WorldWideScience

Sample records for buccal extension designs

  1. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccal testosterone comes as a system (tablet shaped patch) to apply to the upper gum. It is ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs ...

  2. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug. PMID:27267732

  3. MECHANICAL PRODUCT EXTENSIVE INTELLIGENT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoquan; Zhong Yifang; Zhang Weiguo

    2004-01-01

    Based on extenics, an extensive functional information model (function-behavioral action-structure-environmental constraint) of the mechanical product intelligent conceptual design is developed, and the mechanism of theoretic structure solutions is produced, the mapping relations between function-behavior and behavior-structure are analyzed.The model is applied to the filling material system's conceptual design to verify validity.

  4. A Knowledge-based and Extensible Aircraft Conceptual Design Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Haocheng; LUO Mingqiang; LIU Hu; WU Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Design knowledge and experience are the bases to carry out aircraft conceptual design tasks due to the high complexity and integration of the tasks during this phase.When carrying out the same task,different designers may need individual strategies to fulfill their own demands.A knowledge-based and extensible method in building aircraft conceptual design systems is studied considering the above requirements.Based on the theory,a knowledge-based aircraft conceptual design environment,called knowledge-based and extensible aircraft conceptual design environment (KEACDE) with open architecture,is built as to enable designers to wrap add-on extensions and make their own aircraft conceptual design systems.The architecture,characteristics and other design and development aspects of KEACDE are discussed.A civil airplane conceptual design system (CACDS) is achieved using KEACDE.Finally,a civil airplane design case is presented to demonstrate the usability and effectiveness of this environment.

  5. 76 FR 68493 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation for Nicaraguan... their Employment Authorization Documents (EADs) (Forms I-766) with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... impact on Form I-9 and E-Verify processes. DATES: The 18-month extension of the TPS designation...

  6. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery...... system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via...... the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive...

  7. 75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... line, and approximately 17% live in extreme poverty. Nicaragua is also currently unable to handle... Mitch. 64 FR 526. See section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. 1254a(b)(1)(B). The last extension of... conditions warranting the designation continued to be met. 73 FR 57138. This announcement is the...

  8. 76 FR 68488 - Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... the devastation resulting from Hurricane Mitch. See 64 FR 524 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the..., and severe damage to the country's economic system. See 64 FR 524 (Jan. 5, 1999) (discussing the... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB04 Extension of the Designation of...

  9. 75 FR 24734 - Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Mitch. 64 FR 524. See section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. 1254a(b)(1)(B). The last extension of... conditions warranting the designation continued to be met. 73 FR 57133. This announcement is the ninth... infrastructure, and severe damage to the country's economic system. See 64 FR 524 (Jan. 5, 1999)...

  10. An Extensive QFD and Evaluation Procedure for Innovative Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Tzuoh Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic innovation procedure has been developed based on quality function deployment and extension method. Besides, the evaluation method for design decision making has also been discussed and developed. The major procedure of QFD is to identify the customers’ needs for the product and then convert into appropriate technical measures to fulfill the needs based on the company’s competitive priorities. The priorities of product characteristics can be obtained by translating important technical measures. According to their characteristics, the prior engineering parameters will be identified and selected as the key requirements to redesign. This paper will focus on the integration of QFD and extension method. With the help of “matter element theory and extension method,” customer requirements (CRs can be transferred into product design attributes more comprehensively and deeply. According to the idea of loss function of Taguchi quality design method, the criteria for design decision making have also been developed in this paper. An innovative design case, bicycle, successfully demonstrates that the proposed design process is feasible and efficient.

  11. Designing and application of SAN extension interface based on CWDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Leihua; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli

    2005-11-01

    As Fibre Channel (FC) becomes the protocol of choice within corporate data centers, enterprises are increasingly deploying SANs in their data central. In order to mitigate the risk of losing data and improve the availability of data, more and more enterprises are increasingly adopting storage extension technologies to replicate their business critical data to a secondary site. Transmitting this information over distance requires a carrier grade environment with zero data loss, scalable throughput, low jitter, high security and ability to travel long distance. To address this business requirements, there are three basic architectures for storage extension, they are Storage over Internet Protocol, Storage over Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Storage over Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Each approach varies in functionality, complexity, cost, scalability, security, availability , predictable behavior (bandwidth, jitter, latency) and multiple carrier limitations. Compared with these connectiviy technologies,Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) is a Simplified, Low Cost and High Performance connectivity solutions for enterprises to deploy their storage extension. In this paper, we design a storage extension connectivity over CWDM and test it's electrical characteristic and random read and write performance of disk array through the CWDM connectivity, testing result show us that the performance of the connectivity over CWDM is acceptable. Furthermore, we propose three kinds of network architecture of SAN extension based on CWDM interface. Finally the credit-Based flow control mechanism of FC, and the relationship between credits and extension distance is analyzed.

  12. [Enlargement of the buccal aperture via. Technical consideration (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J; Pasturel, A; Pochan, Y; Barbier, M

    1979-01-01

    For a long time we know that it is possible to take out from the mouth a part or all the mandibule which presents a local malignant tumour. When the tumour is too extensed, the buccal aperture can be enlarged. The authors describe a new surgical technique which resolves this problem with notable and faithful advantages.

  13. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

  14. Extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Bradley A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    The extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology is examined. This analysis is approached from a computational cost and accuracy perspective. The sensitivity of the solution's computational cost is examined by analysing effects such as the number of design variables, nonlinearity of the CAs, and nonlinearity of the response in addition to several potential complexity metrics. Relative to traditional robust design methods, the linear rapid robust design methodology scaled better with the size of the problem and had performance that exceeded the traditional techniques examined. The accuracy of applying a method with linear fundamentals to nonlinear problems was examined. It is observed that if the magnitude of nonlinearity is less than 1000 times that of the nominal linear response, the error associated with applying successive linearization will result in ? errors in the response less than 10% compared to the full nonlinear error.

  15. Design and Implementation of an Extensible Learner-Adaptive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nakabayashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a flexible architecture that is capable of extending the functions of a learner-adaptive self-learning environment. A “courseware object”, which is a program module that is used to implement various educational functionalities, has been newly introduced to ensure both function extensibility as well as content reusability. A prototype system was designed and implemented to investigate the feasibility of the proposed architecture and to identify the core behavior and interaction schema of courseware objects. The results from this trial indicated that several learner-adaptive functionalities including the SCORM 2004 standard specifications will be able to be successfully implemented into the proposed architecture.

  16. [Buccal epithelium reactivity in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088

  17. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  18. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mitul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a major part in this drug delivery system because the extent of Mucoadhesion is a very important phenomena for the buccal drug delivery system. This review covers merits and demerits of buccal drug delivery system, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug permeation, polymers and permeation enhancer used in buccal drug delivery system. This review also covers available marketed product as buccal drug delivery system and future aspects of buccal drug delivery system.

  19. LYMPHANGIOMA OF THE BUCCAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidevi HARANAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital hamarto‑ mas of the lymphatic system, usually diagnosed in infancy and early childhood. Most lymphangiomas are present at birth (60% and, by the age of 2 years, 80% to 90% are present. Tongue, palate, gingiva, lip, alveolar ridge and buccal mucosa are the most commonly affected sites in the oral cavity. Various methods have been tried for the treat‑ ment of lymphangioma, including surgery, radiation, laser therapy, sclerotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. This paper reports a case of lymphangioma in a 28 year-old female patient.

  20. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  1. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lidia García Álvarez; Nora Sexto Delgado; Nereida Moya Padilla; Raúl López Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martín...

  2. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny van Dongen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19 using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs, compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins.

  3. Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the ...

  4. Extensive Design for Attack's Recognition and Resistance of Survivable Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extentics is a new discipline that studies the methods for dealing with contradictory problems. This paper gives a solution of attack defense of survivable network based on this theory. The basic knowledge of extension theory is introduced and the inspiration from it to our problem is illustrated. The contradictory characteristic of survivability of borderless network is explained. The extension model and algorithms of recognition and resistance of attacks is presented. The definitions of element, including message matter-element, defense affair-element, node relation-element and inform mixture-element, are given. The dependent function based on lateral distance with the most advantage point occurs in the left common endpoint, is constructed to solve the problem and its properties are discussed. Finally, an application of worm’s warning by this method is illustrated.

  5. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Maíra R; Magalhães Wagner CS; Machado Moara; Tarazona-Santos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline d...

  6. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Maíra R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps. Results We propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http

  7. STUDIES ON MELOXICAM SOLID DISPERSION INCORPORATED BUCCAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jafar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Life style effects of arthritis includes; Depression, Anxiety, Feelings of helplessness, Limitations on daily activities, Job limitations etc. Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondulytis and osteoarthritis. It is also indicated for the management of dental pain, Post-traumatic and post-operative pain, inflammation and swelling. Recently it is considered as a potential drug for prevention and treatment of colorectal polyps. One of the major problems with this drug is its low solubility in biological fluids, which results into poor bioavailability and GI-Side effects after oral administration. The present work was aimed at overcoming these limitations of the drug. The first problem i.e. Poor solubility of meloxicam was overcome by solid dispersion technique and the same work was than published in a reputed online journal. The present study was the continuation of the published work, in this study buccal patches were prepared using varying percentage of carbopol 934p, HPMC (muco adhesive polymers and 50% W/W of propylene glycol (Plasticizer by solvent casting technique, using 32 factorial design. Prepared blank buccal patches were evaluated for various physical and mechanical parameters, patches which comply with reported results were selected for meloxicam and its solid dispersion incorporation. Meloxicam solid dispersion incorporated buccal patches were prepared and evaluated for drug content, in-vitro diffusion, in-vivo release of meloxicam in rabbits and stability study. All solid dispersion incorporated patches showed increased in-vitro drug release (i.e. between 94% to 99.98% over an extended period of 8hrs as compared to plain drug incorporated buccal patch. Whereas plain drug incorporated buccal patch showed only 31.22% in-vitro drug release in 8hrs. Release of meloxicam was slightly

  8. Design and Implementation of Agro-technical Extension Information System Based on Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Leifeng; Wang, Wensheng; Yang, Yong; Sun,Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    International audience In order to solve the problems of low efficiency and backward methods in the agro-technical extension activities, this paper designed an agro-technical extension information system based on cloud storage technology. This paper studied the key technologies, such as cloud storage service engine, cloud storage management node and cloud storage data node and designed the overall architecture of the agro-technical extension information system based on cloud storage techno...

  9. Extension of ASME VIII Division 1 design limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L. [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Consumer Products Division

    1995-12-01

    ASME Subcommittee 2 on materials presented a series of questions to PVRC regarding the acceptability of using the criteria of ASME Section 2, Part D, Appendix 1 for extending design limits for AISI 304 stainless steel beyond 1,500 F to 2,000 F and Alloy 800 HT from 1,650 F to 1,800 F respectively. This paper describes a project supported by PVRC to try and find an answer to this question. The project consisted of three parts. The first was a survey to determine the intent behind the wording of the ASME criteria in order to make an extrapolation of methods for setting design limits to higher temperatures. The second was a demonstration of a methodology for developing very high temperature limits, using a set of creep data for Alloy 800 HT. The third was a parametric study to evaluate the feasibility of using the minimum creep rate based deformation criterion used in the ASME Code to set strain related limits on materials showing predominantly tertiary creep. Based on this study, an alternative method to that currently employed by ASME in Appendix 1 has been proposed for setting high temperature design limits, based on a consistent margin on time to failure. This method has been presented to ASME for possible adoption. In addition, this investigation revealed some more detailed issues involving cyclic loading at very high temperature. It was recommended that these should be examined further by ASME. These issues are summarized briefly in this paper.

  10. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia García Álvarez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martínez” in Cienfuegos, from September 2005 to March 2006. Initially, learning necessities and buccal hygiene were determined in both groups and later we verified the strategy efficiency. Initial information was obtained through surveys, focal groups, experts’ opinions and observation. Wilcoxon rank test was used for matched samples and Mc Nemar test for variables verification. Findings: Significant differences were obtained between the initial and final knowledge on buccal health and buccal hygiene coefficient. Qualitative methods showed audience approval of this strategy. Conclusions: Educative strategy applications allowed children learning actions of self-care as correct teeth brushing, use of dental floss, appropriate dietary selection and identification of prejudicial habits.

  11. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  12. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE BUCCAL PATCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of buccal patches of venlafaxine hydrochloride using sodium alginate with various hydrophilic polymers like carbopol 934 P, carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M in various proportions and combinations were fabricated by solvent casting technique. Venlafaxine hydrochloride an antidepressant drug to circumvent the first pass metabolism. Buccal route is excellent for the systemic delivery, there by rendering great bioavailability. A significant reduction in dose and dosing frequency can be achieved, thereby reducing dose dependent side effects, patient compliance and prolonging duration of action. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, moisture content, moisture absorption, and various ex vivo mucoadhesion parameters like mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion and bond strength were evaluated. An in vitro drug release study was designed, and it was carried out using commercial semipermeable membrane. All these fabricated patches were sustained for 10 hrs and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Ex vivo drug permeation study was also performed using porcine buccal mucosa, and various drug permeation parameters like flux and lag time were determined.

  13. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAMSHI KRISHNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. The main objective of the study is to formulate buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is 40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using HPMC, SCMC and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using Glycerol and tween-80 as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer using ethyl cellulose for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.402 and 0.431 mm and mass varied between 0.0312 and 0.0352 g. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. All formulations showed good folding endurance. Formulations F9 showed good drug content and Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 108 and 174 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 93.89% over a period of 150 min for formulation F9. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations F9 were best fitted to the non-Fickian kinetics and zero order release was observed.

  15. Load rating and design criteria for pipe snubbers with extension struts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snubbing devices are used extensively in nuclear power plant piping to prevent seismic shock forces from causing damaging pipe motions. Most seismic snubbers are designed and load rated by the manufacturer without consideration of attaching structure, unless specifically requested to do so by the purchaser. This paper discusses the additional design constraints imposed by the use of extension struts with the seismic snubbers. The constraints evaluated include load rating reduction as a function of strut length, and strut length limitations to pevent dynamic instability

  16. Formulation and evaluation of nitrendipine buccal films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappinnai M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4, which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied.

  17. Factors Influencing the Design of Electronic learning system in Agricultural Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmadpour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays appropriate training and education are important. Still some organizations make the mistake of not training their employees adequately in the utilization of ICT or in the use of internet information systems, often due to the cost of providing training and the loss in productivity when employees are absent. But many organizations have adopted e-learning as a solution for their corporate training. The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA also have considered the necessity of e-learning in agricultural extension for training extension agents as human resources that are working in extension centers throughout the country and have direct interaction with farmers, because they understand that traditional education is no longer effective. As a result, understanding factors influencing e-learning system in Iran’s agricultural extension centers is crucial for creating the new opportunities for extension agent to update their information. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting to design an e-learning system. Approach: The research in terms of nature is a kind of quantitative research and in terms of goal is applied research, in terms of controlling the variables is descriptive and correlation kind, which has been carried out in a survey way. Statistical population of the study consisted of 6539 extension expert in extension centers in Iran. Based on the classification of the Ministry of Agriculture which has divided these centers into six regions, sample taking has been conducted using stratified proportionate random sampling technique. Sample size for the students is 400 people using Cochran formula. Considering the entire size of the sample, 379 questionnaires have been returned. Results: With using factor analysis the variables were classified into seven factors, which they are included: financial, policy, support, personal, educational, technical and organizational factors. The confirmatory factor

  18. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: THE CURRENT INTEREST

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Mitul; Karigar Asif; Savaliya Pratik; Ramana MV; Dubal Ashwini

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights the several advantages of buccal drug delivery system (BDDS) over the conventional and systemic formulation majorly. It helps to enhance bioavailability through bypassing the first pass metabolism. On this drug delivery system the formulation keeps in contact with the mucosal surface resulting in better absorption and prolonged resident time. Though all drugs are not suitable for this drug delivery system yet is useful for most of the drugs. Bioadhesive polymers roles a...

  19. Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Shidhaye, Supriya S.; Thakkar, Pritesh V.; Neha M Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter...

  20. Design and Fabrication Development of J-2X Engine Metallic Nozzle Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopicz, C.; Gradl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Maximized rocket engine performance is in part derived from expanding combustion gasses through the rocket nozzle. For upper stage engines the nozzles can be quite large. On the J-2X engine, an uncooled extension of a regeneratively cooled nozzle is used to expand the combustion gasses to a targeted exit pressure which is defined by an altitude for the desired maximum performance. Creating a J-2X nozzle extension capable of surviving the loads of test and flight environments while meeting engine system performance requirements required development of new processes and facilities. Meeting the challenges of the development resulted in concurrent J-2X nozzle extension design and fabrication. This paper describes how some of the design and fabrication challenges were resolved.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  2. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 1710, extending the designation of El Salvador for TPS and... notice published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012, at 77 FR 1710. We are correcting the dates... Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization...

  3. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... within that country, specifically a series of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. 66 FR 14214. See section... designation continued to be met. 73 FR 57128. This announcement is the seventh extension of TPS for El... infrastructure and severe damage to the country's economic system. See 66 FR 14214 (March 9, 2001)...

  4. 78 FR 65690 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... time and redesignated Somalia for TPS. See 66 FR 46288 (Sept. 4, 2001). Under the 2001 redesignation... conditions resulting from armed conflict. See 56 FR 46804 (Sept. 16, 1991). The initial designation was... September 18, 2012. See 77 FR 25723 (May 1, 2012). This announcement is the first extension of TPS...

  5. 78 FR 66756 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB24 Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status Correction In notice document 2013-25969 beginning on page 65690 in...

  6. 78 FR 20128 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Employment Authorization Documents (EADs) with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Re... E-Verify processes. DATES: The 18-month extension of the TPS designation of Nicaragua is effective... guidance on the application process and additional information on eligibility, please visit the USCIS...

  7. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shasha Rao, Yunmei Song, Frank Peddie, Allan M EvansSansom Institute for Health Research, Division of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were ­characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds.Keywords: buccal drug delivery, nanosuspension, solubility, permeation enhancement, mucoadhesion

  8. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  9. Design flood estimation in ungauged basins: probabilistic extension of the design-storm concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Mario; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Design flood estimation in ungauged basins is an important hydrological task, which is in engineering practice typically solved with the design storm concept. However, neglecting the uncertainty in the hydrological response of the catchment through the assumption of average-recurrence-interval (ARI) neutrality between rainfall and runoff can lead to flawed design flood estimates. Additionally, selecting a single critical rainfall duration neglects the contribution of other rainfall durations on the probability of extreme flood events. In this study, the design flood problem is approached with concepts from structural reliability that enable a consistent treatment of multiple uncertainties in estimating the design flood. The uncertainty of key model parameters are represented probabilistically and the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) is used to compute the flood exceedance probability. As an important by-product, the FORM analysis provides the most likely parameter combination to lead to a flood with a certain exceedance probability; i.e. it enables one to find representative scenarios for e.g., a 100 year or a 1000 year flood. Possible different rainfall durations are incorporated by formulating the event of a given design flood as a series system. The method is directly applicable in practice, since for the description of the rainfall depth-duration characteristics, the same inputs as for the classical design storm methods are needed, which are commonly provided by meteorological services. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Trauchgauer Ach catchment in Bavaria, SCS Curve Number (CN) and Unit hydrograph models are used for modeling the hydrological process. The results indicate, in accordance with past experience, that the traditional design storm concept underestimates design floods.

  10. A design flow and evaluation framework for DPA-resistant instruction set extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Regazzoni, Francesco; Standaert, François-Xavier; Cevrero, A.; Badel, S.; Kluter, T.; Brisk, P.; Leblebici, Y.; Ienne, P.; Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems - CHES 2009. 11th International Workshop

    2009-01-01

    Power-based side channel attacks are a significant security risk, especially for embedded applications. To improve the security of such devices, protected logic styles have been proposed as an alternative to CMOS. However, they should only be used sparingly, since their area and power consumption are both significantly larger than for CMOS. We propose to augment a processor, realized in CMOS, with custom instruction set extensions, designed with security and performance as the primary objecti...

  11. Extensive Utilization Of Dynamic Simulation For Sensitivity Analysis And Optimization Design Of Refurbishment Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Pernigotto, Giovanni; Penna, Paola; Cappelletti, Francesca; Gasparella, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Statistics and, in particular, sensitivity analysis represent an important tool for the building designer to find information about which parameters have the largest potential in reducing the energy consumption or which are the most crucial to focus on in the different phases of the project process. The application of dynamic simulation to a large number of configurations (i.e. the extensive simulation) to find the optimal solution either considering only the energy aspects or also the econom...

  12. LAPACK++: A design overview of object-oriented extensions for high performance linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Computer Science Dept.; Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section

    1993-12-31

    LAPACK++ is an object-oriented C++ extension of the LAPACK (Linear Algebra PACKage) library for solving the common problems of numerical linear algebra: linear systems, linear least squares, and eigenvalue problems on high-performance computer architectures. The advantages of an object-oriented approach include the ability to encapsule various matrix representations, hide their implementation details, reduce the number of subroutines, simplify their calling sequences, and provide an extendible software framework that can incorporate future extensions of LAPACK such as ScaLAPACK++ for distributed memory architectures. The authors present an overview of the object-oriented design of the matrix and decomposition classes in C++ and discuss its impact on elegance, generality, and performance.

  13. LAPACK++: A design overview of object-oriented extensions for high performance linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section

    1993-12-31

    LAPACK++ is an object-oriented C++ extension of the LAPACK (Linear Algebra PACKage) library for solving the common problems of numerical linear algebra: linear systems, linear least squares, and eigenvalue problems on high-performance computer architectures. The advantages of an object-oriented approach include the ability to encapsulate various matrix representations, hide their implementation details, reduce the number of subroutines, simplify their calling sequences, and provide an extendible software framework that can incorporate future extensions of LAPACK, such as ScaLAPACK++ for distributed memory architectures. The authors present an overview of the object-oriented design of the matrix and decomposition classes in C++ and discuss its impact on elegance, generality, and performance.

  14. ProbeMaker: an extensible framework for design of sets of oligonucleotide probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Mats

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procedures for genetic analyses based on oligonucleotide probes are powerful tools that can allow highly parallel investigations of genetic material. Such procedures require the design of large sets of probes using application-specific design constraints. Results ProbeMaker is a software framework for computer-assisted design and analysis of sets of oligonucleotide probe sequences. The tool assists in the design of probes for sets of target sequences, incorporating sequence motifs for purposes such as amplification, visualization, or identification. An extension system allows the framework to be equipped with application-specific components for evaluation of probe sequences, and provides the possibility to include support for importing sequence data from a variety of file formats. Conclusion ProbeMaker is a suitable tool for many different oligonucleotide design and analysis tasks, including the design of probe sets for various types of parallel genetic analyses, experimental validation of design parameters, and in silico testing of probe sequence evaluation algorithms.

  15. SSC design modification, modernization, refurbishment and replacement: As a part of life extension of KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Due to the increased risk for energy security, rising environmental concerns and persistent energy poverty, nuclear power nowadays is being considered a viable option. Since construction of a new nuclear power plant is a costly business, plant life extension (PLEX) is also being done all over the world if permitted by the cost economics. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), started its commercial operation in 1972 and completed its nominal design life of 30 years in 2002 with effective full power years (EFPY) of 10.75. Due to this, adequate safety margin existed in the system, structure and component (SSC) as revealed through international reviews and inspections. Plant life extension was therefore, decided. With the strong support from IAEA, KANUPP strived hard to combat problems of ageing and obsolescence. In order to combat ageing and obsolescence for sustained operation by meeting minimum acceptable current safety standards and for plant life extension (PLEX) beyond design life, IAEA Technical Assistance Project 'Safe Operation of KANUPP' (SOK) was started in 1992. KANUPP was shutdown in December 2002 and in December 2005 to fulfill the regulatory requirement for re-licensing of the plant. During these outages jobs related to safety upgrades, replacement, design modification, obsolescence, refurbishment etc. were carried out. As a part of SSC design modification and modernization CO2 Annulus Gas System (AGS) and Redundant and Forced ECI system were installed. Refurbishment of SSC include dump valves while replacement of SSC include neutron power instruments. Various safety upgrades e.g. seismic retrofits, installation of systems to handle various LOCA scenario were completed as regulatory requirements. Replacement of I and C e.g fuel handling/regulating computers, control loops were also completed to combat the problem of ageing and obsolescence. Successful completion of the jobs related to SSC design

  16. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...... epithelium in studies with ionized drugs and a transmembrane pH gradient.......The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...

  17. 76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... displaced persons, and the sharing of vital natural resources, such as Nile River water and oil reserves in... and Immigration Services (USCIS). Re-registration is limited to persons who previously registered for... under the Act (or to persons without nationality who last habitually resided in the designated...

  18. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  19. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parthasarathy Govindasamy; Bhaskar Reddy Kesavan; Jayaveera Korlakunta Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods:Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results: The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84%and FB16 released 99.01%of drug in 140 min. Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.

  20. New optical engineering and instrument design programs at the University of California, Irvine Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Donn M.; Doushkina, Valentina V.

    2010-08-01

    Three years ago we reported on a new optics education program established at the Irvine Center for Applied Competitive Technologies (CACT) at the Advanced Technology and Education Park (ATEP) operated by the South Orange County Community College District (SOCCCD). This paper reports on new Optical Engineering and Instrument Design Programs now being offered through the University of California, Irvine Extension. While there are some similarities between the two programs, the differences are mainly the students' level. The community college level programs were targeted primarily at technicians and junior level engineers. The university level programs are targeted at senior level engineering and physical sciences university students, graduate and post graduate students and designers in industry. This paper reviews the reasons for establishing these certificate programs and their content, the students' motivations for taking them and their employers' incentives for encouraging the students.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Epichlorohydrin Cross-linked Mucoadhesive Patches of Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide for Buccal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Jana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, buccal patches of metronidazole were formulated by solvent casting method using tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. The patches were crosslinked with epichlorohydrin and different batches were prepared following 23 factorial design. The patches were evaluated with respect to their ex-vivo drug permeation characteristics, mucoadhesive strength, folding endurance, and buccal residence time. At lower level of cross linker and plasticizer, the drug permeation was the highest (72.72%. The drug release from the patches was dominated by a dissolution-controlled mechanism rather than diffusion. The folding endurance did not vary widely (201-254, however the mucoadhesive strength (6.1-36.5 g and the residence time (~2-6 h deviated widely depending upon the formulation variables. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed no interaction between drug and polymer. Thus the TSP could be a promising vehicle for the fabrication of buccal patches.

  2. Mechanistic-empirical design and design validation : Toronto Highway 407 East Partial and Western Extension Freeway Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, D.K. [Applied Research Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fernandez-Lillo, C. [SLF Joint Venture, Markham, ON (Canada); Saenz-Ormijando, F. [Ferrovial-Agroman, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    This paper described the analysis, calibration and methodology used for the mechanistic-empirical pavement design of Highway 407, a 69 km, 6-lane, divided, high volume highway running across the north end of Toronto. The pavement structures were initially designed according to AASHTO 1993 procedures. These designs were then checked using a mechanistic analysis of each design section using the Shell BISAR computerized elastic-layer pavement analysis program and an asphalt concrete fatigue damage model. The traffic data, below grade modulus, structural and drainage layer coefficients and material moduli were determined based on field and laboratory tests data. The objective was to predict when pavement structural deterioration would reach a level that the pavement would require structural enhancement. These design analysis and verification procedures have proven to be useful in developing sustainable pavement designs. It was concluded that mechanistic pavement design checks can be used effectively for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation planning. However, it was noted that analysis of Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) testing completed on the top of the below grade and granular base layers can be problematic because unbound layers do not distribute the applied load horizontally because of a lack of shear strength in the material. It was also determined that very low surface deflections beyond the loading plate could result in an over-estimation of the below grade modulus, resulting in dynamic design. FWD-determined below grade modulus values differ from laboratory results because of differences in testing methods and stress states. Low standard deviation of the FWD test results indicate a high quality of uniformity in pavement construction. It was concluded that the FWD is a useful tool to help validate mechanistic pavement designs. 6 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. NIST ThermoData Engine: Extension to Solvent Design and Propagation of Uncertainties for Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris;

    property values and expert system for data analysis and generation of recommended property values at the specified conditions along with uncertainties on demand. The most recent extension of TDE covers solvent design and multi-component process stream property calculations with uncertainty analysis....... However, the accuracy of such calculations are generally unknown that often leads to overdesign of the operational units and results in significant additional cost. TDE provides a tool for the analysis of uncertainty of property calculations for multi-component streams. A process stream in TDE can...... variations). Predictions can be compared to the available experimental data, and uncertainties are estimated for all efficiency criteria. Calculations of the properties of multi-component streams including composition at phase equilibria (flash calculations) are at the heart of process simulation engines...

  4. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu M Gilhotra; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a cli...

  5. Extensions to the time lag models for practical application to rocket engine stability design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Matthew J.

    The combustion instability problem in liquid-propellant rocket engines (LREs) has remained a tremendous challenge since their discovery in the 1930s. Improvements are usually made in solving the combustion instability problem primarily using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and also by testing demonstrator engines. Another approach is to use analytical models. Analytical models can be used such that design, redesign, or improvement of an engine system is feasible in a relatively short period of time. Improvements to the analytical models can greatly aid in design efforts. A thorough literature review is first conducted on liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE) throttling. Throttling is usually studied in terms of vehicle descent or ballistic missile control however there are many other cases where throttling is important. It was found that combustion instabilities are one of a few major issues that occur during deep throttling (other major issues are heat transfer concerns, performance loss, and pump dynamics). In the past and again recently, gas injected into liquid propellants has shown to be a viable solution to throttle engines and to eliminate some forms of combustion instability. This review uncovered a clever solution that was used to eliminate a chug instability in the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE), a modified RL10 engine. A separate review was also conducted on classic time lag combustion instability models. Several new stability models are developed by incorporating important features to the classic and contemporary models, which are commonly used in the aerospace rocket industry. The first two models are extensions of the original Crocco and Cheng concentrated combustion model with feed system contributions. A third new model is an extension to the Wenzel and Szuch double-time lag model also with feed system contributions. The first new model incorporates the appropriate injector acoustic boundary condition which is neglected in contemporary

  6. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  7. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  8. 可扩展操作系统设计方法%A Design Methodology for Extensible Operating Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施笑安; 周兴社; 林奕; 王继晖

    2002-01-01

    Operating systems research has traditionally consisted of adding functions to the operating system or inventing and study new implementations. Regardless of the research goal, the single constant has been that the size and complexity of operating system increase over time. As a result, operating systems become the most single complex piece of software in a computer system. Today's operating system research is aimed at finding new ways to construct the operating system in order to increase its flexibility, allowing it to adapt to change in designing such extensible systems and the array of choices facing the operating system designer. We discuss such question for describing extensible operating systems and then advance four key design point for extensible operating systems, we analyze and argue each point that relate to different extensible technology. Provide scientific methodology for Operaring systems research or development.

  9. The Bus Extension Module Design and Verification of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the Bus Extension Module using Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS). A Bus Extension Module use Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), called POSAFE-Q (made by POSCO ICT), for handling many data (I/O) extension rack. A processor module of POSAFE-Q can control I/O Module installed another rack. This paper explains Bus Extension Module and Data transfer technology using LVDS. (author)

  10. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMED Saifulla P; MUZZAMMIL Shariff; PRAMOD Kumar TM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis.The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment.The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method.Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied.The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties,in vitro release studies and mueoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue.Tablets containing 50% of polymers(Carbopol & Noveon)were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force,residence time and in vitro drug release.The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h,which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  11. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  12. 75 FR 67383 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Somalia for TPS. 66 FR 46288. The last extension of TPS for Somalia was announced on July 27, 2009, based... continued to be met. 74 FR 37043. This announcement is the eighth extension of TPS for Somalia since the... extraordinary and temporary conditions within the country. 56 FR 46804. See section 244(a)(b)(1)(A) and (C)...

  13. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  14. Absorption of clonazepam after intranasal and buccal administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Schols-Hendriks, M W; Lohman, J J; Janknegt, R; Korten, J J; Merkus, F W; Hooymans, P M

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of clonazepam after intranasal, buccal and intravenous administration were compared in a cross-over study in seven healthy male volunteers. Each subject received a 1.0 mg dose of clonazepam intranasally and buccally and 0.5 mg intravenously. A Cmax of 6.3 +/- 1.0 ng ml-1 (mean; +/- s.d.) was measured 17.5 min (median) (range 15-20 min) after intranasal administration. A second peak (4.6 +/- 1.3 ng ml-1) caused by oral absorption was seen after 1.7 h (range 0.7-3.0 h). Aft...

  15. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.;

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach was assessed by studies of bioactivation, in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption. The bioactivation of various morphine-3-esters was studied in human plasma and saliva. The in vitro permeation of morphine...... of 0.2. This discrepancy could however be explained by the enzymatic stability of the two esters in saliva, since it was found that morphine-3-propionate was more rapidly hydrolysed in saliva than was morphine-3-acetate. The study demonstrates that the buccal delivery of morphine can be markedly...

  16. Alternative Fabrication Designs for Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Nozzle Extensions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order for carbon-carbon nozzle extensions and exit cones to serve as practical, low cost components for future Earth-to-Orbit propulsion systems, it is necessary...

  17. Morphology and design of the extensible intersegmental membrane of the female migratory locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J F

    1981-01-01

    The morphology of the extensible intersegmental membrane (i.s.m.) of the female Locusta migratoria migratorioides is dictated by three main requirements: (a) high extensibility (1500%), (b) low stiffness (5 X 10(3) Pa), (c) low Poisson ratio in the plane of the cuticle (0.01 or less). These requirements can be met only orientating the chitin orthogonally to the direction of extension and having the protein phase uncross-linked and of very low modulus. The Poisson ratio requirement also implies that for the material to be extended at constant volume extreme thinning must occur during extension, giving rise to high shear strains in the direction of extension. The ultrastructure and morphological elements are modified from 'normal' cuticle such as to provide for high extensibility (due to unfolding) of the epicuticle and epidermal cells and a complex system of intracuticular fibres which are probably necessary to retain the topology of the components during high shear straining. No new morphological elements are adduced in this study but the extreme adaptability of those established for other cuticles is illustrated. PMID:7330860

  18. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  19. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  20. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla;

    2014-01-01

    the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...

  1. Pathology of advanced buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space (T4b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buccal mucosa cancer involving masticator space is classified as very advanced local disease (T4b. The local recurrence rate is very high due to poor understanding of the extent of tumor spread in masticator space and technically difficult surgical clearance. The objective of this study is to understand the extent of tumor spread in masticator space to form basis for appropriate surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with T4b-buccal cancer underwent compartment resection, with complete anatomical removal of involved soft-tissue structures. Specimens were systematically studied to understand the extent of invasion of various structures. The findings of clinical history, imaging and pathologic evaluation were compared and the results were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with advanced buccal cancer (T4b were included in this study. The skin, mandible and lymph nodes were involved in 30, 24 and 17 cases respectively. The pterygoid muscles were involved in 34 cases (medial-pterygoid in 12 and both pterygoids in 22 cases and masseter-muscle in 32 cases. Average distance for soft-tissue margins after compartment surgery was 2 cm and the margins were positive in 3 cases. The group with involvement of medial pterygoid muscle had safest margin with compartment surgery while it was also possible to achieve negative margins for group involving lateral pterygoid muscle and plates.The involvement of pterygomaxillary fissure was area of concern and margin was positive in 2 cases with one patient developing local recurrence with intracranial extension. At 21 months median follow-up (13-35 months, 38 patients were alive without disease while two developed local recurrence at the skull base.CONCLUSIONS: T4b buccal cancers have significant soft-tissue involvement in the masticator space. En bloc removal of all soft-tissues in masticator space is advocated to remove tumor contained within space. The compartment

  2. 78 FR 20123 - Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... 76 FR 68488. This announcement is the eleventh extension of TPS for Honduras since the original..., specifically the devastation resulting from Hurricane Mitch. See 64 FR 524; section 244(b)(1)(B) of the INA, 8... the country's economic system. See also 64 FR 524 (Jan. 5, 1999) (Mitch ``caus severe flooding...

  3. Designing a Competency-Based New County Extension Personnel Training Program: A Novel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Cheri Winton; Higgins, Cynthia; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Craig, Diane D.; Haile, Tyann

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary county personnel turnover occurs for a multitude of reasons, including the lack of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job embeddedness and lack of proper training. Loss of personnel can be costly both economically and in terms of human capital. Retention of Extension professionals can be improved through proper training or…

  4. 78 FR 32418 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Salvador) to re-register for TPS and to apply for renewal of their Employment Authorization Documents (EADs... Eligibility Verification (Form I-9) and the E-Verify processes. DATES: The 18-month extension of the TPS... INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information on TPS, including guidance on the application process...

  5. Design report for the residence time extension of KNK II/2 from 455 to 720 equivalent full-power days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the performance of the whole reactor and of its assemblies and their components during the residence time extension of the second core of KNK II from the foreseen value of 455 equivalent full-power days (efpd) to 720 efpd. By this extension existing reactivity and design reserves can be utilized, and the burnup of the test zone assemblies can be increased towards the level aimed at for future sodium breeder reactors. The investigations about the static and the dynamic behavior of the core with its components and of the heat transfer systems under nominal and accidental conditions show, that the plant can be safely operated during the residence time extension

  6. 改良腭弓矫治后牙锁节对后牙功能恢复的影响%Influence of promote palatine arch treating buccal teeth lock on occlusion function recovery of buccal teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 孙应明; 白槐延

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background: Buccal teeth occlusion lock is a kind of common malocclusion malformation in orthodonic clinic. Traditional treatment to buccal teeth occlusion lock is interactive traction of upper and lower buccal teeth.This treatment had shortcoming such as insufficient anchorage and elongation of buccal teeth.We adopted promote fix palatine arch therapy, which recovery patients' occlusion function by clinical observation.

  7. Extension-twist coupled laminates for aero-elastic compliant blade design

    OpenAIRE

    York, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    A definite list of laminate configurations with extension-twisting (and shearing-bending) coupling is derived for up to 21 plies of identical thickness. The list comprises individual stacking sequences, containing standard angle-ply and cross-ply sub-sequences; combinations which are contrary to the previously assumed form for this class of laminate. The list also contains dimensionless parameters from which the extensional, coupling and bending stiffness terms are readily calculated for any...

  8. Formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of repaglinide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasharath M Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to formulate and evaluate bioadhesive buccal tablets of repaglinide using HPMC K15M as a sustained release polymer, chitosan as a bioadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, in vitro drug release, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and ex vivo drug permeation. A 3 2 full factorial design was used in present study for optimization. Tablets containing HPMC K15M and chitosan in the ratio of 1:1 and lactose as a filler (F2 had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release. The swelling index, friability and in vitro drug release was affected by type of filler as dicalcium phosphate (DCP had good binding ability compared to lactose. The surface pH of all tablets was found to be satisfactory (between 6.26 and 7.01, close to neutral pH; hence buccal cavity irritation should not occur with these tablets. F2 batch was considered optimum based on good bioadhesive strength (17.83±0.51 gm and maximum similarity factor (64.43. The drug release from optimum batch followed zero order kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion. Drug-excipients compatibility study showed no interaction between drug and excipients. Stability study of optimized formulation showed that tablets were stable at accelerated environment condition. Thus, buccal adhesive tablet of repaglinide could be an alternative route to bypass hepatic first pass metabolism and to improve bioavailability of repaglinide.

  9. HwPMI: An Extensible Performance Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving Hardware Design and Productivity on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Schmidt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing hardware cores for FPGAs can quickly become a complicated task, difficult even for experienced engineers. With the addition of more sophisticated development tools and maturing high-level language-to-gates techniques, designs can be rapidly assembled; however, when the design is evaluated on the FPGA, the performance may not be what was expected. Therefore, an engineer may need to augment the design to include performance monitors to better understand the bottlenecks in the system or to aid in the debugging of the design. Unfortunately, identifying what to monitor and adding the infrastructure to retrieve the monitored data can be a challenging and time-consuming task. Our work alleviates this effort. We present the Hardware Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (HwPMI, which includes a collection of software tools and hardware cores that can be used to profile the current design, recommend and insert performance monitors directly into the HDL or netlist, and retrieve the monitored data with minimal invasiveness to the design. Three applications are used to demonstrate and evaluate HwPMI’s capabilities. The results are highly encouraging as the infrastructure adds numerous capabilities while requiring minimal effort by the designer and low resource overhead to the existing design.

  10. How participation is practiced? –Extension of Participatory Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    advancement of service design community, this paper introduces one way of identifying participation with a conceptual diagram. Our diagram is to provide a springboard for constructive discussion among service design researchers, practitioners as well as participants themselves, by identifying and clarifying......Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation...

  11. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team

  12. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Halder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  13. Nevus of ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

    2011-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  14. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  15. [Buccal bony exostoses induced by free gingival grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H; Slutzkey, S

    2011-01-01

    Buccal Bony Exostoses (BBE) is a local benign osseous overgrowth continuous with the facial aspect of the jaw. Post operative BBE may be the result of dermal grafts used to restore the buccal vestibulum, of connective tissue graft placement, and of Free Gingival Grafts (FGG) procedures. In 46 patients in whom 72 FGG procedures were performed by the senior author (HT) over the past 12 years, BBE was clinically and radiographically diagnosed. In one case the tumor was surgically removed. The etiology, pathogenesis and frequency of BBE following FGG procedures was reviewed and discussed. We suggest that the BBE may develop owing to periosteal surgical trauma during FGG procedures, and suggest that this phenomenon receives further attention.

  16. Design and Analysis of Metal-to-Composite Nozzle Extension Joints Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the operational demands of liquid rocket engines increases, so too does the need for improved design and manufacturing methods for metal-to-composite nozzle...

  17. The Discussion of the Unlimited Extension of Color Design in Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏

    2012-01-01

      with the improvement of the living standards, the packaging of the product takes more and more im-portant position in people’s life. Color is the most attractive elements in packaging; color design has become an integral part or even the head status in packaging design. Color can help an enterprises to establish a good image of brand and make a clear reorganizations, has been a part of the value-added goods for a long time.

  18. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J M; MILLER, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced ...

  19. Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

  20. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor.

  1. Maintenance Cycle Extension in the IRIS Advanced Light Water Reactor Plant Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New nuclear power generation in the United States will be realized only if the economic performance can be made competitive with other methods of electrical power generation. The economic performance of a nuclear power plant can be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described that can be used to resolve, in the design phase, maintenance-related operating cycle length barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the International Reactor, Innovative and Secure (IRIS) design. IRIS is an advanced light water nuclear power plant that is being designed to maximize this on-line generating time by increasing the operating cycle length. This is consequently a maintenance strategy paper using the IRIS plant as the example.Potential IRIS operating cycle length maintenance-related barriers, determined by modification of an earlier operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant cycle length analysis to account for differences between the design of IRIS and this operating PWR, are presented. The proposed methodology to resolve these maintenance-related barriers by the design process is described. The results of applying the methodology to two potential IRIS cycle length barriers, relief valve testing and emergency heat removal system testing, are presented

  2. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R and D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R and D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability

  3. Development of buccal adhesive tablet with prolonged antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo deposition studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madgulkar A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation.

  4. Mucoadhesive buccal patches based on interpolymer complexes of chitosan–pectin for delivery of carvedilol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to develop bioadhesive patches of carvedilol hydrochloride using chitosan (CH) and pectin (PE) interpolymer complexes and to systematically evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performances. Mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared using solvent casting method. The physicochemical interaction between CH and PE was investigated by FTIR and DSC studies. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like mass variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, ex vivo mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, surface pH, in vitro drug release, in situ release study, and in vivo bioavailability study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the PE concentration. The surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between 6.2 and 7.2. The optimized bioadhesive patch (C1, CH:PE 20:80) showed bioadhesive strength of 22.10 ± 0.20 g, in vitro release of 98.73% and ex vivo mucoadhesion time of 451 min with in a period of 8 h. The optimized patch demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo results. The buccal delivery of carvedilol in rabbits showed a significant improvement in bioavailability of carvedilol from patches when compared to oral route. PMID:23960773

  5. WOnDA : an Extensible Multi-platform Hypermedia Design Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synodinos, Dionysios G.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2002-01-01

    The design and development of hypermedia applications that are deployed on the Web and other delivery platforms is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that are hard to modify, maintain and port to alternative platforms. There are now justifiable res

  6. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... OSC Worker Information Hotline at 1-(800) 255-7688 for information regarding employment discrimination... of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration... appropriate Government agencies, to designate a foreign state (or part thereof) for TPS.\\1\\ The Secretary...

  7. An Extensive Review on Generator Excitation System Modeling, Design, and Parameter Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Wilensky, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it is attempted to review different aspects of power generator's excitation system modeling and design. It starts with the introduction of the excitation system. Then, the new proposed methods will be discussed. Afterward, the new aspects of the controllers' components will be discussed. At the end, the system identification methods necessary for determining the controllers' parameters are discussed.

  8. Postural analysis in HMI design: an extension of OCRA standard to evaluate discomfort level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naddeo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work consists in developing a design methodology for preventive ergonomics and comfort analyses of Human-Machine-Interface (HMI.Design/methodology/approach: Our method is based on the simulation of the main posture that a digital human model (a manikin representing, for example, a car’s driver takes while using a machine (in this work, driving a car, in order to judge human safety and comfort during interaction with dashboard, instruments’ panel, levers and other commands. The ergonomic analyses are made using an appropriately modified OCRA (Occupational Repetitive Actions Index protocol, in order to evaluate different involvement degrees of upper limb segments in comfort action range.Findings: The three-F principle -Human fit, form and function- is becoming the most addressed guideline for improvement and appeal-increasing of product in the current demanding global marketplace. Our work uses modern technologies and new design methods, developed by our research team, and allows to manage and optimize Human Machine Interface under “comfort” point of view.Research limitations/implications: Today, designers attempt to elaborate product development methodologies that conform itself towards best comfort performance; our work helps them to override several problems that a product development plan shows. Future developments can be made using biomechanical parameters and studies in order to better quantify and evaluate the comfort parameters.Practical implications: Using our approach and methods, comfort analysis can be made in the earliest part of the design development of a product so that designers can appreciably reduce time to market and improve and innovate comfort performances.Originality/value: First paper on this matter has been presented by one of the authors in 2008 in a World Automotive Congress; it has been the first paper on this specific matter. All over the world, new research frontier, on these topics

  9. Extension of direct displacement-based design methodology for bridges to account for higher mode effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kappos, A. J.; Gkatzogias, K.I.; Gidaris, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    An improvement is suggested to the direct displacement-based design (DDBD) procedure for bridges to account for higher mode effects, the key idea being not only the proper prediction of a target-displacement profile through the effective mode shape (EMS) method (wherein all significant modes are considered), but also the proper definition of the corresponding peak structural response. The proposed methodology is then applied to an actual concrete bridge wherein the different pier heights and ...

  10. New Extensions of Pairing-based Signatures into Universal (Multi) Designated Verifier Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vergnaud, Damien

    2008-01-01

    The concept of universal designated verifier signatures was introduced by Steinfeld, Bull, Wang and Pieprzyk at Asiacrypt 2003. These signatures can be used as standard publicly verifiable digital signatures but have an additional functionality which allows any holder of a signature to designate the signature to any desired verifier. This designated verifier can check that the message was indeed signed, but is unable to convince anyone else of this fact. We propose new efficient constructions for pairing-based short signatures. Our first scheme is based on Boneh-Boyen signatures and its security can be analyzed in the standard security model. We prove its resistance to forgery assuming the hardness of the so-called strong Diffie-Hellman problem, under the knowledge-of-exponent assumption. The second scheme is compatible with the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signatures and is proven unforgeable, in the random oracle model, under the assumption that the computational bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem is untractable. Both s...

  11. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    Full Text Available Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications.

  12. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendekal Mohamed S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC. Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal

  13. Development and Characterization of Chitosan-Polycarbophil Interpolyelectrolyte Complex-Based 5-Flurouracil Formulations for Buccal, Vaginal and Rectal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Pendekal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study:The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-flurouracil(5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer andsurpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPECMethods:Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability,weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies.Results:FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit.3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU.Conclusion:The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and

  14. Extension of the IMS Learnin Design specification based on adaptation and integration of units of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos Solans, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) representa una corriente actual en aprendizaje online y blended que se caracteriza porque: a) Es una especificación que pretende estandarizar procesos de aprendizaje, así como reutilizarlos en diversos contextos b) Posee una expresividad pedagógica más elaborada que desarrollos anteriores o en proceso c) Mantiene una relación cordial y prometedora con Learning Management Systems (LMSs), herramientas de autoría y de ejecución d) Existe una amplia variedad de grupos...

  15. Option design pattern for CAE software development and its application to extension of nonlinear functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid progress of the computational mechanics, CAE software, such as FEM programs, are having many functions and become more complicated. Because the development shouldn't be stopped, every CAE program should consider future functionality expansions. It is difficult, however, to forecast what types of expansions are required from the future researches. Object-oriented approach appears a promising technique to develop complicated and flexible software. Especially adoption of design patterns fits the purpose. In this paper, a combination of Decorator pattern and Visitor pattern, or Option pattern is discussed and its application to the FEM program of structural problems is demonstrated.

  16. EFFECT OF PERMEATION ENHANCER ON EX-VIVO PERMEATION OF ONDANSETRON HCl BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Praveen Kumar et al.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to study the effect of a permeation enhancer, sodium taurocholate on permeation of Ondansetron HCl from bioadhesive buccal tablet formulation by performing ex-vivo permeation experiments using porcine buccal mucosa. Optimized formulation has selected based on in-vitro drug release studies of bilayered bioadhesive buccal tablets. To the optimized formulation, 10mM sodium taurocholate was added to increase the permeation of poorly permeable ondansetron HCl. It is w...

  17. [An extensive mentoring program for undergraduate medical students: goals, design and realization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhansl, Angelika; Körmöczi, Günther F

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation of an institutional mentoring program for undergraduate medical students at the Medical University of Vienna are presented. Faculty members act as senior mentors in a small group setting enabling also peer mentoring (73.6% of mentees reporting a direct benefit from their co-mentees). Program acceptance by mentees and mentors is very high (71.7% of the mentees and 77.1% of the mentors giving the highest out of four rating categories). The adequacy of this program was studied by analyzing the topics discussed in the mentoring groups: the most frequently covered aspects are diploma thesis, clinical clerkship, studying abroad and career planning. Additionally, sex-specific distributions of mentor recruitment and selection as well as participation by students were documented (e.g., female proportion of 29.9% and 53.2% of mentors and mentees, respectively). Both feedback and content analysis demonstrate the success of this large-scale project.

  18. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts

  19. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts.

  20. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior—in a unified fashion—to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial

  1. ThermoData Engine: Extension to Solvent Design and Multi-component Process Stream Property Calculations with Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris;

    property values and expert system for data analysis and generation of recommended property values at the specified conditions along with uncertainties on demand. The most recent extension of TDE covers solvent design and multi-component process stream property calculations with uncertainty analysis....... However, the accuracy of such calculations are generally unknown that often leads to overdesign of the operational units and results in significant additional cost. TDE provides a tool for the analysis of uncertainty of property calculations for multi-component streams. A process stream in TDE can...... variations). Predictions can be compared to the available experimental data, and uncertainties are estimated for all efficiency criteria. Calculations of the properties of multi-component streams including composition at phase equilibria (flash calculations) are at the heart of process simulation engines...

  2. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge;

    2014-01-01

    .0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa...

  3. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [a] ANTHRACENE-INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  4. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability enhancement by different pH values, different osmolality values or bile salts. For this purpose, the increase in the apparent permeability (P......(app) of mannitol obtained in analog studies using porcine buccal mucosa in an Ussing chamber. The effect of the exposure on the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa was measured, and the degree of protein leakage due to GC exposure was investigated in the TR146 cell...... culture model. The porcine buccal mucosa was approximately ten times less permeable to mannitol than the TR146 cell culture model. The P(app)TC. Increased P(app) values correlated with a decrease in the electrical resistance of the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa. GC was shown...

  5. Sphere-forming-like cells (squamospheres) with cancer stem-like cell traits from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuk-Kwan Chen; Anderson Hsien-Cheng Huang; Li-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that spheroid type cells grown under suspension culture conditions have cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in a number of cancers, but this phenomenon has not yet been reported in the VX2 rabbit oral cancer model. Hence, this study aimed to study the spheroid cells from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and assess their CSC characteristics. Five adult male New Zealand white outbred rabbits were used to generate VX2 rabbit buccal SCC. Sphere-forming cell culture was performed for the VX2 rabbit buccal SCC specimens. The self-renewal capability;cluster of designation (CD) 44, CD133, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), Nestin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and reduced expression protein-1 (Rex-1) expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);chemoresistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil;and in vivo tumorigenicity of spheroid cell transplantation in nude mice were evaluated to determine the CSC characteristics of the resulting spheroid cells. We successfully obtained spheroid cells from the VX2 rabbit OSCC tissues. The spheroid cells exhibited CSC traits, including the expression of CSC and stem cell markers (CD44, Bmi-1, Nestin, Oct4 and Rex-1), capacity to generate new spheroid colonies within 1 week of reseeding from single-dissociated spheroid cells, chemoresistance capacity and generation of tumour xenografts (with histological features resembling those of the original VX2 rabbit buccal SCC) from the transplantation of 103 undifferentiated spheroid cells into nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that spheroid cells with CSC cell traits can be derived from VX2 rabbit buccal SCCs, indicating that this animal cancer model is applicable for studying CSCs in human oral cancers.

  6. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  7. Origin of primary sensory neurons innervating the buccal stretch receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Onozuka, M; Nagasaki, S; Watanabe, K; Ozono, S

    1999-01-01

    The primary sensory neurons innervating mechanoreceptors in oro-facial regions have their cell bodies in either the trigeminal ganglion or the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The buccal stretch receptor (BSR), a type of mechanoreceptor in the jaw of rodents, has recently been recognized as signaling the position of the mandible. The location of the primary afferent neurons innervating this receptor is unknown. To investigate the cell bodies of the BSR afferent neurons in rats, we applied wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) to the proximal stump of the severed nerve branch of the buccal nerve that supplied the BSR. HRP-labeled cell bodies were observed in the posterolateral portion of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion. None was found in the contralateral trigeminal ganglion or in the brainstem. All labeled cell bodies were oval or round and closely resembled pseudo-unipolar neurons. The mean diameter of the labeled somata ranged between 25.5 and 52.5 microm, with small ( or = 41 microm) accounting for 8.8%, 54.9%, and 36.3%, respectively. Among the myelinated nerve fibers in the branch in which WGA-HRP was applied, 78.5% terminated in the BSR and had larger fiber diameters than the rest, indicating that most of the medium and large HRP-labeled cell bodies were BSR afferents. From these results and the ontogenetic origin of this receptor, it is suggested that the BSR differentiated from the mechanoreceptors in the oral mucosa or the fascia of masticatory muscles. PMID:10065945

  8. Use of a 10,600-nm CO2 Laser Mandibular Vestibular Extension in a Patient With a Chromosomal Abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert; Vitruk, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Vestibuloplasty involves a series of surgical procedures designed to restore alveolar ridge height by lowering the muscles attached to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws. The technique is indicated in cases of insufficient vestibular depth that may result from atrophy of the alveolar ridge and/or high attachment of muscle or movable mucosa. This article focuses on a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser vestibular extension procedure performed in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. The 10,600-nm CO2 laser is shown to offer several advantages over a conventional scalpel and other laser wavelengths for soft-tissue pre-prosthetic surgery, including vestibular extension. PMID:27608196

  9. Closure of oroantral communication using buccal fat pad graft - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keim, Frederico Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many causes of fistulas that involve the nasal and antral cavities or both. They may result from pathological entities or secondary to removal of tumors or maxillary cysts. However, the extraction of a maxillary molar or premolar is the most common cause of oroantral fistula. This is explained by the close relationship between the apex of these teeth and the thinness of the antral floor. When the primary fistula repair fails to heal spontaneously during the first three weeks after surgery, a secondary repair may be indicated. During treatment process of the fistulas, there are procedures to make a direct close or the use of a sliding mucosal flap, all techniques own an equal and high degree of failure. Objective: To show a case report of oroantral fistula and its closure. Case Report: A 6-month-Surgical treatment of oroantral fistula, after a tooth removal, using the buccal fat pad method as a pedicled graft associated with a sliding mucosal flap. Conclusion: The mentioned treatment is simple, complete and allows an extensive applicability in most of cases.

  10. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  11. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried buccal tablet for the rapid delivery of naloxone in opioid overdose. The tablet composition was optimized to produce an amorphous matrix, which was confirmed by the absence of peaks associated with crystallinity observed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Tablets with high gelatin content lacked adequate porosity. Mannitol was added to the formulation to bridge and intercalate gelatin's tight polymer aggregates, however sodium bicarbonate was also required to prevent crystallization within the tablets. A linear reduction in mannitol's recrystallization enthalpy was observed with increasing sodium bicarbonate concentration (ΔrecryH = -20.3[NaHCO3] + 220.9; r(2) = 0.9, n = 18). The minimum sodium bicarbonate concentration for full inhibition of mannitol crystallization was 10.9% w/w. Freeze-dried tablets with lower amounts of sodium bicarbonate possessed a crystalline fraction that PXRD identified as mannitol hemihydrate from the unique peak at 9.7° 2θ. Mannitol's greater affinity for both ions and residual water rather than its affinity for self-association was the mechanism for the inhibition of crystallization observed here. The optimized tablet (composition mannitol 24% w/w (4.26 mg), gelatin 65% w/w (11.7 mg), sodium bicarbonate 11% w/w (1.98 mg), and naloxone 800 μg) formed predominantly amorphous tablets that disintegrated in less than 10 s. Optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable over 9 months storage at 25 °C. As speed of drug liberation is the critical performance attribute for a solid dosage form designed to deliver drug in an emergency, a novel imaging based in vitro disintegration assay for buccal tablets was developed. The assay was optimized with regard to conditions in the buccal cavity: i.e., temperature 33-37 °C, volume of medium (0.1-0.7 mL), and use of mucin-containing biorelevant medium. The disintegration assay was sensitive to temperature

  12. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Nanoparticles Using Chitosan and Dextran Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ji Woon; Lee, Ji-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) using the natural mucoadhesive polymers. The natural mucoadhesive polymers chitosan (CS) and dextran sulfate sodium salt (DS) were used to prepare mucoadhesive NPs using the ionic gelation method. As the molecular weight of DS decreased, the amount of mucin and the number of buccal cells adsorbed on DS increased. The CS/DS NPs ranged from 100 to 200 nm in diameter. The adhesive interactions of CS/DS NPs with mucin were not significantly different from those of CS/sodium triphosphate pentabasic (TPP) NPs; however, CS/DS NPs exhibited 5 times greater mucoadhesive activity to buccal cells compared to control CS/TPP NPs in ex vivo adhesion tests. These results indicate that the buccal mucoadhesive properties of NPs can be improved using natural mucoadhesive polymers. PMID:27222213

  14. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol and for...... fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FD) with various M(w) (4000-40000) were compared to the P(app) values obtained using porcine buccal mucosa as an in vitro model of the human buccal epithelium. The effect of 10 mM sodium glycocholate (GC) on the P(app) values was examined. To identify the...... cell culture model is a suitable in vitro model for mechanistic permeability studies of human buccal drug permeability....

  15. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis, JF; Scheenstra, R; Peeters, PMJG; Albers, MJIJ

    2006-01-01

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus tr

  16. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Yeol Lee; Hyo-Won Ahn; Yeek Herr; Young-Hyuk Kwon; Seong-Hun Kim; Eun-Cheol Kim

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were reposit...

  17. Development and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Tablet of an Anti-emetic Agent Ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Nisreen; Khar, R. K.; ALI, MUSHIR; Ali, Javed

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a buccal adhesive tablet containing ondansetron hydrochloride (OH). Special punches and dies were fabricated and used while preparing buccal adhesive tablets. The tablets were prepared using carbopol (CP 934), sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose low viscosity (SCMC LV), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 15cps) as mucoadhsive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose to act as an impermeable backing layer. The f...

  18. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  19. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  20. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  1. 26 CFR 301.6503(j)-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitations; extension in case of designated and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; extension in case of designated and related summonses. 301.6503(j)-1 Section 301.6503(j)-1 Internal Revenue... ADMINISTRATION Limitations Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6503(j)-1 Suspension of running of... assessment provided for in section 6501 is suspended under section 6503(j). If a court requires...

  2. Cytokeratin expression in human fetal tongue and buccal mucosa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Vaidya; Sharda S Sawant; Anita M Borges; N K Naresh; Manda C Purandare; A N Bhisey

    2000-09-01

    Expression of cytokeratins (CK), a subset of intermediate filament (IF) proteins in epithelia, is developmentally regulated. CK expression may also change after malignant transformation. Our earlier studies on CK expression in human oral tumours and pre-cancerous lesions have shown specific changes in CK expression. We analysed CK expression in human tongue and buccal mucosa (BM) in fetuses in the embryonic age group of 16 to 27 weeks using biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to find out whether there is any similarity in CK expression in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and fetal oral tissues. CK 1, 8 and 18 were detected in a majority of samples using both techniques. Our earlier studies had shown aberrant expression of CK 1 and 18 in many of the oral SCC and leukoplakias. Studies by immunohistochemistry showed that these different CK antigens were expressed in different cell layers. CK 1(2) were present in the stratified epithelial layers whereas CK 8 and 18 were restricted to glandular epithelium. Till 27 weeks of gestation, both tongue and BM expressed CK 1, 8 and 18 along with CK 6 and 16. Thus, fetal tissues showed some similarities in CK pattern with their respective SCC.

  3. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  4. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF TIMOLOL MALEATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was concerned with preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing antihypertensive drug, Timolol maleate to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Eight formulations were developed with varying concentrations of polymers like chitosan, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. The formulated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, surface pH, drug content uniformity, swelling index, bioadhesive strength and in vitro drug dissolution study. FTIR studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers and excipients. The in vitro release of Timolol maleate was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer pH 6.8, 37±0.5ºC, 50rpm using USP-XXIV dissolution apparatus type II. The best in vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F5 which contains the drug, chitosan and HPMC K4M in the ratio of 1:2.5:10. The surface pH, bioadhesive strength and swelling index of formulation F5 was found to be 6.34, 36.50g and 80%, respectively. The formulation F5, containing 10 mg of Timolol maleate exhibited 7 hrs sustained drug release i.e. 98.18% with desired therapeutic concentration. The in vitro release kinetics studies of optimized formulation reveal that follows zero order kinetics.

  5. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpizar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  7. Electrically-activated source extension graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor: Novel attributes and design considerations for suppressing short channel effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2014-08-01

    In this paper a double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with electrically-activated source extension is proposed. Source region of the proposed structure includes two sections, an electrically-activated extension and a doped section. The electrically extension, which is located between doped source section and gate region, is biased independent of the gate to form a virtual extension for source. The electrically-activated extension creates a step in potential profile which increases the horizontal distance between conduction and valance bands at channel to source junction. This step reduces the probability of band to band tunneling, lowers the leakage current and improves drain induced barrier lowering. The devices have been simulated based on self consistent solution of Poisson and Schrodinger equations within non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In addition, the effects of the edge and third nearest neighbor are included for more accurate outcomes. Simulations show that the proposed structure is a more reliable device because of its higher ON/Off current ratio, shorter delay time, and smaller power delay product beside lower subthreshold swing than conventional graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor.

  8. The extended free lateral arm flap for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer%游离延展上臂外侧皮瓣修复颊癌术后软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 杨旭东; 李威; 陈修娟; 胡勤刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨游离延展上臂外侧皮瓣修复颊癌术后软组织缺损的临床疗效.方法 2011年1月至8月,应用游离延展上臂外侧皮瓣一期修复3例颊癌扩大切除术造成的软组织缺损,术前应用多普勒血流探测仪测量后桡侧副动脉无变异后,根据其走行,以及术中软组织缺损的面积、形态设计皮瓣,皮瓣均越过肱骨外上髁,面积为9 cm ×5 cm~10 cm×6 cm,血管蒂长约10 cm.供区创面直接拉拢缝合.结果 3例皮瓣均成活,其中1例因局部负压过大造成血管危象,经手术探查,减轻局部负压,术后皮瓣逐渐恢复正常.术后随访6~10个月,患者均无复发,颊部外观形态及功能恢复良好,2例供区局部有麻木感,6个月后症状减轻.结论 游离延展上臂外侧皮瓣厚度适宜、血供可靠,是修复颊癌术后软组织缺损的较好方法.%Objective To summary the application of the extended free lateral arm flaps for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer.Methods From January to August 2011,three patients underwent the operation of buccal defect reconstruction using the extended free lateral arm flap in onestage.PRCA was identificated with the Doppler probe.According to the mark of PRCA,size and shape of defects,the flaps were designed and extended to the lateral epicondyle of humerus.The flap size ranged from 9 cm × 5 cm to 10 cm × 6 cm with a pedicle of 10 cm in length.The wounds at donor sites were closed directly.Results Vascular crisis happened in one case due to local negative pressure,which resolved after emergency management.All the flaps survived completely.The patients were followed up for 6 to 10 months with no recurrence.Both the esthetic and functional results were satisfactory.Two cases suffered from numb feeling in donor sites which alleviated six months later.Conclusions The extended free lateral arm flap has reliable blood supply with appropriate thickness.It is an optional method for reconstruction of

  9. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  10. Estimating Fatty Acid Composition of Infant Buccal Mucosal Cells by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; ZHANG Wei-li; LI Fang; ZHU Xiao-dong; ZHU Jian-xing

    2008-01-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty adds, i. e., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or C22 : 6n -3), arachidonic acid (AA or C20 : 4n - 6) have been identified as essential fatty acids and play an important role in growth and development of infants. Mensurement of fatty acid composition is usually by collection of blood, but to obtain blood in infants is difficult. Nowadays, the fatty acid composition can be estimated by collecting buccal mucosal cells, which can avoid repeated blood sampling. The purpose of this paper is to compare the fatty acid composition of cheek calls with that of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). In this study, twenty-seven infants were enrolled, and buccal mucosal cells and blood samples were obtained from these infants of the same time. Fatty acid composition of buccal mucesal cells, plasma and RBCs were measured by capillary gas chromatography. The results show that the contents of AA and DHA in the buccal mucosal cells are correlated well with that in the plasma [r=0.36 (P=0.042) and r=0.38 (P=0.033), respectively]. The ratio of AA to DHA is 1.32% in buccal mucosal cells, 1.60% in plasma and 1.55% in RBCs and there are no significant differences among groups (P = 0.134). It shows that the fatty acid composition in buccal mucosal cells can reflect the fat nutrition status in infants and can be detected by capillary gas chromatography. Estimating fatty acid composition of buccal mucosal cells in infants by capillary gas chromatography is feasible, and because of its noninvasiveness, it can be suitable for nutrition research in infants.

  11. The flavonoid quercetin modulates the hallmark capabilities of hamster buccal pouch tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Manikandan, Palrasu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer risk. Quercetin, a ubiquitous dietary flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive as well as the therapeutic ability of quercetin to modulate the key hallmark capabilities of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival (PCNA, p21, p53, cyclin D1, GST-P), apoptosis (Fas, Fas-L, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome-C, Apaf-1, caspases, PARP, survivin, cFLIP, API1), invasion (MMPs, TIMP-2, RECK), angiogenesis (PlGF, VEGF, VEGF receptors, HIF-1α), as well as the epigenetic markers (HDAC-1, DNMT1) by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. Simultaneous administration of quercetin to DMBA-painted hamsters reduced tumor incidence and tumor burden, while posttreatment of quercetin resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. In addition, quercetin administration induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and blocked invasion and angiogenesis. We found a positive correlation between the inhibition of HDAC-1 and DNMT1 by quercetin and its anticancer properties. A dietary phytochemical such as quercetin that modulates a plethora of molecules offers promise as an ideal candidate for multitargeted cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:21294050

  12. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  13. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  14. Evidence for homologous peptidergic neurons in the buccal ganglia of diverse nudibranch mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W H; Willows, A O

    1992-03-01

    The buccal ganglia of seven nudibranches (Aeolidia papillosa, Armina californica, Dirona albolineata, D. picta, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea) were examined to explore possible homologies between large cells that reacted with antibodies directed against small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB). The buccal ganglion of each species possessed a pair of large, dorsal-lateral, whitish neurons that contained an SCPB-like peptide. We refer to these neurons as the SLB (SCPB-immunoreactive Large Buccal) cells. In all species examined, the SLB cells project out the gastroesophageal nerves and appear to innervate the esophagus. In each species, an apparent rhythmic feeding motor program (FMP) was observed by intracellular recording from both SLB neurons and other neurons in isolated preparations of the buccal ganglia. SLB cells often fire at a high frequency, and usually burst in a specific phase relation to the FMP activity. Stimulation of SLB cells enhances expression of the feeding motor program, either by potentiating existing activity or eliciting the FMP in quiescent preparations. Finally, perfusion of isolated buccal ganglia with SCPB excites the SLB cells and activates FMPs. Thus, both the immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the SLB cells within three suborders of the opisthobranchia (Dendronotacea, Arminacea, and Aeolidacea) are homologous. A comparison of our data with previously published studies indicates that SLB cell homologs may exist in other gastropods as well. PMID:1527526

  15. Delivery of Piroxicam With A Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablet: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Kepsutlu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam (PX is one of the most potent non-steroidal, antiinflammatory agents which also exhibit anti-pyretic activity in various types of non-rheumatic pains. Although the drug is well absorbed following oral administration, gastric irritation is still the most serious adverse effect. Thus there is a need for an alternative drug delivery system with better GI tolerability. Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and and local actions and bypasses first-pass effects and avoids GI side effects. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop buccal tablets of piroxicam by using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and chitosan as mucoadhesive agents. Tablets were prepared with direct compression method and evaluated for physical properties. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the release rate of PX from the formulations affected by type and ratio of polymers. The release mechanism of PX from buccal tablets follows diffusive mechanism with first order and Higuchi release kinetics. In vivo studies of optimum buccal tablet formulation carried out on human healthy volunteers showed that the relative bioavailability of PX was 67.52 ± 21.47%. These results demonstrate that buccal tablet formulation of PX seems to be an alternative drug delivery for patients especially suffering from GI disturbances

  16. Influence of anatomic reference on the buccal contour of prosthetic crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Sabrina Queirós Vasconcelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During clinical practice, when performing prosthetic rehabilitation with single crowns, improper reproduction of the dental contour by the dental laboratory is a common occurrence. Therefore, the present study evaluated the fidelity of the reproduction of the buccal contour in an upper left canine performed by three Dental Prosthesis Technicians (DPT using the indirect laminate veneer technique. First, the DPTs confected the veneers based on a model obtained from the upper arch of a dental dummy, containing a replica of an upper left canine with a prosthetic preparation for a laminate veneer. Then, the same DPTs received other identical models, now with the replica of the upper left canine with no preparation, to be used as an anatomical reference for confecting the laminate veneers. The laminate veneers were then bonded to the plaster models and had their buccal contour individually measured. Measurements were also made of the buccal contour of the reference canine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and the t-test (p = 0.05. Results showed 100% of buccal overcontour when the laminate veneers were compared to the reference canine, regardless of which DPT confected the veneer and regardless of using or not the anatomical reference. The DPTs who participated in the present study were unable to acomplish a faithful anatomical reproduction of the buccal contour, creating an overcontour in all samples. This situation may be responsible for increasing the probability of periodontal and esthetic harm in clinical practice.

  17. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  18. Preparation and in-vivo evaluation of dimenhydrinate buccal mucoadhesive films with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Pekoz, Ayca; Sedef Erdal, Meryem; Okyar, Alper; Ocak, Meltem; Tekeli, Fatma; Kaptan, Engin; Sagirli, Olcay; Araman, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Dimenhydrinate (DMH)-loaded buccal bioadhesive films for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness were prepared and optimized. This study examines the rate of drug release from the films for prolonged periods of time to reduce or limit the frequency of DMH administration. Based on preliminary studies using various polymers and concentrations, hydroxyethylcellulose (2.5, 3.0, and 3.2%), and xanthan gum (2.8%) were chosen as matrix polymers. The films were analyzed with respect to their mechanical, physicochemical, bioadhesive, swelling, and in-vitro release properties. In in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies, xanthan gum-based DMH buccal film was associated with significantly increased DMH plasma levels between 1 h and 5 h after DMH dosing when compared with an oral drug solution. The area under the curve AUC0-7 h value of the mucoadhesive buccal film was two-fold higher than the oral DMH solution. Histological analysis revealed that DMH films cause mild morphological and inflammatory changes in rabbit buccal mucosa. The DMH buccal film is effective for approximately 7 h, thus representing an option for single-dose antiemetic therapy. This dosage regimen could be particularly beneficial for chain travelers who travel for long periods of time. PMID:26460061

  19. A formal account of the dual extension of knowledge and concept in C-K design theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Hendriks; A.O. Kazakci

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a contribution to the formalization efforts of C-K design theory. First, we analyze the notion of "dual expansion of concepts and knowledge" in C-K design theory and we discuss how such a reasoning process can be modeled using first-order logic. Then, we present a basic formal acc

  20. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey and...... determined. The mannitol and testosterone permeability across the TR146 cell culture model could be related to the permeability across porcine and human buccal mucosa. The permeability of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists across the TR146 cell culture model varied between 2.2 x 10(-6) cm/s (atenolol) and 165...... increased the permeability only for the hydrophilic atenolol, which may help explain the mechanism for GC-induced enhancement. The present results indicate that the TR146 cell culture model can be used as an in vitro model for permeability studies and mechanistic studies of human buccal drug delivery of...

  1. A case of buccal mucosal and maxillary tumor seemed to be radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radiation-induced cancer was reported. A 46-year-old man developed buccal mucosal and maxillary cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) 19 years after external radiation therapy for buccal papilloma. Previous irradiation was 60Co, 186.5 Gy. Latent period was 19 years, but 7 years after the irradiation osteomyelitis arose in the mandible. X-ray films of the mandible revealed an osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesion. Conservative treatment of the osteomyelitis was not so effective. Partital resection of the mandible and resection of buccal scar tissue combined with reconstructive surgery of the cheek using a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap were performed in September, 1984. The histological examination of the resected specimen showed squamous cell carcinoma and the ultrastructural study on this case was further performed. In spite of wide excision and intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with irradiation, the patient died of the carcinoma in October, 1986. (author)

  2. Prosthetic improvement of pronounced buccally positioned zygomatic implants: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Ataís; Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Nóbilo, Mauro Antonio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2014-08-01

    This report presents a prosthetic technique for the improvement of surgically positioned, buccally placed zygomatic implants with the use of custom abutments for improved retention screw position and an esthetic implant reconstruction. The patient presented four zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. The anterior implants were inclined toward the location where the anterior artificial teeth should be placed during rehabilitation. As the manufacturer does not provide angulated abutments, we attempted the waxing and overcasting of a prosthetic abutment, repositioning the access holes of the prosthetic screws to a more palatal position. This clinical report demonstrates that abutment customization could be an interesting way to relocate the access holes of the prosthetic screws in cases of zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination.

  3. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  4. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  5. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  6. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (pimplant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (pimplant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  7. Extension of a reactive distillation process design methodology: application to the hydrogen production through the Iodine-Sulfur thermochemical cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive distillation is a promising way to improve classical processes. This interest has been comforted by numerous successful applications involving reactive systems in liquid phase but never in vapour phase. In this context, general design tools have been developed for the analysis of reactive distillation processes whatever the reactive phase. A general model for open condensation and evaporation of vapour or liquid reactive systems in chemical equilibrium has been written and applied to extend the feasibility analysis, synthesis and design methods of the sequential design methodology of R. Thery (2002). The extended design methodology is applied to the industrial production of hydrogen through the iodine-sulphur thermochemical cycle by vapour phase reactive distillation. A column configuration is proposed with better performance formerly published configuration. (author)

  8. Evolution of the design methodologies for the next generation of RPV Extensive role of the thermal-hydraulics numerical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the first PWR's was mainly based on an experimental approach, with a large series of test on the main equipment (control rod guide tubes, RPV plenums..), to check its performances. Development of CFD-codes and computers now allows for complex simulations of hydraulic phenomena. Provided adequate qualification, these numerical tools are efficient means to determine hydraulics in given design, and to perform sensitivities for optimization of new designs. Experiments always play their role, first for qualification, and for validation at the last stage of the design. The design of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), is based on both hydraulic calculations and experiments, handled in a complementary approach. This paper describes the effort launched by Framatome-ANP on hydraulic calculations for the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the EPR reactor. It concerns 3D-calculations of RPV-inlet including cold legs, RPV-downcomer and lower plenum, RPV-upper plenum up to and including hot legs. It covers normal operating conditions, but also accidental conditions as PTS (Pressurized Thermal Shock) in small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA). Those hydraulic studies have provided numerous useful information for the mechanical design of RPV-internals. (authors)

  9. Evolution of the design methodologies for the next generation of RPV : the extensive role of the thermal hydraulics numerical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the first PWR's was mainly based on an experimental approach, with a large series of test on the main equipment (control rod guide tubes, RPV plenums...), to check its performances. Development of CFD-codes and computers now allows for complex simulations of hydraulic phenomena. Provided adequate qualification, these numerical tools are efficient means to determine hydraulics in given design, and to perform sensitivities for optimization of new design. Experiments always play their role, on qualification at first, on validation of resulting design at end. The design of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), jointly developed by FRAMATOME-ANP and EDFGU (German Utilities), is based on both hydraulic calculations and experiments, handled in a complementary approach. This paper describes the collective effort launched by FRAMATOME-ANP and EDF, on hydraulic calculations for the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the EPR reactor. It concerns 3D-calculations of RPV-inlet including cold legs, RPV-downcomer and lower plenum, RPV-upper plenum up to and including hot legs. It covers normal operating conditions, but also accidental conditions as PTS (Pressurized Thermal Shock) in small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA). Those hydraulic studies have provided numerous useful information for the mechanical design of RPV-internals

  10. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates......Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards...... automation of DNA sequencing....

  11. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  12. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  13. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  14. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B;

    2014-01-01

    significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups...

  15. Multidisciplinary management of a mandibular buccal plate perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Nugraeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endodontists often have difficulty in the management of endo-perio cases, because they cannot visually detect the condition of outer root surfaces, especially in bucco-lateral roots. The bone defect is rare and its treatment needs collaboration of endodontists and periodontists. An endodontist treats cases based on dental history, radiograph of root canals to measure root canals, to uncover abnormalities and to diagnose, but as the endodontists cannot directly see the affected parts, the unseen portion of the tooth could only be seen after flap surgery. Purpose: This case presents the importance of multidisciplinary approach by the endodontist and periodontitis to treat bucal plate perforations in endo-perio cases. Case: The first patient, a 47-year-old female had endodontic treatment and a porcelain crown restoration; however, after several months she felt pain. The second patient, a 45 year-old female had endodontic treatment and after six months she feel painful. Case management: The first patient, was referred to a periodontist. The opening flap surgery has been done, a bone defect was found in tooth 45. Subsequently, the exposed crater was filled with a bone graft and the pain disappeared. The second patient, with improper endodontic treatment. The flap surgery was conducted, there was found a bone defect in tooth 36. The last treatment, a bone graft has been covered and then the pain was not present. Conclusion: Proper diagnosis and treatment of perforations on the buccal aspect of a root was able to eliminate pain and avoid tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Endodontis sering mengalami kesulitan dalam menangani kasus endo-perio karena secara visual kondisi ini tidak tampak diluar permukaan akar, khususnya pada akar bukolateral. Defek tulang sangatlah jarang dan perawatannya membutuhkan kolaborasi endodotis dan periodontis. Seorang endodontis merawat kasus-kasus berdasarkan riwayat gigi, radiografis saluran akar untuk melihat

  16. 起落架多冗余度收放控制器设计%Design of Multi-Redundant Controller for Landing Gear Retraction and Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韬; 杨楠; 魏之暄; 钱雄文; 张存访

    2012-01-01

    起落架收放系统对大型客机的安全性至关重要,其中起落架收放控制和指示子系统的安全性以及指示的正确性,对减少故障的发生和提高维修性具有重要意义.文中设计了一种采用双-双余度结构的起落架收放控制器,将有中心裁决冗余与无中心裁决冗余相结合,并同时采用了非相似余度设计以及各种软硬件错误检测,极大地提高了系统的可靠性,实际运行证明此设计是十分可靠的.%The landing gear retraction and extension system was crucial to the safety of aircrafto The safety and correctness of landing gear retraction and extension control and indication sub-system inside were significant to reduce the incidence of failure and improve maintainability. This paper designs a landing gear retraction and extension controller which uses dual-dual redundant structure contraller that combines the central ruling redundancy and the non-central ruling redundancy. In addition,the non-similar redundant design and a variety of hardware and software errors detection were also used to improve the reliability of the system. The actual running tests proves that the design was very reliable.

  17. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeol Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM, during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19±14.60° and 28.12±11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9±19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface.

  18. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  19. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  20. Neuraminidase-enhanced attachment of Bacteroides intermedius to human erythrocytes and buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ono, M.; Kato, T.

    1989-01-01

    Bacteroides intermedius strains strongly agglutinated only neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes. The neuraminidase-dependent hemagglutinating activity of B. intermedius was abolished by heating or treating with protease. The adherence of these microorganisms to human buccal epithelial cells was enhanced by neuraminidase pretreatment of the cells (P less than 0.01).

  1. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive p...

  2. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  3. Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natekar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

  4. EFFECT OF PERMEATION ENHANCER ON EX-VIVO PERMEATION OF ONDANSETRON HCl BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Praveen Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to study the effect of a permeation enhancer, sodium taurocholate on permeation of Ondansetron HCl from bioadhesive buccal tablet formulation by performing ex-vivo permeation experiments using porcine buccal mucosa. Optimized formulation has selected based on in-vitro drug release studies of bilayered bioadhesive buccal tablets. To the optimized formulation, 10mM sodium taurocholate was added to increase the permeation of poorly permeable ondansetron HCl. It is well known that natural surfactants like bile salts increase the permeability of drugs by perturbation of intercellular lipids. The results indicated that, from pure drug solution (5 mg/mL about 88.63% cumulative percentage of drug permeated across porcine buccal mucosa with flux of 0.0235 mg.h-1cm-2. However, the optimized formulation with sodium taurocholate increased flux (0.0523 mg.h-1cm-2 and cumulative amount of drug permeated (65.44% in comparison to formulation without permeation enhancer (38.45%, 0.0186 mg.h-1cm-2 with enhancement ratio of 2.81.

  5. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue: two cases involving the tongue and the buccal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Bilde, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    for these heterotopias. The first lesion was located in the buccal area in an 8-year-old boy and the second lesion in the tongue of a 2-year-old boy. They had relatively small lesions with few clinical symptoms. Complete excision was made and the follow-up was unremarkable. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue is considered...

  6. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-01-01

    Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  7. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these s...

  8. Polymeric mucoadhesive tablets for topical or systemic buccal delivery of clonazepam: Effect of cyclodextrin complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, P; Cirri, M; Mennini, N; Casella, G; Maestrelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Two kinds of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of clonazepam (CLZ) were developed to provide, a prolonged local or systemic delivery respectively. Tablets prepared by direct compression of combinations of different polymers were tested for swelling, erosion and residence time properties. Carbopol 971P/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Poloxamer/chitosan mixtures were the best and were selected for drug loading. The effect of CLZ complexation with different cyclodextrins was investigated. Randomly-methylated-βCD (RAMEßCD) was the most effective, allowing 100% drug released increase from local-delivery buccal tablets. Kollicoat was the best among the tested backing-layers, assuring a unidirectional release from systemic-delivery buccal tablets (<0.8% drug released in simulated saliva after 24h). In vitro permeation studies from coated-tablets showed that CLZ loading as RAMEßCD-coground enabled a 5-times increase in drug flux and permeability. Therefore, complexation with RAMEßCD was a successful strategy to improve the CLZ performance from buccal tablets for both local or systemic action. PMID:27516327

  9. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  10. A Comparison of Buccal Midazolam and Intravenous Diazepam for the Acute Treatment of Seizures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study is to compare efficacy and safety of buccal midazolam with intravenous diazepam in control of seizures in Iranian children.Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial. 92 patients with acute seizures, ranging from 6 months to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive either buccal midazolam (32 cases or intravenous diazepam (60 cases at the emergency department of a children's hospital. The primary outcome of this study was cessation of visible seizure activity within 5 minutes from administration of the first dosage. The second dosage was used in case the seizure remained uncontrolled 5 minutes after the first one.Findings: In the midazolam group, 22 (68.8% patients were relieved from seizures in 10 minutes.Meanwhile, diazepam controlled the episodes of 42 (70% patients within 10 minutes. The difference was,however, not statistically significant (P=0.9. The mean time required to control the convulsive episodes after administration of medications was not statistically significant (P=0.09. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Nevertheless, the risk of respiratory failure in intravenous diazepam is greater than in buccal midazolam.Conclusion: Buccal midazolam is as effective as and safer than intravenous diazepam in control of seizures.

  11. 《高速公路改扩建设计细则》探讨%Discussion on Design Details of Highway Reconstruction and Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪连君

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,combining with characteristics of part of high -grade highway that have been built in Qinghai ,some understandings of design details of highway reconstruction and extension (JTG/TL11-2014) issued by MOT are clarified .%本文结合我省已建成部分高等级公路的特点、阐述了对交通运输部颁《高速公路改扩建设计细则》JTG/TL11—2014的几点认识。

  12. The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Study Design, Methods, Use of Information Technology, and Extension to Other Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Guillermina; Gordon, Aubree; Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Hammond, Samantha N.; Elizondo, Douglas; Nuñez, Andrea; Coloma, Josefina; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2004, the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study was established in Managua, Nicaragua, to study the natural history and transmission of dengue in children. Here, the authors describe the study design, methods, and results from 2004 to 2008. Initially, 3,721 children 2–9 years of age were recruited through door-to-door visits. Each year, new children aged 2 years are enrolled in the study to maintain the age s...

  13. Structure determination of Murine Norovirus NS6 proteases with C-terminal extensions designed to probe protease–substrate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. They encode an NS6 protease that cleaves a viral polyprotein at specific sites to produce mature viral proteins. In an earlier study we obtained crystals of murine norovirus (MNV NS6 protease in which crystal contacts were mediated by specific insertion of the C-terminus of one protein (which contains residues P5-P1 of the NS6-7 cleavage junction into the peptide binding site of an adjacent molecule, forming an adventitious protease-product complex. We sought to reproduce this crystal form to investigate protease–substrate complexes by extending the C-terminus of NS6 construct to include residues on the C-terminal (P′ side of the cleavage junction. We report the crystallization and crystal structure determination of inactive mutants of murine norovirus NS6 protease with C-terminal extensions of one, two and four residues from the N-terminus of the adjacent NS7 protein (NS6 1′, NS6 2′, NS6 4′. We also determined the structure of a chimeric extended NS6 protease in which the P4-P4′ sequence of the NS6-7 cleavage site was replaced with the corresponding sequence from the NS2-3 cleavage junction (NS6 4′ 2|3.The constructs NS6 1′ and NS6 2′ yielded crystals that diffracted anisotropically. We found that, although the uncorrected data could be phased by molecular replacement, refinement of the structures stalled unless the data were ellipsoidally truncated and corrected with anisotropic B-factors. These corrections significantly improved phasing by molecular replacement and subsequent refinement.The refined structures of all four extended NS6 proteases are very similar in structure to the mature MNV NS6—and in one case reveal additional details of a surface loop. Although the packing arrangement observed showed some similarities to those observed in the adventitious protease-product crystals reported previously, in no case were specific protease–substrate interactions

  14. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  15. Single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft with tubularized incised urethral plate technique for hypospadias reoperations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jing Ye; Ping Ping; Yi-Dong Liu; Zheng Li; Yi-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To report the experience with single stage dorsal inlay buccal mucosal grafts using the Snodgrass technique for complex redo cases. Methods: From May 2004 to December 2005, a total of 53 patients aged from 3 to 34 years old(average 11.62 ± 7.18 years) with failed previous hypospadias surgery were included in the present study. Indica- tions included urethral strictures and repair breakdown. The unhealthy urethra was unroofed from the meatus in the ventral midline, a buccal mucosal graft was inlayed between the incised urethral plate and fixed to the corporacavemosa. The neourethra was tubularized, and covered with subcutaneous (dartos) tissue and penile skin. Glanuloplasty was also performed in all cases. Outcome analysis included clinical follow-up, and endoscopy in 2 selected cases. Results: The buccal mucosal graft was 3.0-7.5 cm in length and 0.7-2.0 cm in width. All patients required glanuloplasty, with buccal mucosal grafts extended to the tip of the glans. After a follow-up of 14-30 months (mean 22.6 months), the total complication rate was 15.1%, with five cases of fistula and three cases of stricture. Conclusion: Inlaying dorsal buccal mucosal grafts applying the Snodgrass technique is a reliable method for creating a substitute urethral plate for tubularization. The recurrent rate of urethral stricture and fistula is at an acceptable level for redo cases. This approach represents an effective, simple and safe option for reoperations. (Asain J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 682- 686)

  16. Analysis of the architectural design innovation and extension thinking modes%建筑设计创新与可拓思维模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2015-01-01

    随着科学的进步和时代的发展,建筑的功能越来越复杂。社会各界越来越重视建筑设计创新,本文通过探究可拓思维模式在建筑设计创新中的应用,希望对我国的建筑事业有一定的帮助。%with the development of science and the progress of times, function of the building is more and more complex. All circles of the society pay more and more attention to the innovation of architectural design, through the exploration of the application of extension thinking modes in the innovation of architectural design, hope to our country’s construction industry have some help.

  17. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  18. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  19. STUDY ABOUT ROLE EXTENSION DESIGN OF PACKAGING CONTAINER%儿童食品包装容器的角色延展设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严敏

    2015-01-01

    包装容器的角色延展设计是对于绿色设计理念新思路的探索。儿童食品消费群体的多元化,对其包装提出了更高的要求。本文从收纳容器、智力手工玩具,学习用具三个方面探讨儿童食品包装容器角色延展方向。通过外观造型、结构改造、图文添加等几个方面挖掘儿童包装的新意向,达到包装与人互动,包装融入生活的目的。%Role extension design of packaging container is to explore new idea of green design concept. Diversification of children's food consumption groups put forward higher requirements to their packaging. This article probe role extension directions of children's food packaging containers by container, intel igence handmade toys, and school supplies. Looking for new function of children packaging by appearance, structural reform, and adding graphics, is to achieve purpose of packaging interact with people, and integrate into life.

  20. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode

  1. The Extension of Quality Function Deployment Based on 2-Tuple Linguistic Representation Model for Product Design under Multigranularity Linguistic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a customer-driven approach for product design and development. A QFD analysis process includes a series of subprocesses, such as determination of the importance of customer requirements (CRs, the correlation among engineering characteristics (ECs, and the relationship between CRs and ECs. Usually more than group of one decision makers are involved in the subprocesses to make the decision. In most decision making problems, they often provide their evaluation information in the linguistic form. Moreover, because of different knowledge, background, and discrimination ability, decision makers may express their linguistic preferences in multigranularity linguistic information. Therefore, an effective approach to deal with the multi-granularity linguistic information in QFD analysis process is highly needed. In this study, the QFD methodology is extended with 2-tuple linguistic representation model under multi-granularity linguistic environment. The extended QFD methodology can cope with multi-granularity linguistic evaluation information and avoid the loss of information. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a numerical example.

  2. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  3. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  4. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H2O2) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in Trolox

  5. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach. PMID:27279067

  6. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself.

  7. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  8. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  9. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Amjad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB and lidocaine HCl (LID was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9 were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate (SA. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release, which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  10. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Chitosan Based Omeprazole Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Amit E. Birari; Dhiraj A. Khairnar

    2014-01-01

    The present study is concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing proton pump inhibitors drug, Omeprazole to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were prepared with Chitosan as primary polymer and Carbopol 934, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M) and Xanthan gum as a secondary po...

  11. Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, L H; Pearsall, N N

    1980-01-01

    A strong correlation was shown between germination and increased adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells, indicating that germination or other changes in the fungi accompanying germination were responsible for enhanced adherence. Partial inhibition of germination by cysteine resulted in a comparably lower adherence. Preferential adherence of germinated fungi occurred in competition assays with nongerminated and germinated fungi. The enhanced adherence to human mucosal c...

  12. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Jahani; Ebrahimi, A.; Hekmat, S.; MJ Gharavi

    2006-01-01

    Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002) 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic meth...

  13. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  14. Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashbury, Janet E.; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Stephen C Pang; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J.; King, Will D

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA ...

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-01-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 – 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K...

  16. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  17. Development and in vitro evaluation of a buccal drug delivery system based on preactivated thiolated pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Müller, Christiane; Ohm, Moritz; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of preactivated thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) for buccal drug delivery. Therefore, a gel formulation containing this novel polymer and the model drug lidocaine was prepared and investigated in vitro in terms of rheology, mucoadhesion, swelling behavior and drug release in comparison to formulations based on pectin (Pec) and thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys). Both pectin derivatives showed gel formation without addition of any other excipient due to self-crosslinking thiol groups. Under same conditions, pectin did not show gel formation. Viscosity of Pec-Cys-based formulation increased 92-fold and viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulations by 4958-fold compared to pectin-based formulation. Gels did not dissolve in aqueous environment during several hours and were able to take up water. Mucoadhesion of pectin on buccal tissue could be improved significantly, value of total work of adhesion increased in the following rank order: Pec-Cys-MNA > Pec-Cys > Pec. The retention time of a model drug incorporated in gel formulations on buccal mucosa under continuous rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline was prolonged, after 1.5 h 3-fold higher amount of a model drug was to be found on tissue after application of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulation compared to pectin-based and 2-fold compared to Pec-Cys-based formulation. The Pec-Cys-MNA-based gel showed a more sustained release of lidocaine than Pec-Cys-based gel, whereas pectin solution revealed an immediate release. According to these results, the self-crosslinking pectin-derivative is a promising tool for buccal application.

  18. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus

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    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  19. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Swati C. Jagdale; Prachyasuman Mohanty; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The...

  20. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

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    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  1. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  2. Composite HPMC and sodium alginate based buccal formulations for nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Obinna C; Boateng, Joshua S

    2016-10-01

    Smoking cessation is of current topical interest due to the significant negative health and economic impact in many countries. This study aimed to develop buccal films and wafers comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) for potential use in nicotine replacement therapy via the buccal mucosa, as a cheap but effective alternative to currently used nicotine patch and chewing gum. The formulations were characterised using texture analyser (tensile and hardness, mucoadhesion), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and swelling capacity. Drug loaded films and wafers were characterised for content uniformity (HPLC) whilst the drug loaded wafers only were further characterised for in vitro drug dissolution. SA modified and improved the functional properties of HPMC at optimum ratio of HPMC: SA of 1.25: 0.75. Generally, both films and wafers (blank and drug loaded) were amorphous in nature which impacted on swelling and mucoadhesive performance. HPMC-SA composite wafers showed a porous internal morphology with higher mucoadhesion, swelling index and drug loading capacity compared to the HPMC-SA composite films which were non-porous. The study demonstrates the potential use of composite HPMC-SA wafers in the buccal delivery nicotine. PMID:27222284

  3. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque SE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shaikh Ershadul Haque, Angappan Sheela Materials Chemistry Division, Centre for Nanomaterials, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met, an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7. The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: chitosan, sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose, drug-delivery system, immediate release

  4. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  5. Lamprey buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 inhibits human T lymphocyte proliferation

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    Jing SUN, Shuiyan YU, Zhuang XUE, Cenjie LIU, Yu WU, Xin LIU, Qingwei LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamprey is a representative of the agnathans, the most ancient class of vertebrates. Parasitic lampreys secrete anticoagulant from their buccal glands and prevent blood coagulation of host fishes. We identified a buccal gland secretory protein-2 (BGSP-2 from a buccal gland cDNA library of Lampetra japonica. The full-length BGSP-2 gene was cloned and the recombinant BGSP-2 protein was generated. The role of BGSP-2 on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by examining its effects on human T lymphocytes. We found that lamprey BGSP-2 was able to effectively block the proliferation of T cells in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, it inhibited the proliferation of human T lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA at a minimum concentration of 0.1μg/ml. Our data suggest that lamprey BGSP-2 is able to block the mitosis of human T lymphocytes at the G1/S point, and has the potential of anti-proliferative effect on PHA-activated T lymphocytes [Current Zoology 56 (2: 252–258, 2010].

  6. 嵌入式PLC的设计及通信功能的扩展%Design of embedded PLC and the extension of communication function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪莲

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the adaptation of traditional PLC, the design of character embedded PLC based on STM32 and the extension of communication function are proposed. The system was fulfilled on both software and hardware realization by studying the PLC working principle and communication criterion. It also supports traditional ladder language and Modbus、Tcp-ip with the technology of software and hardware design. The development of system is flexible and the cost is low. It can be used in many places.%为了提高传统PLC的适应性,提出了基于嵌入式STM32的字符型嵌入式PLC设计以及通信功能的扩展,并完成了软硬件的设计及实现。通过研究PLC的工作原理以及通信协议规范,采用嵌入式软硬件设计技术实现了传统PLC梯形图的运行,并且支持Modbus、Tcp-ip协议。本系统具有开发灵活,成本低,适应于多种工业场合。

  7. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods: Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results: The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper ...

  8. Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Sharafat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jordans agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordans agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service and control group (30 farmers. The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of

  9. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  10. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  11. Morphologic and cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : It is now known that the disease process of diabetes has effects on various tissues of the body. The following study was done to analyze the effects of diabetes on oral tissues. Aims : To study the morphology and cytomorphometry of the cells obtained in cytologic smears from the buccal mucosa of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods : Smears were obtained from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 50 randomly selected diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic and the out-patient department and of five healthy subjects as control. Smears were stained using Papanicolaou method, and using a micrometer mean values of nuclear diameter (ND, cell diameter (CD, cytoplasmic diameter (CyD and nucleus: cytoplasm ratio (N: C ratio were obtained for each patient. Diabetic patients were divided into four groups based on the glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb values for comparison. Statistical analysis used : Student′s T-test and Fisher′s F-test. Results : Statistically significant increase in ND (P=0.0367 was found in diabetic patients compared to controls. Degree of glycemic control significantly affected ND (P=0.0042 and N: C ratio (P=0.0055. In general, as the severity of diabetes increases, ND and N: C ratio rise gradually. Conclusions : Diabetes produces definite morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in the buccal mucosa of patients. However, further research in this direction is indicated, to analyze the significance of these findings as a tool for diabetes detection, as well as to obtain deeper insights into its effects on various tissues.

  12. Verruciform xanthoma of buccal mucosa: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhalerao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verruciformxanthoma (VX is an uncommon benign mucocutaneous lesion of unknown etiology. It appears as a papule or single plaque with verrucous or papillomatous surface and variable color from reddish pink to gray. It occurs primarily in the masticatory mucosa. Histologically, VX is characterized by the presence of parakeratinized epithelium with thin rete ridges and connective tissue papillae extending up to the surface. The papillae characteristically consist of foam cells, also called xanthoma cells. We report a case of VX in the buccal mucosa and discuss their clinical and histopathological findings.

  13. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, H.; Viswanathan, P.; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R.; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H. K.; Backman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians’ office. PMID:27699138

  14. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Dante A. MIGLIARI

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

  15. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  16. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  17. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Venigalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  18. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  19. Multilayer Multidimensional Extension Set Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shao-zhong; YANG Guo-wei; TU Xu-yan

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the contradiction problem of multilayer multidimensional complex systems, the concepts of extension field and stable field of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional extension set are given. Then the related operations and properties are discussed. The results of study expand the concepts of intersection and union of extension set to a general situation, and provide the theoretical basis for production of the concepts of intersection and union of multilayer multidimensional matter element system extension set. In this way, it will be possible that matter element system theory is used to creative designs of complex systems.

  20. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  1. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  2. Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients.

  3. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  4. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Rao, Kunchala S; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on cytokeratin expression, a sensitive and specific marker for differentiation status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis in male Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group I, and in addition they received orally 200 mg/kg of SAC on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was detected by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3. In DMBA-induced HBP tumors, the decreased expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins of molecular mass between 55-70 kDa was observed. Administration of SAC (200 mg/kg) to animals painted with DMBA suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced carcinomas and was associated with restoration of normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP tumorigenesis by SAC may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumor invasiveness, and its ability to migrate and form metastases. PMID:14704476

  5. Buccal mucosal cancer patient who failed to recover taste acuity after partial oral cavity irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient who suffered from prolonged loss of taste acuity after partial oral cavity irradiation. The electric taste threshold (ETT) of each point in the oral cavity was measured with an electric gustometer to evaluate quantitative local taste acuity. A subjective total taste acuity (STTA) scale was used to evaluate subjective total taste acuity. A 61-year-old male patient with right buccal mucosal cancer underwent radiation therapy more than 11 years ago, and has suffered from loss of taste acuity since then. He received electron beam irradiation to part of the oral cavity and right upper neck, mainly the right buccal mucosa near the retromolar trigone and a metastatic right submandibular node. He did not receive irradiation to the anterior portion of the tongue or left side of the posterior portion of the tongue. His ETT scores for each point were equal to or greater than 26, and his STTA score was grade 3. The present case implies that radiation damage to part of the oral cavity can cause the loss of subjective total taste acuity. (author)

  6. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  7. Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p stages of the disease (p < 0.0001).

  8. Reconstruction of anterior maxillary defect with buccal pad fat after excision of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rattan, Vidya; Rai, Sachin; Yadav, Shikha; Sahu, Gyana Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights a rare case of melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy involving the anterior maxilla in a 3-month-old infant. The tumor was excised completely, and the defect was reconstructed with a bilateral buccal pad of fat. The patient has been followed for 2 years without any evidence of recurrence. We propose that for similar anterior maxillary defects in infants and children, a buccal pad of fat can be utilized as an appropriate pedicled flap for coverage after tumor resection. PMID:26981478

  9. Buccal health in asthmatic patients. Salud bucal en pacientes asmáticos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel González Beriao

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buccal health as integral and determinant part of general health makes us find different ways and methods to elevate life quality in the population. Objective: To establish the risk of suffering from dental cavities in asthmatic patients. Methods: A non match case and control study constituted by 100 children selected at simple random from the universe of asthmatic patients belonging to the General Comprehensive doctor offices number 7,9,10, 11, 43, and 44 from Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. The controlled group was selected in the same offices but from the universe of non asthmatic children. The age in both groups was from 6 to 15 years old. Visits to the children´s home were carried out for the record of the information through health oral dental and buccal health knowledge surveys. Results: The index of cavities, lost, and obturated permanent teeth was higher (3, 28 than in the control group (0, 44. The buccal hygiene indexes and the level of knowledge in both groups did not show significant differences. The most used drugs in asthma therapy were salbutamol and ketotifeno which change the buccal milieu. The odds ratio technique between asthmatic and non asthmatic patients showed 4, 9 times more at risk of suffering from dental cavities in the first group. Finally, it can be stated that the asthmatic patients are more at risk of suffering from cavities than the non asthmatic ones, so a program for buccal health in these patients should be performed.

    Fundamento: La salud bucal como parte integrante y determinante de la salud general del hombre, nos obliga cada vez con mayor rigor y nivel científico a la búsqueda de diferentes vías y métodos para elevar la calidad de vida de la población. Objetivo: Establecer el riesgo de padecer caries dental de los pacientes asmáticos. Métodos: Estudio de casos y

  10. Three Dimensional Analysis of the Final Design of Pier Extensions and West Guide Wall to Mitigate Local Scour Risk at the BNSF Railroad Bridge Downstream of the Prado Dam Supplemental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sinha, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kerenyi, K. [Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, McLean, VA (United States); Sharp, Jeremy [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MI (United States), Coastal and Hydraulics Lab

    2016-06-01

    This report is a supplement to a previous report [ref] covering optimization of wedge shaped pier extensions to streamline large bluff body piers as a local scour countermeasure for the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe (BNSF) Railroad Bridge over the Santa Ana River downstream of Prado Dam in Riverside County, CA. The optimized design was tested in a 1/30 scale physical model at U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) in Vicksburg, MS, and the optimized design was used as the base for the construction design. Constructability issues having to do with both materials and site conditions including access underneath the BNSF bridge yielded a construction design that required making the pier extensions wider and either moving the western curve of the west guide wall upstream or changing its geometry.

  11. FIELD TEST INSTRUCTION 100-NR-2 OPERABLE UNIT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR SEQUESTRATION OF SR-90 SATURATED ZONE APATITE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER EXTENSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWLES NA

    2010-10-06

    The objective of this field test instruction is to provide technical guidance for aqueous injection emplacement of an extension apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRE) for the sequestration of strontium-90 (Sr-90) using a high concentration amendment formulation. These field activities will be conducted according to the guidelines established in DOE/RL-2010-29, 100-NR-2 Design Optimization Study, hereafter referred to as the DOS. The DOS supports the Federal Facility Agreement Consent Order (EPA et al., 1989), Milestone M-16-06-01, and 'Complete Construction of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at 100-N.' Injections of apatite precursor chemicals will occur at an equal distance intervals on each end of the existing PRE to extend the PRB from the existing 91 m (300 ft) to at least 274 m (900 ft). Field testing at the 100-N Area Apatite Treatability Test Site, as depicted on Figure 1, shows that the barrier is categorized by two general hydrologic conceptual models based on overall well capacity and contrast between the Hanford and Ringold hydraulic conductivities. The upstream portion of the original barrier, shown on Figure 1, is characterized by relatively low overall well specific capacity. This is estimated from well development data and a lower contrast in hydraulic conductivity between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formations. Comparison of test results from these two locations indicate that permeability contrast between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation is significantly less over the upstream one-third of the barrier. The estimated hydraulic conductivity for the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation over the upstream portion of the barrier based on observations during emplacement of the existing 91 m (300 ft) PRB is approximately 12 and 10 m/day (39 and 32 ft/day), respectively (PNNL-17429). However, these estimates should be used as a rough guideline only, as significant variability in hydraulic conductivity is likely to be observed in

  12. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...

  13. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the expression of p75NGFR, a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75NGFR, BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  14. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients

  15. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A comparitive study of buccal mucosa graft and penile pedical flap for reconstruction of anterior urethral strictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Ying-long; XU Yue-min; QIAN Yong; JIN San-bo; FU Qiang; ZHANG Xin-ru; ZHANG Jiong; GU Baojun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Anterior urethral strictures, where the length is more than 2 cm, are best treated by substitution urethroplasy with either preputial/penile skin flaps or free grafts.~1 The use of dartos pedicled flaps has many advantages in terms of increased survival thanks to its own vascularization. Recently, buccal mucosa has become increasingly popular among urologists for urethral replacement when local penile skin is unavailable.~2 Both penile skin flaps and buccal mucosa grafts have emerged as reliable urethral substitutes with comparable long-term results.~(3,4) These urethral substitutes are traditionally placed on the ventral aspect of the stricture and have a success rate of about 85%.~5 Recently, dorsal placement of the free graft has been described, allowing the skin patch/buccal mucosa to be spread and fixed on the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies overlying the strictured segment of the urethra.~6 This location offers a better outcome. We reviewed our experience with dorsal and ventral onlay substitution urethroplasty using free buccal mucosa and pedicled penile/preputial flaps to determine the outcome and particular problems associated with each technique.

  17. The ability of cone-beam computed tomography to detect simulated buccal and lingual recesses in root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.H. Liang; M. Yuan; G. Li; H. Shemesh; P.R. Wesselink; M.K. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Aim  To compare the ability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiographs (PR) to detect simulated tissue-occupied recesses in root canals. Methodology  A standard canal was created in 30 extracted mandibular premolar roots. Each root was longitudinally split into buccal

  18. EFFECT OF POST-BRUSHING WATER RINSING ON CARIES-LIKE LESIONS AT APPROXIMAL AND BUCCAL SITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SJOGREN, K; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the effect of two different water rinsing procedures after tootbrushing with an NaF-containing dentifrice on the degree of de- or remineralization of enamel and dentine at approximal and buccal sites. Seven adults, wearing complete dentures, participated in two experimental peri

  19. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martin Teles, Flavia; Pettorossi Imaparatto, Jose C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using DIAGNOdent at the most prominent buccal region of each tooth. Three subsequent measurements were taken at 1, 7 and 15 days. All measurements were taken by the same examiner and averages were recorded for each time period. Results showed that the three solutions had similar responses to laser. ANOVA was applied to verify the correlation between measurements, time periods, and storage solutions. Statistically significant differences were found only between the time periods. In this in vitro study, all three storage solutions influenced the DIAGNOdent measurement results as time elapsed until the 24 h period.

  20. The pressures of suction feeding: the relation between buccal pressure and induced fluid speed in centrarchid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship between them has never been empirically determined in any suction feeder. We present the first simultaneous measurements of fluid speed and buccal pressure during suction feeding in fishes. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the maximum fluid speed in front of the mouth of four largemouth bass and three bluegill sunfish by positioning a vertical laser sheet on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. Peak magnitude of pressure inside the buccal cavity was quantified using a transducer positioned within a catheter that opened into the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity. In both species the time of peak pressure preceded the time of peak fluid speed by as much as 42 ms, indicating a role for unsteady flow effects in shaping this relation. We parameterized an existing model of suction feeding to determine whether the relationship between peak pressures and fluid speeds that we observed could be predicted using just a few kinematic variables. The model predicted much higher fluid speeds than we measured at all values of peak pressure and gave a scaling exponent between them (0.51) that was higher than observed (0.36 for largemouth bass, 0.38 for bluegill). The scaling between peak buccal pressure and peak fluid speed at the mouth aperture differed in the two species, supporting the recent conclusion that species morphology affects this relation such that a general pattern may not hold. PMID:16916963

  1. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Renê Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.

  2. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Turbón, D

    1996-07-01

    Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS). Results show that intergroup variability is significantly higher than the intragroup variability. There exists a tendency toward fewer striations and a higher proportion of vertical striations in the carnivorous groups than in the vegetarian ones. This microwear pattern is concordant with biomechanics (predominantly vertical mandible movements in meat eaters) and phytolith content in plants (more abrasive particles in vegetarian diets). The variability found has been used in a multivariate analysis as a base to compare the microwear pattern of a sample of 20 Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils, mainly from Europe, analyzed with the same methodology. The sample includes specimens usually classified as archaic H. sapiens (Broken Hill, Banyoles, Montmaurin, La Chaise-Suard, La Chaise-Bourgeios et Delaunay), Neanderthal (La Quina V, Gibraltar 2, Tabun 1 and 2, Amud 1, Malarnaud, St. Cesaire, Marillac), and anatomically modern H. sapiens (Skhül 4, Qafzeh 9, Cro-Magnon 4, Abri-Pataud, Veyrier, La Madelaine, Rond-du-Barry). Results indicate that some of the Neanderthal specimens have a microwear pattern close to that of the carnivorous groups (such as Inuit and Fueguians), suggesting that these individuals follow a hunter strategy. In contrast, archaic H. sapiens and H. sapiens sapiens seem to have a more abrasive diet, probably more depending on vegetable materials, than the Neanderthals

  3. Recommendations on the Nature and Level of U.S. Participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Extension of the Experimental Reactor Extension of the Engineering Design Activities. Panel Report To Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Energy Research chartered through the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) a panel to 'address the topic of U. S. participation in an ITER construction phase, assuming the ITER Parties decide to proceed with construction.' (Attachment 1: DOE Charge, September 1996). Given that there is expected to be a transition period of three to five years between the conclusion of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the possible construction start, the DOE Office of Energy Research expanded the charge to 'include the U.S. role in an interim period between the EDA and construction.' (Attachment 2: DOE Expanded Charge, May 1997). This panel has heard presentations and received input from a wide cross-section of parties with an interest in the fusion program. The panel concluded it could best fulfill its responsibility under this charge by considering the fusion energy science and technology portion of the U.S. program in its entirety. Accordingly, the panel is making some recommendations for optimum use of the transition period considering the goals of the fusion program and budget pressures.

  4. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  5. 浅谈高职院校泛读教学的课堂设计--以《大学英语泛读教程2》为例%A Brief Discussion on the Class Design of Extensive Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges:A Case Study on "College English Extensive Reading Course 2"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄佩

    2015-01-01

    大学英语泛读在高职院校中是一门培养学生阅读兴趣,了解社会文化,提高阅读能力的重要课程。本文从泛读教学目的和意义入手,剖析泛读教学中存在的常见问题,结合《大学英语泛读教程2》教材特点,就如何设计好课堂教学任务展开探讨,让学生在完成任务的同时,高效地完成语言习得。%In secondary vocational colleges, college English ex-tensive reading is an important course cultivating students' read-ing interest, helping them learn about social culture, and improve their reading ability. Starting from the objective and significance of extensive reading teaching, this paper analyzes the common problems existing in extensive reading teaching, and combined with the characteristics of "College English Extensive Reading Course 2", explores how to design class teaching tasks, so as to help students efficiently accomplish language acquisition while accomplishing tasks.

  6. The efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy in patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa and lower alveolus with positive surgical margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badakh Dinesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A retrospective analysis to determine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy, in patients of carcinoma of the buccal mucosa and lower alveolus with pathologically verified positive surgical margins (PSM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four patients were analysed, who underwent surgery plus postoperative radiation therapy. Twenty-nine patients (31% had PSM. Other pathological factors like nodal stage, number of nodes, bone involvement etc. were also analysed. RESULTS: Disease free survival (DFS of patients with a PSM was significantly worse when compared with those with negative surgical margins (NSM. Poor DFS was also observed for variables like nodal stage, number of nodes and extranodal extension and radiation dose. In multivariate analysis only two variables showed significant impact on DFS, those were surgical margins and number of nodes. CONCLUSION: To conclude in our study median dose of 60 Gy in PSM patients was not able to improve DFS and showed poor results as compared with NSM patients. There is also evidence from other studies, to suggest that post-operative radiation doses upto 60 Gy may not be sufficient to overcome this poor prognostic factor. To overcome this poor prognostic group patients, we in our institution are now employing radiation dose intensification and altered fractionation in an effort to imrove our results. In physically fit patients we are trying to administer concomitant chemotherapy along with radiation treatment.

  7. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school. Intervención educativa para el desarrollo de conocimientos sobre salud bucal en la enseñanza primaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl López Fernández

    Full Text Available Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after design in 80 children of 5th grade and teachers of the primary school “Armando Mestre Martínez” in Cienfuegos, from September 2005 to March 2006. Initially, learning necessities and buccal hygiene were determined in both groups and later we verified the strategy efficiency. Initial information was obtained through surveys, focal groups, experts’ opinions and observation. Wilcoxon rank test was used for matched samples and Mc Nemar test for variables verification. Findings: Significant differences were obtained between the initial and final knowledge on buccal health and buccal hygiene coefficient. Qualitative methods showed audience approval of this strategy. Conclusions: Educative strategy applications allowed children learning actions of self-care as correct teeth brushing, use of dental floss, appropriate dietary selection and identification of prejudicial habits.
    Fundamento: Existe una alta prevalencia de las enfermedades bucales; estas pueden ser evitadas mediante correctos hábitos de higiene, alimentación y conductas, que no nacen con la persona, sino que deben aprenderse desde los primeros momentos de la vida. Objetivo: Comprobar la efectividad de una estrategia educativa de salud bucal para desarrollar el auto cuidado bucal a través de su aplicación en niños y niñas en edad escolar. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de intervención, con diseño de antes y después, en 80 niños de 5to

  8. Alteration in buccal mucosal cells due to the effect of tobacco and alcohol by assessing the silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions and micronuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Tobacco and alcohol consumption produce alteration in apparently normal buccal mucosal cells, which may cumulatively lead to carcinomatous changes. Result of these changes may be used as educational tool in cessation of habits.

  9. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.;

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber....... A higher apparent permeability was observed at higher pH values, i.e. the more compound that was unionised the higher the permeability. In vivo studies were conducted in anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs. A clear influence of pH on the absorption was seen and a significant higher absolute bioavailability...... was obtained after buccal dosing (58-107%) compared to oral (3%) administration, ranging 58-107% and 3%, respectively. Macroscopically, no local toxic effects were observed by visual inspection of mini-pig cheeks. A very clear level C in vitro in vivo correlation (r(2)=0.98) was obtained between the observed...

  10. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  11. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  12. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  13. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  14. The effects of sex, age and cigarette smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in human buccal cells of healthy Bosnian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hilada Nefić; Jasmin Mušanović; Kemajl Kurteshi; Enida Prutina; Elvira Turcalo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to establish a baseline value of micronucleus frequency in buccal cells and to estimate the impact of the most common factors (sex and age, and smoking) on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in the sample of healthy Bosnian subjects.Methods: The Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay, based on scoring not only micronucleus frequency but also other genome damage markers, dead or degenerated cells, provides a measure of cytotoxi...

  15. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan Sekar; Baskaran Nagarethinam; Arjun Kumar Singh; Manoharan Shanmugam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax), ELISA...

  16. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; HONG, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik; Min, Kyung-San

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our...

  17. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  18. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  19. Evaluation of the Perception of the Children and Knowledge of the Educators on Buccal Health, Diet and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo dos Santos ANTUNES

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the level of perception and knowledge on buccal health, diet and hygiene in children and educators of a public school of Niterói-Rio de Janeiro. Method: The sample constituted by 60 children (4 7 years subdivided in two groups of analysis (G1- 4 to 5 years and G2- 6 to 7 years and 25 teachers. For collection of the data two forms had been used (F1- children and F2- educators; F1 contain figures of the food and hygiene resources, while F2 presented questions regarding buccal health, diet and hygiene. The data had been tabulated and analyzed (SPSS 11.0. Results: It was identified that only 24% of the educators presented knowledge necessary on hygienic cleaning to guide parents and children. Although 76% know the importance of foods for teeth, 47.36% didn´t know what kind of food were more healthful (p < 0.05. About the children, 83.3% of G1 and 93.3% of G2 had perceived the importance of the hygiene for teeth, and only 13.3% of G1 and 16.7% of G2 had even so recognized the diet as a representative factor for the buccal health. Conclusion: The authors concluded that even so the majority of the children perceives the importance of the buccal hygiene, these do not recognize the paper of the diet for the maintenance of the health, what it comes to the meeting of the lack of preparation of the educators to guide them, having the necessity of bigger integration school-dentist through lectures and instructions.

  20. S-allylcysteine, a garlic constituent, inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasenthil, S; Ramachandran, C R; Nagini, S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis was investigated in male Syrian hamstes. Forty hamsters were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals. The right buccal pouches of the animals in Group I were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week. The animals in Group II were painted with DMBA as in Group I and, in addition, received 200 mg/kg body wt p.o. SAC three times a week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group III animals received SAC as in Group II. Group IV animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 wk. Measurement of lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in the buccal pouch mucosa, liver, and circulation was used to monitor the chemopreventive potential of SAC. All hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed tumors identified histologically as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. In hamsters bearing DMBA-induced buccal pouch tumors, diminished lipid peroxidation in the tumor tissue was accompanied by decreased activities of SOD and catalase, whereas in the liver and circulation, enhanced lipid peroxidation was associated with compromised antioxidant defenses. Administration of SAC suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP tumors as revealed by the absence of carcinomas. Histologically, only keratosis was observed. SAC modulated DMBA-induced decreased susceptibility of the HBP to lipid peroxidation while simultaneously enhancing SOD and catalase activities, whereas in the liver and circulation, SAC decreased the extent of lipid peroxidation and significantly enhanced antioxidant activities. We suggest that SAC exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant activities in the target organ as well as in the liver and

  1. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  2. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on in vitro adherence of four Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Elteen, Khaled H.

    2011-01-01

    The adherence of four Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) following treatment with the most commonly consumed dietary carbohydrates was investigated in vitro. Adhesion of C. albicans , C. tropicalis , C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis was significantly promoted by incubation in minimal medium containing a high concentration (500 mM) of fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, sorbitol or sucrose (p<0.001). C. albicans grown in galactose elicited maximal increase in adhesion...

  3. Transmucosal Implant Placement with Submarginal Connective Tissue Graft in Area of Shallow Buccal Bone Dehiscence: A Three-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Martina; Felice, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio; Marzadori, Matteo; Gherlone, Enrico F; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case series study was to evaluate the short- and long-term (3 years) soft tissue stability of a surgical technique combining transmucosal implant placement with submarginal connective tissue graft (CTG) in an area of shallow buccal bone dehiscence. A sample of 20 patients were treated by positioning a transmucosal implant in an intercalated edentulous area. A CTG sutured to the inner aspect of the buccal flap was used to cover the shallow buccal bone dehiscence. Clinical evaluations were made at 6 months (T₁) and 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₃) years after the surgery. Statistically significant increases in buccal soft tissue thickness and improvement of vertical soft tissue level were achieved at the T₁, T₂, and T₃ follow-ups. A significant increase in keratinized tissue height was also found at T₃. No significant marginal bone loss was recorded. The submarginal CTG technique was able to provide simultaneous vertical and horizontal soft tissue increases around single implants with shallow buccal bone dehiscence and no buccal mucosal recession or clinical signs of mucositis or peri-implantitis at 1 and 3 years. PMID:27560667

  4. The Development of Seabuckthorn Cough-relieving Buccal Tablet%沙棘止咳含片的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山永凯

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional folk cough-relieving prescription, taking Qinghai seabuck- thorn as the main material, complementary with winter fruit pear juice, bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae as auxiliary material, makes seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet, discusses the production process, blend the best taste with the orthogonal experiment method; Therefore, we have tested the influence of seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet in stopping cough of mice caused by aqueous ammonia and eliminating phlegm. The results shows that seabuckthorn cough-relieving buccal tablet has obvious cough-relieving and eliminating phlegm effect.%在民间传统止咳偏方的基础上,以沙棘汁为主原料,辅以冬果梨汁、川贝母、薏苡仁浸提液,制作出沙棘止咳含片,探讨了生产工艺,用正交试验法调配出最佳口味;并且试验了沙棘止咳含片对小鼠氨水所致咳嗽的镇咳作用和小鼠祛痰作用测试,结果表明:沙棘止咳含片具有明显的止咳和祛痰作用。

  5. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material. PMID:26606446

  6. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material.

  7. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. PMID:26802493

  8. Reconstruction or substitution of the pediatric urethra with buccal mucosa: indications, technical aspects, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccabona, M

    1999-09-01

    The main indication for using buccal mucosa in the urinary tract is in those who require complex secondary hypospadias surgery. Twenty-two children had inner lower lip mucosa onlay patch to reconstruct the urethra after 1 to 20 prior failed hypospadias/epispadias repairs. The mucosa was harvested from the lower inner lip by microsurgical dissection using optical magnification. The donor site was not sutured but was sealed with fibrin glue. The patches were anastomosed to the urethral plate using 7/0 polyglactin suture. The neourethra was covered with a vascularized dartos fascia or tunica vaginalis graft tunneled under the penile shaft skin. Special attention was given to closure of the glans and positioning of the meatus to the tip. Follow-up was between 12 and 72 months (mean 44). Complications included meatal stenosis in 1, fistula in 6, and wound infection in 1. The fistula rate decreased after changing the suture material and with increased experience. Lip mucosa was easy to harvest, and healing of the donor site was uncomplicated. PMID:10527255

  9. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Chitosan Based Omeprazole Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit E. Birari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing proton pump inhibitors drug, Omeprazole to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were prepared with Chitosan as primary polymer and Carbopol 934, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and Xanthan gum as a secondary polymer. All formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, surface pH, drug Content uniformity, swelling index, and bioadhesive strength and in-vitro drug dissolution study. Physical compatibility studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers, and excipients. The in vitro release of Omeprazole was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer PH 6.8, 37±0.5ºC, rpm 50 using USP dissolution apparatus type II. The best in-vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F8 which contains the Chitosan combine with Xanthan gum. The surface pH and swelling index of formulation F8 was found to be 6.8, and 60 %, respectively.

  10. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Dicyclomine as potential route of Buccal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Tomar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buccal delivery is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Oral mucosa has rich vasculization, offers better permeability to many drugs & it act as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs. Fast dissolving oral film (FDOF is used as a novel approach, as it dissolve rapidly in mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. Oral film technology fulfills all the requirements of potential solid dosage form. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate the (FDOF of an anticholinergic drug (Dicyclomine and improved bioavailability of drugs as compared to conventional solid oral dosage forms. Oral films were prepared by using HPMC (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, PVA (polyvinylalcohol, Eudragid RL-100, combination of two polymers and other excipients. Films were prepared by the solvent casting method. Films were evaluated for mechanical properties, Morphology study, swelling properties, disintegration time, dissolution time and in- vitro drug release. X1 formulation shows maximum in- vitro drug release 93.88%, following first order kinetics (r2 =0.9915. The release exponent ‘n’ was found to be for X1 is 0.4487, which appears to indicate a Fickian diffusion and may indicate that the drug release was controlled by first order release.

  11. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  12. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Jahani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic method for Trichomonas. tenax while Entamoeba. gingivalis is best diagnosed by Trichrome vitelli staining method using Bovin fixative. 41.7% and 9.2% of the cases were infected by Entamoeba. gingivalis and T.tenax, respectively, while 3.3% were infected by both parasitic protozoa. Infection to mouth amoeba was more prevalent in males at the age of 21-30 yr old while no relation was found between age/sex as to infection with Trichomonas. tenax. Accordingly, a direct relation was found between the frequency of the parasites and some factors such as periodontal tissue condition, degree of gum bleeding and inflammation, gum color and tooth decay.

  13. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery.

  14. Carbopol 934-sodium alginate-gelatin mucoadhesive ondansetron tablets for buccal delivery: Effect of PH modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotagale N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at developing mucoahesive tablets of ondansetron hydrochloride using bioadhesive polymers like carbopol-934, sodium alginate and gelatin. Tablets prepared by direct compression using different polymer with varying ratio were evaluated for hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion and in vitro release. Hardness, friability disintegration time and drug release were found within pharmacopoeial limit. Microenvironmental pH decreased whereas bioadhesive strength, water uptake, and in vitro release increased with increase in carbopol-934. Increasing sodium alginate and gelatin increased the microenviromental pH and decreased bioadhesive strength, water uptake and in vitro release. With a view to investigate the modulation of drug release from formulation by addition of pH modifiers viz. citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, the tablets with carbopol-934 (2.0, sodium alginate (0.5 and gelatin (6.5 were used and the effect of pH modifiers on microenvironmental pH, bioadhesion, water uptake, in vitro permeation and in vitro release was studied. Microenvironmental pH, bioadhesive strength, water uptake, in vitro release and permeation decreased with increasing concentration of citric acid whereas microenvironmental pH, water uptake and release were enhanced and bioadhesive strength was lowered with increase in sodium bicarbonate. Present study demonstrates carbopol-934, sodium alginate, gelatin polymer system with added pH modifier can be successfully formulated for buccal delivery of ondansetron with desired release profile.

  15. Effects of zinc deficiency on the distribution of membrane-coating granules in rat buccal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, S H; Meyer, J; Squier, C A

    1980-06-01

    Nutritional zinc deficiency causes consistent excessive cell proliferation in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa. The number per cell and the intracellular location of membrane-coating granules in this epithelium were investigated in male rats placed at weanling age for a 4-week period on a diet containing 1.2 ppm of Zn and in their pair fed controls. Membrane-coating granules were identified on electron micrographs following their demonstration in thin sections by the use of an alkaline bismuth technique. Counts of membrane-coating granules in the first 4 rows of spinous cells and the last 4 rows of granular cells showed that in the zinc-deficient group (1) the total number of granules per cell was increased; (2) the proportion of granules displaced to the cell periphery was decreased in favor of a higher proportion persisting in the center and (3) there was a marked reduction in number and proportion of granules positioned near the superficial cell membrane. The greater uniformity in the distribution of the granules in the hyperplastic-hypertrophic epithelium of the zinc deficient group suggests weakening of the surface-oriented polarity characteristic of the control tissue.

  16. Evaluation of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells of tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic substances i.e. chemicals, mutagens and radiations are those substances which are toxic to the genetic material. Damage to the genetic material can be assessed in number of ways by studying chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and other nuclear aberrations like micronuclei, binucleated cells etc. Present research was conducted on 10 tobacco chewers. Slides were prepared from their buccal mucosal cells by cell suspension technique. Cells were spread on slide and stained with May Grunwald stain followed by Giemsa stain. Standard slides were examined under trinocular Zeiss microscope at 800 X-magnification. 500 cells were examined for each 10 tobacco chewers. Slides shows Binucleated cells (BN, Micronucleated cells (MN and Karyolytic cells. Study concludes that age, duration of exposure and other addictions like smoking and intake of alcohol affects the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities. Duration of exposure significantly affects BN frequency but not MN frequency. The mean values for MN cells were not different but for BN cells they were different among two age groups taken.

  17. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Torres-Bugarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (NA technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

  18. Capability Extension to the Turbine Off-Design Computer Program AXOD With Applications to the Highly Loaded Fan-Drive Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng S.

    2011-01-01

    The axial flow turbine off-design computer program AXOD has been upgraded to include the outlet guide vane (OGV) into its acceptable turbine configurations. The mathematical bases and the techniques used for the code implementation are described and discussed in lengths in this paper. This extended capability is verified and validated with two cases of highly loaded fan-drive turbines, designed and tested in the V/STOL Program of NASA. The first case is a 4 1/2-stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66, designed by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. The second case is a 3 1/2-stage turbine with an average loading factor of 4.0, designed in-house by the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center). Both cases were experimentally tested in the turbine facility located at the Glenn Research Center. The processes conducted in these studies are described in detail in this paper, and the results in comparison with the experimental data are presented and discussed. The comparisons between the AXOD results and the experimental data are in excellent agreement.

  19. The extension of Rome׳s Capitoline Museums and the design of a new Hall on the site of the ancient ‘Giardino Romano’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Panella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The new Hall of Marcus Aurelius in the Capitoline Museums, located within the ancient site of Giardino Romano, displays the original statue of the Roman emperor of the 2nd century AD. The idea of extending the Capitoline Museums by including this site came about in the framework of its general redevelopment.11 The chronology of the design work stretches from 1993 to 2002; the works have been achieved between 2004 and 2005. The design leader was Carlo Aymonino and his collaborators architects Maria Luisa Tugnoli, Geneviève Hanssen, Raffaella Castrignanò. The structural design is by engineer Antonio Michetti, with Giuseppe Silvetti and architect Marco Astolfi. The new Hall is the result of a long and complicated process (1988–2005 considering the exceptional importance of the site and the many changes brought to the museum programme during the said period (Figures 1 and 2.In fact, the new Hall was originally supposed to display the marbles of the Temple of Apollo Sosianus, the foundation wall of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, embedded within the structures of the Palazzo Caffarelli, opposite the Giardino Romano. However, in 1997, the plan for the Capitoline Museum changed radically as the statue of Marcus Aurelius, which had been restored following the blast of a bomb attack in 1979, was determined to be the focus of the Hall. The project finally consisted of a steel and glass structure on an elliptic plan andshaped around the foundations of the Temple, with the statue at its center.

  20. DESIGN AND PRACTICE FOR EXTENSION AND REBUILDING OF LOCOMOTIVE PLANT BUILDING%机车厂房改扩建设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸣侠

    2011-01-01

    为生产建造动车组机车,唐山机车车辆厂动车总成车间厂房须进行改扩建,通过明确施工内容,合理设计施工方案,对局部柱进行加固处理,对拆除部分运用植筋加固、CGM高强无收缩灌浆料;碳纤维加固等技术措施,加固试验结果满足设计要求,为项目投产奠定了基础.%To produce and rebuild bullet train locomotive, the general assembly workshop of Tangshan Locomotive Factory must be rebuilt and extended.Technical measures, such as reinforcement of local column,reinforcement of dismantled part by inserting steel bar, CGM strength shrinkage-free grouting material and carbon fiber reinforcement, etc., are adopted according to clear division of construction content and reasonable design of construction scheme, test result of reinforcement meets the design requirements, providing solid foundation for production commencement.

  1. Design and Development of a Mechanical Carrier for Mobile Robot (with rough surface/terrain movement features)- Extension of KINPOE Robot Project for Application at K-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During plant (KANUPP) operation, it is difficult or nearly impossible to access and monitor (high) radiation areas where some abnormal condition has to be detected or mitigated. Presence of a surveillance mobile robot will be very useful for such a scenario. This project work is an effort towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used for remote surveillance. A four DOF (degree of freedom) articulated robotic arm, and mobile base is developed. Manipulator is designed using Autodesk inventor, and then fabricated in PIEAS Fabrication Shop. All joints of the manipulator are revolute joints. Maxon DC motors have been used to empower the joints with the help of gears. Spur gear and planetary gear head have been used to increase the torque at joints and to reduce the speed. The report provides complete detail about mechanical design, moreover some casting procedures are also discussed at the end to cast main parts of robot, problems that were faced during the project and their solutions are also discussed in the report. (author)

  2. Interpretation of Extension of Folk Color Pattern in Packaging Design%解读民间图案色彩在包装设计中的延展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红伟

    2012-01-01

    Through interpretation of the charm of Chinese folk color pattern,which include a sense of strength and embodiment of profound meaning and emotional expression.All these characteristics make the Chinese folk color pattern the most visual elements of Chinese national culture.Therefore,the right interpretation of Chinese folk color pattern provides designers new ideas in packaging design.%通过解析民间图案色彩的先声夺人的力量感和寓意深刻的情感表现等魅力,使得读者了解到中国民间图案色彩是最能体现出民族文化内涵的视觉因素之一,也是反映民间图案灵魂最直接的表白。通过对中国民间图案色彩的个性解读,为广大的设计师提供一条探讨民间图案色彩在包装设计应用的新思路。

  3. Educative intervention for knowledge development on buccal health in elementary school. Intervención educativa para el desarrollo de conocimientos sobre salud bucal en la enseñanza primaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl López Fernández; Nereida Moya Padilla; Nora Sexto Delgado; Olga Lidia García Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is high prevalence of buccal diseases which could be avoided with appropriate hygienic and alimentary habits that are supposed to be learned since the first stages of life. Objective: To verify the efficacy of an educative strategy on buccal health to develop buccal self-care through its application in girls and boys. Methods: An intervention study was developed with before and after desig...

  4. The effects of sex, age and cigarette smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in human buccal cells of healthy Bosnian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilada Nefić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was performed to establish a baseline value of micronucleus frequency in buccal cells and to estimate the impact of the most common factors (sex and age, and smoking on micronucleus and degenerative nuclear alteration frequencies in the sample of healthy Bosnian subjects.Methods: The Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt assay, based on scoring not only micronucleus frequency but also other genome damage markers, dead or degenerated cells, provides a measure of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.Results: Our results showed the baseline buccal micronucleus frequency was 0.135% or 1.35‰, as well as positive correlations between micronucleus frequencies and formations of degenerative nuclear alterations (nuclear buds, karyolytic and karyorrhectic cells. The number of micronuclei in buccal cells was significantly higher in females than in males. There was positive association between the age and frequency of analysed cytogenetic biomarkers. Buccal cell micronuclei and degenerative nuclear alternations were more frequent among cigarette smokers than non-smokers and significantly higher in female smokers than in male smokers. Cytogenetic damages showed significantly positive correlation between intensity of smoking and the number of nuclear alterations. The years of smoking had a significant influence not only on the number of nuclear alterations but also in micronuclei and nuclear buds in buccal cells.Conclusions: The sex influences the number of micronuclei in human buccal cells. The ageing increased the number of micronuclei and other biomarkers of DNA damage. The cigarette smoking significantly increases the frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear buds, pyknotic, karyolytic and karyorrhectic cells.

  5. Nine-year experience with extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Constantin A; Kovács, Adorján F

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on the extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal (CBMM) flap. Large lip defects and medium-size intraoral defects have the general problem of being too large for primary closure to avoid a major functional and aesthetic impairment. Elaborate free flaps, such as axial flaps, although excellent in large defects, may not provide mucosa-equivalent sensitivity, motility, volume, and texture to replace lost tissue with a similar kind of tissue. A total of 60 flap procedures were performed with bilateral and unilateral flaps up to 7.5 x 4 cm in size. The partial and total upper and lower vermilion, gingivobuccal sulcus, floor of the mouth, lateral tongue margin, oropharynx, and hard and soft palates were reconstructed. Partial necrosis was seen in four flaps; all patients recovered with good oral function in speech and swallowing, good aesthetics, and prosthetic rehabilitation if necessary. The donor site could be closed primarily. In flaps with dorsal advancement, the mucosal excess above and below was closed, creating two small dog-ears. Facial expression and mouth opening returned to normal after less than 2 months. The parotid duct had to be marsupialized in large flap preparations, but this did never provoke stasis or infection. The two-point sensitivity of the flaps was, on average, equal to that of the nonoperated mucosa in intraindividual correlation, and the flaps lost, on average, 15 percent of their original size. In the authors' estimation, the results indicate a reliable and technically easy option for intraoral, medium-size defect reconstruction that yields sensitivity and facilitates the rehabilitation of oral function in speaking and ingestion. PMID:12621172

  6. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  7. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  8. The comprehensive pipe gallery design of Wenli avenue extension line in Hainan test area%海南试验区文黎大道延伸线综合管廊设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湖平

    2015-01-01

    以海南国际旅游岛先行试验区文黎大道延伸线项目为例,重点介绍了综合管廊纳入管线的选择,管廊设计标准的选取,对浅埋式盖板沟结构综合管廊的横断面设计、平面布置、纵断面设计、各种节点设计、附属工程设计等作了详细阐述,提出了此类综合管廊管理意见。%Taking the Wenli avenue extension line project in Hainan international tourism island pilot test district as an example,this paper em-phatically introduced the comprehensive pipe gallery into pipeline selection,pipe gallery design criteria selection,elaborated in detail the cross-sectional design,plane layout,vertical section design,all kinds of nodes design,affiliated engineering design etc. of shallow buried type trench cover structure,put forward such comprehensive pipe gallery management advices.

  9. Design, Implementation and Demonstration of the Android Version of Agro-Technique Extension Information Platform%基于Android的农技推广信息化平台设计、实现及示范应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹国伟; 王文生; 孙志国; 王曦光

    2015-01-01

    基于Android的农技推广信息化平台结合移动智能设备特点,有针对性地为农技员设计服务农户、报送信息、分享交流等功能,进一步丰富农技推广工作的信息化手段。Android端农技推广移动应用是WEB版的延伸和补充;通过将字符处理、图片处理、音频处理、终端控制、通信交互等功能块进行有机组合以满足农技员需求;在示范应用过程中,要重视示范点的确定、示范农技员的遴选、移动终端的配备、通信流量的设定、移动应用的使用培训、用户的反馈响应等环节。%The Android version of agro-technique extension information platform which further enriched the means of agro-technique extension targeted for the agro-technique extension workers. The functions of farmer service, information submission and experience sharing were designed with mobile intelligent equipment characteristics. This paper reviewed the design idea of the Android terminal mobile application;the character processing, image processing, audio processing, terminal control, communication interaction function was explained briefly. In the process of demonstration, the demonstration point determination, demonstration member selection, the mobile terminal equipment, communication flow setting, training in the use of mobile applications and user feedback response were all indispensable link and need to pay enough attention to.

  10. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  11. 钦州港水厂扩建工程设计方案%Design Scheme of Extension Project of Water Treatment Plant in Qinzhou Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文; 熊家晴; 谢志稳

    2012-01-01

    Because of the low efficiency of the conventional water treatment processes, and operation of water plant hardly keeping pace with the variation of raw water quality, effluent water quality can not meet the requirements of national sanitary standard for drinking water GB 5749-2006. Some enhanced water treatment processes, such as micro-votex flocculation, inclined-tube sedimentation, air-water washing filtration, etc., were introduced into the design of the second phase extention project of the Qinzhou water treatment plant.%针对一期常规处理工艺存在的处理效率低、处理能力不能满足要求,且无法适应原水水质季节性变化等问题,二期工程有针对性地对处理工艺进行了改进,采用微涡流絮凝、斜管沉淀、气水冲洗过滤技术用于水厂设施建设,使扩建后的水厂水质有了保证.

  12. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.

    2007-09-01

    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  13. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Implementation and Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations and Lifting of the Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers in All Geographic Locations. Extension, implementation, and lifting of temporary moratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare home health agencies (HHAs), subunits, and branch locations in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. It also announces the implementation of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare HHAs, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey on a statewide basis. In addition, it announces the lifting of the moratoria on all Part B emergency ground ambulance suppliers. These moratoria, and the changes described in this document, also apply to the enrollment of HHAs and non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program.

  14. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Implementation and Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations and Lifting of the Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers in All Geographic Locations. Extension, implementation, and lifting of temporary moratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare home health agencies (HHAs), subunits, and branch locations in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. It also announces the implementation of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare HHAs, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey on a statewide basis. In addition, it announces the lifting of the moratoria on all Part B emergency ground ambulance suppliers. These moratoria, and the changes described in this document, also apply to the enrollment of HHAs and non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. PMID:27487581

  15. Design of the Extensible Magnetic Signal Acquisition System with High Precision%可扩展的高精度磁场采集系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方涛; 刘胜道; 赵文春

    2015-01-01

    当对弱磁场进行测量时,对磁场采集系统的性能提出了更高的要求,设计了一种基于 Σ-Δ 技术模数转换器的高精度数据采集系统,并对测磁系统进行了多通道扩展.通过硬件和软件优化相结合的方式提高系统的测量精度,硬件优化包括抗混频滤波和消除供电电源带来的干扰,软件优化包括对采样数据进行 FIR 低通滤波、标度变换和平滑滤波.实验证明,设计的磁场采集系统精度良好,满足了项目中对于系统扩展和精度的要求.%When measuring the weak magnetic field, field acquisition system is required for higher performance. A kind of high precision data acquisition system based on sigma delta technology analog to digital converter is designed and the magnetic measurement system is expandedto multi-channel system. Hardware and software optimization are combined to improve the measurement accuracy of the system. The hardware optimization includes anti mixing filtering and eliminating the interference caused by power supply, and the software optimization includes FIR low pass filtering, scaling transformation and smoothing filtering of the Sampling data. The result of the experiment shows the magnetic signal acquisition system has a good accuracy, which meets the requirements of the system expansion and the accuracy of the project.

  16. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  17. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    challenging kind of system to design for independent extension. This thesis presents two new software technologies that improve the extensibility of control systems: First, the concept of dynamic links is introduced and Decouplink – an implementation of dynamic links for Java - is presented. Dynamic links...... allow objects to be connected even though their types are not related. Without compromising independent extensibility, dynamic links allow for a new dimension of structural extension that is not supported by traditional object-oriented programming. Second, the concept of an extensible controller......While the extensibility of many software systems has been greatly improved during the past two decades, nontrivial control systems remain to be a category of software systems that are remarkably difficult for independent parties to extend. Support for independent extension is the ability...

  18. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  19. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  20. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology. PMID:26551593

  1. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  2. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods:The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results:During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod’s penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions:From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.

  3. Mosaic: Policy Homomorphic Network Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L Erran; Yang, Y R

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale cloud computing infrastructure, network extension and migration has emerged as a major challenge in the management of modern enterprise networks. Many enterprises are considering extending or relocating their network components, in whole or in part, to remote, private and public data centers, in order to attain scalability, failure resilience, and cost savings for their network applications. In this paper, we conduct a first rigorous study on the extension and migration of an enterprise network while preserving its performance and security requirements, such as layer 2/layer 3 reachability, and middle-box traversal through load balancer, intrusion detection and ACLs. We formulate this increasingly important problem, present preliminary designs, and conduct experiments to validate the feasibility of our designs.

  4. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna;

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal......Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  5. Peripheral osteoma on the buccal aspect of mandible angle: a review of radiopaque masses and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soo-Hyung; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Osteomas are radiopaque osteogenic tumors composed of slow-growing, painless, mature bone tissue. On the basis of their origin, they can be classified as central, peripheral, or extraskeletal. Osteomas occur primarily in the craniofacial region, and peripheral osteomas are most prevalent in the paranasal sinuses. We describe a rare case of peripheral osteoma on the buccal aspect of the left mandibular angle that caused facial deformity in a 68-year-old woman. We also discuss its differentiation from other similar radiologically radiopaque masses.

  6. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  7. Extensive disseminated cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sujay Khandpur; Sunil Kumar Kothiwala; Binamra Basnet; Rattan Nangia; H A Venkatesh; Raju Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis, especially neurocysticercosis, is a major public health problem in India. We report an unusual case of disseminated cysticercosis with extensive infiltration of the skin, central nervous system, skeletal muscles, eye, lung, and heart. A patient with extensive cutaneous cysticercosis must be thoroughly investigated for widespread internal organ involvement.

  8. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive sol-gel composites of paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin for buccal delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Gil Choi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127 and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO. The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD. The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v. Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel.

  9. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  10. Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1 Frédéric Libert,2,4 J Michel Cardot,1 Séverine Coissard,1 Philippe Perovitch,5 Marc Maury,5 Claude Dubray1–3 1CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2Inserm, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 4Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, France; 5Unither Pharamceuticals, Paris, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP by oral or intravenous (iv routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient's condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology: A new transmucosal/buccal (b pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985 included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05. Results: bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01 and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1 and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2 than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion: bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be

  11. Surgical management of a large complex odontoma of the mandibular angle-ramus region through intra-oral buccal approach--A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlewe, M O; Adeyemo, W L; Ladeinde, A L; Bamgbose, B O; Ajayi, O F

    2005-12-01

    Large complex odontomas of the jaws are rare. A report of a large complex odontoma of the mandibular angle-ramus region enucleated through intra-oral buccal approach is presented. A review of the literature on different modalities of treatment is also undertaken. A large expansile complex odontoma of the angle-ramus region of the mandible was excised through an intraoral buccal approach under general anaesthesia. Recovery and immediate post-operative period were uneventful. There was no altered sensation in the distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve; and wound healing was satisfactory. Post-operative radiograph 2 years after the operation showed satisfactory bone regeneration. Intraoral buccal approach to large complex odontomas of the angle-ramus region of the mandible is a relatively safe procedure with minimal complication.

  12. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  13. Enabling Noninvasive Systemic Delivery of the Kv1.3-Blocking Peptide HsTX1[R14A] via the Buccal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; Larson, Ian C; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The peptide HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, a well-recognized therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. To overcome the poor oral absorption and consequent need for regular injections, the potential of the buccal mucosa for systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] was investigated. For in vitro studies, FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A], in solution or formulated in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w), were applied to porcine buccal epithelium mounted between Ussing chambers and buccal mucosal permeation assessed. HsTX1[R14A] was also administered to Swiss outbred mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the same formulations. In vitro, administration of FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A] in the chitosan gel containing cetrimide resulted in detectable buccal permeation with 0.75% and 0.58%, respectively, of the applied dose appearing in the receptor chamber over 5 h. After buccal administration to mice, HsTX1[R14A] was detected in plasma, with the presence of cetrimide in the gel further enhancing plasma exposure, with area under the plasma concentration-time curve values of 77.9 ± 9.7 and 31.0 ± 2.3 nM·h, respectively. The buccal mucosa is a promising alternative administration route for the systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27312508

  14. Design Key Points of River Extension Project for Huanggang Water Intake at Danyang Section of Yangtze River%丹阳市长江黄岗取水口江中延伸工程设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晏

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the characteristics of first crossing the main navigation channel of Yangtze River by water intake pipeline and difficulties in extra-long-distance small-diameter pipe jacking, the main design key points and schemes in the river extension project for Huanggang water intake at Danyang section of Yangtze River are introduced, including intake head, pipe jacking and so on. The experience provides reference for similar projects.%围绕取水管首次穿越长江主航道的工程特点,以及超长距离小口径顶管的工程难点,介绍了丹阳市长江黄岗取水口江中延伸工程中的主要设计重点和方案,包括取水头部及顶管工作井等内容.其经验可供相关工程参考.

  15. Collection of Human Genomic DNA From Buccal Cells for Genetics Studies: Comparison Between Cytobrush, Mouthwash, and Treated Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Mulot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources such as buccal cells have already been tested for genetic studies and epidemiological investigations. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in this study to compare cytology brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards for DNA collection. Quantity and quality of DNA and cost and feasibility were assessed. The mean DNA yield at 260 nm was found to be 3.5, 4, and 2.6μg for cytobrushes, mouthwashes, and treated cards, respectively. A second quantification technique by fluorescence showed differences in the DNA yield with 1.1 and 5.2μg for cytobrushes and mouthwash, respectively. All buccal samples allowed isolation of DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. According to the procedure of sample collection, the yield and purity of collected DNA, and storage conditions, the use of cytobrush appears to be the more appropriate method for DNA collection. This protocol has been validated and is currently applied in three large-scale multicentric studies including adults or children.

  16. Microsurgical Urethroplasty for Complex Bulbar Urethral Strictures Using the Radial Forearm Free Flap Prelaminated with Buccal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ajay; Sham, Eric; Chee, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Background Complex bulbar urethral strictures are a heterogeneous group, including those secondary to radiotherapy, failed previous open urethroplasty, and total bulbar necrosis following pelvic trauma. Traditional urethroplasty techniques in this group are unpredictable. We describe a novel technique of a buccal mucosa-prelaminated radial forearm free flap urethroplasty, which seeks to improve the quality of life for this group of patients. Methods Known, reliable techniques from two surgical specialties were combined to create a novel surgical solution, consisting of a radial forearm free flap prelaminated with buccal mucosa. Prospective data were collected on patient and stricture characteristics, complications, and results, including voiding flow rates, urethrography, and cystourethroscopy. Success was defined as the ability to void per urethra. The procedure was performed in four patients, previously considered unreconstructable and who were suprapubic catheter dependent. Results Microsurgical transfer was successful in all four cases. All patients were voiding per urethra and remained catheter free at a minimum of 12-month follow-up. There was no significant donor morbidity and all patients were able to return to their usual occupation. Mean voiding flow rates were 17.3 mL/s. Flexible cystoscopy revealed well-vascularized, patent neomucosa. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of concept for a novel technique of microsurgical urethroplasty. We believe this technique may have widespread application in the treatment of radiation-induced and other complex urethral strictures where traditional urethroplasty has limited success. PMID:26848566

  17. An integrated buccal delivery system combining chitosan films impregnated with peptide loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-12-01

    Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01M PBS at 37°C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. Flux and apparent permeation coefficient of 0.1μg/cm(2)/h and 4×10(-2)cm(2)/h were respectively obtained for insulin released from Ch-films-NPs-3. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the conformational structure of the model peptide drug (insulin) released from Ch-films-NPs was preserved during the formulation process. PMID:23928054

  18. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:22485181

  19. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthi Vidya Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHL, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  20. Pre-formulation and systematic evaluation of amino acid assisted permeability of insulin across in vitro buccal cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyire, Affiong; Alayedi, Maryam; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate alternative safe and effective permeation enhancers for buccal peptide delivery. Basic amino acids improved insulin solubility in water while 200 and 400 μg/mL lysine significantly increased insulin solubility in HBSS. Permeability data showed a significant improvement in insulin permeation especially for 10 μg/mL of lysine (p permeability but was toxic to the cells. It was hypothesized that both amino acids and insulin were ionised at buccal cavity pH and able to form stable ion pairs which penetrated the cells as one entity; while possibly triggering amino acid nutrient transporters on cell surfaces. Evidence of these transport mechanisms was seen with reduction of insulin transport at suboptimal temperatures as well as with basal-to-apical vectoral transport, and confocal imaging of transcellular insulin transport. These results obtained for insulin are the first indication of a possible amino acid mediated transport of insulin via formation of insulin-amino acid neutral complexes by the ion pairing mechanism. PMID:27581177

  1. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  2. Cotorsion Pair Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Xu ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Assume that S is an almost excellent extension of R. Using functors Hom R(S,-) and -(×)R S, we establish some connections between classes of modules (L)R and (L)S, cotorsion pairs ((A)R, (A)R)and ((A)S, (B)S). If (L)S is a T-extension or (and) H-extension of (L)R, we show that (L)S is a (resp., monomorphic, epimorphic, special) preenveloping class if and only if so is (L)R. If (S, S) is a TH-extension of ((A)R,(B)R), we obtain that ((A)S,(B)S) is complete (resp., of finite type, of cofinite type, hereditary, perfect, n-tilting) if and only if so is ((A)R,(B)R).

  3. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for News Media UW-Extension In The News Social Media Resources Academic Affairs From the Provost Scholarship Governance ... Purchase Order Alert Get help with your small business Read chancellor communications Find online degree programs Explore UW Flexible Option ...

  4. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-01-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging...

  5. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  6. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  7. Design of a mechanism to simulate the quasi-static moment-deflection behaviour of the osteoligamentous structure of the C3-C4 cervical spine segment in the flexion-extension and lateral bending directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Samuel; Arsenault, Marc; Moglo, Kodjo

    2012-11-01

    The human neck is susceptible to traumatic injuries due to impacts as well as chronic injuries caused by loads such as those attributed to the wearing of heavy headgear. To facilitate the analysis of the loads that cause injuries to the cervical spine, it is possible to replicate the human neck's behaviour with mechanical devices. The goal of this work is to lay the foundation for the eventual development of a novel mechanism used to simulate the behaviour of the cervical spine during laboratory experiments. The research presented herein focuses on the design of a mechanism capable of reproducing the non-linear relationships between moments applied to the C3 vertebra and its corresponding rotations with respect to the C4 vertebra. The geometrical and mechanical properties of the mechanism are optimized based on the ability of the latter to replicate the load-deflection profile of the osteoligamentous structure of the C3-C4 vertebral pair in the flexion-extension and lateral bending directions. The results show that the proposed design concept is capable of faithfully replicating the non-linear behaviour of the motion segment within acceptable tolerances.

  8. 基于 RapidIO的片上网络扩展接口设计与实现%Design and Implementation of RapidIO Based Networks-on-Chip Extension Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵淳; 梁利平

    2013-01-01

    Networks-on-Chip (NoC ) is considered to be a kind of viable on-chip communication fabrics for future Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) .With increasing amount of processing elements ,on-chip computing and communication performance is heavily influenced by inter-chip communication . A high-bandwidth , low-latency RapidIO-based extension interface is proposed to meet inter-chip communication requirement of NoC-based MPSoC . It is hierarchically designed to improve system flexibility while reducing hardware complexity .Experiment result shows that the hardware overhead of the extension interface is very small ,and the effective bandwidth is 8 .92Gbps .%片上网络被认为是一种适合未来多核处理器系统芯片的片上通信架构.随着片上计算资源数量的持续增多,片间通信逐渐成为影响片上计算和通信性能的重要因素.提出了一种基于RapidIO的高带宽、低延时片上网络扩展接口,用于满足多核系统芯片的片间通信需求.接口采用了层次化的设计方法以提高系统的应用灵活性,同时降低了硬件设计的复杂度.实验结果表明,扩展接口的硬件资源开销小,有效通信带宽达到8.92Gb/s.

  9. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods: Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results:The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions:Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  10. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea and its relation to the type of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  11. Mifepristone followed by home administration of buccal misoprostol for medical abortion up to 70 days of amenorrhoea in a general practice in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Adriana A.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of home administration of buccal misoprostol after mifepristone for medical abortion up to 70 days' gestation in a general practice in Curacao, where induced abortion is severely restricted by law. Methods In a prospective study 330 women received 200 mg

  12. The use of piezoelectric surgery to lateralize the inferior alveolar nerve with simultaneous implant placement and immediate buccal cortical bone repositioning: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, J C; Peña, I; Braña, P; Hernández-Vallejo, G

    2016-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to assess a variation of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) lateralization. This study included 13 patients. An osteotomy was made with a piezoelectric device, and the IAN bundle was moved buccally. Dental implants were then inserted medial to the nerve bundle, and the inner surface of the buccal cortical bone plate was shaped to reduce its thickness. Finally, the bone plate was repositioned to restore the original shape and contour of the mandible. Neurosensory examinations of the lower lip and chin were performed using three tests: light touch, pain, and two-point discrimination. Three months after surgery, the function of the IAN was judged to be completely restored at 11 of the 13 surgical sites. Differences in the tests comparing the operated and non-operated sides were not significant. No implants were lost, and all patients were satisfied with the result. Although IAN lateralization in conjunction with dental implant placement is rarely indicated, the use of a piezoelectric device to perform a buccal osteotomy with final repositioning of the buccal cortical plate over the bony defect contributes to the recovery of the contour and shape of the mandible, without impairment of IAN function. PMID:26897328

  13. Pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of andrographolide during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Sekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim of the present study was to investigate the modulating effect of andrographolide on apoptotic and inflammatory markers during 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Methods: Oral tumors were developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The expression pattern of molecular markers were assayed using immunohistochemistry (p53, Bcl-2 and Bax, ELISA (COX-2 and real-time PCR (NFκB. Results: We noticed 100% tumor formation accompanied by deregulation in the apoptotic and inflammatory markers in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of andrographolide at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w to hamsters treated with DMBA, not only completely prevented the tumor formation but also modulated the status of above mentioned molecular markers in favor of inhibiting cell proliferation as evidenced by no tumor formation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the anti-tumor effect of andrographolide could partly be attributed to its apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 313-319

  14. Recent extensions to GALPROP

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, A W

    2015-01-01

    Some recent extensions to the GALPROP cosmic-ray propagation package are described. The enhancements include: an accurate solution option, improved convection formulation, alternative spatial boundary conditions, polarized synchrotron emission, new magnetic field models, updated gamma-ray production cross-sections, free-free radio emission and absorption, primary positrons, additional injection spectral breaks, deuterium production by pp fusion, hadronic energy losses, improved HEALPix skymap format, compatibility with latest HEALPix release, and various bug fixes. The Explanatory Supplement has been extensively updated, including details of these enhancements. A compatible plot package GALPLOT for GALPROP output is also provided, as well as other related software.

  15. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  16. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  17. Peridiontal disease, buccal hygiene and smoking habit. Palmira municipality, 2007. Enfermedad periodontal, higiene bucal y tabaquismo. Municipio Palmira 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Quiñones Betancourt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Peridontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting human beings, and these are more frequent after the age of 35. Smoking habit is one of the risk factors usually linked with the development of these diseases. Objective: To characterize the relation between periodontal condition and buccal hygiene in patients with smoking habit. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study including 95 smokers from Palmira municipality; January-November, 2007. Peridontal treatment index was used in the community, as well as the simplified buccal hygiene index. Results: There was high prevalence of periodontal disease (85, 2%; buccal hygiene was directly related with smoking habit. Conclusions: The study shows an important relation between the periodontal disease in smokers, buccal hygiene and smoking habit intensity.

    Fundamento: Las periodontopatías representan una de las afecciones más comunes del género humano, se observan más frecuentemente después de los 35 años. El tabaquismo constituye unos de los

  18. Assessment of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells among fisher folks exposed to mine tailings in Marinduque Island, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena M Ragragio; Celeste P Belleza; Mark C Narciso; Glenn L Sia Su

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential toxic effects of mine tailings exposure among the fisher folks residing near and far from the Calancan Bay, Marinduque, using the micronucleus assay as an endpoint.Methods: The fisher folks residing near and far from the Calancan Bay were interviewed and the presence and frequency of cells with micronucleus in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were examined.Results: Results showed that the prevalence of cells with micronucleus was higher among the fisher folks who were directly exposed to the mine tailings as compared with those fisher folks who reside in a community without exposure of mine tailings and history of mining (P<0.05).Conclusions: The presence and the significant difference in the cells with micronuclei observed near the Calancan Bay could possibly indicate a prolonged chemical stress caused by the toxic heavy metals in the mine tailings and the environment.

  19. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  20. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  1. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  2. N-succinyl chitosan as buccal penetration enhancer for delivery of herbal agents in treatment of oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Neha; Kumar, Krishan; Kalia, A N; Arora, Saahil

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy (30-76%) and radiotherapy (over 50%). Current palliative treatments of oral mucositis include specialized agents like pelifermin, platelet derived factors etc. or oral hygienic agents which suffered from various drawbacks like systemic side effect, least effect owing to fast wash out of buccal mucosa, patient unfriendly delivery systems, and mere symptomatic relief. In this research work, N-succinyl chitosan gel delivery system of microemulsified eugenol, honey and sodium hyaluronate was prepared to explore their multiple and synergistic effects on various pathological factors of oral mucositis. N-succinyl chitosan was synthesized in our laboratory and loaded with microemulsified eugenol (10% v/v), honey (10% v/v) and sodium hyaluronate (0.2% w/v) to prepare orogel with optimum pH, spreadability, mucoadhesion strength, and viscosity. In vitro eugenol release from N-succinyl chitosan gel after 8 hours in PBS (pH-6.4) was found to be 87.45±0.14%, which was better in comparison to that released from chitosan gel. Ex vivo penetration studies using rat buccal mucosal tissue also suggested better J-efflux of eugenol through N-succinyl chitosan in comparison to chitosan gel with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.71. The antimicrobial effect of N-succinyl chitosan based orogel against S. aureus and C. albicans efficacy was found to be statistically high in comparison to chitosan based orogel as well as marketed formulation of chlorhexidine (pinflammation in the oral mucosa of animals compared to disease control (p<0.05) and hence suggesting the potential of N-succinyl chitosan orogel in the treatment of oral mucositis.

  3. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasenthil, S; Nagini, S

    2000-07-01

    Consumption of garlic has been reported to be associated with decreased risk of cancer. We used the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma model to assess the oral chemopreventive potential of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble constituent of garlic. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of the animals in group I were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week. The animals in group II were painted with DMBA as in group I and in addition received 200 mg/kg body weight SAC intragastrically three times a week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group III animals received SAC as in group II. Animals in group IV received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Biochemical measurements were carried out on tumour and normal pouch tissues. Measurement of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was used to monitor the chemopreventive potential of SAC. All hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the oral tumour tissue was accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of GSH, GPx and GST. Administration of SAC significantly suppressed DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of neoplasms. The results of the present study suggest that garlic may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing the levels of GSH, GPx and GST. PMID:10899678

  4. Anterior-to-posterior wave of buccal expansion in suction feeding fishes is critical for optimizing fluid flow velocity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kristin L; Wainwright, Peter C; Holzman, Roi

    2008-11-01

    In fishes that employ suction feeding, coordinating the timing of peak flow velocity with mouth opening is likely to be an important feature of prey capture success because this will allow the highest forces to be exerted on prey items when the jaws are fully extended and the flow field is at its largest. Although it has long been known that kinematics of buccal expansion in feeding fishes are characterized by an anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, this pattern has not been incorporated in most previous computational models of suction feeding. As a consequence, these models have failed to correctly predict the timing of peak flow velocity, which according to the currently available empirical data should occur around the time of peak gape. In this study, we use a simple fluid dynamic model to demonstrate that the inclusion of an anterior-to-posterior wave of buccal expansion can correctly reproduce the empirically determined flow velocity profile, although only under very constrained conditions, whereas models that do not allow this wave of expansion inevitably predict peak velocity earlier in the strike, when the gape is less than half of its maximum. The conditions that are required to produce a realistic velocity profile are as follows: (i) a relatively long time lag between mouth opening and expansion of the more posterior parts of the mouth, (ii) a short anterior portion of the mouth relative to more posterior sections, and (iii) a pattern of movement that begins slowly and then rapidly accelerates. Greater maximum velocities were generated in simulations without the anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, suggesting a trade-off between maximizing fluid speed and coordination of peak fluid speed with peak gape.

  5. Telomere length of circulating leukocyte subpopulations and buccal cells in patients with ischemic heart failure and their offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S M Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to find support for the hypothesis that telomere length (TL is causally involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart failure (IHF. We measured TL in IHF patients and their high-risk offspring and determined whether mean leukocyte TL reflects TL in CD34+ progenitor. We additionally measured TL of offspring of patients and controls to examine heritability throughout different cell types. METHODS AND RESULTS: TL was measured by qPCR in overall leukocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, mononuclear cells (MNCs, and buccal cells in 27 IHF patients, 24 healthy controls and 60 offspring. TL in IHF patients was shorter than healthy controls in leukocytes (p = 0.002, but not in CD34+ cells (p = 0.39, MNCs (p = 0.31 or buccal cells (p = 0.19. Offspring of IHF patients had shorter TL in leukocytes than offspring of healthy subjects (p = 0.04 but not in other cell types. Controls and offspring showed a good within person correlation between leukocytes and CD34+ cells (r 0.562; p = 0.004 and r 0.602; p = 0.001, respectively. In IHF patients and offspring the correlation among cell types was blunted. Finally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all four cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced leukocyte TL in offspring of IHF subjects suggests a potential causal link of TL in ischemic heart disease. However, this causality is unlikely to originate from exhaustion of TL in CD34+ progenitor or MNC cells as their lengths are not well captured by overall leukocyte TL. Additionally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all examined cell types, suggesting high heritability of TL among cell types.

  6. 医院污水站改扩建工程工艺设计研究%Research on Design of Technology of Reconstruction and Extension Projects of Hospital Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王九菊; 刘晓琏

    2012-01-01

    Through comparing treatment technologies, the authors researched technology design to reconstruction and extension project of Taiyuan an integrated hospital' s sewage plant. Finally, the authors determined use main technology of "bio-contact oxidation+ (coagulation) inclined plate sedimentation+ chlorine dioxide disinfection", and obtained related parameter index. The results have practical clinical significance to construction of hospital' s sewage plant in future.%通过处理工艺的比选,对太原市某综合型医院污水站改扩建工程进行工艺设计研究,确定采用“生物接触氧化+(混凝)斜板沉淀+二氧化氯消毒”的主体工艺,并给出相关参数指标。研究的成果对以后医院污水站的工程建设具有实际的指导意义。

  7. abc: An Extensible AspectJ Compiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie J.;

    2006-01-01

    checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses. The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of such a workbench. The base version of abc implements the full AspectJ language. Its front end is built using the Polyglot framework, as a modular extension of the Java...... overview of how to use abc to implement an extension. We illustrate the extension mechanisms of abc through a number of small, but nontrivial, examples. We then proceed to contrast the design goals of abc with those of the original AspectJ compiler, and how these different goals have led to different...

  8. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  9. Versatile and Extensible, Continuous-Thrust Trajectory Optimization Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative, versatile and extensible, continuous-thrust trajectory optimization tool for planetary mission design and optimization of...

  10. Extension of internationalisation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Oehmen, Josef; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an extension to established production- and supply chain management focused internationalisation models. It applies explorative case studies in Danish and Chinese engineering firms to discover how the globalisation process of product development differs from Danish and Chinese...... perspectives. The paper uses internationalisation and global product development theory to explain similarities and differences in the approaches. Grounded in case study results, a new model for internationalisation is proposed. The new model expands the internationalisation process model to include steps...

  11. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  12. Extensive larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Vandana Rai

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans is characterized by tortuous migratory lesions of the skin caused by larvae of nematodes. A 26-year-old fisherman presented to us with complaints of an itchy eruption on his back and arms of two months′ duration. Clinical examination revealed multiple wavy serpentine tracts and fork like lesions with a raised absolute eosinophil count of 3800 cells/cmm. Biopsy was inconclusive. This case is reported to highlight the extensive involvement by larva migrans.

  13. Embalse life extension project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Embalse life extension (LEP) project involved reactor core replacement (re-tubing), control computer replacement, safety and licensing and safety upgrades and power uprating. Objective of this program was to extend the life of the Embalse Nuclear Generating Station for about 30 more years of safe, reliable operation. The scope of this work was in keeping with LEP upgrades that other sister CANDU 6 stations are or have been implementing as part of their refurbishment programs.

  14. Farmer research and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Anna; Lilja, Nina

    2004-01-01

    In this brief, we learn that "combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective action for different purposes and at different stages in the innovation process. Collective action can be useful in sharing knowledge, setting priorities, and experimenting with, evaluating, and disseminating technologies." The authors describe various partic...

  15. Extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rittayamai, Nuttapol; Muangman, Nisa; Ruangchira-Urai, Ruchira

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare pulmonary disorder that is caused by abnormal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter from the mutation of SLC34A2 gene, leading to accumulation of microliths in the alveoli. We report the extensive pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in an elderly woman who presented with progressive dyspnea for 2 months. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse pulmonary calcification. Tissue histopathology from open lung biopsy demonstrated widespread intra-alveolar lam...

  16. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha

    2005-01-01

    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  17. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  18. EXTENSIONS OF SOME INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using a simple analytic method the following inequalities are proved:(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)≥[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for 0<a<b,x≥1,y>0,x+y≥2;(bx+y-ax+y)/(bx-ax)<[(x+y)/x][(a+b)/2]y,for0<a<b,0<x<1,y>0,x+y≤2.These inequalities are the extensions of inequalities of Qi Feng, Xu Senlin and Zheng Lin. And a conjection of Qi Feng is proved not true.

  19. Micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal mucosa cells of copper smelter workers, with special regard to arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewińska, D; Palus, J; Stepnik, M; Dziubałtowska, E; Beck, J; Rydzyński, K; Natarajan, A T; Nilsson, R

    2007-04-01

    Occupational exposure in copper smelters may produce various adverse health effects including cancer which, according to available epidemiologic data, is associated mainly with exposure to arsenic. Despite a number of well-documented studies reporting an increased risk of cancer among copper smelters workers, the data on genotoxic effects in this industry are scarce. In view of the above, an assessment of micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells from copper smelter workers was undertaken. Additionally, the clastogenic/aneugenic effect in lymphocytes was assessed with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The study was conducted in three copper smelters in southwestern Poland. The subjects (n = 72) were enrolled among male workers at departments where As concentration in the air was up to at 80 microg/m(3). Exposure was assessed by measurement of arsenic concentration in urine and toenail samples. The control group (n = 83) was recruited from healthy male individuals living in central Poland who did not report any exposure to known genotoxins. The results of our study showed a significant increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells of smelter workers, compared to the controls (7.96 +/- 4.28 vs. 3.47 +/- 1.70 and 0.98 +/- 0.76 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.52, respectively). The FISH technique revealed the presence of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes in both groups. The clastogenic effect was slightly more pronounced in the smelter workers; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The mean arsenic concentrations in urine (total arsenic species) and in toenail samples in the exposed group were 54.04 +/- 42.26 microg/l and 7.63 +/- 7.24 microg/g, respectively, being significantly different from control group 11.01 +/- 10.84 microg/l and 0.51 +/- 0.05 microg/g. No correlation between As content in urine or toenail samples and the

  20. Extensible numerical library in JAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the current status of the project for developing the numerical library in JAVA. The authors have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference. The authors need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language, for example, good random number generators, special functions and so on. Authors' development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers. In HPC field, there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA. However, their focus is on the performance of execution, not easiness of extension. Following the strategy, the authors have designed and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on

  1. A new rhabdiasid nematode, Chabirenia cayennensis n. g., n. sp., parasitic in the glands of the buccal mucosa of a South American saurian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermitte-Vallarino, N; Bain, O; Deharo, E; Bertani, S; Voza, T; Attout, T; Gaucher, P

    2005-10-01

    Chabirenia cayennensis n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva. A total of 139 worms were recovered, all females, from the mucous glands of the buccal cavity. The worm has a free-living phase in a homogonic life-cycle. Infective larvae are enclosed in a sheath with chequered ornamentation and composed of two exuviae. The new genus is distinct from the five known genera of the family, Pneumonema Johnston, 1916, Acanthorhabdias Pereira, 1927, Entomelas Travassos, 1930, Rhabdias Stiles and Hassall, 1905 and Neoentomelas Hasagawa, 1989, in the following characters: helical habitus, longitudinal cuticular crests, very tiny buccal cavity without thick walls and three oesophageal onchia. Several characters of this new rhabdiasid suggest the Strongylida. PMID:16167123

  2. A study of the low level radiation effect on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the defects of the low level irradiation on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters (golden hamster: APG strain). After colchicine was administrated to the hamsters through the intraperitoneal, the low level radiation (5461 mR) was exposed in the buccal pouch of hamsters. The mitotic index of the basal cells was estimated 2 hours after irradiation. The results were as follows: 1. The mean mitotic index of the control group was 4.32. 2. The mean mitotic index of the irradiated group was 2.46. 3. T-test of data in the irradiated group showed significant difference from the mitotic endex in the control group. These results suggested the lowered mitotic index of the irradiated group resulted from the low level irradiation.

  3. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children. Programa educativo sobre salud bucal para madres con niños en edad preescolar.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoel González Beriau; Nora Sexto Delgado; Tania Menguez Becerra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention st...

  4. Effects of platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin on healing of extraction sockets with buccal dehiscence in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Marukawa, Eriko; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence.

  5. Porcine adipose-derived stem cells from buccal fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue for future preclinical studies in oral surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Niada, S; L.M. Ferreira; Arrigoni, E.; Addis, A.; M. Campagnol; E. Broccaioli; Brini, A T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are progenitor cells used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite subcutaneous adipose tissue being more abundant, the buccal fat pad (BFP) is easily accessible for dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. For this reason, considering the need for preclinical study and the swine as an optimal animal model in tissue engineering applications, we compared the features of porcine ASCs (pASCs) from both tissue-harvesting sites. Metho...

  6. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Philip [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Discipline of Physiology, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)], E-mail: philip.thomas@csiro.au; Harvey, Sarah; Gruner, Tini [Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)], E-mail: michael.fenech@csiro.au

    2008-02-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing.

  7. Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure.

  8. Changes in buccal micronucleus cytome parameters associated with smokeless tobacco and pesticide exposure among female tea garden workers of Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afifa; Giri, Sarbani; Roy, Prasenjit; Giri, Anirudha

    2014-03-01

    Assam is the highest tea producing state in India. A large number of workers are engaged in various units of tea industry. There are few reports on the health status of the tea garden workers. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effect associated with workers in tea industries in southern Assam. Smokeless tobacco chewing along with betel nut is very common practice among the workers. Workers also get exposed periodically to mixture of pesticides. Employing buccal micronucleus cytome assay, exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed in 90 female tea garden and compared to 90 age and sex matched non-chewer control as well as 70 chewers who are not tea garden workers. Statistically significant (ptea garden workers compared to both the control groups. The frequency of cell proliferation biomarkers was highest in the chewer controls whereas genotoxic and cell death parameters were highest in tea garden workers. Linear correlation analysis revealed strong positive correlation between the duration of occupation and the frequency of micronucleus (r=0.597; ptea garden workers was relatively lower compared to the control group. Pesticide exposure and chewing areca nut along with smokeless tobacco use may be responsible for changes in cytome parameters in exfoliated buccal cells.

  9. Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis--evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei-Feng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) is considered to be important in many inflammatory and immune responses. The aim of this study was to compare NF-kappaB expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanism that may lead to induction of NF-kappaB expression. Seventeen OSF and six normal buccal mucosa specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry. Primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were established and challenged with safrole, a major polyphenolic compound in the influorescence of Piper betel, by cytotoxicity and western blot assays. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, dexamethasone, and cyclosporin A were added to find the possible mechanism. NF-kappaB expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Safrole was cytotoxic to BMFs in a dose-dependent manner (psafrole (psafrole induced-NF-kappaB expression (psafrole in fibroblasts may be mediated by ERK activation and COX-2 signal transduction pathway.

  10. Carbamazepine transbuccal delivery: the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral epithelium and buccal porcine mucosae in the transmucosal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, G; Paderni, C; Saccone, R; Siragusa, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Tripodo, C; Giannola, L I; Florena, A M

    2008-01-01

    Transbuccal drug delivery is an attractive way of administration since several well-known advantages are provided, especially with respect to peroral management. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant which is useful in controlling neuropathic pain, and it is currently administered by peroral route, although its absorption and bioavailability is limited due to various factors. The oral cavity could be an interesting site for transbuccal CBZ delivery due to two properties: slow administration of constant low drug doses and less dose-related side effects. However, in transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which results in low drug bioavailability; thus the aptitude of the drug to penetrate the buccal mucosa has to be assessed by using tissue models resembling human normal mucosa. In our experience, CBZ well permeates mucosal membranes. In order to assess the efficacy of CBZ transbuccal delivery and to verify the reliability of these tissues in permeability testing before and after the passage of CBZ, the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral (RHO) epithelium (E) and buccal porcine mucosae were investigated. Significant histological changes due to CBZ passage were observed both in RHO-E and porcine mucosa. The main findings detected in RHO samples were cellular swellings with a signet ring-like appearance, nuclear swelling, prominent nucleoli lined against the nuclear membrane and the presence of keratohyalin granules. The most striking finding regarding porcine buccal mucosa was a cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly involving the basal layer. PMID:19144275

  11. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  12. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Design - proces og metode går bag om designerens arbejde og giver et indblik i den skabelsesproces, som designeren er involveret i. Bogen er enestående, fordi den fokuserer på processens flygtige og komplekse karakter, afmystificerer den og gør den operationel - uden at fjerne dens magi. Ud over...

  13. Tools for Creating Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerations and tools for developing mobile applications for Extension include evaluating the topic, purpose, and audience. Different computing platforms may be used, and apps designed as modified Web pages or implicitly programmed for a particular platform. User privacy is another important consideration, especially for data collection apps.…

  14. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  15. Proteomics of buccal cavity mucus in female tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.): a comparison between parental and non-parental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iq, Koe Chun; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.) display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase. PMID:21533134

  16. Proteomics of buccal cavity mucus in female tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.: a comparison between parental and non-parental fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koe Chun Iq

    Full Text Available Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp. display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase.

  17. A multi-centre, double-blind study of serrapeptase versus placebo in post-antrotomy buccal swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, M; Mizukoshi, O; Harada, Y; Kawamoto, K; Nakai, Y

    1984-01-01

    A multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to investigate the clinical efficacy of the anti-inflammatory enzyme serrapeptase in a total of 174 patients who underwent Caldwell-Luc antrotomy for chronic empyema. Eighty-eight patients received 10 mg serrapeptase 3 times on the day before operation, once on the night of the operation and 3 times daily for 5 days after operation; the other 86 received placebo. Changes in buccal swelling after operation were observed as a parameter of the response to treatment. The degree of swelling in the serrapeptase-treated patients was significantly less than that in the placebo-treated patients at every point of observation after operation up to the 5th day (p less than 0.01 to p less than 0.05). Maximal swelling throughout all the post-operative points of observation was also significantly smaller in size in the serrapeptase-treated group than in the placebo-treated group. No side-effects were reported.

  18. Stafne’s bone cavity: An unusual case with involvement of the buccal and lingual mandibular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-01-01

    Lingual mandibular bone defects, also known as Stafne bone cavity (SC), are unilateral asymptomatic radiolucencies, generally seen in the mandibular angle, below the inferior alveolar canal. Although panoramic radiographies normally offer enough information to make a correct diagnosis, additional studies are often required, especially in atypical cases. The present report describes an atypical presentation of a Stafne’s bone cavity in a 78 years-old male patient. In this particular case, an asymptomatic and radiolucid lesion was observed during a routine dental examination. The computed tomography (CT) showed an involvement of both lingual and buccal mandibular plates producing a tunnel-like lesion. No history of mandibular trauma or surgery was refered. An additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was made to discard submandibular gland pathology and to confirm the diagnosis. Since SC is asymptomatic and nonprogressive, a conservative approach based in clinical and radiological follow-ups was considered to be the most suitable treatment option. Key words:Stafne bone cavity, lingual mandibular bone defect, case report. PMID:24596643

  19. Anticancer Effects of Fusion Protein CAtin on DMBA-induced Carcinogenesis in Buccal Pouch of Chinese Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jie-ying; LI Xiao; LI Chang; ZHANG Xiao-fei; LI Zhi-xin; ZHAO Shuang; LIU Xiao; ZENG Lin; CHI Bao-rong

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant expression ofcarcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)is a common feature for multiple types of cancer,which makes it an attractive target for anticancer therapy.CAtin is a novel dual cancer-specific fusion protein,composed of an anti-CEA single-chain disulfide-stabilized Fv antibody(scdsFv)and Apoptin,a tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing protein.Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC)is an important healthcare problem in the clinic.To evaluate the anticancer effects of CAtin on OSCC,7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene(DMBA)was used to induce oral carcinogenesis and premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of Chinese hamster,and the antitumor effects of CAtin were determined in pre-cancer,cancer and post-operatative cancer models,respectively.The results show that the administration of CAtin delayed the malignant transformation of early stage cancerous lesions,inhibited the growth of established solid oral tumors and reduced the post-operatative relapse of lesions,with no significant systemic toxicity.This study demonstrates that CAtin may have potential for the treatment of OSCC,and the development of preventive strategies based on CAtin may offer a practical approach for the treatment of human oral tumors.

  20. Design of SOUND BAR system based on the psychological acoustic low frequency extension%基于心理声学低频扩展的SOUNDBAR音响系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文辉; 彭芳

    2012-01-01

    针对平板电视音响系统低频响应不佳、动态范围较小等缺点,研发了SOUNDBAR音响系统。通过分离受限于扬声器不能重现的低频信号.生成对应的高次谐波。再进行叠加重放的方法,从心理声学上实现了基频低音的扩展。系统电路由主控MCU、DSP音效处理、D类功率放大、无线低频传输等模块组成,可播放DVD、MPEG等多种音视频媒体:通过Intemet链接实现网络高清视频的全格式解码及播放;利用软件CEC功能,实现家庭影音设备的统一控制。SOUNDBAR音响系统功能完善、操作简便,使用小口径扬声器即可营造出雄厚的低音效果,频率响应、动态范围、失真度等技术指标均达到高保真设计耍求。%For the shortcomings of flat TV stereo systems, such as low frequency response was no good, dynamic range was relatively narrow,a SOUND BAR system is developed. By separating low frequency signal constrained by the speaker that can' t reproduce, corresponding higher harmonic is generated, and then be stacked and replayed, which realizes the fundamental bass extension in psychological acoustics. System circuit includes a main control MCU, DSP audio processing, D class power amplifier, wireless frequency transmission modules. It can play DVD, MPEG and other audio and video media, realizes network HD video decoding and playback with internet link, and realizes uniform control of home audio-visual equipments by using the software CEC function. SOUND BAR audio system with perfect function and simple operation uses small diameter loudspeaker creating a strong bass effect. Frequency response, dynamic range, distortion and other technical indicators have reached the design requirements of high fidelity.

  1. Quotient Semigroups and Extension Semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rong Xing; Changguo Wei; Shudong Liu

    2012-08-01

    We discuss properties of quotient semigroup of abelian semigroup from the viewpoint of *-algebra and apply them to a survey of extension semigroups. Certain interrelations among some equivalence relations of extensions are also considered.

  2. 带蒂颊脂垫组织学研究及临床应用%Clinical application and histological observation of pedicled buccal fat pad grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊立洁; 陈关福; 赵士芳; 胡济安

    2002-01-01

    Objective To introduce the applied anatomy of pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) graft and aseries of histological changes in the healing process of BFP as an uncovered pedic led graft. Methods The healing processes of BFP are demonstrated viauncovered pedicled grafts on r abbits in histological examination. Uncovered buccal fat pads were used to rep air soft tissue defects in rabbit oral cavities. Results The uncovered buccal fat pads showed complete epithelialization of their oral su rfaces at 6 to 8 weeks after surgery and were slowly replaced by fibrous tissue . Conclusions Advantages of the pedicled buccal fat pad graft include an anatomic region that is consistent and easy to excise. The operation can be performed in one incision, affecting neither appearance nor function of the area. Use of the buccal fat pad provides a good reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the mouth.%目的为了解带蒂颊脂垫组织瓣的应用解剖及无覆盖颊脂垫移植愈合过程中组织学变化.方法通过动物实验,对颊脂垫移植后的愈合过程进行了组织学观察,并对临床采用该组织瓣修复口腔内缺损30例进行观察.结果动物实验及临床观察发现,口腔内无覆盖带蒂颊脂垫移植后,在4-8周创面完全上皮化,8~ 10周再生的粘膜变得光滑,呈粉红色,类似于正常口腔粘膜.结论该组织瓣解剖恒定,易获取,供区与受区近,供区隐蔽,不影响外观及功能,为修复口腔内软组织缺损提供了一种好方法.

  3. Extensible Wind Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  4. Educational program on buccal health for mothers of preschool age children. Programa educativo sobre salud bucal para madres con niños en edad preescolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel González Beriau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since buccal diseases are no mortal, people often fail to notice their importance. This kind of diseases appear at very early stages, however, it is possible to avoid them teaching correct behaviors in the familiar context. Objective: to prove the effectiveness of an educational intervention strategy for mothers of preschool age children. Method: A cuasi-experimental, educational intervention study was developed to modify buccal health knowledge in 40 mothers of preschool children (between 4 and 5 years, from Cruces municipality, since January 2006 and November 2007. We applied a survey to assess buccal health knowledge before and after the educational intervention, through the analysis of variables such as: brushing frequency and way, sugar diet, deforming habits, dentist consultations, breastfeeding and concern about child´s buccal health. The educative buccal health program was enforced with educational and affection-inclusive techniques complemented with didactic games as feedback. Results: Buccal health knowledge of surveyed mothers significantly increased after the intervention. Conclusions: The evaluation at the end of the program proved the effectiveness of this initiative for the acquisition and modification of knowledge related with buccal health care.Fundamento: Las enfermedades bucales, aunque subvaloradas por no ocasionar mortalidad de manera directa, pueden aparecer desde edades muy tempranas; sin embargo, es posible evitarlas mediante conductas que el niño sólo puede en el ámbito familiar. Objetivo: Demostrar la efectividad de una estrategia de intervención educativa en madres de niños en edad preescolar. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, de intervención educativa, para modificar los conocimientos sobre salud bucal en 40 madres con hijos en edad preescolar (de 4

  5. Exercise function of quality control to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients%运用QC活动进行口腔门诊病人健康教育的有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪灵; 陈树芬

    2009-01-01

    Objective Exercise function of quality control to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients. Methods Build up a team of quality control with a question for discussion that is Increasing Knowledge about Buccal Health Taken by Buccal Outpatients, to investigate practicality of buccal outpatients through the mothed of teaching booklets, course of lectures, demonstration, multimedia, and use the Measurement to evaluate the validity of health teaching to buccal outpatients. Results Health teaching can increase knowledge about buccal health taken by buccal outpatients. Conclusions Exercising function of quality control can resolve tht problems of practicality and evaluate effect of clinical Health teaching availably.%目的 运用QC活动对口腔科门诊病人开展健康教育的有效性进行评价.方法 成立QC小组,以"提高门诊病人口腔保健知识水平"为活动课题,对口腔科门诊病人进行现状调查,通过健康教育手册、健康讲座、示范指导、多媒体宣教等方式进行系统的教育,使用调查量表评价健康教育的有效性.结果 健康教育可提高口腔门诊病人保健知识的水平.结论 开展QC活动可以解决实际工作中的问题,并有效评价门诊健康教育的效果.

  6. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P < 0.001). However, when the yeast cells were grown at 37°C, no significant difference between the adhesion of C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P < 0.001). Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, C. dubliniensis isolates were found to adhere in significantly greater numbers than C. albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  7. Modified connective tissue punch technique to increase the vestibular/buccal keratinized tissue on flapless implant surgery: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lopez, M A; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show a simple and predictable technique to enhance both the vestibular/buccal (V/B) gingival thickness (GT) and keratinized tissue width (KTW) improving the soft-tissue profile after flapless implant placement. The technique proposed was named Modified Connective Tissue Punch (MCTP). Fourteen patients (6 men and 8 women) aged between 35 and 69 years (mean value 48.07±13.023 years) were enrolled in this case series. Seventeen implant sites were submitted to flapless procedure. The connective punch (CP) was harvested with a motor-driven circular tissue punch and then a full-split dissection was executed, in order to create a deep pouch, beyond the mucogingival junction, on the V/B side. In this recipient site the CP was placed. The normal flapless surgical protocol was used; implants were inserted and covered with transgingival healing cap screws. GT and KTW were measured: both immediately before and after surgery; at the time of the prosthetic finalization (3-4months, respectively, for mandible and maxilla); 1 year post surgery follow-up. GT was measured at 1 mm, 2 mm and 5 mm on the V/B side, from the outline of the punch. Both KTW and GT at 1 and 2 mm can be effectively increased, while no significant effects for GT at 5 mm can be expected from this technique. Furthermore, the mean values of KTW and GT at 1 mm and 2 mm show significant increases at 3-4 months post-operative, while no further significant increments are shown at 1 year post-operative follow-up. The Authors recommend the use of the MCTP technique to reduce the number of aesthetic complications and soft tissue defects in flapless implant surgery. Longer follow-ups are needed to evaluate the stability of peri-implant tissues over time. PMID:27469545

  8. Multi-Layer Extension of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Multi⁃layer extension is based on single⁃layer design of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard and employed as the com⁃mon structure for scalability and multi⁃view video coding extensions of HEVC. In this paper, an overview of multi⁃layer extension is presented. The concepts and advantages of multi⁃layer extension are briefly described. High level syntax (HLS) for multi⁃layer extension and several new designs are also detailed.

  9. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  10. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  11. The new heterologous fibrin sealant in combination with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Barraviera, Benedito; Junior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Junior, Geraldo Marco Rosa; Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Dare, Leticia Rossi; Andreo, Jesus Carlos

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve with two surgical techniques: end-to-end epineural suture and coaptation with heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (CG) in which the buccal branch of the facial nerve was collected without injury; (2) experimental group with suture (EGS) and experimental group with fibrin (EGF): The buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected on both sides of the face. End-to-end suture was performed on the right side and fibrin sealant on the left side; (3) Experimental group with suture and laser (EGSL) and experimental group with fibrin and laser (EGFL). All animals underwent the same surgical procedures in the EGS and EGF groups, in combination with the application of LLLT (wavelength of 830 nm, 30 mW optical power output of potency, and energy density of 6 J/cm(2)). The animals of the five groups were euthanized at 5 weeks post-surgery and 10 weeks post-surgery. Axonal sprouting was observed in the distal stump of the facial nerve in all experimental groups. The observed morphology was similar to the fibers of the control group, with a predominance of myelinated fibers. In the final period of the experiment, the EGSL presented the closest results to the CG, in all variables measured, except in the axon area. Both surgical techniques analyzed were effective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, where the use of fibrin sealant allowed the manipulation of the nerve stumps without trauma. LLLT exhibited satisfactory results on facial nerve regeneration, being therefore a useful technique to stimulate axonal regeneration process. PMID:27112578

  12. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation.

  13. Elevation of S100A4 expression in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: involvement in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Thirty OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and ten normal buccal mucosa samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for S100A4 expression in vivo. Collagen gel contraction capability and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1/MMP9 in arecoline-stimulated BMFs with S100A4 knockdown was presented in vitro. Initially, S100A4 expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF specimens than normal buccal mucosa specimens (p = 0.001. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, led to dose- and time-dependent elevation of S100A4 expression in normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts BMFs (p<0.05. The additions of pharmacological agents rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor, and Bay117082 (NF-κB inhibitor were found to inhibit arecoline-induced S100A4 expression (p<0.05 in BMFs. Down-regulation of S100A4 by lentiviral infection significantly reversed arecoline-induced collagen gel contraction and TIMP1/MMP9 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that S100A4 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF specimens. Arecoline-induced S100A4 expression was down-regulated by rapamycin, PD98059, and Bay117082. Targeting S100A4 might be a potential therapeutic target for OSF through TIMP1/MMP9 down-regulation.

  14. Vegetation development on extensive vegetated green roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Technology for establishment of vegetated roofs (green roofs) has developed rapidly over recent years but knowledge about how these systems will develop over time is still limited. This study investigates vegetation development on unfertilised thin extensive vegetated roofs during a 3-year period. The vegetation systems investigated were designed to be low maintenance and had a saturated weight of 50 kg/m2, a thickness of 4 cm and drought-resistant succulent and bryophyte vegetation. Vegetati...

  15. Buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for proximal bulbar urethral stricture: A revisit of the surgical technique and analysis of eleven consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irekpita Eshiobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethral stricture disease is prevalent, and many surgical techniques have been developed to treat it. Currently, urethroplasty for bulbar strictures implies ventral or dorsal stricturotomy and a buccal mucosa graft (BMG patch. Objective: To describe the surgical approach of the ventral patch BMG urethroplasty for proximal bulbar urethral stricture and to analyze 11 consecutive cases for whom the technique was used. Patients and Methods: The diagnosis of urethral stricture was confirmed with a combined retrograde urethrography and micturating cystourethrography. A single team exposed the urethra, harvested, and planted the BMG in the lithotomy position under general anesthesia. The oral preoperative preparation was done with oraldene (hexetidine mouth wash three times daily beginning from the 2nd preoperative day. The buccal mucosa was harvested from the left inner cheek in all the patients. The donor site was left unclosed but packed with wet gauze. Data related to age, preoperative adverse conditions, stricture length, urine culture result, perineal/oral wound complications, postoperative residual urine volume, and duration of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Eleven patients with proximal bulbar urethral stricture had BMG urethroplasty from August 2013 to October 2015. Stricture length ranged from 2 to 5 cm. In six (54% of the men, the stricture resulted from urethritis thereby constituting the most common etiology of urethral stricture in this study. The preoperative adverse conditions were age above 70 in three, diabetes mellitus in two, severe dental caries in one, and recurrent stricture in two. All of them were able to resume reasonable oral intake 72 h postoperatively. One (9.2% had perineal wound infection, while two (18.2% still had mild pain at donor site 4 weeks postoperatively. Ten (90.9% of the 11 patients had <30 ml residual urine volume at 2 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Urethritis is still a common cause of

  16. Monitoring radiation embrittlement during life extension periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, A., E-mail: Antonio.Ballesteros-Avila@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of European Commission, IET, P.O.B. 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Altstadt, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O.B. 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gillemot, F. [MTA EK, Centre for Energy Research, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary); Hein, H. [AREVA GmbH, Fracture Mechanics, PTCMF-G, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Wagemans, J. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Rouden, J. [Ringhals AB, RTQM, 432 85 Väröbacka (Sweden); Barthelmes, J. [AREVA GmbH, Fracture Mechanics, PTCMF-G, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Wilford, K. [Rolls-Royce, Nuclear Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 2000, RAY-SW1-70, Derby DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Serrano, M. [CIEMAT, Structural Materials Division, Avda de la Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Brumovsky, M. [NRI Řež, Nuclear Research Institute, Husinec – Řež, Hlavní 130 250 68 (Czech Republic); Chaouadi, R. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Ortner, S. [NNL, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington WA3 6AE (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Techniques and methods for monitoring radiation embrittlement are described. • The life extension of the standard surveillance programmes is discussed. • Guidance is given for the design of new surveillance capsules. • Recommendations for Integrated and Coordinated Surveillance Programmes are given. - Abstract: This paper presents guidelines to monitor the radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) during life extension periods (to 60 or 80 years) or for the long term operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The guidelines were developed in 2012–2013 by a Task Group of the international project LONGLIFE. The work performed responds to the need for guidance to treat long term irradiation effects within the ageing management of NPPs, since the standard RPV surveillance programmes were designed only to cover a time period of 40 years. The guidelines are intended to support specialists in the field and managers in the plant to choose among the most adequate techniques and methods available today to extend the use of their current RPV surveillance programme beyond design life, or implement a new programme when needed. The study performed identifies weaknesses in the ability of the standard surveillance programmes to provide data needed for long term operation, and proposes solutions and tools to solve and/or mitigate the lack or scarcity of surveillance material for their use in life extension. Guidance is also given on methods and strategies to generate reliable surveillance data in the high fluence range.

  17. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  18. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O’Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) – a proposed marker of biological age – in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: −0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O'Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) - a proposed marker of biological age - in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η(2) = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: -0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with BTL

  1. SWOT Analysis of Extension Systems in Southern African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems in selected southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho and Botswana. This is predicated on the need for improved performance and reinvigoration of extension system for better services. Some of the strengths are development works to improve rural areas, extensive grassroots coverage, and use of committees for research and extension linkages, involvement of NGOs and private sector, and effective setting of extension administration units. On the other hand opportunities that can be explored are donor will fund well designed programme, expansion in the use of ICT, high involvement of farmers in extension planning, and potential for effective programme implementation. The threats to the extension systems are attempts to privatize extension services, weak feedback to research, and donor fatigue. The paper recommends that extension administrators, and policy makers should pay proper attention to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to extension systems with a view of making extension services truly more responsive to local concerns and policy.

  2. 四味清口含片处方的优化及制备工艺研究%Study on optimization and preparation technique for the prescription of Siweiqing buccal tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珍; 詹晓如; 胡奕勤; 郑小吉; 周之荣

    2013-01-01

    . mandshuricum(Maxim.) Kitag and powdered extract from four species(Citrus Chachiensis Hortorum, Cortex Cinnamomi, Asarum heterotropoides Fr.Schmidt var. mandshuricum(Maxim.) Kitag and licorice) as the primary drugs, using the appearance characteristics,texture, hardness and disintegrating time as the evaluation indexes,based on the single factor test,using L9(34) orthogonal experimental design,fixing the dosage of freshener and moistening agent,the influence of the factors such as primary drugs powder dosage,fillers dosage,concentration of moistening agent and correctant dosage on the quality of buccal tablets were discussed, and the optimum ingredient and adjuvant material of Siweiqing buccelltablets were optimized,and the dry conditions of extractum was investigated. The granulation and dry conditions were optimized through using the wet granulation tabletting method and the single factor test, then the Siweiqing buccal tablets were prepared and their quality assessments were carried out. Results The optimum prescription of Siweiqing buccal tablets were the fixed amount of 1.0% freshener menthol and 1.0% lubricant magnesium stearate,45% primary drugs powder dosage,45% fillers dosage,8%correctant dosage, andφ=90%alcohol appropriate amount;The extractum was vacuuming dried 7h at 60℃and the optimum preparation process parameters were as follows:granulated with 20 mesh sieve, dried at 60℃for 90min,and unified with 20 mesh screen, respectively.According to the optimum ingredient primary drugs powder and adjuvant material dosage,the adequate amounts of φ=90% alcohol were added into the prescription, the soft granules were prepared.Then the granules were granulated with 20 mesh sieve,and dried at 60℃for 90min,and unified with 20 mesh screen,and added magnesium stearate and menthol by using equivalent increment, the above products was completed through tabletting after homogeneous mixing. Conclusion Siweiqing baccal tablets prepared according to the optimum prescription and

  3. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  4. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  5. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  6. Evaluation of genetic damage in tobacco and arsenic exposed population of Southern Assam, India using buccal cytome assay and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prasenjit; Mukherjee, Anita; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Ground water is the principal source of drinking water in Assam. Ground water contamination of arsenic in drinking water is a great concern for human health and considered as a human carcinogen. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effects associated with people of southern Assam consuming arsenic contaminated water and chewing tobacco. Employing the buccal cytome assay, exfoliated cells were analyzed in 138 individuals of age range 22-42 years and divided into four groups. Group I (n=54) are participants residing in localities where ground water contains arsenic concentration below the permissible limit (arsenic contamination in ground water were observed. Whereas the Group IV (n=28) consists of participants from the arsenic contaminated area and also tobacco chewers. Body mass index (BMI) in all the groups are found to be nearly same and in normal range. Statistically significant (Parsenic exposed peoples and the binucleated cells (r=0.4763; Parsenic through drinking water may become more susceptible towards chewing tobacco induced nuclear damage as evaluated by buccal cytome assay and comet assay.

  7. Apoptosis induction by S-allylcysteine, a garlic constituent, during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasenthil, S; Rao, K S; Nagini, S

    2002-09-01

    The apoptosis-inducing capacity of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis was investigated in male Syrian hamsters using DNA fragmentation and the apoptosis-associated proteins, tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and Bcl-2. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals painted with DMBA as in group 1, in addition received 200 mg kg(-1) body weight SAC orally on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The experiment was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. Administration of SAC (200 mg kg(-1) body weight) to animals painted with DMBA inhibited DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of neoplasms, induction of tTG and inhibition of Bcl-2 expression. The results of the present study suggest that SAC may exert its chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis. PMID:12125104

  8. The Design and Implementation of Extensible Naming Service in Web Application Server%Web应用服务器可扩展名字服务的设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁江; 范国闯

    2003-01-01

    Web application server provides the environment for transactional applications with a series of services(e. g. transaction, message, component container, etc. ). Naming services provide a means for application to locate objects and act as essential support in application server. However, users may use various naming service implementations in their applications, so Web application server needs to support multiple naming systems in a flexible way. With analyzing the naming requirements of application server, this paper presents a naming service mechanism that supports multiple naming systems in application server, which based on JNDI and JMX technologies.The implementation of the mechanism in WebFrame application server is introduced. The mechanism has good manageability and openness and extensibility, and satisfies the requirements of Web application server.

  9. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about Malaysian extension workers’ attitudes towards SAP. Front line extension workers in the DOA were surveyed to identify their attitudes on SAP. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results revealed that extension workers have positive attitudes on SAP concepts. It is recommended to find out to what extent extension workers attitudes has played significant role to transfer information to the farmers.

  10. Considerable Life Extension versus Immortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Rantanen

    2012-01-01

    The ethical desirability of considerable life extension by medical technology has become an increasingly discussed topic in bioethics during recent years. Immortality can be seen as a maximum of life extension. Because of this, many authors use the term 'immortality' for referring to a lifespan that is considerably longer than our current one. However, being literally immortal would be very different from living for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. The arguments that have been made abou...

  11. Extensive vegetated roofs in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Emilsson, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses extensive vegetated roofs, i.e. vegetation systems placed on top of buildings as an aesthetical and/or ecological cover. Specific objectives was to (1) quantify how establishment techniques, substrates and plant mixes influence establishment and development of extensive vegetated roofs, (2) investigate effect of vegetated roofs on stormwater quality, and quantify how maintenance and starting fertilisation influences stormwater quality, and (4) investigate the role of veg...

  12. COCLEFT EXTENSIONS OF HOPF ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝家贵

    2006-01-01

    Let B and H be finitely generated projective Hopf algebras over a commutative ring R,with B cocommutative and H commutative. In this paper we investigate cocleft extensions of Hopf algebras, and prove that the isomorphism classes of cocleft Hopf algebras extensions of B by H are determined uniquely by the group C(B, H) = ZC(B, H)/d(B, H) .

  13. Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai

    2011-01-01

    Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...

  14. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly Prótesis dentales y lesiones mucosas en el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.Fundamento: las lesiones bucales en los ancianos son muy frecuentes y constituyen un problema de salud debido a las consecuencias que provocan. Objetivo: describir las características de las prótesis removibles usadas por la población de 60 y más años de edad y su relación con las lesiones de la mucosa oral. Métodos: se realiz

  15. Parameterized Picard--Vessiot extensions and Atiyah extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gillet, Henri; Ovchinnikov, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    Generalizing Atiyah extensions, we introduce and study differential abelian tensor categories over differential rings. By a differential ring, we mean a commutative ring with an action of a Lie ring by derivations. In particular, these derivations act on a differential category. A differential Tannakian theory is developed. The main application is to the Galois theory of linear differential equations with parameters. Namely, we show the existence of a parameterized Picard--Vessiot extension and, therefore, the Galois correspondence for many differential fields with, possibly, non-differentially closed fields of constants, that is, fields of functions in parameters.

  16. Evaluation Methodology for Education Programs with Diffuse Goals: Applications to Extension Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses applications of evaluation methodology for educational programs to extension evaluation. Reviews alternative evaluation designs, makes specific suggestions for interpreting past evaluation studies, and presents ideas for future extension evaluation. (CS)

  17. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  18. Optimization of Excipient Prescription of Astragaloside Buccal Mucoadhesive Sustained-release Tablets and Determination of Its In-vitro Dissolution Rate%黄芪总皂苷口腔粘附缓释片的处方筛选及体外释放度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡君; 王淑英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the prescription of astragaloside buecal mucoadhesive sustained-release tablets. Methods Orthogonal design was adopted. We optimized the prescription of astragaloside buccal mucoadhesive sustained-release tablets by using hypromellose, acrylic resin E-100 and xylitol as excipients, and with the hardness, swelling degree, and in-vitro bioadhesive capacity (including adhesive time and strength) as the examination indexes. The in-vitro dissolution rate of the optimized tablets was detected. Results The optimal excipient prescription consisted of hypromellose, acrylic resin E-100 and xylitol, in the mass ratio of 2 -2 :0. 2 . Conclusion Astragaloside buccal mucoadhesive sustained-release tablets prepared according to the optimal excipient prescription have satisfactory bioadhesive capacity and sustained-release capacity.%[目的]优化黄芪总皂苷口腔粘附缓释片制备处方.[方法]采用正交试验设计法,以羟丙甲纤维素、丙烯酸树脂E-100和木糖醇为辅料,以片剂硬度、膨胀度、体外粘附时间、体外粘附力因素综合优化处方,并测定优化处方的体外释放度.[结果]优化的处方组成为羟丙甲纤维素、丙烯酸树脂E-100、木糖醇,其质量比为2∶2∶0.2.[结论]按照优化处方制备的黄芪总皂苷口腔粘附缓释片具有理想的生物粘粘附力和缓释性.

  19. 西南林业大学“延伸的梦想”校园画廊设计研究%Research on Design of "Extension of Dream" Campus Gallery in Southwest Forestry University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 高宇

    2012-01-01

    Through the investigation of the original campus of Southwest Forestry University, and combined with the requirement of exhibition space on campus, the audio--visual building is selected as the design site to be a campus gallery which is designed as a transformation of the original building space. By transformation and innovation which suit the original building structure, both space utilization and cost--effectiveness are improved to accomplish the space design of "The Extended Dream" campus gallery in the Southwest Forestry University.%通过对昆明市西南林业大学老校区的考察.结合校园对展示空间的需求.选定利用率较少的电教楼为设计场地.对原有建筑空间进行了改造创新的设计研究。根据对原有的空间因地制宜的改造和创新.既加强了空间的使用率,又有效节约了成本,最终完成了西南林业大学“延仲的梦想”这一主题校园画廊的设计。

  20. CBVT analysis of canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pratima Shenoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: For successful endodontic treatment, it′s imperative to locate and obturate all root canals. As concluded by Ingle, the major cause for failure of root canal therapy is in ability to recognize all theexisting canals and subsequent failure in their obturation. Aim: To analyze the canal configuration of the mesio-buccal root of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 recently extracted human permanent maxillary first molars were collected and stored in a container with 5% Sodium Chloride solution for four days. Teeth with open apices, external resorption, improperly formed roots and teeth with previous restorations were excluded. Using the dental modeling wax, teeth were arranged in a ′U′ shaped arch with roots embedded inside the wax and occlusal surface remaining free. 10 teeth were arranged in each arch and three such sample plates were prepared. Flat surface of the base encasing enabled the plate to be mounted on flat plastic bite plate. With bite plate roughly centered in the focal trough area Axial, Coronal and Sagittal section Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images were taken with Kodak 9000 Extra-oral Imaging System. Images displayed on a monitor were inspected by two endodontists using Kodak Dental Imaging Software 3D Module V2.2. Statistical Analysis: When the data was observed, it was found that 24 teeth out of total 30 teeth examined showed some variation (i.e. possible additional canal along the length of the mesio-buccal root canal. Out of these 24 teeth, 13 showed presence of additional canal at coronal third, 7 showed presence of additional canal at middle third and four showed presence of additional canal in apical third level. Percentage analysis was done as there was no group comparison to be done. Results: Cone-Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT evaluation positively identified the variations in mesio-buccal canal in 80% of samples. Out of these, 54.16% were in coronal 3 rd

  1. On Nilpotent Extensions of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adam W. Marczak; Jerzy Plonka

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate essentially n-ary term operations of nilpotent extensions of algebras. We detect the connection between term operations of an original algebra and its nilpotent extensions. This structural point of view easily leads to the conclusion that the number of distinct essentially n-ary term operations of a proper algebraic nilpotent extension (ひ) of an algebra (ワ) is given by the formula pn(ひ)={pn(ワ)+1 for n=1,{pn(ワ) otherwise. We show that in general the converse theorem is not true. However, we suppose that if a variety V is uniquely determined by its pn-sequences, the converse theorem is also satisfied. In the second part of the paper, we characterize generics of nilpotent shifts of varieties and describe cardinalities of minimal generics. We give a number of examples and pose some problems.

  2. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  3. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The abilities to extend a software module and to integrate a software module into an existing software system without changing existing source code are fundamental challenges in software engineering and programming-language design. We reconsider these challenges at the level of language...... expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...

  4. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW)

  5. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  6. Extensions of Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Brik, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses two new extensions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) and a new computational method for solving the following two problems : (1) given a finite propositional logic program P which has a stable model, find a stable model M of P, and (2) given a finite propositional logic program P which has no stable model, find a maximal program P' which is a subset of P which has a stable model and find a stable model M' of P'. The first extension called Preference Set Constraint (PSC) prog...

  7. Deductive reasoning in extensive games

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Dufwenberg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    We justify the application to extensive games of the concept of ‘fully permissible sets’, which corresponds to choice sets when there is common certain belief of the event that each player prefer one strategy to another if and only if the former weakly dominates the latter on the set of all opponent strategies or on the union of the choice sets that are deemed possible for the opponent. The extensive games considered illustrate how our concept yields support to forward induction, without nece...

  8. The influence of the cavity preparation design on marginal accuracy of laboratory-processed resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Soares, Carlos José

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different cavity preparation designs on marginal accuracy of laboratory-processed resin composite restored teeth. Eighty mandibular human third molars were selected. There were two experimental factors, occlusal isthmus width (narrow vs wide) and cuspal coverage (inlay, one-cusp onlay, two-cusp onlay, and all-cusp onlay), resulting on eight groups (N = 10). Indirect composite restorations (SR Adoro, Ivoclar-Vivadent) were manufactured and positioned over each respective preparation. Marginal accuracy evaluation was accomplished using a stereomicroscope at three points on buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal regions with 40x magnification. The results showed significant differences (P = 0.00) with wide inlay showing the best overall marginal accuracy and narrow inlay the worst one. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences when considering the factor occlusal isthmus width (P = 0.00). In general, preparations with wide occlusal isthmus presented better results than narrow ones, except for wide all-cusp onlays; however, the test failed to show differences when considering the cuspal coverage (P = 0.42) or the interaction between both factors (P = 0.30). The effect of occlusal width extension on marginal accuracy of indirect composite resin restorations is significant, with lower values of gaps width in wide preparations, but since in a clinical situation this would mean greater removal of sound tooth structure, less-aggressive preparations combined with other restorative procedures seem to be more feasible.

  9. AB161. High resolution melting analysis of buccal DNA revealed a significant association between UGT1A1 c.211G>A and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia development in Malay population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tian Pei; Van Rostenberghe, Hans; Ismail, Rosliza; Nawawi, Noor Namirah; Abdullah, Nurul Amierah; Ramli, Noraida; Ibrahim, Nor Rosidah; Hj Abd Majid, Noorizan; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah; Nishio, Hisahide; Yusoff, Surini

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or neonatal jaundice (NNJ) characterised by an elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) level may result in kernicterus or even death. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is the key enzyme which conjugates bilirubin with glucuronic acid for the subsequent bilirubin excretion. Conversely, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), encoded by nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) gene, regulates bilirubin excretion by activating the components of the bilirubin clearance pathway. Thus, genetic variants in UGT1A1 and NR1I3 genes may modulate bilirubin excretion and lead to NNJ. This study aimed to determine the association between UGT1A1 and NR1I3 genetic variants and NNJ development in Malay population by genotyping the DNA isolated from buccal swabs. The accuracy and reliability of the genotyping results produced by buccal DNA was also compared with that of the whole blood DNA. Methods Buccal swabs were collected from 232 hyperbilirubinemia and 232 non-hyperbilirubinemia newborns admitted to and/or born in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Hyperbilirubinemia subjects were those with TSB levels ≥250 µmol/L within the first week after birth while non-hyperbilirubinemia subjects were newborns without significant hyperbilirubinemia. The UGT1A1 (c.211G>A) and NR1I3 [MPJ6_1I3008 (G>A), IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G] variants were genotyped by using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between variant genotypes and risk of NNJ. Whole blood samples were also collected from 60 subjects and genotyped to compare the HRM genotyping results with that of the buccal swabs. Results When compared with wild-type genotype, both heterozygous and homozygous variant genotypes of MPJ6_1I3008 (G>A), IVS8+116T>G and 540A>G were not significantly associated with NNJ. However, the heterozygous genotype (GA) of c.211G>A was found to increase the

  10. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  11. Optimum Design of Water Intake Channel Diversion Dike in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant Extension Project%田湾核电站扩建工程取水明渠导流堤优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白帆; 武霄

    2015-01-01

    取水工程为核电厂重要构筑物,按照较高的核电标准设计往往断面较大,在保证取水安全的前提下,分析不同工程的使用要求,有针对性的的进行优化设计,可降低工程造价.以田湾核电取水工程为例,分析优化设计过程,供类似工程参考.%As an important structure of nuclear power plant, the application of higher nuclear power standard resulted in larger section of water intake engineering. In order to guarantee the safety of water intake, the use requirements for different projects were analyzed, which led to the optimum design, for example, the reduction of construction cost. Tianwan nuclear power plant water intake project was taken as an example to analyze the process of optimum design, which would serve as a reference for similar projects.

  12. Design of the Height-measuring System for the SPBB Based on the Cable-extension Position Transducer%基于拉绳位移传感器的登船桥高度测量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汉萍

    2014-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standard,domestic cruise home-ports have growing quickly,thus bringing about rapid development of boarding bridge business.On account of the special environment and characteristics of service cruise,existing height-measuring systems can not meet the needs of new business development.In the newly developed boarding bridge height measuring system,a cable-extension position transducer is used as inspecting element to solve the problems of impact from artificial factors and price factor of the original ultrasonic altimeter system.The result of actual application shows that this new height measuring method is characterized through high accuracy (error below 10 mm),good reliability,long service life,easy operation/maintenance,good adaptation to industrial environment.With its high performance-price ratio and economic practicability,it finds wide application in the seaport passenger boarding bridge business and has its potential value of application in related industries.%随着人民生活水平不断提高,促使国内邮轮母港的快速发展,邮轮母港快速的发展也带动了登船桥业务的快速发展。登船桥由于服务邮轮的特殊环境和特性,原有的高度测量系统不能满足新型业务发展的需要。新研究的登船桥高度测量系统,采用拉绳位移传感器作为检测元件,解决了原有超声波测高系统受人为和价格因数影响的问题。实际使用结果表明:高度测量新方法具有测量精度高(误差小于±10 mm)、可靠性好、寿命长、使用维护方便、适用于工业环境等特点,具有较高性价比和经济实用性,在登船桥业务中得到广泛应用,对相关行业具有推广运用价值。

  13. Systèmes nanostructurés décorés par du chitosane pour la délivrance buccale de la curcumine

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzarino, Leticia,

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude décrit le développement de systèmes nanostructurés muco-adhésives, qui comprennent les nanoparticules décorées avec du chitosane et les films contenant des nanoparticules, visant la libération buccale de la curcumine. Deux différents systèmes de nanoparticules ont été développés: les nanoparticules de polycaprolactone (PCL) et les nanoparticules xyloglucane-bloc-polycaprolactone (XGO-b-PCL). Les nanoparticules de PCL ont été préparées par la technique de nanoprécipitation, alors q...

  14. 芬太尼口腔泡腾片的临床研究进展%Research advances on fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱维莉; 时杰; 陆林

    2008-01-01

    芬太尼(fentanyl)合成于1960年,为合成的苯基哌啶类药物,是当前临床上最常用的麻醉性镇痛药。芬太尼口腔泡腾片(fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets)是为采用新的给药技术而制成的枸缘酸芬太尼的新剂型,它利用口腔粘膜大量的表面积和有丰富的血管,高渗透性,恒定的温度产生泡腾反应,让患者透过口腔黏膜吸收,迅速、

  15. Oxidative Stress on Buccal Mucosa Wound in Rats and Rule of Topical Application of Ethanolic Extracts of Mauli Banana ( Musa acuminata Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Fitriati Noora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a topical application of ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem on oxidative status in buccal mucosa wounds of rats. The sets involved three groups, P0 was the negative control; P1 was treated with alocair topically; and P2 was treated with ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem topically, respectively, 24h after wound creation for 3 days. The oxidative stress status was evaluated by monitoring the SOD, CAT activity, MDA and CC levels. Ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem showed significantly increased in SOD activity, decreased in MDA levels, and no significant change both in CAT activity and CC levels compared to negative control. These results showed that The ethanolic extracts of Mauli banana stem might affect the oxidative stress status during wound healing process.

  16. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigat...... a far more vulnerable building and change its robustness to withstand moisture and user behaviour....

  17. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the PecceiQuinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the ''second hierarchy problem'' which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems

  18. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  19. Finite extensions of Bessel sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bakić, Damir; Berić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies finite extensions of Bessel sequences in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We provide a characterization of Bessel sequences that can be extended to frames by adding finitely many vectors. We also characterize frames that can be converted to Parseval frames by finite-dimensional perturbations. Finally, some results on excesses of frames and near-Riesz bases are derived.

  20. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  1. EXTENSIONS OF EULER HARMONIC SUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdje Cvijović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new closed-form summation formulae involving harmonic numbers are established using simple arguments and they are very general extensions of Euler’s famous harmonic sum identity. Some illustrative special cases as well as immediate consequences of the main results are also considered.

  2. Removing the Tension from Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lucy; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Bardon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Job burnout and stress begin with day-to-day frustrations, roadblocks, and unmet expectations. These can transform job satisfaction and, ultimately, career choices, affecting the quality of programs, expense to universities, and relationships with the community. A series of innovative statewide workshops involving 97 agents and Extension directors…

  3. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  4. NACRE Update and Extension Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masayuki; Arai, Koji; Arnould, Marcel; Takahashi, Kohji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    NACRE, the `nuclear astrophysics compilation of reaction rates', has been widely utilized in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis studies since its publication in 1999. We describe here the current status of a Konan-Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) joint project that aims at its update and extension.

  5. Homomorphisms between $C^*$-Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we consider the question when a homomorphism between two extension algebras preserves the essential ideal in the corresponding extension. Some conditions of two essential extensions being isomorphic are given. We also describe the relationship between the induced extensions and the Kasparov products and give the completely positive liftings of the induced extensions.

  6. Regeneration of mandibular ameloblastoma defect with the help of autologous dental pulp stem cells and buccal pad of fat stromal vascular fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K; Sharma, Rohini; Sankaranarayanan, S; Perumal, S Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is benign odontogenic tumor, which is locally aggressive in behavior. Till date, the treatment of choice is resection and reconstruction using a variety of modalities. Inadequate resection may lead to many complications such as bone deformity and dysfunction. This report is about a 14-year-old male with ameloblastoma treated with autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and evidence of bone regeneration. Marsupialization was performed; tooth was extracted and sent for DPSC cultivation. On the day of surgery, SVF was processed from buccal pad of fat, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was prepared from patient's peripheral blood. During the procedure, labial plate resection and curating of tumor lining were done. After which, a mesh packed with SyboGraft T-plug, prepared SVF, DPSCs, and PRF were placed over lingual cortex and pressure dressing was done. After the 1(st) month of surgery the postoperative course was uneventful, the wound shrinkage led to exposure of mesh in the intraoral region. Removal of exposed mesh was done. The correction surgery with removal of part of mesh and primary closure was achieved with SyboGraft plug, SVF and PRF. Enhanced bone formation was seen in post-operative OPG and CT Scan after 10(th) month. In this article, we propose an innovative approach to manage these cases by using a combination of autologous DPSC and buccal pad of fat SVF to regenerate a mandibular defect left by the resection of an ameloblastoma with 1.5 year follow-up. We were able to demonstrate bone regeneration using this technique with no recurrence of tumor. PMID:27563616

  7. The Collaborative Design Task Allocation Based on Extension Contract Net%基于扩展合同网的协同设计任务分配机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林爱; 郭银章

    2011-01-01

    针对网络化产品协同设计过程的任务分配机制进行研究,在分析了已有合同网任务分配机制的基础上,通过引进时间令牌和缓冲池策略,对合同网机制进行扩展,提出了一种基于时间令牌和缓冲池机制的协同设计任务分配方法,给出了任务分配协作过程中的协商策略和基于投标信息的综合多因素决策评价算法。最后通过实例验证了所提方法的可行性,更适用于协同设计任务分配的实际情况。%In this paper,the task allocation mechanism in the process of network product collaborative design is studied.The contract net is extended by introducing time token and buffer strategies on the basis of the analysis on the existing contract net task allocation mechanism,a task allocation approach of collaborative design based on extended contract nets is proposed,a negotiation strategy in task allocation collaborative process and a decision algorithm based on multi-factor comprehensive information according to bidding information is given.Finally,an example proved the feasibility of this method.

  8. A facility for creating Python extensions in C++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Python extensions are usually created by writing the glue that connects Python to the desired new functionality in the C language. While simple extensions do not require much effort, to do the job correctly with full error checking is tedious and prone to errors in reference counting and to memory leaks, especially when errors occur. The resulting program is difficult to read and maintain. By designing suitable C++ classes to wrap the Python C API, we are able to produce extensions that are correct and which clean up after themselves correctly when errors occur. This facility also integrates the C++ and Python exception facilities. This paper briefly describes our package for this purpose, named CXX. The emphasis is on our design choices and the way these contribute to the construction of accurate Python extensions. We also briefly relate the way CXX's facilities for sequence classes allow use of C++'s Standard Template Library (STL) algorithms on C++ sequences

  9. MEMOS: a mobile extensible memory aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Memory disturbances are a frequent outcome of brain damages. Maintenance or enhancement of the patients' quality of life requires enormous effort on the part of caregivers. To support patients with brain injuries, the mobile distributed care system named MEMOS (Mobile Extensible Memory System) was designed, implemented, and tested in the day-care clinic for cognitive neurology at Leipzig University. MEMOS is implemented as a distributed system, using CORBA technologies and Enterprise Java Beans. A special palmtop computer, the Personal Memory Assistant (PMA), reminds the patient of important tasks and supervises the patient's actions. The PMA communicates with the stationary care system via a bi-directional cellular radio connection. The stationary care system was developed to be dependable and scalable. This paper describes the design and function of the MEMOS system.

  10. Building an Extension Network in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussard, H.

    1999-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Vietnam is in transition as the economy moves to a market orientation. The national extension service created in 1993 is constrained by lack of funding, staff, and access to current extension knowledge. (SK)

  11. An Extensible Design and Implementation of New Media Regulation Service Database Table%新媒体监管业务数据库表的可扩展设计及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武霖; 赵贤

    2016-01-01

    新媒体机房业务数据存档工作有着数据量大、任务种类繁多、数据结构调整频繁的特点,因此业务系统的设计必须有着良好的通用性和扩展性,以适应这些特点。基于此,提出了一种解决方案,能够对不同形式的表格进行统一处理,减少代码冗余及系统维护难度。%The data archive of new media regulation job has a large amount of data,the task is various, and da-ta structure may frequently adjusted.To adapt to these characteristics,system design for this job must has a good generality and expansibility.In this paper, a solution is proposed, which can handle different forms of ta-bles, reduce the code redundancy and the difficulty of system maintenance.

  12. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG

    2009-01-01

    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  13. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  14. KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORKERS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizers’ use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmers’ perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.

  15. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  16. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    van Hateren, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are m...

  17. Degree Extension for Technicians (DEFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, F.; Monaghan, K.; RINGWOOD, John; Villing, R.; Ward, T

    2004-01-01

    The Degree Extension for Technicians (DEFT) programme addresses a particular niche in Irish engineering education by offering qualified technicians (currently working in Irish electronics industry) an opportunity to undertake, principally via the Internet, a flexible learning programme leading to a professional engineering degree. This paper addresses the various aspects that make such a mode of learning appropriate to the programme and also looks at the motivation behind the decision to deve...

  18. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A.

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  19. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  20. Analytic extensions of algebraic isomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliman, Shulim

    2015-01-01

    Let $\\Psi : X_1 \\to X_2$ be an isomorphism of closed affine algebraic subvarities of $\\C^n$ such that $n > \\max (2\\dim X_1, \\dim TX_1)$. We prove that $\\Psi$ can be extended to a holomorphic automorphism of $\\C^n$. Furthermore, when $\\Psi$ is an isomorphism of curves such an extension exists for every $n\\geq 3$ even when $\\dim TX_1=n$.

  1. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton

    2012-01-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  2. 48 CFR 570.405 - Lease extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease extensions. 570.405... Requirements 570.405 Lease extensions. (a) This section applies to extension of the term of a lease to provide for continued occupancy on a short-term basis. (b) If the value of a lease extension will exceed...

  3. Deductive reasoning in Extensive Games

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2000-01-01

    We justify the application to extensive games of the concept of ‘fully permissible sets’, which corresponds to choice sets when there is common certain belief of the event that each player prefer one strategy to another if and only if the former weakly dominates the latter on the set of all opponent strategies or on the union of the choice sets that are deemed possible for the opponent. he e tensive games considered illustrate how our concept yields support to forward induction, without neces...

  4. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  5. Perfil epidemiológico bucal de la población adulta mayor de la delegación milpa alta (México y la percepción que tienen de su boca Buccal epidemiological profile of the elderly in the milpa alta delegation (Mexico and their perception of their mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Del Pilar Adriano Anaya

    2008-07-01

    adequatly informed they could participate in the study. The 322 respondents made up the sample. Results: Of the 322 individuals that were checked-up, 265 were female and 57 male. The general average of dental decay was 22,2, 1.3 for oral hygiene, and 1,2 for papillar inflamation (marginal and adhered. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the need to implement specific health promotion and protection actions in the population, as well as the extension of health system coverage in benefit of buccal health.

  6. Open & Distance Learning (ODL) and Agricultural Extension Workers’ Social Competence in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Huda

    2015-01-01

    Social competence is essential for agricultural extension worker since it is directly related to their duties to interact with farmers.   This article discusses the extension to which Open and Distance Learning (ODL) can improve the social competence and its aspects, the dominant factors affecting social competence, and strategy for the development of social competence of extension workers. Designed as an explanatory research, the entire population of agricultural extension workers (n=111) wh...

  7. On Harnack's theorem and extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio F.; Parlier, Hugo

    Harnack's theorem states that the fixed points of an orientation reversing involution of a compact orientable surface of genus g are a set of k disjoint simple closed geodesic where 0≤ k≤ g+1 . The first goal of this article is to give a purely geometric, complete and self-contained proof of this fact. In the case where the fixed curves of the involution do not separate the surface, we prove an extension of this theorem, by exhibiting the existence of auxiliary invariant curves with interesting properties. Although this type of extension is well known (see, for instance, Comment. Math. Helv. 57(4): 603-626 (1982) and Transl. Math. Monogr., vol. 225, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2004), our method also extends the theorem in the case where the surface has boundary. As a byproduct, we obtain a geometric method on how to obtain these auxiliary curves. As a consequence of these constructions, we obtain results concerning presentations of Non-Euclidean crystallographic groups and a new proof of a result on the set of points corresponding to real algebraic curves in the compactification of the Moduli space of complex curves of genus g , overline{M_{g}} . More concretely, we establish that given two real curves there is a path in overline{M_{g}} which passes through at most two singular curves, a result of M. Seppaelae (Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 24(5), 519-544 (1991)).

  8. 基于场地环境和内部功能的解题--南京地质博物馆扩建设计%Problem-solving Based on the Site Environment and the Internal Function--Nanjing Geological Museum Extension Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 徐静

    2013-01-01

    对于在制约条件众多的城市地段的项目设计,类似解题。文章针对南京地质博物馆扩建设计项目,通过对外部场地环境的认真分析研究和内部功能空间的合理组织,采用与之对应的清晰的形体操作逻辑,解决场地空间与建设容量,新与旧等一系列问题,同时获得丰富、有趣、交融的内外部空间及具有专业性博物馆性格特征的建筑形象。%Designing buildings with numbers of constraints in urban areas is similar to solving problems. Through the careful analysis of the external site environment and the reasonable organization of the internal functional space, the design of the extension of Nanjing Geological Museum succeeds to solve a series of problems related to the site space, field capacity and the relationship between the new and old with the clearly logical operation of form. At the same time, the design shows the rich, interesting, integrated inner- and outer space and also an architectural image with the professional character of museum.

  9. L’effet préventif de quelques huiles essentielles contre la croissance et la formation de biofilms de certains pathogènes de la cavité buccale

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoune, Mohamed Amine

    2014-01-01

    L’effet préventif de quelques huiles essentielles contre la croissance et la formation de biofilms de certains pathogènes de la cavité buccale. Les huiles essentielles de vingt espèces végétales récoltées dans la région de Tlemcen ont été testées sur la croissance et la formation de biofilms de cinq souches microbiennes connues par leur pathogénicité dans la cavité buccale. La plupart des huiles essentielles étaient actives surtout sur les bactéries à Gram positif et sur Candid...

  10. Designing gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuutti, J. (Julius)

    2013-01-01

    This research studies gamification: the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. Gamification is a new phenomenon that has not yet been studied extensively in academic papers. There is a significant research gap to be filled. The purpose of this research is to study how gamification can be used for the benefit of marketing. This is achieved by studying the design process of gamification, the special motivational factors behind gamification, and the game elements that constitute a gam...

  11. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

    OpenAIRE

    Maureen Janette Más García; Raúl López Fernández; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 childre...

  12. An Expressive Extension of TLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann

    2002-01-01

    A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....

  13. Extensible Numerical Library in JAVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Aso; H.Okazawa; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,we present the current status of the project for developing the numerical librayr in JAVA.We have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference,we need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language,for example,good random number generators.special functions and so on.Our development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers.In HPC filed,there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA,However,their focus is on the performance of execution.not easiness of extension.Following the strategy,we have degigned and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on .

  14. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  15. Mixed views about radical life extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies on public attitudes toward life extension technologies show a mix of ambivalence toward and support for extending the human lifespan (Partridge 2009; Dragojlovic 2013; Funk et al. 2013. Attitudes toward genetic modification of organisms and technological enhancements may be used to categorize individuals according to political or ideological orientation such as technoprogressive or conservative (Hughes 2010 and it could be easy to assume that these categories are related to more general categorizations related to culture, e.g. between Traditional and Secular-rational values in the World Values Survey (Ingelhart & Welzel 2010. This paper discusses how attitudes toward aspects of radical life extension may be related to cultural values as revealed in an online deliberative survey among university students conducted between January 2012 to January 2013. Survey results suggest that attitudes toward radical life extension tend to be mixed among groups categorized as Traditional, Secular-rational, Survivalist, and Self-expressionist. The study explored the relation between responses of 326 university students to 5 key questions on radical life extension (RLE and the cultural values they tend to favor as indicated by their response to 20 statements from the World Values Survey. Design and Method: The survey consisted of 3 stages: an online pre-discussion survey, face-to-face discussion, and post-discussion survey. After completing the 5 main survey questions in stage 1, participants were presented two additional questionnaires: one on cultural attitudes using 20 statements from the 2004-2008 World Values Survey (WVS and another on health attitudes with 12 statements from Dutta-Bergman’s 2004 study. In stage 2, participants were engaged in a face-to-face discussion in class focusing on their responses to the five key questions. After the discussion, they were invited to reconsider the choices and reasons they posted in stage

  16. Comparison of buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 and 1 : 200,000 epinephrine for extraction of maxillary third molars with pericoronitis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José Lacet; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Ferreira-Rocha, Julierme; Soares, Ramon; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Fan, Song; Sant'ana, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We compared the buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 or 1 : 200,000 epinephrine without a palatal injection for the extraction of impacted maxillary third molars with chronic pericoronitis. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial involved 30 patients between the ages of 15 and 46 years who desired extraction of a partially impacted upper third molar with pericoronitis. Group 1 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and group 2 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration. None of the patients in group 1 reported pain, but 3 patients in group 2 reported pain, which indicated a need for a supplementary palatal injection. The palatal injections were all successful in eliminating the pain. Two additional patients in group 2 experienced pain when the suture needle penetrated their palatal mucosa. Based on these results, 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine was found to be more effective for the removal of upper third molars in the presence of pericoronitis than 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine when only a buccal infiltration was used.

  17. 高血压亚急症含服硝苯地平片对心脑血管系统的影响(2例报告)%Influence of hypertensive urgencies buccal nifedipine tablet on cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武孟田; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    Described in the hypertensive crisis,it should avoid to use the buccal nifedipine method for treatment.Through three patients with hypertensive urgencies are treated by buccal nifedipine tablet,and the generated clinical consequences explain the adverse reactions and clinical limitations of this treatment method.Using buccal nifedipine tablet method treat hypertensive urgencies,this medication method is effective,makes blood pressure decreased rapidly,but there have myocardial ischemia and ischemic cerebral infarction performance.%阐述在发生高血压危象时,应避免使用含服硝苯地平的方法来治疗。通过3例高血压亚急症患者在治疗时含服硝苯地平片而产生的临床后果来说明此种治疗方法的不良反应和临床的局限性。用含服硝苯地平的方法治疗高血压亚急症虽然行之有效,使血压快速下降,但出现了心肌供血不足和缺血性脑梗死的表现。

  18. Brand extensions: brand concept congruency and feedback effects revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Thorbjørnsen, Helge

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The aim of this research is to examine the effects of congruent and incongruent brand concept extensions on consumer attitudes towards the extended product and feedback effects on the parent brand. Moreover, brand familiarity is proposed as an important moderator variable in determining feedback effects on attitude to the parent brand. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental research design was applied for testing the set of hypoth...

  19. 47 CFR 22.912 - Service area boundary extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demonstrably unavoidable for technical reasons of sound engineering design, and do not extend into the CGSA of... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service area boundary extensions. 22.912 Section 22.912 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

  20. Three-Dimensional Extension of a Digital Library Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Long

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overall methodology and case study for the innovation and extension of a digital library, especially the service system. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the three-dimensional structure theory of the information service industry, this paper combines a comprehensive analysis with the practical experiences…