population on the relationship between age and tooth macrowear. Because seasonality and individual characteristics are both known to impact mandrills' diet in the study population, our results suggest that buccal microwear patterns may inform about individual feeding strategies. Furthermore, PDE increases with the consumption of potentially abrasive monocotyledonous plants, independently of the individuals' age, although it is not affected by food mechanical properties. Finally, buccal scratch densities by orientation appear as relevant proxies

  20. A new transmucosal drug delivery system for patients with breakthrough cancer pain: the fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freye, Enno

    2009-01-01

    Breakthrough pain, a transitory severe pain with the background of otherwise controlled persistent pain has a prevalence between 52% and 67% in outpatients with cancer. Medications for such sudden-onset pain require non-invasive delivery of a potent and short-acting opioid for rapid pain relief. Although oral transmucosal delivery of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been shown to provide better pain relief than a typical oral opioid administration such as morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) in the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer-related pain, newer delivery systems offer a potential for further enhancement of pain relief. The fentanyl effervescent buccal tablet (FBT) formulation employs a novel drug delivery system that relies on an effervescence reaction to improve buccal fentanyl absorption. Using the effervescence reaction results in the production and dissipation of carbon dioxide with a dynamic shift in pH as the tablet dissolves. The induced low pH favors dissolution of fentanyl citrate in saliva (higher water solubility). The subsequent increase in pH thereafter favors the buccal absorption of non-ionized fentanyl across the buccal mucosa. Such a pH “pumping” mechanism increases the permeation of fentanyl into and through the buccal to the vascular system from where the agent is transported to the specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS. Compared with OTFC, data in healthy volunteers show that the effervescence reaction employed in FBT increases the total amount and the speed of absorption of fentanyl being absorbed. Compared with OTFC there is an increase in peak fentanyl blood concentrations, and an enhancement of the amount of buccal delivery of fentanyl. Such favorable data are underlined by the results of clinical studies where the FBT technology was studied in patients with breakthrough pain in chronic malignant pathologies. PMID:21197291

  1. Capability Extension to the Turbine Off-Design Computer Program AXOD With Applications to the Highly Loaded Fan-Drive Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng S.

    2011-01-01

    The axial flow turbine off-design computer program AXOD has been upgraded to include the outlet guide vane (OGV) into its acceptable turbine configurations. The mathematical bases and the techniques used for the code implementation are described and discussed in lengths in this paper. This extended capability is verified and validated with two cases of highly loaded fan-drive turbines, designed and tested in the V/STOL Program of NASA. The first case is a 4 1/2-stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66, designed by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. The second case is a 3 1/2-stage turbine with an average loading factor of 4.0, designed in-house by the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center). Both cases were experimentally tested in the turbine facility located at the Glenn Research Center. The processes conducted in these studies are described in detail in this paper, and the results in comparison with the experimental data are presented and discussed. The comparisons between the AXOD results and the experimental data are in excellent agreement.

  2. A Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II: Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP)--The Possible Selves Questionnaire-Qualitative Extensions (PSQ-QE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsch, Gabrielle; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper, a Multistage Longitudinal Comparative (MLC) Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of qualitative…

  3. Immediate postextraction implant with simultaneous buccal plate augmentation, restored with lithium disilicate abutment and veneer: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Paolo; Belletti, Milko; Murmura, Giovanna

    2014-10-01

    To describe the successful use of biphasic calcium sulfate for improving the buccal plate thickness in an immediate postextraction implant, and its fi nal restoration with custom lithium disilicate abutment and veneer. A hopeless lateral incisor was replaced with an immediate postextraction implant in conjunction with a buccal plate augmentation based on biphasic calcium sulfate. Satisfactory soft tissue height and quality were maintained following healing. The fi nal restoration managed the severely reduced prosthetic space due to deep bite, and allowed an adhesive luting procedure.

  4. Guided bone regeneration of non-contained mandibular buccal bone defects using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and a collagen membrane: an experimental in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Mariano; Ferrantino, Luca; Vignoletti, Fabio; de Sanctis, Massimo; Berglundh, Tord

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this pre-clinical in vivo study was to analyse different stages of wound healing after guided bone regeneration in non-contained mandibular buccal bone defects. Eighteen female beagle dogs, between 1.5 and 2 years old, were used. Buccal bone defects were created in the mandible following extraction of the mesial roots of M1, P4, the distal root of P3 and booth roots of P2. Augmentation procedures of the healed defects were performed 3 months later using a bone replacement graft (T1), an absorbable collagen membrane (T2) or a combination of both procedures (T3). Using a randomized block study design, four stages of healing in two groups of dogs were examined (4 days, 2, 6 weeks and 3 months). The animals were euthanized, and biopsies obtained at the end of each of the study periods were prepared for histological examination. The different reconstructive procedures resulted in regenerated tissue compartments of varying size that contained newly formed bone, non-mineralized tissue and bone augmentation biomaterial when a bone replacement graft was used. While the proportions of mineralized tissue increased and non-mineralized tissue decreased over time in the three groups, the changes in proportions of the DBBM material were small. Initial defect depth, healing time and treatment group significantly influenced the percentage of mineralized tissue obtained. The multivariate multilevel analysis showed that significantly larger area proportions of mineralized tissue were obtained when the T2 sites were compared with T1 and T3 sites, what highlights the importance of the barrier membrane effect for attaining new bone formation. Only in the larger size defects (M1) total ROI at T3 and T1 sites was significantly larger than at T2, what highlights the importance of using a bone replacement graft as a space maintenance scaffold. It is suggested that healing following augmentation of non-contained buccal bone defects was characterized by a gradual shift in the

  5. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

  6. The extension of Rome׳s Capitoline Museums and the design of a new Hall on the site of the ancient ‘Giardino Romano’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Panella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The new Hall of Marcus Aurelius in the Capitoline Museums, located within the ancient site of Giardino Romano, displays the original statue of the Roman emperor of the 2nd century AD. The idea of extending the Capitoline Museums by including this site came about in the framework of its general redevelopment.11 The chronology of the design work stretches from 1993 to 2002; the works have been achieved between 2004 and 2005. The design leader was Carlo Aymonino and his collaborators architects Maria Luisa Tugnoli, Geneviève Hanssen, Raffaella Castrignanò. The structural design is by engineer Antonio Michetti, with Giuseppe Silvetti and architect Marco Astolfi. The new Hall is the result of a long and complicated process (1988–2005 considering the exceptional importance of the site and the many changes brought to the museum programme during the said period (Figures 1 and 2.In fact, the new Hall was originally supposed to display the marbles of the Temple of Apollo Sosianus, the foundation wall of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, embedded within the structures of the Palazzo Caffarelli, opposite the Giardino Romano. However, in 1997, the plan for the Capitoline Museum changed radically as the statue of Marcus Aurelius, which had been restored following the blast of a bomb attack in 1979, was determined to be the focus of the Hall. The project finally consisted of a steel and glass structure on an elliptic plan andshaped around the foundations of the Temple, with the statue at its center.

  7. Displacement and stress distribution of the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal versus palatal plates: finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Yoo; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Ki Beom; Mo, Sung-Seo; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the displacement and stress distribution in the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal and palatal plates using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Three anchorage appliance models-palatal plate (Type A), miniplate at the infrazygomatic crest (Type B), and conventional tooth-borne appliance (Type C)-were designed and integrated into a skull model. Protraction force was 500 g per side and force direction was forward and 30 degree downward to the maxillary occlusal plane. The stress distribution around the circum-maxillary sutures and the displacement of the surface landmarks were analysed. All models showed forward and upward displacement at anterior nasal spine, Point A, and prosthion and forward and downward displacement at posterior nasal spine resulting in a counter-clockwise rotation. This anterior displacement was greatest in Type A. At the maxillary process of the zygoma, upward movement was shown only in Type A, whereas downward movement was observed in Types B and C. The greatest stresses in Type A were at the pterygomaxillary and the zygomaticotemporal sutures. Type B showed the greatest stress at the frontomaxillary suture. Type A showed asymmetric results; however, it was not of clinical significance. The palatal plate resulted in wider stress distribution and more forward displacement compared to miniplate at the infrazygomatic crest area and conventional tooth-borne appliances. It might be recommended to consider the application of the palatal plate for maxillary protraction in Class III patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Surgical technique of the transoral approach to remove a lipoma of the buccal fat pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucoli, Matteo; Arcuri, Francesco; Borello, Giovanni; Benech, Arnaldo

    2011-11-01

    In 1727, Heister (Compendium anatomicum. Altdorf, Guill, Koleshii: editio tertia 1727: 134, table VIII and figs. 36-37) described the buccal fat pad (BFP) as an independent anatomic structure of the face; in 1801, Bichat (Anatomie generale appliquee a la physiologie et a la medecine. Paris, France: Brosson, Gabon et Cie Libraires, 1801:60) reported his fatty histologic finding. According to the literature, several pathologic tumorous conditions can arise from BFP, such as lipoma, lipoblastomatosis, liposarcoma, hemangioma, arteriovenous malformation, and nodular fasciitis; all of which are rare. After a revision of the English literature performed through PubMed between 1948 and 2008, we found 10 cases of lipomas arising from the BFP (7 cases are simple subtype, 2 are spindle cell lipoma, and 1 is fibrolipoma). The aims of this study were to introduce our clinical report of this rare pathologic entity, describe the surgical technique of the transoral approach, and discuss the potential pitfalls regarding the preoperative diagnosis and the close interrelation among the BFP, the facial buccal branches (FBBs), and the parotid duct (PD). A 43-year-old man was referred to the Maxillofacial Unit of the Novara Major Hospital with a 6-month history of a painless swelling in the right cheek. Clinical examination revealed a clearly visible, tender, slightly fluctuant mass, situated anterior to the masseter muscle and extended to the submandibular region. The patient underwent an ultrasound, a computed tomography, and a magnetic resonance imaging. Under general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent intraoral resection of BFP lipoma. The 2 major areas of discussion are the potential pitfall regarding the preoperative diagnosis and the close anatomic interrelation among the BFP, the FBB, and the PD. First, the spindle cell lipoma, one of the most common BFP lipoma variant, can be histologically and clinically similar to a well-differentiated liposarcoma

  9. Efficacy of a buccal meloxicam formulation for pain relief in Merino lambs undergoing knife castration and tail docking in a randomised field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, A H; Belson, S; Holm, M; Colditz, I G

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of oral transmucosal meloxicam for pain relief in lambs at marking. A blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, block design field study of 60 Merino lambs aged 7-10 weeks allocated to placebo and meloxicam treatments and studied in two cohorts of 30. Placebo-treated lambs received 1 mL/10 kg of drug vehicle and meloxicam-treated lambs received 1 mg/kg meloxicam at 10 mg/mL. Treatments were administered into the buccal cavity immediately before knife castration and hot-iron tail docking. Lambs were then released into a grassed paddock (0.34 ha). Time to mother-up was recorded and behaviours were observed every 15 min for 8 h and again for 45 min at 24 h. The sequence in which lambs exited the paddock with their mothers was then recorded. Weight change and wound scores were recorded 4 and 7 days after marking. Meloxicam did not affect mothering-up. In the 8 h following marking, meloxicam led to a 7-fold reduction (P meloxicam group spent significantly less time in standing postures and tended to spend more time grazing, suckling and in normal lying postures. At 24 h, the meloxicam group spent more time lying and less time standing. There was no effect of treatments on the sequence in which lambs moved into a fresh paddock or on weight change. The buccal meloxicam formulation provided substantial analgesia to lambs on the day of marking. Slight benefits were evident the following morning. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4% Articaine Mandibular Buccal Infiltration Compared To 2% Lignocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Children with Irreversible Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Mytri

    2015-01-01

    Background Lidocaine is the gold standard anaesthetic solution that has been used since its inception into dentistry till date. Around 80% of failures have been reported when lignocaine has been used for inferior alveolar nerve block in children and adults with irreversible pulpitis. There is a need to use newer drugs which are available which have been reported to be effective like lignocaine, such as articaine. Although articaine has been used in adults, literature supporting its use in children is sparse. Aim The purpose of this study is to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in children with irreversible pulpitis. It also aims to assess the need for supplemental intrapulpal injections. Materials and Methods This study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross over trial comparing the anaesthetic effectiveness of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine IAN block anaesthesia. The study subject and the pediatric dentist performing the pulpectomy procedures were blinded to the study. A sample size of 40 subjects in the age group of 5-8 y was included in the study. Results The onset of anaesthesia with 4% articaine was faster as compared to 2% lignocaine. The duration of anaesthesia with articaine infiltration was shorter. The need for supplemental injection in the articaine group was less. Conclusion Four percent articaine infiltration can be used in children with irreversible pulpitis. It can be used to replace the IAN block in children thereby reducing the post anaesthetic complications like lip biting. PMID:26023647

  11. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the β-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology.

  13. The ability of cone-beam computed tomography to detect simulated buccal and lingual recesses in root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.H.; Yuan, M.; Li, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  To compare the ability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs (PR) to detect simulated tissue-occupied recesses in root canals. Methodology  A standard canal was created in 30 extracted mandibular premolar roots. Each root was longitudinally split into buccal

  14. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of buccal bone measurements at dental implants with cone beam computed tomography in the esthetic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sufficient buccal bone is important for optimal esthetic results of implant treatment in the anterior region. It can be measured with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), but background scattering and problems with standardization of the measurements are encountered. The aim was to

  15. [Immediately placed front tooth implants 1. Analysis with cone beam computed tomography after remodelling of the buccal plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graauwmans, F.E.; Staas, T.A.; Groenendijk, E.; Verhamme, L.M.; Maal, T.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the period 1 January 2008 to 1 January 2012, an implant was installed in 186 patients immediately after the removal of a maxillary incisor. Subsequent to the placement of the implant, the 2 mm gap between implant and buccal plate was filled with a bone substitute. In the case of 16 patients, in

  16. Immunoperoxidase detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers and nonsmokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besaratinia, A.; Besarati Nia, A.; van Straaten, H. W.; Godschalk, R. W.; van Zandwijk, N.; Balm, A. J.; Kleinjans, J. C.; van Schooten, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for oral cancer; mouth floor and buccal mucosa are among the most and least cancer-prone subsites, respectively, in the oral cavity. We investigated the applicability of immunohistochemistry of smoking-induced DNA adducts in oral cells for assessing the

  17. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  18. Assessment of improved buccal permeation and bioavailability of felodipine microemulsion-based cross-linked polycarbophil gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra; Kanoujia, Jovita; Parashar, Poonam; Arya, Malti; Tripathi, Chandra B; Sinha, V R; Saraf, Shailendra K; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2018-02-08

    The oral bioavailability of felodipine (FEL) is very low, i.e., about 15%. This could be due to low water solubility and hepatic first-pass effect. The objective of the present study was to develop FEL microemulsion-based gel, to bypass the first pass effect, for buccal delivery. The optimized FEL microemulsion (OPT-MEF) was used to prepare buccoadhesive gels, with varying concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E4M and polycarbophil (PCP), and evaluated. The cross-linking of the PCP gelling agent was done by adjusting the pH with a neutralizing agent, triethanolamine (TEA). The formulations, namely drug suspension, OPT-MEF, microemulsion-based buccal gel containing 1% w/v (MEF-E4M1), 2% w/v (MEF-E4M2), and 3% w/v (MEF-E4M3) of HPMC K4M and 1% w/v (MEF-PCP1), 2% w/v (MEF-PCP2), and 3% w/v (MEF-PCP3) of PCP were prepared and optimized on the basis of ex vivo permeation study, mucoadhesion force, and viscosity. The optimized buccal gel (MEF-PCP1) showed significantly higher (p pseudoplastic flow behavior of MEF-PCP1 buccal gel. The C max value 9.21 ± 2.88 μg/ml of MEF-PCP1 gel was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared to the same dose administered by oral route (C max value 3.51 ± 1.74 μg/ml). The relative bioavailability (F r ) of the optimized MEF-PCP1 buccal gel was about 397.39% higher than that of oral route. In conclusion, consistent and effective buccal gel containing optimized FEL-loaded microemulsion, with improved buccal permeation and pharmacokinetic parameters was developed successfully to improve the bioavailability of FEL.

  19. Correlation of Smoking-Associated DNA Methylation Changes in Buccal Cells With DNA Methylation Changes in Epithelial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Yang, Zhen; Wong, Andrew; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Jiao, Yinming; Jones, Allison; Anjum, Shahzia; Hardy, Rebecca; Salvesen, Helga B; Thirlwell, Christina; Janes, Samuel M; Kuh, Diana; Widschwendter, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The utility of buccal cells as an epithelial source tissue for epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) remains to be demonstrated. Given the direct exposure of buccal cells to potent carcinogens such as smoke, epigenetic changes in these cells may provide insights into the development of smoke-related cancers. To perform an EWAS in buccal and blood cells to assess the relative effect of smoking on the DNA methylation (DNAme) patterns in these cell types and to test whether these DNAme changes are also seen in epithelial cancer. In 2013, we measured DNAme at more than 480,000 CpG sites in buccal samples provided in 1999 by 790 women (all aged 53 years in 1999) from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. This included matched blood samples from 152 women. We constructed a DNAme-based smoking index and tested its sensitivity and specificity to discriminate normal from cancer tissue in more than 5000 samples. CpG sites whose DNAme level correlates with smoking pack-years, and construction of an associated sample-specific smoking index, which measures the mean deviation of DNAme at smoking-associated CpG sites from a normal reference. In a discovery set of 400 women, we identified 1501 smoking-associated CpG sites at a genome-wide significance level of P smoking index constructed from the DNAme changes in buccal cells was able to discriminate normal tissue from cancer tissue with a mean receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.99 (range, 0.99-1.00) for lung cancers and of 0.91 (range, 0.71-1.00) for 13 other organs. The corresponding area under the curve of a smoking signature derived from blood cells was lower than that derived from buccal cells in 14 of 15 cancer types (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = .001). These data point toward buccal cells as being a more appropriate source of tissue than blood to conduct EWASs for smoking-related epithelial cancers.

  20. Interdisciplinary Management of Maxillary Canine Buccal Ectopia Associated with Peg Shaped Lateral Incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Singh Sawhny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines’ significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. The purpose of this report is to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach involving both orthodontic management and conservative tooth restoration. The case was treated through an orthodontic nonextraction fixed appliance mechanotherapy for successful alignment of buccally ectopic upper left canine followed by a conservative direct composite tooth buildup of peg lateral incisor associated with the upper left ectopic canine in a 16-year-old adolescent North Indian female. Posttreatment records demonstrated good alignment of the displaced tooth and restoration of normal anatomy of the peg shaped lateral incisor.

  1. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Alveolar Ridge, Buccal & Lingual Vestibule - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Koshti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. They can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinomas by their distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: 45 year old female patient presented with extra oral exophytic mass and intra-oral ulcerative lesion on right buccal mucosa and vestibule. The patient was referred for routine blood examination and radiography followed by incisional biopsy. The biopsy specimen was fixed, processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for further microscopic examination. Results: On microscopic examination basaloid cells were seen proliferating along with dysplastic squamous cells in the connective tissue stroma. Conclusion: Based on the histopathological findings a diagnosis of ′Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma′ was made. The patient was referred to department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for excision of the lesion followed by radiotherapy.

  2. Reconstruction of maxillary cemento-ossifying fibroma defect with buccal pad of fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Subramonian; Jeevadhas, Pratheep

    2013-07-01

    A cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a rare benign neoplasm of maxilla when compared with mandible (World Health Organization, 1992). COF of maxilla may be quite large and locally very aggressive lesion. These tumor mass was peeled out by en-bloc excision using gentle blunt dissection. This paper presents 35-year-old male patient who had a gradually expanding lobular mass in the left maxillary posterior region for past 1 year. He has been treated successfully by surgical en-bloc resection. Various techniques were used to reconstruction the defect. Buccal pad of fat is a simple technique having advantages like good vascularity, adaptability, good closure of the defect with favorable prognosis.

  3. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa with Rare Delayed Frontal Bone Metastasis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dalirsani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is a malignant neoplasm, which accounts for 5-10% of all salivary gland tumors (1. About 50% of these tumors originate from intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate (1. Three clinically obvious characteristics of AdCC include slow growth rate, perineural invasion and high incidence of distant metastasis (1. The most commonly-affected sites of distant metastasis are bone, liver and brain, followed by lungs (2. Lymph node metastases are rare;  The most common sites  involved by hematogenous spread are lungs (2.  This is a report about a patient with a rare form of AdCC on buccal mucosa with an unusual metastasis to the frontal region after a two-year follow up.

  4. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Panda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession (GR is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures.

  5. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  6. Buccal cells submitted to three different storage conditions before DNA extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nedel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively the effect of the storage time of samples before the application of the cell lysis solution (CLS for extracting DNA from buccal cells (BC. BC from the upper and lower gutter region were collected from 5 volunteers using special cytobrushes (Gentra, totaling 3 collections for each individual. In the control group (n=10, CLS was applied soon after BC collection. In the other two groups, samples were stored at room temperature (n=10 or at 4°C (n=10. After CLS application, DNA was extracted according to the manufacturer's instructions (Puregene DNA Buccal Cell Kit; Gentra Systems, Inc.. The DNA obtained was evaluated by two calibrated blind examiners using spectrophotometry and analysis of DNA bands (0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. The obtained data were submitted to one-way ANOVA. The means and standard deviations for DNA extracted under immediate, room temperature and cooling temperature conditions were 3.5 ± 0.7, 3.0 ± 0.6 and 4.1 ± 1.8 µg, respectively (p=0.385. No significant differences were found in relation to the amount of DNA for the different storage conditions. However, in the visual analysis of the DNA bands, no trace of DNA degradation was detected when CSL was applied soon after DNA collection, while DNA bands with degradation could be observed in the other groups. Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that CLS should be applied soon after DNA collection in order to obtain high-quality DNA from BC.

  7. Buccal Mucosa Carcinoma: A Comparative Relative Risk Analysis between Tobacco and Non Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Ramasamy; Kalaivani, Amitkumar; Paulraj, Sathish; Sundaresan, Sivapatham

    2017-06-01

    In South India, buccal mucosa carcinoma is common cancer due to widespread use of tobacco in different form. Recently, areca nut (non tobacco) chewing habits have increased among young adults resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Thus, there is need to understand role of aetiology and risk of disease. To analyse relative risk of tobacco users and non tobacco users in buccal mucosa carcinoma. This prospective comparative study was conducted in Regional Cancer Centre, Kanchipuram, between 2013 and 2016. The subjects were divided as tobacco users and non tobacco users in order to evaluate the Relative Risk (RR) in these groups based on demographic and clinical characteristics by Chi-square analysis and Kaplan-Meier (log-rank test) applied for survival difference. All statistics considered at 95 % CI, pusers and 30 (25.7%) non tobacco users. In the study, demographic characteristics of gender [RR=0.365 (0.150-0.886), p=0.023] and age groups {RR=2.026 (0.905-4.996), p=0.04} showed significant difference in both study groups. Similarly, clinical characteristics of TNM (tumour node and metastasis) stage {RR=1.57 (0.338-3.31), p=0.024}, nodal status {RR=2.014 (0.412-4.454), p=0.017}, Grade of tumour {RR=1.293 (0.581-2.878), p=0.015}, perineural invasion {RR=2.601 (0.806-5.32), p=0.012} and extracapsular invasion {RR=1.627 (0.533-2.824), p=0.045} showed significant association. The estimated overall survival was 50%; tobacco users (44%) showed lower survival than non tobacco users (57%) with significant difference (p=0.042, pusers than non tobacco users. Hence, the study concluded that the tobacco consumption in different form is more aggressive than non tobacco consumption.

  8. An electron microscopic study on the effects of irradiation on the buccal mucosa of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Syng Kyu; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Dental Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The author studied the acute reaction of cobalt-60 irradiation to buccal mucosa in rats and difference of the effects of single versus fractionated exposure. 195 Sprague Dowley strain rats, weighing about 120 gm, were used in this experiment. 3 rats served as controls and the remaining 192 rats were divided into six groups of 32 rats each. Experiment group I, II, III were received a single does of 15 Gy, 16.5 Gy 18 Gy and group IV, V, VI were received two equal sized fractionated does of 9 Gy, 9.75 Gy, 10.5 Gy at 4 hour intervals, respectively. The experimental groups were irradiated with cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker model 4M 60(Field size, 12 x 5 cm, SSD, 50 cm, Dose rate, 222 cGy/min, Depth, 1 cm). The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 days after irradiation and the changes of the irradiated buccal mucosa were observes by electron and light microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. A single exposure was more damaging than fractionated exposure, and as the radiation dose increased, the changes of cell organelles became faster, but the healing of radiation-induced damage in fractionated exposure was faster than in single exposure. 2. The radiation-induced changes of the basal cells were the most prominent in 18 Gy-single exposure group, and the least in 18 Gy-fractionated exposure group. 3. Electron-microscopically, there appeared nuclear changes, swelling of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum, decrease of free ribosome, presence of vesicles, widening of intercellular space, and loss of basal lamina. The early remarkable changes were partly loss of nuclear membrane and swelling of mitochondria. 4. Light-microscopically, derangement and pyknosis of basal cells, hydropic changes of spinous cells, enlargement of granular cells, indistinctness of basement membrane, and proliferation of epithelium were observed.

  9. Effects of ethanol and extract of cigarette smoke on the rabbit buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Caymaz, Canan; Bor, Serhat; Tobey, Nelia A; Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Orlando, Roy C

    2011-01-01

    The combination of smoking and drinking alcohol has a high association with diseases of squamous epithelium within the human oral cavity. Therefore, a study was done to assess the impact of these agents alone or in combination on the squamous epithelium using as model the buccal epithelium from rabbit oral cavity. Buccal epithelium was mounted in Ussing chambers to monitor electrical parameters during exposure to ethanol (5-40%) or to Ringer extract of cigarette smoke (EOCS) from one to six cigarettes dissolved in 10 ml Ringer either alone or with combination. Exposure to EOCS reduced in a dose dependent manner above 2 cigarettes/10 ml transmural electrical potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (I(sc)), increased transmural electrical resistance (R). Morphology showed from generalize tissue edema to patchy necrosis with the increasing concentrations. Ethanol alone raised PD, I(sc) and R at lower concentrations (5%) and lowered PD, I(sc) and R at higher concentrations (40%). The combination of 5% ethanol, EOCS-1cigarette/10 ml reduced PD, I(sc) by 58% and increased R by 29%. Unlike exposure to 5% EtOH and EOCS-1, 10% EtOH combined with EOCS-1 produces a harmful effect by dropping PD and I(sc). Both, simultaneous, and sequential, use of these agents enhanced their negative impact on these parameters. The enhancement of these effects are not due to solubulization of additional tobacco products by EtOH or by or by EtOH enhancing smoking noxious effect. Histopathologic damage needs higher concentrations of ethanol and EOCS combination and changes were more profound compared to the sum of the isolated effects of both agents. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Marketing Extension Needs for Sustainable Extension Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the marketing extension needs of cassava farmers in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and five respondents from the list of contact farmers obtained from the state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Interview ...

  11. Generalized extensions and blocking factors for FITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, P.; Harten, R. H.; Greisen, E. W.; Wells, D. C.

    1988-06-01

    A general design for extending the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) tape format is proposed. The present design is shown to preserve compatibility with existing FITS tapes and software (including the 'random groups'), while being general enough to permit a wide variety of new extension files to be designed in the future. Rules are given for the blocking of FITS logical records. The rules for the generalized extension of FITS ensure that extensions can be located and decoded by standard routines without interfering with each other.

  12. Role of tissue engineered buccal mucosa for treatment of urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddi S

    2013-10-01

    next challenge awaiting researchers in the urogenital tissue engineering field. Genitalia reconstruction is also possible with cell therapy. Engineered penile prosthesis can be reconstructed by culturing autologous chondrocytes which are seeded onto a Poly-glycolic acid scaffold and then implanting the scaffold into the corporal space of penis [6]. Microencapsulated Leydig cells in animal studies have been used to replace or supplement testosterone in testicular failure [7]. Cell therapy techniques are also used for treatment of urinary incontinence, vesicoureteric reflux by injecting cultured myoblasts or adipocytes [5]. The major limitation in engineering solid organs is the vascularisation of the regenerated tissue. Recent developments in angiogenesis research [8] may provide answer to this complex problem and accomplish the goal. Most of the research to date in urological tissue engineering is done in animals. Before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies need to be performed. Buccal Mucosal Epithelium for repair of the short segment urethral stricture: Urethral stricture is the narrowing of the lumen of the urethra which occurs as a terminal event secondary to many etiologies. Patients present with difficulty in voiding urine. There are endoscopic and open surgical reconstructive procedures to treat this disorder. Endoscopic treatment is often temporary and eventually results in recurrence of the disease. Many open surgical procedures have been described but none of the procedures offer permanent cure. The use of buccal mucosal grafts for stricture repair is in practice [9,10] with considerable success. However the donor site morbidity and complications like stricture recurrence with the present techniques [11,12] warrant the advent of novel techniques. The use of buccal mucosal cells which can be obtained by harvesting a 2mm x 2mm tissue bit compared to that of 5-6cm tissue usually harvested in conventional techniques for a graft

  13. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  14. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Outpatient. Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings have implications for the design and conduct of clinical research. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  15. A case report of an extensive irritation fibroma on palatal margin of maxillary gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tahamtan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Irritation fibroma is a reactive lesion of the buccal mucosa that often occurs in line with the occlusal plane due to cheek biting. This lesion may also be seen on the palate, gingiva and lips; however, it mostly occurs in the areas exposed to trauma. This paper reports a case of extensive irritation fibroma on maxillary gingiva in a 36 year old male that was related to palatal margin of left premolars. The lesion was excised by biopsy and was diagnosed as irritation fibroma after histological analysis.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patch of acyclovir utilizing inclusion phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal patch releasing drug in the oral cavity at a predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms, such as tablets, gels and solutions. A buccal patch for systemic administration of acyclovir in the oral cavity was developed using polymers hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K4M, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K15M, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and poly vinyl pyrolidone (K30, plasticizer poly ethylene glycol (400 and a backing membrane of Eudragit (RL100. The films were evaluated in terms of swelling, residence time, mucoadhesion, release, and organoleptic properties. The optimized films showed lower release as compared to controlled drug delivery systems. Hence, an inclusion complex of acyclovir was prepared with hydrophilic polymer hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin in the molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complex was characterized by optical microscopy, FAB mass spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Patches formulated with the acyclovir inclusion complex were evaluated along the same lines as those containing acyclovir alone. The in vitro release data revealed a substantial increase from 64.35% to 88.15% in the case of PS I and PS II batches, respectively, confirming the successful use of inclusion complexes for the formulation of buccal patch of acyclovir.Mucoadesivos bucais liberadores de fármacos para a cavidade oral com taxa de liberação pré-determinada podem apresentar distintas vantagens em relação às formas farmacêuticas convencionais como comprimidos, géis e soluções. Neste trabalho, um adesivo bucal para administração sistêmica de aciclovir através da cavidade oral foi desenvolvido empregando-se os polímeros hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K4M, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K15M, carboximetil celulose sódica e polivinil pirrolidona (K30, polietilenoglicol plastificado (400 e uma membrana suporte de Eudragit (RL100. Os filmes obtidos foram avaliados em termos de

  17. Neural Extensions to Robust Parameter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    different ANNs to classify a winner in an NBA basketball game based simply on box score data. The results obtained from these authors showed remarkable......ANNsMethod Math 1 2 3 4 5R R R R R+ + − − 1 2F F− 1 1 2 2F Fλ λ− % % 1 2F F− % % 1 1 2 2F Fλ λ− ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 R R RF F F− − ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 2 2 3 3 R R RF

  18. Automating Physical Database Design: An Extensible Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    page access retrieves both master and detail information. On the other hand, this makes query formulation awkward. Encoding Sparse Domains If a column...relations). The LDS also provides entity cardinality, relationship degree, and domain cardinality (of attributes). 1This \\Logical Data Structure...pages 91{102, 1992. [New93] New York University Programming Langauges Group. Grin Refer- ence Manual, 1993. [Nix91] Brian Nixon. Implementation of

  19. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  20. Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…

  1. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  2. University Extension Before 1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Lowell R.

    1976-01-01

    The author traces university extension from its elite English roots to evolving forces toward democratization of educational opportunities and the simultaneous emergence of similar American programs such as library-related night schools, the Lyceum movement, Chataqua, the Philadelphia Society for Extension of University Teaching, and the…

  3. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  4. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  5. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  6. Oral buccal mucous membrane allograft with a corneal lamellar graft for the repair of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis stromal melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, Setareh; Rootman, David S; Slomovic, Allan R; Chan, Clara C

    2013-11-01

    To describe a surgical technique to repair Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro)-related corneal melts. Technique description and review of 3 representative cases. After harvesting the buccal mucosa from the patient's inner lower lip, the exposed area of the KPro back plate is prepared for repair by adequate exposure and removal of necrotic tissue. The area is then covered with a lamellar patch of cornea secured in place with interrupted 10-0 nylon sutures, followed by a thin layer of buccal mucosa secured in place with interrupted 8-0 vicryl sutures. This technique provides surgeons with a method to repair KPro-related corneal melts when there is a conjunctival deficiency.

  7. Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in normal human buccal mucosa cells of oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: a field effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, A; Metgud, R; Astekar, M; Tak, M

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated epithelial cells of the oral cavity on the side opposite the lesion targeted by radiotherapy and correlated them with radiation doses. Buccal smears were obtained from oral cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy with a cumulative dose of at least 1000 rad for 3 weeks and from controls matched for age, gender and habits. The exfoliated cells from the mucosa were collected using a cytobrush; smears were prepared, fixed in 80% methanol and stained using the Feulgen plus fast green method. The mean number of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies/1000 cells was significantly greater in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment, but the differences were not significant compared to radiation doses. It appears that radiotherapy has a potent clastogenic effect on buccal mucosal cells of oral cancer patients.

  8. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  9. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  10. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Taliria Silva; Granjeiro, Jose Mauro; Amorim, Lidia Maria Fonte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature...

  11. Predictors of mother and child DNA yields in buccal cell samples collected in pediatric cancer epidemiologic studies: a report from the Children's Oncology group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poynter, Jenny N; Ross, Julie A; Hooten, Anthony J; Langer, Erica; Blommer, Crystal; Spector, Logan G

    2013-01-01

    ...; however, DNA collection in young children poses additional challenges. Here, we have evaluated predictors of DNA quantity in buccal cells collected for population-based studies of infant leukemia (N...

  12. Buccal bone plate remodeling after immediate implant placement with and without synthetic bone grafting and flapless surgery: radiographic study in dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novaes, Jr, Arthur B; Suaid, Flávia; Queiroz, Adriana C; Muglia, Valdir A; Souza, Sérgio L S; Palioto, Daniela B; Taba, Jr, Mário; Grisi, Márcio F M

    2012-01-01

    .... The use of flapless surgical procedures prior to the installation of immediate implants, as well as the use of synthetic bone graft in the gaps represent viable alternatives to minimize buccal bone...

  13. Buccal bone plate remodeling after immediate implant placement with and without synthetic bone grafting and flapless surgery: radiographic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Arthur B; Suaid, Flávia; Queiroz, Adriana C; Muglia, Valdir A; Souza, Sérgio L S; Palioto, Daniela B; Taba, Mário; Grisi, Márcio F M

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies in animals have shown pronounced resorption of the buccal bone plate after immediate implantation. The use of flapless surgical procedures prior to the installation of immediate implants, as well as the use of synthetic bone graft in the gaps represent viable alternatives to minimize buccal bone resorption and to favor osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of the buccal bone plate following immediate implantation using the flapless approach, and to compare this process with sites in which a synthetic bone graft was or was not inserted into the gap between the implant and the buccal bone plate. Lower bicuspids from 8 dogs were bilaterally extracted without the use of flaps, and 4 implants were installed in the alveoli in each side of the mandible and were positioned 2.0 mm from the buccal bone plate (gap). Four groups were devised: 2.0-mm subcrestal implants (3.3 × 8 mm) using bone grafts (SCTG), 2.0-mm subcrestal implants without bone grafts (SCCG), equicrestal implants (3.3 × 10 mm) with bone grafts (ECTG), and equicrestal implants without bone grafts (ECCG). One week following the surgical procedures, metallic prostheses were installed, and within 12 weeks the dogs were sacrificed. The blocks containing the individual implants were turned sideways, and radiographic imaging was obtained to analyze the remodeling of the buccal bone plate. In the analysis of the resulting distance between the implant shoulder and the bone crest, statistically significant differences were found in the SCTG when compared to the ECTG (P = .02) and ECCG (P = .03). For mean value comparison of the resulting linear distance between the implant surface and the buccal plate, no statistically significant difference was found among all groups (P > .05). The same result was observed in the parameter for presence or absence of tissue formation between the implant surface and buccal plate. Equicrestally placed implants, in this methodology

  14. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  15. Morphological and biochemical mechanisms of changes in buccal epithelocytes and erythrocytes in children suffering psycho-emotional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Z. Gan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides experimental data on the impact of psychoemotional stress on cytological, morphometric, immunological and biochemical indicators in 7–11 year old children. We examined 100 children of primary school age, who were divided into the main group (50 children who had been resettled from the war zone in Eastern Ukraine and the control group (50 children, who live in Ivano-Frankivs’k. We used morphological (light-optical and electromicroscopic and mor phometric analysis of buccal epithelium and peripheral blood erythrocytes, biochemical methods for identifying the products of peroxidation of lipids, ceruloplasmin and ferritin according to widely used methods. Morphological methods revealed that under psychoemotional stress, the size of the nuclei and buccal epithelial cells significantly decreases, and their nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio changes towards increase in the share of cytoplasm, and the indicators of coefficient of buccal epithelial cell shape indicate significant deformation of those cells. Similar changes were observed in the erythrocytes of peripheral blood. In the blood, we observed an increase in the CD95+ concentration of lymphocytes. Clearly manifested changes in morphological and morphometric indicators of buccal epithelium and erythrocytes when there is an increase in the CD95+ level of lymphocytes indicate the development of a systematic apoptosis reaction of the studied cells in the condition of psychoemotional stress. Also we observed clearly manifested changes in the coefficient of erythrocytes’ shape, their size and perimeter, increase in the number of reversibly and irreversibly changed cells, which with increase in free radical oxidation, indicates disorders in the organism’s antioxidant protection system in general and requires a pathogenically grounded programme of treating complications related to psychoemotional stress among 7–11 year old children who were resettled fom the combat zone in Eastern

  16. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  17. Evaluation of matrix type mucoadhesive tablets containing indomethacin for buccal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku

    2013-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E

    2010-03-22

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as L(3.5)(body). The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution.

  19. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

  20. Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Egr-1 protein expression in OSF was examined using antibody to Egr-1. Arecoline-induced Egr-1 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Elevated Egr-1 staining was observed in epithelial cells, fibroblast, and inflammatory cells in 7 of 10 OSF cases. Arecoline, a main alkaloid found in the areca nut, stimulated Egr-1 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis and collagen gel contraction in a dose-responsive manner. Constitutive Egr-1 expression during areca nut chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. EGCG could be a good candidate for prevention or treatment of OSF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Case of Buccal Abscess from an Impacted Wisdom Tooth in an Elderly Person with Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of buccal abscess caused by an impacted wisdom tooth in an extremely elderly person with malnutrition. The patient was a 94-year-old man, who complained that he had found it hard to open his mouth and that his cheek had been swollen for the previous 2 weeks. He had a shallow oral wound caused by an improperly fitting denture; however, the wound became infected. We performed incisional drainage of the abscess under local anesthesia. The swelling disappeared and he was able to open his mouth 55 mm. The elderly have a high risk of healing failure of injuries and it has been reported that infection in a host in a compromised state is severely intractable. This elderly patient was in a compromised state because of malnutrition. Cases such as this one will increase as the elderly population increases. Dentists need to consider the quality of life of patients with a longer life expectancy and should offer patients several treatment options before their general condition deteriorates.

  2. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery.

  3. Translocated pedicled buccal fat pad: closure of anterior and middle skull base defects after tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherekaev, Vasily A; Golbin, Denis A; Belov, Alexander I

    2012-01-01

    Problem of closure of skull base defects after removal of craniobasal lesions, especially, craniofacial, is one of the most challenging in neurosurgery. Persistent skull base defect produces extremely high risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks and consecutive infectious complications. Local pedicled grafts are the preferred material for plasty. In this study, the authors present original technique of using a pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) graft. Anatomy and functions of BFP are discussed in details as well as surgical technique illustrated by 2 case reports. From 2004 to 2010, 188 patients with anterior and middle skull base mass lesions were operated on in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) using BFP as plastic material for closure of different defects (male-female ratio=61:127; mean age was 47 years [range, 10-74 years]). In 93.6% of cases, pedicled BFP flap was applied; in 6.4%, free flap was used. Follow-up period ranged between 1 and 7 years. Only 1 case of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was observed; flap rejection was not registered in the series. High effectiveness and minimal invasiveness are principal advantages of the described technique, which is applied in neurosurgery for the first time. Other benefits include proximity of donor site and defect, simplicity of surgical technique, minimal postoperative discomfort, and very low risk of benign complications.

  4. Preformulation Studies of Furosemide-Loaded Electrospun Nanofibrous Systems for Buccal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kovács

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Furosemide loaded electrospun fibers were prepared for buccal administration, with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability of the poorly soluble and permeable crystalline drug, which can be achieved by the increased solubility and by the circumvention of the intensive first pass metabolism. The water soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC was chosen as a mucoadhesive polymer. In order to improve the electrospinnability of HPC, poly (vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used. During the experiments, the total polymer concentration was kept constant at 15% (w/w, and only the ratio of the two polymers (HPC-PVP = 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1 was changed. A combination of rheological measurements with scanning electron microscopic morphological images of electrospun samples was applied for the determination of the optimum composition of the gels for fiber formation. The crystalline–amorphous transition of furosemide was tracked by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A correlation was found between the rheological properties of the polymer solutions and their electrospinnability, and the consequent morphology of the resultant samples. With decreasing HPC ratio of the system, a transition from the spray-dried droplets to the randomly oriented fibrous structures was observed. The results enable the determination of the polymer ratio for the formation of applicable quality of electrospun fibers.

  5. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  6. Exfoliative cytological assessment of apparently normal buccal mucosa among quid chewers using argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts and Papanicolaou staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Bhavna C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2013-01-01

    Quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of oral cancer. This study aims to analyze argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts along with Papanicolaou (PAP) staining in exfoliative smears of quid chewers and non-chewers to correlate quid chewing habits with possible early cytological changes in apparently normal buccal mucosa. Exfoliative smears were obtained from normal buccal mucosa of 30 male quid chewers and non-chewers. The smears were stained using the AgNOR silver staining technique to evaluate the proliferative activity and PAP for cytological appearance. Statistically higher AgNOR counts were observed in chewers as compared to non-chewers. The difference in the mean percentage of nuclei having ≥5 AgNORs in both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). In chewers, PAP showed 77% with class I and the remaining 23% were class II, while the non-chewers showed only class I cytology. AgNOR counts between chewers and non-chewers having class I cytological appearance demonstrated a greater mean AgNOR count in chewers (p = 0.0001). Quid chewing seems to have a definite role in promoting proliferative activity of apparently normal buccal mucosal cells. Exfoliative cytological assessment of a combination of AgNOR counts and PAP has the potential for prediction of early quid-associated cellular changes before the appearance of clinical premalignant and malignant lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of Furlow double opposing Z plasty with buccal fat pad and intraoperative bleeding in adult patient (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiza Nabilah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI is often occur in cleft palate patient. Furlow double opposing Z plasty technique, based on several studies, have shown better speech and velopharyngeal competence outcome compare to other techniques. The objective of this case report is to describe Furlow double opposing Z plasty technique procedure with  buccal fat pad in wide cleft adult patient and management of intraoperative bleeding complications that occur. A17 years old male patient diagnosed with unilateral palatoschisis complete post labioplasty and Furlow palatoplasty technique was performed with modifications using pedicle buccal fat pad. While the procedure ongoing, bleeding occurs which suspected to originate from the ascending palatine artery and the bleeding management was performed. Proper management from the oral surgeon and the anesthesia team has been successfully manage the bleeding. There were no complications after a few days of observation. Furlow double opposing Z plasty with buccal fat pad can be used as an alternative technique for cleft palate closure in adult patients.

  9. Chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, S; Balakrishnan, S; Menon, V P; Alias, L M; Reena, A R

    2009-02-01

    Oral carcinoma accounts for 40-50 percent of all cancers in India. Tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors associated with the high incidence of oral cancer in India. Our aim was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouch of Syrian golden hamsters, by painting them with 0.5 percent DMBA in liquid paraffin, three times a week for 14 weeks. The tumour incidence, tumour volume and burden were determined in the buccal pouches. The status of phase II detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were estimated by specific colorimetric methods. We observed 100 percent tumour formation in DMBA-alone painted hamsters. Disturbances in the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and phase II detoxification agents were noticed in DMBA-alone painted hamsters. Oral administration of curcumin (80 mg/kg body weight) and piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) to DMBA-painted hamsters on alternate days to DMBA painting for 14 weeks completely prevented the formation of oral carcinoma. Also, curcumin and piperine restored the status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxifying agents in DMBA-painted hamsters. The chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine is probably due to their antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant potential as well as their modulating effect on the carcinogen detoxification process.

  10. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  11. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  12. Transmucosal Implant Placement with Submarginal Connective Tissue Graft in Area of Shallow Buccal Bone Dehiscence: A Three-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Martina; Felice, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio; Marzadori, Matteo; Gherlone, Enrico F; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case series study was to evaluate the short- and long-term (3 years) soft tissue stability of a surgical technique combining transmucosal implant placement with submarginal connective tissue graft (CTG) in an area of shallow buccal bone dehiscence. A sample of 20 patients were treated by positioning a transmucosal implant in an intercalated edentulous area. A CTG sutured to the inner aspect of the buccal flap was used to cover the shallow buccal bone dehiscence. Clinical evaluations were made at 6 months (T₁) and 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₃) years after the surgery. Statistically significant increases in buccal soft tissue thickness and improvement of vertical soft tissue level were achieved at the T₁, T₂, and T₃ follow-ups. A significant increase in keratinized tissue height was also found at T₃. No significant marginal bone loss was recorded. The submarginal CTG technique was able to provide simultaneous vertical and horizontal soft tissue increases around single implants with shallow buccal bone dehiscence and no buccal mucosal recession or clinical signs of mucositis or peri-implantitis at 1 and 3 years.

  13. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    challenging kind of system to design for independent extension. This thesis presents two new software technologies that improve the extensibility of control systems: First, the concept of dynamic links is introduced and Decouplink – an implementation of dynamic links for Java - is presented. Dynamic links......While the extensibility of many software systems has been greatly improved during the past two decades, nontrivial control systems remain to be a category of software systems that are remarkably difficult for independent parties to extend. Support for independent extension is the ability...... is introduced, and an implementation is presented. The extensible controller is a component framework designed to automatically resolve conflicts among mutually unaware components in a control system. The solution is based on the idea that independent components implement different kinds of control concerns...

  14. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of at...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  15. Gamut extension for cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Zamir, Syed Waqas,; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of dis...

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  17. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  18. Raman Spectroscopy of Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis: Study on Sequential Cancer Progression in Hamster Buccal Pouch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish; Krishna, C Murali

    2016-10-01

    Oral cancers suffer from poor 5-year survival rates, owing to late detection of the disease. Current diagnostic/screening tools need to be upgraded in view of disadvantages like invasiveness, tedious sample preparation, long output times, and interobserver variances. Raman spectroscopy has been shown to identify many disease conditions, including oral cancers, from healthy conditions. Further studies in exploring sequential changes in oral carcinogenesis are warranted. In this Raman spectroscopy study, sequential progression in experimental oral carcinogenesis in Hamster buccal pouch model was investigated using 3 approaches-ex vivo, in vivo sequential, and in vivo follow-up. In all these studies, spectral changes show lipid dominance in early stages while later stages and tumors showed increased protein to lipid ratio and nucleic acids. On similar lines, early weeks of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-treated and control groups showed higher overlap and low classification. The classification efficiency increased progressively, reached a plateau phase and subsequently increased up to 100% by 14 weeks. The misclassifications between treated and control spectra suggested some changes in controls as well, which was confirmed by a careful reexamination of histopathological slides. These findings suggests Raman spectroscopy may be able to identify microheterogeneity, which may often go unnoticed in conventional biochemistry wherein tissue extracts are employed, as well as in histopathology. In vivo findings, quite comparable to gold-standard supported ex vivo findings, give further proof of Raman spectroscopy being a promising label-free, noninvasive diagnostic adjunct for future clinical applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Redo buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty: success rate, oral morbidity and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Clemens M; Schmid, Marianne; Ludwig, Tim A; Kluth, Luis A; Dahlem, Roland; Fisch, Margit; Ahyai, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    To determine the success rate, oral morbidity and functional outcomes of redo buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU) for treatment of stricture recurrence after previous BMGU. We included 50 patients who underwent redo BMGU between February 2009 and September 2014. Patients' charts and non-validated questionnaires were reviewed. The primary endpoint was success rate, defined as stricture-free survival. Stricture recurrence was defined as any postoperative claims of catheterization, dilatation, urethrotomy or repeat urethroplasty, or a maximum urinary flow rate <15 mL/s, and a stricture was consecutively verified in a combined cysto-urethrogram or cystoscopy at annual follow-up visit. The secondary endpoint was oral morbidity. Additional endpoints were erectile function, urinary continence and patients' satisfaction. Redo BMGU was performed for bulbar (71.4%) or penile (28.6%) recurrent strictures. The mean (median; range) follow-up was 25.6 (15.5; 3-70) months. Stricture recurrence occurred in 18.0% of patients within a mean (median; range) of 13.8 (9.0; 3-36) months. Stricture-free survival at 12, 24 and 36 months was 91.2, 86.2 and 80.8%, respectively. The majority of the patients (97.0%) reported no or only mildly changed salivation or problems in opening of the mouth. Severe or very severe oral numbness occurred in 13.5% of patients. Oral problems in daily life were a moderate or severe burden to 13.6 and 2.7% of the patients, respectively, while 75.0% of the patients reported improved quality of life compared with preoperative status. The success rate and oral morbidity of redo BMGU are almost the same as outcomes of primary BMGU. Oral numbness was the most frequently reported oral disorder. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pediatric Robot-assisted Redo Pyeloplasty With Buccal Mucosa Graft: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jennifer J; Shapiro, Michael E; Ellison, Jonathan S; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    To report a novel approach of pediatric robot-assisted redo pyeloplasty with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of all patients undergoing robot-assisted redo pyeloplasty with BMG at our institution was performed. For all patients, the following ports were used: one 8.5 mm camera, two 8 mm robotic, and one 5 mm assistant. Initial dissection was performed laparoscopically and robotically, and the ureter was incised longitudinally along the anterior surface. The robot was undocked, and BMG was harvested from the inner cheek. The robot was then redocked, and grafts were delivered via the 8 mm robotic port and anastomosed as anterior onlay grafts using 5-0 or 6-0 absorbable monofilament suture. Omentum was quilted over the graft as a vascular backing. Ureteral stents were placed intraoperatively and left in situ for 8 weeks. Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 3. All patients received intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin preoperatively, with antibiotics discontinued within 24 hours. Three patients underwent robot-assisted redo pyeloplasty with BMG. Patient characteristics are seen in Table 1. Mean number of prior surgeries for ureteropelvic junction obstruction repair was 2 (1-3), and mean length of stricture was 4.3 cm (2.5-6). At a median follow-up of 10 months (5-26), all patients are asymptomatic with stable or improved ultrasound. Robot-assisted redo pyeloplasty with BMG is safe and feasible in the pediatric population. Long-term follow-up is needed to determine the durability of these grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinicopathological study of surgical margins in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Azeem Mohiyuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the margins of resected specimen of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and to document the surgical margin (measured at the time of resection and margins at the time of pathological examination (after immersion of the specimen in formalin. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed and confirmed with squamous carcinoma of buccal mucosa were included in the study. Patients underwent resection of the tumor with a margin of 1 cm. Soon after resection, the distance between outermost visible margin of the tumor and the margin of the specimen was measured and documented. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for gross and histopathological examination. The closest histopathologic margin was compared with the in situ margin (10 mm to determine and document any shrinkage of the margin and the percentage of discrepancy if any. Results: A total of 52 specimens were collected from patients between January 2014 and December 2014. All specimens were obtained from the oral cavity (n = 52 of which 43 (82.7% were squamous cell carcinoma and 9 (17.3% were verrucous variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The average decrease in tumor margins measured after fixation in formalin was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05 in 65% of cases. Conclusion: Tumor margin shrinks significantly after formalin fixation by about 25%. The operating surgeon and pathologist should be well aware of such changes while planning for further management thereby ensuring adequate margin of resection and adjuvant treatment wherever required to prevent possible local recurrence of the disease. Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Formalin fixation, Margin of resection, Recurrence

  2. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  3. Development and characterisation of chitosan films impregnated with insulin loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles (NPs): a potential approach for buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-05-30

    Mucoadhesive chitosan based films, incorporated with insulin loaded nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-polylactide (PEG-b-PLA) have been developed and characterised. Blank-NPs were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique with varying concentrations of the copolymer (5 and 10%, w/v). The optimised formulation was loaded with insulin (model protein) at initial loadings of 2, 5 and 10% with respect to copolymer weight. The developed NPs were analysed for size, size distribution, surface charge, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. NPs showing negative (ζ)-potential ( 300 nm and a polydispersity index (P.I.) of ≈ 0.2, irrespective of formulation process, were achieved. Insulin encapsulation efficiencies of 70% and 30% for NPs-Insulin-2 and NPs-Insulin-5 were obtained, respectively. The in vitro release behaviour of both formulations showed a classic biphasic sustained release of protein over 5 weeks which was influenced by pH of the release medium. Optimised chitosan films embedded with 3mg of insulin loaded NPs were produced by solvent casting with homogeneous distribution of NPs in the mucoadhesive matrix, which displayed excellent physico-mechanical properties. The drug delivery system has been designed as a novel platform for potential buccal delivery of macromolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  5. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cizza

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit.Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention after 81 days (median, and attended run-in visit 121 days later.Outpatient.Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8, mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, <6.5 h sleep/night.Non-pharmacological sleep extension.Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fasting glucose, insulin and lipids.Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; P<0.001 screening vs. randomization; actigraphy: 344.3 ±41.9 vs. 358.6±48.2 min/night; P<0.001 sleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; P<0.001, sleepiness tended to improve (8.9±4.6 vs. 8.3±4.5 ESS score; P = 0.06, insulin resistance decreased (0.327±0.038 vs. 0.351±0.045; Quicki index; P<0.001, and lipids improved, except for HDL-C. Abnormal fasting glucose (25% vs. 11%; P = 0.007, and metabolic syndrome (42% vs. 29%; P = 0.007 both decreased. In absence of intervention, the earlier metabolic improvements disappeared at the run-in visit.Relatively small sample size.Improvements in biochemical and behavioral parameters between screening and randomization changed the "true" study baseline, thereby potentially affecting outcome. While regression to the mean and placebo effect were considered, these findings are most consistent with the "Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings

  6. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  7. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  8. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-07

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology.

  9. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  10. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  11. Prevalence of Candida species in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Buccal Mucosa Exfoliative Cell Prussian Blue Stain Co-Relates with Iron Overload in β-Thalassemia Major Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajaria, Pooja K; Maheshwari, Ujwala M; Borkar, D B; Dhar, Reeta; Pancholi, Varsha

    2017-12-01

    Thalassemics require regular blood transfusion therapy leading to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. We hereby attempted to measure this iron overload by means of exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique. The aims and objectives of our study were: 1. To detect iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl's Prussian blue stain in β-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate staining positivity with serum ferritin levels. Smears were obtained from buccal mucosa of 50 β-thalassemia major patients (who had taken more than 12 transfusions) and 25 healthy subjects of the same age group as controls. Smears were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Blood samples were taken from the study group for estimation of serum ferritin levels. Grading criteria were defined for assessing the Prussian blue positivity. Perl's positivity was observed in 49 out of 50 of thalassemic patients (98%). 1 patient had Grade 0, 7 patients had Grade I, 5 had Grade II, 12 had Grade III, 14 had Grade IV while 11 patients had Grade V positivity. Spearman Rank's Correlation Co-efficient was 0.38, signifying a weak positive correlation between positivity of buccal smears for Perl's Prussian blue staining and respective serum ferritin levels. Perl's Prussian blue staining of exfoliated cells from buccal mucosa can be used to assess iron overload in β-thalassemia major patients, as a screening as well as diagnostic tool. With the grading system we can give a semi-quantitative assessment of the same.

  13. Influence of periodontal biotype on buccal bone remodeling after tooth extraction using the flapless approach with a xenograft: a histomorphometric and fluorescence study in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luciana Prado; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Novaes Junior, Arthur Belém; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Taba Junior, Mário; Grisi, Márcio Fernando de Morais; Souza, Sérgio Luís Scombatti de; Palioto, Daniela Bazan

    2015-01-01

    Several approaches have been used to counteract alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gingival thickness and bone grafting on buccal bone remodeling in extraction sockets with thin buccal bone, using a flapless approach. The gingiva of 8 dogs was thinned at one side of the mandible and mandibular premolars were extracted without flaps. The sockets were randomly assigned to the test group (thin gingiva) (TG), the test group with grafting material TG + GM, the control group (normal gingiva) (CG), or the control group with grafting material CG + GM. Ground sections were prepared from 12-week healing biopsies, and histomorphometry and fluorescence analysis were performed. In the groups with thin gingiva, numerically greater buccal bone loss was observed, while there were no differences between grafted and nongrafted sites. A numerically higher rate of mineralization was observed for the grafted sites, as compared with the nongrafted sites, at 12 weeks. A thin buccal bone plate leads to higher bone loss in extraction sockets, even with flapless surgery. The gingival thickness or the use of a graft material did not prevent buccal bone resorption in a naturally thin biotype, but modified the mineralization process. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Description of a Rare Case of Nodular Fasciitis of the Apical Aspect of the Upper Buccal Sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a rare case of nodular fasciitis (NF of the oral cavity, discussing the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Histopathologic diagnosis of this type of lesion can be challenging due to its differential diagnosis, which principally includes sarcoma. The patient presented with a painless, well-defined nodule, reported as increasing in size, located at the apical aspect of the upper left buccal sulcus. Histologically, the lesion revealed spindle cell proliferation arranged in fascicles, while immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for smooth muscle actin. Eight months after complete surgical excision, no signs of local recurrence have been observed.

  15. Horizontal stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect of single implants: a 1-year prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyckere, Thomas; Eghbali, Aryan; Younes, Faris; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To clinically evaluate the horizontal stability of a connective tissue graft (CTG) at the buccal aspect of single implants (1); to compare actual gingival thickness between thin and thick gingival biotype (2). Periodontally healthy non-smoking patients with a single implant in the anterior maxilla (15-25) were selected for a prospective case series. All demonstrated a horizontal alveolar defect and were in need of contour augmentation by means of CTG for aesthetic reasons. Patients were enrolled 3 months after implant surgery and had been provided with a provisional screw-retained crown. CTG was inserted in the buccal mucosa via the envelope technique using one intrasulcular incision. An ultrasonic device was used to evaluate mucosal thickness (MT) at the buccal aspect. MT was assessed at t0 (before CTG), t1 (immediately after CTG), t2 (2 weeks after CTG = suture removal), t3 (3 months after CTG = permanent crown installation) and t4 (1 year after implant placement). The gingival biotype was categorized as thin or thick based on the transparency of a periodontal probe through the soft tissues while probing the buccal sulcus of the contra-lateral tooth. Gingival thickness (GT) was measured at the contra-lateral tooth using the same ultrasonic device. Thirty-seven patients (19 men, 18 women; mean age 38) met the selection criteria and consented to the treatment. Mean soft tissue gain immediately after CTG was on average 1.07 mm (SD 0.49). What remained of this tissue gain after 1 year was on average 0.97 mm (SD 0.48; 90.5%). Hence, mean soft tissue loss amounted to 0.10 mm (SD 0.23; 9.5%; p = 0.015) with no significant difference between patients with a thin or thick biotype (p ≥ 0.290). Patients with a thin biotype had a mean GT of 1.02 mm (SD 0.21), whereas GT was on average 1.32 mm (SD 0.31) in subjects with a thick biotype (p = 0.004). Connective tissue graft substantially thickens the peri-implant mucosa with acceptable stability over a 1-year period. © 2015

  16. Tenonplasty Combined With Free Oral Buccal Mucosa Autografts for Repair of Sclerocorneal Melt Caused by Chemical Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyong; Tian, Ying; Zhu, Haifeng; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    To describe a surgical technique for repair of an intractable sclerocorneal melt caused by a serious chemical burn. This study includes a technique description and review of 3 representative cases. The combination of tenonplasty with a free oral buccal mucosa autograft was used in 3 patients with sclerocorneal melts caused by chemical burns. Promising results were found in each of them. The area of the sclerocorneal melt healed successfully after surgery, and the integrities of the eyeballs were salvaged. This technique provides a new method for surgical repair of an intractable sclerocorneal melt caused by a chemical burn.

  17. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  18. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... overview of how to use abc to implement an extension. We illustrate the extension mechanisms of abc through a number of small, but nontrivial, examples. We then proceed to contrast the design goals of abc with those of the original AspectJ compiler, and how these different goals have led to different...

  19. Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells in Moderately Differentiated Buccal Mucosal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify and characterize cancer stem cells (CSC in moderately differentiated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (MDBMSCC. Methods 4μm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MDBMSCC samples from six patients underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB immunohistochemical (IHC staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC markers NANOG, OCT4, SALL4, SOX2 and pSTAT3; cancer stem cell marker CD44; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC marker EMA; and endothelial marker CD34. The transcriptional activities of the genes encoding NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4, STAT3 and CD44 were studied using NanoString gene expression analysis and colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH for NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4 and STAT3. Results DAB and immunofluorescent (IF IHC staining demonstrated the presence of (1 an EMA+/CD44+/SOX2+/SALL4+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ CSC subpopulation within the tumor nests; (2 an EMA-/CD44-/CD34-/SOX2+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ subpopulation within the stroma between the tumor nests; and (3 an EMA-/CD44-/CD34+/SOX2+/ SALL4+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ subpopulation on the endothelium of the microvessels within the stroma. The expression of CD44, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG was confirmed by the presence of mRNA transcripts, using NanoString analysis and NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4 and STAT3 by CISH staining. Conclusion This study demonstrated a novel finding of three separate CSC subpopulations within MDBMSCC: (1 within the tumor nests expressing EMA, CD44, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG; (2 within the stroma expressing SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG; and (3 on the endothelium of the microvessels within the stroma expressing CD34, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG.

  20. Versatile and Extensible, Continuous-Thrust Trajectory Optimization Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative, versatile and extensible, continuous-thrust trajectory optimization tool for planetary mission design and optimization of...

  1. Gamut Extension for Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.

  2. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISAAC E. ILEVBAOJE. ABSTRACT. This study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of extension workers to the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is on course in Nigeria. Results obtained indicate that about 10. 8, 65.8 and 23.3% of the extension ...

  3. XPL the Extensible Presentation Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santangelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the development of web interfaces enabling both multiple ways to access contents and, at the same time, fruition by multiple modalities of interaction (point-and-click, contents reading, voice commands, gestures, etc.. In this paper we describe a framework aimed at streamlining the design process of multi-channel, multimodal interfaces enabling full reuse of software components. This framework is called the eXtensible Presentation architecture and Language (XPL, a presentation language based on design pattern paradigm that keeps separated the presentation layer from the underlying programming logic. The language supplies a methodology to expedite multimodal interface development and to reduce the effort to implement interfaces for multiple access devices, by means of using the same code. This paper describes a methodology approach based on Visual Design Pattern (ViDP and Verbal Design Pattern (VeDP, offering examples of multimodal and multichannel interfaces created with the XPL Editor.

  4. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthi Vidya Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHL, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  5. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage.

  6. Collection of Human Genomic DNA From Buccal Cells for Genetics Studies: Comparison Between Cytobrush, Mouthwash, and Treated Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Mulot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources such as buccal cells have already been tested for genetic studies and epidemiological investigations. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in this study to compare cytology brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards for DNA collection. Quantity and quality of DNA and cost and feasibility were assessed. The mean DNA yield at 260 nm was found to be 3.5, 4, and 2.6μg for cytobrushes, mouthwashes, and treated cards, respectively. A second quantification technique by fluorescence showed differences in the DNA yield with 1.1 and 5.2μg for cytobrushes and mouthwash, respectively. All buccal samples allowed isolation of DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. According to the procedure of sample collection, the yield and purity of collected DNA, and storage conditions, the use of cytobrush appears to be the more appropriate method for DNA collection. This protocol has been validated and is currently applied in three large-scale multicentric studies including adults or children.

  7. Efficacy of single buccal infiltrations for maxillary first molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy Ulusoy, Ö İ; Alaçam, T

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a single buccal infitration using 4% articaine hydrochloride (HCl) with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine HCl with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate for obtaining adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal roots of maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, fifty subjects were randomly allocated to receive maxillary buccal injections of 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine (n = 25) or 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine bitartrate (n = 25). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pulse rate measurements were recorded during access cavity preparation and initial file placement into the mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals. Data were analysed using Duncan and t-tests. There was no significant difference between the two anaesthetic solutions regarding the VAS scores and pulse rate measurements during endodontic procedures. The mean VAS ratings of the 50 patients during file placement into the palatal canals were significantly higher compared with the other three root canal procedures (P irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Measurement of volume changes of sinus floor augmentation covered with buccal fat pad: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Ali; Khojasteh, Arash; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Vaziri, Hamed

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the volumetric changes of the maxillary sinus graft in conjunction with buccal fat pad (BFP) covering the lateral sinus wall. In this article, the radiographic results are presented on 11 consecutively treated patients using an equal mixture of the autogenous bone harvested from the tuberosity and natural bone mineral (Bio-Oss) used to augment the maxillary sinus. Buccal fat pad was used over the lateral sinus wall in all cases as a membrane to cover the augmentation material. The mean initial bone height (IBH) was 3.82 mm as measured in the posterior maxilla. Three months after sinus elevation, radiographic evaluation was performed for the patients and secondary bone height was measured (SBH(1)). Fifty-two implants were placed in augmented sinuses. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patients was done 4 months after inserting the implants. Radiographs were taken 6 months after implant placement and secondary bone height was measured (SBH(2)). Of 52 implants, 51 (98%) were considered clinically successful. One implant was removed because of mobility at the time of surgical exposure. Clinically, no complications were observed, and all implants were considered clinically osseointegrated after 6 months. Mean bone height was measured as 3.82 mm before sinus grafting. SBH(1) and SBH(2) were measured as 12.22 mm and 10.5 mm respectively. The clinical findings suggested that BFP might be a substitute for bioresorbable collagen membranes in maxillary and sinus floor bone grafts.

  9. [Efficacy of a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet for esophageal cancer pain management in a patient unable to take oral medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yoshinori; Nakahara, Osamu; Ohshima, Shigeki; Baba, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    We report a case ofa 60-year old male esophageal cancer patient who was unable to take oral medication, but was successfully treated using a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet. The patient survived a suicide attempt as a youth in which he ingested poison, but was left with a stricture of the esophagus. It became difficult for him to take nutrition orally, and he underwent an esophageal bypass operation, although he still required frequent endoscopic esophageal dilation. He subsequently presented with an anastomotic stenosis due to anastomotic leakage, and oral intake became completely impossible. The onset of esophageal cancer presented as corrosive esophagitis. We used oxycodone hydrochloride to treat a sharp pain resulting from cataplectic cancer in the jejunal tube, but this provided only limited pain relief. We therefore used a fentanyl citrate oral mucosa absorption preparation with a rescue agent, which did provide effective pain relief. Thus a fentanyl citrate buccal tablet could effectively relief pain in cancer patients who are unable to receive oral medication.

  10. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. Published by Oxford University Press 2015.

  11. Xenogeneic collagen matrix versus connective tissue graft for buccal soft tissue augmentation at implant site. A randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Francesco; Barbato, Luigi; Tonelli, Paolo; Batalocco, Guido; Pagavino, Gabriella; Nieri, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Peri-implant soft tissue may be critical to prevent inflammation and promote gingival margin stability. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) is to compare xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) versus connective tissue graft (CTG) to increase buccal soft tissue thickness at implant site. Soft tissue augmentation with XCM (test) or CTG (control) was performed at 60 implants in 60 patients at the time of implant uncovering. Measurements were performed by a blinded examiner at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures included buccal soft tissue thickness (GT), apico-coronal keratinized tissue (KT), chair time and post-operative discomfort. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patient satisfaction. After 6 months, the final GT increase was 0.9 ± 0.2 in the XCM group and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm in the CTG group, with a significant difference favouring the control group (0.3 mm; p = .0001). Both procedures resulted in similar final KT amount with no significant difference between treatments. XCM was associated with significant less chair-time (p tissue thickness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Identification of (L)-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate in the buccal gland secretion of the parasitic lamprey, Lethenteron japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Shoji; Ito, Naoko; Hasegawa, Mai; Uchiumi, Toshio; Hase, Sumihiro

    2012-12-01

    Parasitic lampreys are known to secrete proteins having anticoagulant and vasodilator activities from the buccal glands during feeding on their host's blood. However, small molecules in the secretion have never been explored in detail. We examined the secretion of Japanese liver lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) for small molecules and found an intensely fluorescent substance upon gel filtration. After purification by anion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC, structure of the compound was determined to be L-3-hydroxykynurenine O-sulfate by NMR- and UV-spectrometry, complemented with enzymatic and chemical degradation. In vertebrates, the sulfate ester of 3-hydroxykynurenine is a compound that has been regarded as a urinary metabolite of tryptophan but not reported from normal tissues to date. Although the function of this molecule in the buccal glands remains to be elucidated, it is remarkable that the same substance was described in 1960s from two species of blood-sucking insects, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans, suggesting its potential role in blood-feeding.

  13. Microleakage of stainless steel crowns placed on intact and extensively destroyed primary first molars: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Motahari, Pouria; Ahmadi, Rahil; Ghadimi, Sara; Mosharafian, Shahram; Mohammadi, Kaveh; Javad Kharazifard, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of residual tooth structure on the microleakage of stainless steel crowns cemented with glass ionomer on primary maxillary and mandibular first molars. Thirty extracted primary molars were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included intact teeth; and group 2 included extensively carious samples. Each tooth received standard preparation, and each crown was luted with G-CEM on its specific specimen. Teeth were loaded vertically and transferred to distilled water. After thermocycling and immersing in methylene blue solution, the teeth were sectioned and examined microscopically for microleakage. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. All specimens (intact and damaged teeth) had microleakage, although most of these presented only minimum microleakage. No statistically significant differences were found in the microleakage of sound and extensively carious teeth on either the buccal (P=.62) or lingual (P=.65) side. Buccal (P=.73) and lingual (P=.63) surfaces showed similar microleakage scores in primary maxillary and mandibular molars. There was no significant difference in the microleakage of sound or extensively carious teeth and primary maxillary or mandibular first molars.

  14. Buccal bone plate remodeling after immediate implants with or without synthetic bone grafting and flapless surgery: a histomorphometric and fluorescence study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaid, Flávia A; Novaes, Arthur B; Queiroz, Adriana C; Muglia, Valdir A; Almeida, Adriana L G; Grisi, Márcio F M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone plate remodeling after immediate implantation using the flapless approach with or without bone graft into the gap between the implant and the buccal bone. Eight dogs had the mandibular bicuspids extracted without flaps, and four implants were installed on each side, totaling eight implants per animal. Randomly, in one side, the implants were positioned at the bone crest level (equicrestal), and on the opposite side, the implants were positioned 2 mm subcrestal. All the implants were positioned 2.0 mm from the buccal bone plate (gap) and associated or not with grafting material. Therefore, the following treatments were performed: implants subcrestal test (SCTG) with bone graft and control (SCCG) without bone graft, and equicrestal test (ECTG) with bone graft and control (ECCG) without bone graft. One week following the surgeries, metallic prostheses were installed. Bone markers were administered 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after implant placement for fluorescence analysis. Ground sections were prepared from 12-week healing biopsies, and histomorphometry was performed. The histomorphometric evaluation presents significant better results for the ECTG in the vertical crestal bone resorption, but the other parameters showed better results for the SCCG. The fluorescence evaluation in adjacent areas showed numerically different results between groups with a small decrease at 12 weeks, except for the SCCG, which was higher at this time. The distant area showed a continuous increase in the marked bone. The equicrestally placed implants presented little or no loss of the buccal bone wall. The subcrestally positioned implants presented loss of buccal bone, regardless of the use of bone graft. However, the buccal bone was always coronal to the implant shoulder. Both the equicrestal and subcrestal groups were benefited in the early stages of bone healing as evidenced by the fluorescence analysis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  16. Open Extension Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Бабич

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results which describe the properties of such general topological construction as open extension topology. In particular, we prove that this topology is not transitive. We find the base of the least cardinality for the topology and local one for the neighborhood system of every point. We calculate the interior, the closure, and the sets of isolated and limit points of any set. Also we prove that this space is path connected and is not metrizable, and investigate its cardinal invariants and separation axioms.

  17. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  18. Buccal absorption of diazepam is improved when administered in bioadhesive tablets-An in vivo study in conscious Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva...... available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini...

  19. Long-term safety and analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine buccal film in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Martin Hale,1 Veronica Urdaneta,2 M Todd Kirby,3 Qinfang Xiang,4 Richard Rauck5 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, USA; 2Pharmacovigilance and Risk Management, 3Clinical Development, 4Biometrics, Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Malvern, PA, USA; 5Carolinas Pain Institute, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston Salem, NC, USA Background: This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a novel buprenorphine formulation, buprenorphine buccal film, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids.Methods: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of buprenorphine buccal film. Five hundred and six patients who completed previous studies with buprenorphine buccal film (n=445; rollover patients or were recruited de novo for this study (n=61 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a dose titration period of ≤6 weeks, during which doses of buprenorphine buccal film were adjusted to a maximum 900 µg every 12 hours, depending on tolerability and the need for rescue medication. An optimal dose was defined as the dose that the patient found satisfactory for both pain relief and tolerability, without the need for rescue medication or with ≤2 tablets of rescue medication per day. Once the optimal dose was reached, treatment was continued for ≤48 weeks. Pain intensity was measured throughout the study using a 0–10 numerical rating scale.Results: Of 435 patients achieving an optimal dose of buprenorphine buccal film who commenced long-term treatment, 158 (36.3% completed 48 weeks of treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 116 patients (22.9% during the titration phase and 61 patients (14.0% during the long-term treatment phase, and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 14 (2.8% and 14 (3.2% patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were those typically

  20. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... the approval of duplicate versions of drug products approved under an ANDA procedure. ANDA applicants... drug that was previously approved. ANDA applicants do not have to repeat the extensive clinical testing... ANDA are data to show that the drug that is the subject of the ANDA is bioequivalent to the listed drug...

  1. Educación Comunitaria en Salud Bucal para niños Community Education for childrens buccal health

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    Nerys Tayme Tan Suárez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de las técnicas afectivo-participativas para la promoción de salud bucal en niños se realizó un estudio de intervención en el consultorio 61 área Oeste de la ciudad de Camagüey. La muestra quedó constituida por 35 infantes. Se realizarón dos exámenes; el primero antes de las actividades educativas y el segundo concluidas estas, se les tomó el Índice de Análisis de la Higiene Bucal de Love, el Índice MEDI-MED de Rossetti y una entrevista estructurada para valorar el nivel de información. Se ejecutaron dos sesiones educativas mensuales durante un trimestre. Como conclusión se obtuvo que dichas técnicas constituyeron una opción válida para la promoción de salud bucal porque después de ejecutadas casi la totalidad de los pequeños obtuvieron bien en la eficiencia del cepillado, predominando las mentes y encías sanas, el promedio de dientes permanentes sanos no sufrió cambios y el nivel de información satisfactorio fue alcanzado por la mayoría.With the objective of determining the influence of the affective-participative techniques for the promotion of buccal health in children, an intervention study in clinic 61, West area of Camagüey city was carried out. The sample was constituted by 35 infants. Two exams were carried out; the first one before the educational activities and the second one after concluding these. The Index of Buccal Hygiene Analysis of Love, the MEDI-MED Index of Rossetti and an interview structured in order to value the level of information of these children were used. Two monthly educational sessions were made during a trimester. To sum up, these techniques constituted a valid option for the promotion of buccal health because after applying them almost all children obtained a good mark in the efficiency of teeth brushing, prevailing healthy minds and gums, the average of healthy permanent teeth didn't suffer any changes and a satisfactory level of information

  2. Urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa graft. Is it still the method of choice in long term urethral stenosis?

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    Carlo Pavone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to evaluate the long-term changes in symptoms (median 42 months and to analyze data for any negative predictive factors for the application of the procedure, in patients who underwent to urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa graft. During the period from 2010 to 2015 27 patients were examined. Than they underwent urethroplasty using dorsal buccal mucosa graft (graft of 4 x 2.5 cm. The evaluation of symptoms has been addressed through the application of the IPSS Quality of Life Questionnaire (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and the evaluation of urinary flow has been carried out by a comparative analysis between the pre- and post-operative uroflowmetry. As our study has shown, data obtained by the screening tests in the post-operative follow-up indicate that there is an increase in the maximum flow of urine until 1 month after surgery. The results in the long-term follow-up are different because they show a partial reduction of the maximum flow although it is maintained around an average value of 23 ml/s being still higher than the maximum flow in the pre-operative period. According to our results it follows that there is a low failure rate of the procedure after a median of 42 months. Only in patients with urethral stenosis longer than 2 cm, a lower long term success is achieved. From what we could observe, this length of the stenosis seems to be the only negative predictive factor for long-term maintenance of a good Quality of Life in patients undergoing the procedure. The results obtained from our study confirm literature data according to which, the gold standard for 2-cm long bulbar urethral stricture whose lumen is well preserved with circumferential spongiofibrosis limited to 1-2 mm is the dorsal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosa that in our study showed success rates higher of 80% after a median follow up of 42 months and a percentage of relapse-free patients of 82.1% ( median 3.5 years.

  3. Tools for Creating Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerations and tools for developing mobile applications for Extension include evaluating the topic, purpose, and audience. Different computing platforms may be used, and apps designed as modified Web pages or implicitly programmed for a particular platform. User privacy is another important consideration, especially for data collection apps.…

  4. Testing Extension Services through AKAP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; La Rocca, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the attitude of Italian farms in gaining access to agricultural extension services (AES). Design/methodology/approach: The ways Italian farms use AES are described through the AKAP (Awareness, Knowledge, Adoption, Product) sequence. This article investigated the AKAP sequence by submitting a…

  5. Attitude Of Extension Personnel To Training And Visit Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...

  6. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  7. Lip buccal mucosa traumatic overgrowth due to sucking habit - a 10-year follow-up of a non-surgical approach: a combination of behavioural and myofunctional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenbud, Dror; Gutmacher, Zvi; Teich, Sorin T; Oved-Peleg, Efrat; Hazan-Molina, Hagai

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic lesion of the lip buccal mucosa may develop due to a repetitive lip sucking habit, secondary to a dental space which opened in the dental in adult patients. The non surgical treatment approach is based on increasing of patient's awareness to the sucking habit along with the creation of a change in the oral and dental surrounding tissues. The following case included a failure to identify a traumatic habit of lower lip sucking, resulting in a buccal mucosa overgrowth. Combined conservative periodontal and orthodontic approach will be presented to address this clinical issue without any need for surgical intervention. 56 year old female patient presented with a complaint of unaesthetic appearance of the intraoral right buccal mucosa of the lower lip at rest position due to an intensive repetitive sucking habit of the right lower lip segment. We initiated a non surgical treatment approach including increasing the patient's awareness to the sucking habit, controlling the periodontal disease and orthodontic treatment to align and level the dental arch and to close the residual space. The soft tissue overgrowth on the lip buccal mucosa almost completely subsided spontaneously as a result of conservative dental and behavioral management without the need for any oral surgery intervention. A 10 years follow-up revealed no repetitive oral mucosa overgrowth, no spaces reopening and no sucking habit redevelopment. Implementation of a morphological correction will assist the patient in breaking the habit and creating an environment that may effectively prevent the reoccurrence of the habit.

  8. Morphological adaptation of the buccal cavity in relation to feeding habits of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus: A scanning electron microscopic study

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    A.M. Gamal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface architecture of the buccal cavity of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus was studied in relation to its food and feeding habits. The buccal cavity of the present fish was investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope. This cavity may be distinguished into the roof and the floor. Papilliform and molariform teeth which are located in the buccal cavity are associated with seizing, grasping, holding of the prey, crushing and grinding of various food items. Three types of taste buds (Types I, II & III were found at different levels in the buccal cavity. Type I taste buds were found in relatively high epidermal papillae. Type II taste buds were mostly found in low epidermal papillae. Type III taste buds never raise above the normal level of the epithelium. These types may be useful for ensuring full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish. A firm consistency or rigidity of the free surface of the epithelial cells may be attributed to compactly arranged microridges. These structures protect against physical abrasions potentially caused during food maneuvering and swallowing. Furthermore, protection of the epithelium from abrasion is enhanced with mucous cell secretions which lubricate ingested food items.

  9. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea and its relation to the type of feeding

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    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  10. Buccal bone thickness at dental implants in the aesthetic zone : A 1-year follow-up cone beam computed tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    Sufficient buccal bone thickness (BBT) is important for an optimal aesthetic outcome of implant treatment in the aesthetic zone. The aim of the study was to assess BBT at dental implants placed in the aesthetic zone (incisor, canine or first premolar in the maxilla) (immediate or delayed, with or

  11. Mifepristone followed by home administration of buccal misoprostol for medical abortion up to 70 days of amenorrhoea in a general practice in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Adriana A.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of home administration of buccal misoprostol after mifepristone for medical abortion up to 70 days' gestation in a general practice in Curacao, where induced abortion is severely restricted by law. Methods In a prospective study 330 women received 200 mg

  12. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health.

  13. The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma – report of a case

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    Schwarz Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours and its increasingly recognized diagnostic entities, the frequency of adenocarcinoma (NOS has decreased significantly. Case presentation This paper describes a fast growing adenocarcinoma (NOS, originating from the minor salivary glands of the left buccal mucosa with a rapid onset of multiple local and distant metastases, especially in the lung. A lung primary was unlikely as the tumour was characterized by positivity for cytokeratin 20 and negativity for the thyroid transcription factor-1 protein (TTF-1 in immunohistochemistry. Conclusion A rare case of an adenocarcinoma (NOS of the minor salivary glands with a rapid development and an unfavourable clinical course is reported. It shows that additional immunohistochemical analysis can decisively contribute to determine the site of the primary tumour in cases with unknown primary.

  14. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

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    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  15. Influence of additives on a thermosensitive hydrogel for buccal delivery of salbutamol: relation between micellization, gelation, mechanic and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Dumortier, Gilles; Maury, Marc; Mignet, Nathalie; Boudy, Vincent

    2014-06-05

    Thermosensitive hydrogels developed for buccal delivery of salbutamol were prepared using poloxamer analogs (Kolliphor(®) P407/P188), xanthan gum (Satiaxane(®) UCX930) and NaCl. P188 increased gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) by 2.5-5°C, micellization temperature (3s. To obtain a suitable Tsol-gel at 28-34°C, P407 and P188 concentrations were set to 18-19% and 1%. NaCl reduced Tsol-gel (>2°C) out of the optimal range. Six formulations containing 0.05-0.1% Satiaxane(®) fulfilled the temperature criteria. Concerning the gel strength, 1% P188 had no significant effect, NaCl increased it at 20°C, and Satiaxane(®) enhanced it at 20°C and 37°C. The release study using membrane-less (to mimic oral cavity) and membrane (to mimic buccal mucosa side) methods allowed a complete investigation showing that erosion and diffusion both contributed to the drug release but differed according to the formulation. In the membraneless method, simple P407 formulations had weak ability to retain salbutamol (T80=35 min). P188 accelerated drug release. NaCl accelerated release in the membraneless method by 5-11 min but slightly reduced it in the membrane method. The hydrogels containing Satiaxane(®) exhibited the slowest release. In the membrane method, combination of P407/P188/Satiaxane(®) provided a sustained diffusion with a burst effect (T25=9.6 min, T80=97.8 min), which provides potential clinical interests. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay of populations under chronic heavy metal and other metal exposure along the Santiago River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zúñiga-González, G M; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Zamora-Perez, A L; Rojas-Ramírez, J P; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Sobrevilla-Navarro, A A; Arellano-Avelar, M A; Guerrero-de León, A A; Armendáriz-Borunda, J S; Sánchez-Parada, M G

    2017-09-26

    The Santiago River is one of the most contaminated rivers in Mexico, with heavy metal levels above the allowed limits. Scientific evidence indicates that chronic heavy metal exposure leads to cytogenotoxic effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of such exposure in buccal mucosa cells by micronucleus (MN) assay and to identify other nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as nuclear buds (NBUDs), binucleated cells (BNs), pyknotic nuclei (PNs), karyorrhexis (KX), karyolysis (KL), and abnormally condensed chromatin (CC). Assays were performed on samples from four populations located alongside the Santiago River that are under chronic exposure to heavy metals and other metals (HMMs), and the results were compared with those of a population without exposure to HMMs. The exposed group showed increased frequencies of NAs (KX, CC, and KL), which are associated with cytotoxic damage, and NBUDs, which are associated with genotoxic damage. Increased frequencies of NBUDs and CC were observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán, Ocotlán, and Paso de Guadalupe, and an increase in KX frequency was observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán. Significant differences in KL frequency were observed in subjects from La Barca, El Salto/Juanacatlán, Paso de Guadalupe, and Ocotlán. Predictors for increased development of MNs and NBUDs were high concentrations of Al, Zn, and Cu. In conclusion, chronic exposure to HMMs, especially Al, Cu, and Zn, in the studied population could be related to increased frequencies of NAs, such as NBUDs, KX, CC, and KL, in the buccal mucosa cells.

  17. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  18. Three-dimensional assessment of buccal alveolar bone after rapid and slow maxillary expansion: a clinical trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Mauricio; Andriani, Juliana da Silva Pereira; Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Locks, Arno; Correa, Marcio; Correa, Letícia Ruhland

    2013-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the immediate effects of rapid and slow maxillary expansion protocols, accomplished by Haas-type palatal expanders activated in different frequencies of activation on the positioning of the maxillary first permanent molars and on the buccal alveolar bones of these teeth with cone-beam computerized tomography. The sample consisted of 33 children (18 girls, 15 boys; mean age, 9 years) randomly distributed into 2 groups: rapid maxillary expansion (n = 17) and slow maxillary expansion (n = 16). Patients in the rapid maxillary expansion group received 2 turns of activation (0.4 mm) per day, and those in the slow maxillary expansion group received 2 turns of activation (0.4 mm) per week until 8 mm of expansion was achieved in both groups. Cone-beam computerized tomography images were taken before treatment and after stabilization of the jackscrews. Data were gathered through a standardized analysis of cone-beam computerized tomography images. Intragroup statistical analysis was accomplished with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, and intergroup statistical analysis was accomplished with analysis of variance. Linear relationships, among all variables, were determined by Spearman correlation. Both protocols caused buccal displacement of the maxillary first permanent molars, which had more bodily displacement in the slow maxillary expansion group, whereas more inclination was observed in the rapid maxillary expansion group. Vertical and horizontal bone losses were found in both groups; however, the slow maxillary expansion group had major bone loss. Periodontal modifications in both groups should be carefully considered because of the reduction of spatial resolution in the cone-beam computerized tomography examinations after stabilization of the jackscrews. Modifications in the frequency of activation of the palatal expander might influence the dental and periodontal effects of palatal expansion. Copyright © 2013

  19. Intraoperative and early postoperative complications using the buccal fat pad during cleft palate surgery in East Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Vere Konijnendijk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six baby’s with cleft are born in Indonesia every hour. There is no standardized treatment of cleft in East Indonesia. Closure is an important aspect during cleft lip and palate surgery. Various techniques have been advocated to gain tissue for closure of cleft area. Mostly these techniques may only provide a small amount of additional length. For lager defects they may be use the local flaps or the buccal fat pad flap. The aim of this study is gain more information about intraoperative and early postoperative complications using the buccal fat pat during cleft palate surgery in East Indonesia. The mouth can be divided in six parts therefor the LAHSAL index will be used. This LAHSAL system is a diagrammatic classification of cleft lip and palate. The LAHSAL system is being used for this study as this system classifies the cleft primarily on location and also on the cleft being complete or incomplete, which can be significant for the research. After diagnosis and classification, the following patient data was obtained: patient age, weight, gender, type of surgery (primary or following, i.e. when the surgery is a correction of a previous treatment, if a bone graft is needed for closure, history of maxillofacial surgery or orthodontics, operation technique, operation duration, type of an aesthesia (local or general, radiographical records and light photos. These data were collected during the pre-operative consultation, about 24 hours before surgery. It was the policy of the team to admit and see all patients one day prior to surgery for counselling, postoperative instructions and evaluating the patient's facial defect.

  20. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic agent capable of inducing both mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation may induce genomic instability favoring carcinogenesis. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis of the disease and is used in medical and dental practice. It has been believed that the number of micronucleus and increased frequency of other nuclear alterations, including karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis, are related to the increasing effects of carcinogens. Many approaches and techniques have been developed for the monitoring of human populations exposed to various mutagens, but the analysis of micronuclei (MN has become a standard approach for the assessment of chromosomal damage in human populations. Aim: To assess the effects of radiation exposure from panoramic radiography on the buccal epithelial cells (BECs of pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 pediatric patients who had to undergo panoramic radiography for further dental treatment. Exfoliated BECs were obtained and examined immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained using rapid Papanicolaou (PAP kit. Evaluation for MN and nuclear alterations was carried out by an oral pathologist and data were statistically analyzed using the "t" test. Results: The mean number of MN in the BECs before exposure of pediatric patients to panoramic radiography was 4.25 and after exposure was 4.40. This difference was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. However, the mean nuclear alterations of 8.70 and 15.75 before and after exposure were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographs can induce cytotoxicity but not genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when deemed indispensable.

  1. Telomere length of circulating leukocyte subpopulations and buccal cells in patients with ischemic heart failure and their offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S M Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to find support for the hypothesis that telomere length (TL is causally involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart failure (IHF. We measured TL in IHF patients and their high-risk offspring and determined whether mean leukocyte TL reflects TL in CD34+ progenitor. We additionally measured TL of offspring of patients and controls to examine heritability throughout different cell types. METHODS AND RESULTS: TL was measured by qPCR in overall leukocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, mononuclear cells (MNCs, and buccal cells in 27 IHF patients, 24 healthy controls and 60 offspring. TL in IHF patients was shorter than healthy controls in leukocytes (p = 0.002, but not in CD34+ cells (p = 0.39, MNCs (p = 0.31 or buccal cells (p = 0.19. Offspring of IHF patients had shorter TL in leukocytes than offspring of healthy subjects (p = 0.04 but not in other cell types. Controls and offspring showed a good within person correlation between leukocytes and CD34+ cells (r 0.562; p = 0.004 and r 0.602; p = 0.001, respectively. In IHF patients and offspring the correlation among cell types was blunted. Finally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all four cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced leukocyte TL in offspring of IHF subjects suggests a potential causal link of TL in ischemic heart disease. However, this causality is unlikely to originate from exhaustion of TL in CD34+ progenitor or MNC cells as their lengths are not well captured by overall leukocyte TL. Additionally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all examined cell types, suggesting high heritability of TL among cell types.

  2. The Effect of Irradiation on the Expression of PCNA and Apoptosis Induction during the DMBA Induced Carcinogenesis in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Seong; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hang Moon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of irradiation on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis induction during the carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch. Three months old Syrian golden hamsters were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. Hamsters in control group were left untreated on buccal pouchs. Twenty four hamsters were treated with 0.5% DMBA tri-weekly on the right buccal pouch. Forty eight hamsters were treated with 0.5% DMBA tri-weekly and irradiated with the dose of 5 Gy and 10 Gy at 6, 9, 12, 15 weeks after DMBA application. Resected buccal pouches were sectioned and examined for potential expression pattern of PCNA and apoptosis. The PCNA index was increased with the stages of buccal pouch epithelium carcinogenesis except the hyperplasia stage in control group (p<0.05). The irradiation did not effect on the PCNA index in the dysplasia and the carcinoma in situ stage, but in the hyperplasia stage, the PCNA index was increased with 10 Gy radiation and decreased in the carcinoma stage (p<0.05). The apoptotic index was significantly decreased from the carcinoma in situ stage and the lowest in the carcinoma stage. The apoptotic index was significantly decreased in the hyperplasia and dysplasia stage with the 5 Gy irradiation and significantly increased only in the carcinoma stage with the 10 Gy irradiation (p<0.05). The PCNA and apoptotic index were varied according to the irradiation period and dosage in each carcinogenesis stage.

  3. Influence of buccal cusp reduction when using porcelain laminate veneers in premolars. A comparative study using 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangelo, Carlos Marcelo; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Martin, Manoel; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Ko, Ching-Chang; Cattaneo, Paolo M

    2011-10-01

    Based on a maxillary premolar restored with laminate veneer and using the 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) and μCT data, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of buccal cusp reduction on the stress distribution in the porcelain laminate veneer and in the resin luting cement layer. Two 3-D FEA models (M) of a maxillary premolar were built from μCT data. The buccal cusp reduction followed two configurations: Mt - buccal cusp completely covered by porcelain laminate veneer; and Mp - buccal cusp partially covered by porcelain laminate veneer. The loading (150 N in 45°) was performed on the top of the buccal cusp. The finite element software (Ansys Workbench 10.0) was used to obtain the maximum shear stress (τ(max)) and maximum principal stress (σ(max)). The Mp showed reduced the stress (σ(max)) in porcelain laminate veneer (from -2.3 to 24.5 MPa) in comparison with Mt (from -5.3 to 27.4 MPa). The difference between the peak and lower stress values of σ(max) in Mp (-6.8 to 26.7 MPa) and Mt (-5.3 to 27.4 MPa) was similar for the resin luting cement layer. The structures not exceeded the ultimate tensile strength or the shear bond strength. Cusp reduction did not affect significant increase in σ(max) and τ(max). The Mt showed better stress distribution (τ(max)) than Mp. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Correlation between pre-operative buccal bone thickness and soft tissue changes around immediately placed and restored implants in the maxillary anterior region: A 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Himanshu; Ivanovski, Saso

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the correlation between pre-operative buccal cortical bone thickness and peri-implant tissue response following immediate placement and restoration of implants in the maxillary aesthetic zone. Eighteen patients (3 males, 15 females) with an age range of 19-57 years requiring the replacement of a single maxillary anterior tooth were included in this prospective study. Patients were selected on the basis of defined criteria: intact socket walls, absence of any acute infection in the sockets, absence of any gingival marginal pathology and attainment of a high primary stability (≥30 Ncm) at implant placement. Regardless of buccal bone thickness, all participating patients underwent the same treatment strategy that involved removal of the failed tooth, flapless surgery, immediate implant placement, grafting of the implant-socket gap and connection of a screw-retained provisional restoration. Buccal bone thickness was evaluated using pre-operative CBCT scans. Intra-oral photographs were taken before implant placement (baseline) and at 1- and 2-year follow-up to assess soft tissue changes around the implants. Aesthetic evaluation was carried out using the pink esthetic score (PES). All implants remained osseointegrated during the follow-up period of 2 years with mesial papilla, distal papilla, and mid-facial gingiva showing a mean recession of 0.06 ± 0.71 mm, 0.25 ± 0.78 mm, and 0.22 ± 0.83 mm, respectively. Pink esthetic score values improved from a median value of 9 (IQR 8.75-10.25) pre-operatively to 11 (IQR 9.75-12) at the end of 2 years. No significant correlation was found between buccal bone thickness (range 0.45-1.24 mm) and soft tissue or aesthetic changes. Within the limits of this study, no significant correlation could be found between pre-operative buccal bone width and the soft tissue and aesthetic outcome following immediate implant placement and restoration in the anterior maxilla. Therefore, favourable clinical and

  5. attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is ... at 5 percent level of probability, the mean score for the project headquarters staff (106.25) was highest while ... which offered them the opportunity to use their knowledge and skills. Asiabiaka (1991) studied women ...

  6. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  7. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  8. An ICT-Based Agricultural Extension Service Delivery for Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposed an ICT-based extension service delivery for Nigeria. The proposed design, though to be use as supplement to the existing system would engender an extension delivery system that is void of many of the limitations inherent in the earlier approaches. Basically, it revolves round the use ICT facilities like ...

  9. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    Abstract. This paper proposed an ICT-based extension service delivery for Nigeria. The proposed design, though to be use as supplement to the existing system would engender an extension delivery system that is void of many of the limitations inherent in the earlier approaches. Basically, it revolves round the use ICT ...

  10. Perceived Factors Affecting Performance Of Extension Workers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data for the study was collected from 83 Extension agents from the Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Results of the study revealed that the organizational factors that affect performance are mobility/logistic factors, job design and Administration. It is therefore recommended that Agricultural extension ...

  11. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  12. Evaluation Of The Job Performance Of Extension Professionals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was design to assess the job performance of extension professionals in Abia state agricultural development programme (ADP). The study also highlighted the relationship between selected personal characteristics and job performance variables of extension professionals in Abia state ADP. A sample of ninety six ...

  13. The Many Turnings of Agricultural Extension in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Coutts, Jeff; Vanclay, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the development of extension as a discipline in Australia, its organization, and the ideological changes that have occurred from the second half of the nineteenth century through to the present. Design/Methodology/Approach: It considers the evolution of extension across the different states of Australia from a…

  14. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  15. Fuzzy extended preferences: fuzzified extension

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with decision-making problems where a fuzzy preference relation with no unfuzzy nondominated alternatives has been defined. While in the first part randomized extension was considered in order to get a solution, in this second part an aggregative approach to fuzzified extension will be developed.

  16. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  17. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and extension systems for Uganda. Following the recommendations of these working groups, national agricultural research and extension strategies and plans were adopted ..... meetings at institutes have been taking place regularly since 1994. These take ...

  18. Homomorphisms between C∗ -algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -algebra extensions. CHANGGUO WEI. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, ... into the other in general, so we have to consider properties of extension homomorphisms before studying the ..... Theory (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N.S., 1973) Lecture Notes in Math. (Berlin: Springer).

  19. EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...

  20. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…