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Sample records for buccal cheek case

  1. How to harvest buccal mucosa from the cheek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... In1894,Sapezhko,asurgeonfromKiev,Ukraine,wasthefirstto fully describe the use of buccal mucosa from the lip and mouth, in 4 patients requiring urethral surgery for different urethral stricture dis- eases [2,3]. In 1902, Tyrmos, a surgeon from Odessa, Ukraine, also reported the use of buccal mucosa in 2 ...

  2. Actinomycosis of the cheek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infection first described by Bollinger in 1877. The infection is caused by actinomyces species and it is characterized by slow contiguous spread and suppurative inflammation, formation of multiple abscesses and sinus tracts with possible drainage of “sulfur granules”. Case Outline. We report an unusual case of actinomycosis of the cheek that occurred 6 years after buccal odontogenic abscess. A 56-year-old male was referred to the Department of Oral Surgery because of a painless swelling of the left cheek, which initiated three weeks prior to the referral. The diagnosis of actinomycosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. In accordance with the diagnosis oral penicillin was prescribed for four months with complete resolution. Conclusion. This case of actinomycosis is presented as a rarity. For proper diagnosis, careful examination and a high degree of clinical suspicion are necessary.

  3. [Buccal infection with Gongylonema pulchrum: an indigenous case in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli-Lux, C

    2013-10-01

    Although long known, infestations of the buccal mucosa by nematodes of the Gongylonema genus are rare, particularly in France. Herein we report a new case. A 48-year old man consulted for itching in various parts of the buccal mucosa over the preceding weeks. The patient lived in a rural region in southern Alsace and had never visited Africa. His work comprised overseeing the unloading of flour at the port of Basel. The initial clinical examination was negative. However, the patient managed to photograph a filament previously present in his buccal mucosa, and to ultimately extract a worm. The latter was identified at the Strasbourg Institute of Parasitology by Pr Pesson as a nematode of the genus Gongylonema sp. pulchrum. No other treatment was considered necessary. It is important for dermatologists to be aware of this type of parasitosis. Its stereotyped clinical presentation allows ready diagnosis, but the possible absence of the parasite at the time of the visit may lead to a misdiagnosis of Ekbom syndrome (delusional parasitic infestation). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Synovial Sarcoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

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    Kumar T. S. Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SS is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises most commonly in joint capsules and articular tendons, but its relationship to the synovium is not always obvious. Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5.6% to 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are termed SS because of their histologic resemblance to the synovium, but they rarely involve a synovial structure and are thought to arise from pluripotential mesenchymal cells. The tumor usually occurs in close association with tendon sheaths, bursae, and joint capsules, primarily in the para-articular regions of the extremities, with approximately 9% occurring in the head and neck region. Synovial sarcoma has been reported rarely in the oral cavity. We report a very rare case of Synovial sarcoma of the buccal mucosa in a 24-year-old male patient.

  5. Magnet retained cheek plumper in complete denture esthetics: a case report.

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    Suryakant Chhagan Deogade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This clinical report describes a technique to improve support for sunken cheeks using magnet retained detachable acrylic cheek plumpers. The new generation of magnets with improved technology provides sufficient denture retention for clinical application. However, further follow-up may be necessary to ascertain the long-term usefulness of the magnet-retained prosthesis, because of corrosion and further loss of magnetism.

  6. Filler Cheeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The evolving field of facial volume restoration is changing our concept of facial rejuvenation. The older concept that “tighter is better” has been largely supplanted by a philosophy recognizing the importance of volume distribution as a defining characteristic of a more youthful face. It is well recognized that restoration of volume in the upper face can lessen or reverse the bottom-heavy, deflated appearance of the aging face. Perhaps of equal or greater importance is the change in light-reflectance patterns that illuminate the upper cheeks and the eyes. The resultant brighter and “perkier” cheeks can change the objective appearance and the patient's self perception of youthfulness. In this commentary, the author describes techniques to enhance outcomes and patient satisfaction and presents the results of a patient self-report pilot study assessing patient post-injection mood state and functioning. PMID:21607194

  7. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the right buccal region: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lijiang; Li, Mingliang; Lin, Runtai; Mu, Yue; Zhao, Jizhi

    2014-12-01

    Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is a rare malignant cartilaginous tumor arising from the soft tissues. The most common areas of extraskeletal origin are the lower extremities, the orbits and the central nervous system, among others. In this study, the case of primary EMCS arising from the right buccal region in a 26-year old female is presented. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EMCS. Subseqently, the patient was treated with radical surgery, but declined chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which was recommended. One year after surgery, no recurrence had been identified in the patient. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of primary EMCS of the buccal region has been reported previously. In the current study, a case of primary EMCS of the buccal region is presented.

  8. Verruca vulgaris of the buccal mucosa: A case report

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    Aastha Mattoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral verruca vulgaris is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Verruca vulgaris most frequently occurs on the fingers, toes, soles, and dorsal surfaces of hands and is mostly asymptomatic. Varieties of verrucous and papillary lesions affect the skin as well as oral mucosa which may be either benign or reactive. Common wart is one of the most commonly observed skin growths and a lesion of childhood. Intraoral warts can occur at any age with equal incidence in both genders but are most commonly seen in the third to fifth decade. It is found commonly on the palate followed by lip, tongue, buccal mucosa, and rarely seen on gingiva. Surgical excision with adequate margins is the treatment of choice.

  9. Closure of oro-antral fistula with pedicled buccal fat pad. A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article demonstrates the use of BFP in the repair of chronic oro-antral fistula. Methods: A case of a chronic oro-antral fistula of 5- year duration in a 56- year old man successfully repaired with pedicled buccal fat pad after unsuccessful several attempts with other local flaps is presented. A review of relevant literature ...

  10. Cone beam analysis of the buccal bone associated 
with a dental implant: A tridimensional assessment case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Oscar; Veltri, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) three-dimensional (3D) assessment of the buccal bone associated with an implant. A patient who had immediate implant replacement of a maxillary incisor received a CBCT examination after 6 months. The scanned volume was then subjected to segmentation of the buccal bone associated with the implant and to its three-dimensional rendering. Virtual reconstruction allowed volumetric assessment of the buccal plate, and of the buccal marginal bone level. Creating a 3D virtual volume permits a comprehensive evaluation of the anatomical information contained in the CBCT dataset.

  11. Stafne's Defect with Buccal Cortical Expansion: A Case Report

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    Paulo Sérgio Flores Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of Stafne's bone cavity, type III-G, is reported in a 49-year-old male patient who had been referred to a private clinic for a routine evaluation. The final diagnosis was based on computed tomography. Scintigraphy played a fundamental role in determining the most likely etiology.

  12. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

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    Aparna Venigalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed.

  14. Radiographic monitoring of healing process of buccal bifurcation cysts after marsupialization: two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    This report is to show healing process of two cases of buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) developed from the mandibular deciduous second molars. Extracting the involved deciduous teeth led to marsupialization of the cysts and promoted eruption of the associated successors without orthodontic force. The cyst-associated premolars in the two cases erupted faster than the premolars on the contralateral noncyst side. The cysts were completely filled with normal bone. The monitoring radiographs showed bone healing, root formation, and path of eruption of the associated teeth after marsupialization of BBC.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumor of the buccal vestibule: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Esther; Sion-Vardy, Netta; Woldenberg, Yitzhak; Bodner, Lipa

    2012-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare benign tumor that occurs most frequently in the pleura. It is considered rare in the maxillofacial area. Two new cases of SFT of the buccal vestibule are reported. The previously reported cases of oral SFT are reviewed. The tumors were composed of spindle-shaped cells that were arranged haphazardly and were positive for CD-34, BCL-2, CD-99 and vimentin. Although rare, SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of oral soft tissue tumors. The clinical presentation and imaging can provide the clinician a better tool for preoperative diagnosis.

  16. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  17. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating songbird productivity: Case study of the golden-cheeked warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Lisa O' Donnell; Frank R. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    It is critically important to determine and understand relationships between endangered species populations and landscape and habitat features to effectively manage and conserve populations and the habitats they rely on. Several recent studies focused on the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), an endangered songbird that breeds...

  18. A Giant Cutaneous Horn Projecting from Verrucous Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Dipesh; Ranjan, Shashi; Issar, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is conical shape of compact keratin that resembles a miniature animal horn. Though morphologically similar to horns in animals they are histologically very different from them. It is a circumscribed, conical, hyperkeratotic dense protrusion with epithelial cornification above the skin surface in response to a wide range of underlying benign and malignant pathological changes. Though benign, a cutaneous horn holds the potential to be premalignant or malignant. In India till now six cases has been reported with cutaneous horn at various unusual sites. We report a unique case of 52-year-old woman with a giant cutaneous horn at left oral commissure with underlying verrucous carcinoma of left buccal mucosa which is a very rare location for such lesion. Considering its malignant potential, adequate therapy requires wide excision with a tumour-free margin of at least 1 cm, particularly in the facial region where the incidence of malignancy is higher. PMID:28511519

  19. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in a reoperative and reconstructive challenge hypospadias: A case report

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    Hayrettin Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa graft is usually used in a second operation. A buccal mucosa graft from the lower lip was used for large fistula reconstruction in one patients. The patient previously had been operated on several times at another center. The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in complex urethroplasties is a successful method with a low incidence of complications.

  20. Closure of oroantral communication using buccal fat pad graft - case report

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    Keim, Frederico Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many causes of fistulas that involve the nasal and antral cavities or both. They may result from pathological entities or secondary to removal of tumors or maxillary cysts. However, the extraction of a maxillary molar or premolar is the most common cause of oroantral fistula. This is explained by the close relationship between the apex of these teeth and the thinness of the antral floor. When the primary fistula repair fails to heal spontaneously during the first three weeks after surgery, a secondary repair may be indicated. During treatment process of the fistulas, there are procedures to make a direct close or the use of a sliding mucosal flap, all techniques own an equal and high degree of failure. Objective: To show a case report of oroantral fistula and its closure. Case Report: A 6-month-Surgical treatment of oroantral fistula, after a tooth removal, using the buccal fat pad method as a pedicled graft associated with a sliding mucosal flap. Conclusion: The mentioned treatment is simple, complete and allows an extensive applicability in most of cases.

  1. Squamous Cell Cancer Arising in an African American Male Cheek from Discoid Lupus: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature

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    Emanuel A. Shapera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old African American male with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE presented to the dermatology clinic for a rapidly enlarging left cheek mass. The mass failed to resolve with conservative measures. A biopsy revealed poorly differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC. He was referred to Head and Neck Surgery and successfully underwent a resection with free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively he did well. Squamous cell skin carcinomas arising from lesions of Discoid Lupus are rare and aggressive tumors with greater likelihood of metastases. Cases have been reported among patients with different clinical characteristics; we present a rare case arising in an African American male on the face and involving the ear.

  2. Complications associated with cheek tooth extraction in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Edward T; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Baratt, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Common indications for cheek tooth extraction in the horse include dental fracture, periodontal disease, severe decay/ caries, mandibular fracture with alveolar/tooth involvement, and periapical abscess. Complications secondary to extraction of cheek teeth are prevalent. Typical complications may include retained root tip(s), collateral damage of neighboring teeth and alveolar bone, mandibular fracture non-union or delayed union, cemental ankylosis, dilacerated root(s), oroantral/oronasal fistula, palatal deviation of cheek teeth, bone sequestration, sinus involvement, alveolar plug failure, and palatine artery laceration. This paper presents a series of cases that had complications following cheek tooth extraction. Anticipation of problematic extractions, recognition of complications, and appropriate treatment will aid the clinician in managing the inevitable cheek tooth extraction complication.

  3. The island cheek flap: repair of cervical esophageal stricture and new extended indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T M; Standage, B A; Baker, H W; McConnell, D B; Vetto, R M

    1984-05-01

    Seven patients had reconstruction with an island cheek flap based on the facial vein and artery. The flap carries a swatch of buccal mucosa that can be rotated inferiorly as far as the superior mediastinum and superiorly to the oral cavity. Five patients had repair of cervical esophageal strictures and fistulas. In four, results were very successful. One patient had diminished but persistent dysphagia which was shown to be secondary to a carcinomatous polyneuropathy; however, he had complete resolution of aspiration after correction of his mechanical obstruction and tracheoesophageal fistula. Morbidity was minimal. Parotiditis developed in one patient who had Stensen's duct ligated. Minor numbness of the lip and a single case of Frey's syndrome were also observed. In another patient, reconstruction of the floor of the mouth preserved normal speech and swallowing. Finally, a permanent speech fistula was also created but was substantially taken down because of functional dissatisfaction. Other potential applications need to be explored.

  4. The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma – report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Mehrotra, Ravi; Schwarz, Stephan; Reichert, Torsten Eugen; Driemel, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Background With the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours and its increasingly recognized diagnostic entities, the frequency of adenocarcinoma (NOS) has decreased significantly. Case presentation This paper describes a fast growing adenocarcinoma (NOS), originating from the minor salivary glands of the left buccal mucosa with a rapid onset of multiple local and distant metastases, especially in the lung. A lung primary was unlikely as the tumour was characterized by positivity for cytokeratin 20 and negativity for the thyroid transcription factor-1 protein (TTF-1) in immunohistochemistry. Conclusion A rare case of an adenocarcinoma (NOS) of the minor salivary glands with a rapid development and an unfavourable clinical course is reported. It shows that additional immunohistochemical analysis can decisively contribute to determine the site of the primary tumour in cases with unknown primary. PMID:18667060

  5. The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma – report of a case

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    Schwarz Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours and its increasingly recognized diagnostic entities, the frequency of adenocarcinoma (NOS has decreased significantly. Case presentation This paper describes a fast growing adenocarcinoma (NOS, originating from the minor salivary glands of the left buccal mucosa with a rapid onset of multiple local and distant metastases, especially in the lung. A lung primary was unlikely as the tumour was characterized by positivity for cytokeratin 20 and negativity for the thyroid transcription factor-1 protein (TTF-1 in immunohistochemistry. Conclusion A rare case of an adenocarcinoma (NOS of the minor salivary glands with a rapid development and an unfavourable clinical course is reported. It shows that additional immunohistochemical analysis can decisively contribute to determine the site of the primary tumour in cases with unknown primary.

  6. A case report on buccal mucosa graft for upper ureteral stricture repair

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    Vilas Pandurang Sabale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of ureteric stricture especially long length upper one-third poses a challenging job for most urologists. With the successful use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG for stricture urethra leads the foundation for its use in ureteric stricture also. A 35-year-old male diagnosedcase of left upper ureteric stricture, postureteroscopy with left percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN in situ. Cysto-retrograde pyelography and nephrostogram done simultaneously suggestive of left upper ureteric stricture of 3 cm at L3 level. On exploration, diseased ureteral segment exposed, BMG harvested and sutured as onlay patch graft with supportive omental wrap. The treatment choice for upper ureteric long length stricture is inferior nephropexy, autotransplantation, or bowel interposition. With PCN in situ, inferior nephropexy becomes technically difficult, other two are morbid procedures. Use of BMG in this situation is technically better choice with all the advantages of buccal mucosa. Onlay BMG for ureteral stricture is technically easy, less morbid procedure and can be important choice in future.

  7. The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma--report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Mehrotra, Ravi; Schwarz, Stephan; Reichert, Torsten Eugen; Driemel, Oliver

    2008-07-30

    With the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours and its increasingly recognized diagnostic entities, the frequency of adenocarcinoma (NOS) has decreased significantly. This paper describes a fast growing adenocarcinoma (NOS), originating from the minor salivary glands of the left buccal mucosa with a rapid onset of multiple local and distant metastases, especially in the lung. A lung primary was unlikely as the tumour was characterized by positivity for cytokeratin 20 and negativity for the thyroid transcription factor-1 protein (TTF-1) in immunohistochemistry. A rare case of an adenocarcinoma (NOS) of the minor salivary glands with a rapid development and an unfavourable clinical course is reported. It shows that additional immunohistochemical analysis can decisively contribute to determine the site of the primary tumour in cases with unknown primary.

  8. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Alveolar Ridge, Buccal & Lingual Vestibule - A Case Report

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    Supriya Koshti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. They can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinomas by their distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: 45 year old female patient presented with extra oral exophytic mass and intra-oral ulcerative lesion on right buccal mucosa and vestibule. The patient was referred for routine blood examination and radiography followed by incisional biopsy. The biopsy specimen was fixed, processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for further microscopic examination. Results: On microscopic examination basaloid cells were seen proliferating along with dysplastic squamous cells in the connective tissue stroma. Conclusion: Based on the histopathological findings a diagnosis of ′Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma′ was made. The patient was referred to department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for excision of the lesion followed by radiotherapy.

  9. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa with Rare Delayed Frontal Bone Metastasis: A Case Report

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    Zohreh Dalirsani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is a malignant neoplasm, which accounts for 5-10% of all salivary gland tumors (1. About 50% of these tumors originate from intraoral minor salivary glands usually in the hard palate (1. Three clinically obvious characteristics of AdCC include slow growth rate, perineural invasion and high incidence of distant metastasis (1. The most commonly-affected sites of distant metastasis are bone, liver and brain, followed by lungs (2. Lymph node metastases are rare;  The most common sites  involved by hematogenous spread are lungs (2.  This is a report about a patient with a rare form of AdCC on buccal mucosa with an unusual metastasis to the frontal region after a two-year follow up.

  10. Carcinoma cheek: regional pattern and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Jawad, I.; Marfani, S.; Khambaty, Y.; Jalisi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer varies globally and regionally, and is closely linked with geographical, social, economical, biological, ethnic, dietary and environmental factors. In western countries it accounts for about 2 - 5% while in the south-east Asia for about 40% of all cancers. In Pakistan it is second commonest tumour after bronchogenic carcinoma in males and breast carcinoma in females. The objectives of this study were to find out the pattern of carcinoma cheek in our region, its etiological associations, management and prognosis. This study was conducted in the Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Department of Civil Hospital, Karachi from April 1995 to December 1998. It was prospective study. Methods: Forty-five cases of primary carcinoma cheek were diagnosed and investigations including OPG and CT scan were carried out along with other required investigations to evaluate the extension of tumour, bony erosion and metastasis. TNM staging was done. All patients were treated surgically, sent for post-operative radiotherapy or chemo radiation and followed up for 3 years. Result: Among 45 cases of oral cancer, 28 were females and 17 were males. Common presenting symptom was growth or ulcer. It was more common in 41 - 50 years of age. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was found in 95.5% of the cases. Most of the patients 31 (68%) were in T4 stage. Surgical excision was done in all cases with reconstruction in 23 cases and neck dissection in 39 cases. In the follow up for 3 years, 30 patient remained disease free. Conclusion: Carcinoma cheek is a common entity in our region and now it is seen in relatively younger patients. Oral cancer is a self preventable disease. What is required is to develop awareness of oral hygiene and discourage the habit of social carcinogens use. Early diagnosis and treatment offers better chance of cure whereas advance disease has a poor prognosis. (author)

  11. The use of large bilobed flap in the management of cheek defect: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: bilobed flaps are versatile reconstructive tools which have been used extensively in the management of nasal, shoulder and neck defects. Although its use in the cheek has been reported, it is uncommonly utilized. Case report: This is a case report of a 22yr old lady with traumatic left cheek defect managed with ...

  12. A case of D-P flap to the full thickness cheek defect induced by radio-osteomyelitis of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Masamichi; Murakami, Fumihiko

    1991-01-01

    A 53-year-old man presented with a one-year history of mandibular pain and difficulty in mouth opening. The patient had received approximately 100 Gy for tongue cancer 3 years previously. He was found to have developed radio-osteomyelitis of the mandible. Inflammatory symptoms were aggravated in spite of the administration of antibiotics and antiphlogistic agents. Regional resection of the muscular process involving the tooth was finally performed. The full thickness cheek defect was reconstructed with double pedicle flap, resulting in both functionally and cosmetically satisfactory outcome. There was no evidence of cancer relapse or metastasis. (N.K.)

  13. Occlusal fissures of the equine cheek tooth: prevalence, location and association with disease in 91 horses referred for dental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, P H L; Palmer, L

    2010-03-01

    Fissures of the occlusal surface of the equine cheek tooth are poorly understood and their association with dental disease is unknown. To describe the prevalence and location of occlusal fissures in the cheek teeth (CT) of a group of horses referred for dental investigation/treatment, and determine association with intercurrent dental disease. Digital video recordings of oral endoscopic examinations for all horses referred to the Rossdales Equine Hospital for dental investigation from November 2006 to June 2009 were reviewed. Location of occlusal fissures in relation to both Triadan tooth position and pulpar secondary dentine was recorded; direction of fissure and concurrent involvement of enamel was also documented. The CT location considered at the time of examination to be the primary site/s of disease was correlated with presence of fissures on these teeth. 91 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Occlusal fissures were documented in 58.2% (53/91) cases, with a total of 227 CT being affected. Fissures were most prevalent mid-arcade. The majority (92.1%) of fissures in maxillary CT were associated with the caudal palatal pulp horn. Fissures in mandibular CT were predominantly associated with the buccal pulp horns (95.7%). There was no significant difference in the median number of CT with fissures in relation to gender. There was no correlation between age (r(2)= 0.01) of horse and number of CT with fissures. A significantly greater number of CT with multiple occlusal fissures was found in mandibular compared to maxillary arcades. No correlation was found between presence of fissures and location of individual CT considered to be primarily responsible for presentation. Occlusal fissures in this group of animals were common and not correlated to primary site of dental disease. In horses subjected to dental investigation, occlusal fissures of the cheek teeth should not be considered an indicator of tooth compromise. Location and direction of

  14. Factitious cheilitis: A rare case report

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    Swati Phore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB can be defined as the destruction or damage of body tissue without suicidal intent. Oral and perioral structures can be traumatized by SIB which involves biting of lips, cheek, lateral surface of the tongue, or buccal mucosa. Depending on its frequency and severity, SIB can lead to various degrees of self-injury. We hereby present a case of patient having lip lesion with positive history of lip chewing.

  15. Linfangioma bucal del tipo capilar: Reporte de un caso en un paciente adulto Capillary buccal lymphangioma: Case report in adult patient

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    Fabiano Gonzaga Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso clínico de linfangioma localizado en la mucosa bucal de un paciente de 68 años de edad, tratado con eletrocauterización. La presentación del caso comprende una breve revisión de la literatura; se aborda el diagnóstico y las características clínico-patológicas en el tratamiento del linfagioma bucal.In this paper, the authors describe a case report of a buccal lymphangioma localizeted in jugal mucosa of a sixty eight years old patient, treated by the electrocauterization. Also, they present a literature revision approaching the diagnosis, the clinical and histopathological characteristics, and the different types of treatment of the buccal lymphangioma.

  16. [The eyelid-cheek junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpei, Ch; Fernandez, J; Chignon-Sicard, B

    2017-10-01

    The eyelid-cheek junction is a key area which generates many comments: from looking tired to looking good or rested, without forgetting charm, beauty, and a youthful appearance. In spite of many interesting medical and surgical procedures, treating this area is sometimes difficult and results are not always up to our expectations. Standardized blepharoplasty, which has often been improperly used, has shown its limits. Since the latest refinements, lipostructure has revolutionised blepharoplasty and serving as a reference, it has become an established technique. Subperiostal mediofacial lift allows outstanding results at the cost of a certain technical aggressiveness. Aesthetic medicine proposes worthy alternative and/or appropriate complementary solutions. Different procedures we dispose of have been reviewed together with their assets and their limits. A codification of therapeutic indications is proposed. The positioning of the eyelid-cheek clinical junction in relation with the low orbital bone rim influences our strategy in choosing the appropriate technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Filariasis of the buccal mucosa: A diagnostic dilemma

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    Seema Kurup

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis is an endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Filarial nematodes can infect humans through vectors, commonly mosquitoes. Human infection can manifest as lymphatic filariasis, subcutaneous or pulmonary nodules and with eye involvement. Intra-oral presentation is very rare and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist. We report a case of intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection in a 54-year-old female patient, involving the buccal mucosa. History was unremarkable and on clinical examination, a diffuse swelling with no significant signs and symptoms was seen. Laboratory investigations and radiographs were non-contributory to diagnosis. Ultrasound findings revealed a hypo-echoic lesion in the muscular layer of the left cheek. Differential diagnoses considered were minor salivary gland tumor, parotid sialolith, and cysticercosis among others. The presence of a Dirofilaria worm in the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. Medical awareness of the risk of intra-oral nematode infection is essential. A detailed travel history, awareness of endemic status of certain diseases, proper diagnosis and management helps in better prognosis for the patient.

  18. A case of radiation induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchikawa, Kohzo; Sato, Akira; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A case of carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa is presented. The case was suspected to have been induced by irradiation therapy for a carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. An external radiotherapy, 6-MeV Linac, had been done for the carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa in a 55-year-old female, with single lateral direction from the left to the right in 1977. In 1985, a papillary lesion on the right buccal mucosa was detected, and histological examination revealed a papilloma without atypism. In 1991, as an ulcer on the right upper buccal fold as well as three papillary lesions in the central portion of the right buccal mucosa were found, the patient was referred to our clinic. Microscopical findings were consistent with the early invasive carcinomas. A surgical excision of these whole lesions and skin graft were completed. The criteria of this case for the suspicion of radiation-induced carcinoma were as follows. There was a long latent period of 14 years. The previous dose of irradiation, 60 Gy, was sufficient. The right buccal mucosa was involved in the radiation field. A severe scar on the left cheek resulted from the previous irradiation. Anatomically, there is no evidence of the secondary carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa with the primary carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. No evidence for recurrence of the tumors on both sides of buccal mucosa has been detected so far. Further observations will be necessary to detect other tumors in the irradiated field later on. (author).

  19. Removal of 11 incompletely erupted, impacted cheek teeth in 10 horses using a dental alveolar transcortical osteotomy and buccotomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, W Henry; McCluskie, Laura K

    2010-10-01

    To describe surgical technique and outcome in 10 horses with impacted cheek teeth that were removed by a transcortical osteotomy and buccotomy technique. Case series. Horses (n=10) with impacted cheek teeth. Medical records (2002-2008) of horses with impacted cheek teeth requiring removal were reviewed; surgical technique and outcome were determined. Exodontia of 11 cheek teeth was performed surgically in 10 horses; 3 horses had complications (residual swelling of the mandible) that resolved and all horses returned to their previous use. Transcortical buccotomy technique is effective for removal of incompletely erupted impacted cheek teeth in horses and has a good long-term prognosis for remission of clinical signs. Transcortical buccotomy approach is an effective technique for removal of unerupted impacted equine cheek teeth. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  1. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  2. Peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemical study and genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Kohichi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA), a rare and unusual variant of odontogenic tumors, comprises about 1% of all ameloblastomas. PA is an exophytic growth localized to the soft tissues overlying the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, and the initial diagnosis is often fibrous epulis. PA with histologically low-grade malignant features is extremely rare. We report a case of peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features in a 69-year-old woman that presented with a hemorrhage from a tumor on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was surgically removed by blunt dissection, with no evidence of recurrence after two years and six months. After the case presentation, microscopic and genetic findings are discussed.

  3. Steroid-Resistant Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease of Cheek Mass and Ptosis Treated with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Marzouk Maklad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rosai-Dorfman Disease (RDD is rare benign hematologic disorder of histiocytes, which usually manifests as painless lymphadenopathy, fever, leukocytosis and hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal RDD has been reported in 43% of cases, with skin as commonly involved site followed by head and neck region. However, soft tissue cheek mass is rare presentation of extra-nodal RDD. Case Presentation. A 26-year-old Saudi man presented with a six-month history of right cheek swelling and left upper eyelid swelling. Physical examination revealed right cheek mass of size  cm and left upper eyelid mass of size  cm and no palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. Incisional biopsy of cheek mass showed positivity for S100 and negativity for CD1a, consistent with extra-nodal RDD. Patient did not respond to systemic steroids and was given radiation therapy to left orbit with minimal response. Then, he was started on chemotherapy Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (RCVP 8 cycles followed by reirradiation 10 Gy in 10 fractions with 6 MeV electron with complete response. After 12 months of followup, patient had recurrence in right cheek and was started on radiotherapy to the cheek mass. Conclusion. Extra-nodal RDD with involvement of cheek is a rare presentation. Incorporation of S100 and CD1a is helpful in diagnoses of RDD and differentiating it from other benign histiocytosis. Treatment consists of surgery, steroids, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

  4. Treatment of Bilateral Buccal Nonocclusion and Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment aims to improve esthetics, function and structural balance. In some rare circumstances, the clinician may not be able to achieve the ideal treatment goals because of complex multiple orthodontic problems, which may include significant mutilation of the dentition. Brodie bite, a complete buccal posterior crossbite is a problem, which confronts clinicians with often complex variable etiology. The following case report demonstrates treatment of bilateral buccal nonocclusion that is mainly due to a maxillary dental arch issue rather than mandibular retrognathism.

  5. Buccals tablets - literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Horáček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BUCCAL TABLETS Jan Horáček ABSTRACT My diploma thesis was aimed at summarising information about phenomena of bioadhesion in connection with administration of drugs. The work describes anatomy and physiology of oral mucosa and differencies in various parts of oral cavity. It refers about advantages and limits of administrating drugs through the oral mucosa. The part called Bioadhesion / mucoadhesion includes definition, theories, influencing factors and description of methods to determinate b...

  6. Relative cheek-tooth size in Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, H M

    1984-07-01

    Until the discovery of Australopithecus afarensis, cheek-tooth megadontia was unequivocally one of the defining characteristics of the australopithecine grade in human evolution along with bipedalism and small brains. This species, however, has an average postcanine area of 757 mm2, which is more like Homo habilis (759 mm2) than A. africanus (856 mm2). But what is its relative cheek-tooth size in comparison to body size? One approach to this question is to compare postcanine tooth area to estimated body weight. By this method all Australopithecus species are megadont: they have cheek teeth 1.7 to 2.3 times larger than modern hominoids of similar body size. The series from A. afarensis to A. africanus to A. robustus to A. boisei shows strong positive allometry indicating increasing megadontia through time. The series from H. habilis to H. erectus to H. sapiens shows strong negative allometry which implies a sharp reduction in the relative size of the posterior teeth. Postcanine megadontia in Australopithecus species can also be demonstrated by comparing tooth size and body size in associated skeletons: A. afarensis (represented by A.L. 288-1) has a cheek-tooth size 2.8 times larger than expected from modern hominoids; A. africanus (Sts 7) and A. robustus (TM 1517) are over twice the expected size. The evolutionary transition from the megadont condition of Australopithecus to the trend of decreasing megadontia seen in the Homo lineage may have occurred between 3.0 and 2.5 m.y. from A. afarensis to H.habilis but other evidence indicates that it is more likely to have occurred between 2.5 to 2.0 m.y. from an A. africanus-like form to H. habilis.

  7. Buccal delivery of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via...... metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro...

  8. [Buccal manifestations of AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibaşa, C; Tovaru, S

    1989-01-01

    The disease determined by HIV, increasingly more frequent, is affecting certain groups of patients (homosexuals, drug addicts, polytransfused subjects). The clinical picture at the onset is not specific. Later on in the course of the disease the immunological capacity of defense of the organism is affected and a series of symptoms including fever, infections with bacteria, lymph-node inflammation, encephalopathies, Kaposi sarcoma will develop. Apparently buccal infections with fungi are the earliest manifestations, and they are followed, by order of frequency, by herpetic lesions, "hairy" leucoplasia, tumours. Transmission through the saliva from the patient to the stomatologist of the HIV infection is theoretically possible due to scratches on the physicians' hands. Prophylactic measures are described for the stomatologists treating AIDS patients, as well as for the sterilization of the instruments.

  9. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  10. Mucoadhesive Buccal Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja P.Thakkar; Meghana J.Chaudhari; Ami M.Soni; Dharti P.Pandya; Darshan A.Modi

    2012-01-01

    The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice,particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of administration. Problems suchas high first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the gastrointestinal environment can becircumvented by administering the drug via the buccal route. Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state inwhich two components, of which one is of biological origin are held together for extended period...

  11. Advances in buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birudaraj, Raj; Mahalingam, Ravichandran; Li, Xiaoling; Jasti, Bhaskara R

    2005-01-01

    The buccal route offers an attractive alternative for systemic drug delivery of drugs because of better patient compliance, ease of dosage form removal in emergencies, robustness, and good accessibility. Use of buccal mucosa for drug absorption was first attempted by Sobrero in 1847, and since then much research was done to deliver drugs through this route. Today, research is more focused on the development of suitable delivery devices, permeation enhancement, and buccal delivery of drugs that undergo a first-pass effect, such as cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, and peptides. In addition, studies have been conducted on the development of controlled or slow release delivery systems for systemic and local therapy of diseases in the oral cavity. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of buccal mucosa, followed by discussion of recent literature on the buccal permeation enhancement, and pathways of enhancement for various molecules are detailed. In addition, bioadhesion theories from historic perspective and current status are discussed. The various dosage forms on the market and in different stages of development are also reviewed.

  12. Two-Year Clinical Evaluation of Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad Alone and with Emdogain for Root Coverage of Severe Gingival Recession Defects: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Sally Abd-ElMeniem; El-Shall, Mohammad Abd-ElHakeem

    Gingival recession is defined as an apical displacement of the gingival margin beyond the cementoenamel junction leading to serious consequences, including exposure of the root surface, loss of periodontal attachment, root sensitivity to hot and cold air, and esthetic problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) alone and with Emdogain in covering severe gingival recession defects and restoring tooth function. A total of 10 severe buccal recession defects in maxillary first molars were selected to be treated with PBFP, with Emdogain (group I; n = 5) or alone (group II; n = 5). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, depth of the gingival recession, width of the keratinized gingiva, and tooth mobility were recorded and statistically analyzed at baseline and during follow-up recalls until 2 years postoperatively. At 2 years, the percentage of root coverage was 60.18% and 59.07% for group I and group II, respectively, with significant differences compared to baseline and all follow-up times for each group but with statistically significant differences between groups (P > .05). Emdogain with PBFP did not show significant improvement compared to PBFP alone in terms of root coverage percentage. PBFP alone may be the better treatment for severe gingival recession defects.

  13. MAP Estimation of Chin and Cheek Contours in Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampmann Markus

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for the estimation of chin and cheek contours in video sequences is proposed. This algorithm exploits a priori knowledge about shape and position of chin and cheek contours in images. Exploiting knowledge about the shape, a parametric 2D model representing chin and cheek contours is introduced. Exploiting knowledge about the position, a MAP estimator is developed taking into account the observed luminance gradient as well as a priori probabilities of chin and cheek contours positions. The proposed algorithm was tested with head and shoulder video sequences (image resolution CIF. In nearly 70% of all investigated video frames, a subjectively error free estimation could be achieved. The 2D estimate error is measured as on average between 2.4 and .

  14. Ketobemidone prodrugs for buccal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of studies aiming at developing a ketobemidone prodrug suitable for buccal or sublingual administration, the potential impact of saliva enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of various ester prodrugs was assessed. The hydrolysis of three ketobemidone esters in human whole saliva, obtained under con...... in the mouth and their rate of disintegration were shown to have some influence on the rate of saliva secretion and hence on saliva esterase activity but not to an extent compromising the efficient buccal or sublingual delivery of the ketobemidone prodrugs....

  15. Buccal Mucosal Graft for Crippled Hypospadias (Experience in 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free buccal mucosal on-lay grafts from the inner aspect of the lower lip were taken for three cases of complicated anterior urethral stricture and for six cases of recurrent urethra-cutaneous fistula after previous multiple penile hypospadias repairs. Nine on-lay free grafts were ventrally placed on the penile urethra. The grafts ...

  16. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Endodontic retreatment of a maxillary second molar with three separate buccal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina

    2006-12-01

    A rare case of a four-rooted maxillary second molar in a 39-year-old male patient is reported. After clinical and radiographic examination, two separate mesio-buccal roots were detected, and a treatment plan consisting treatment of the mesio-buccal roots and retreatment of the disto-buccal and palatal roots was made to resolve the previous treatment failure. The tooth was treated by orthograde endodontic retreatment in two visits. Mesio-buccal canals that were located in the separate mesio-buccal roots (which were missed in previous treatment) were found and treated. The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with full clinical and radiographic examination, in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases.

  19. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  20. Locally Advanced Cheek Carcinoma; Radical Surgery and Reconstruction of Though and Through Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denewer, A.T.; Steet, A.E.; Mohamed, O.H.; Aly, O.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the cheek is a locoregionally aggressive tumor. Radical resection may be curative in cases of large tumor without distant metastases. We reviewed forty eight consecutive cases of Sq.c.c. of the oral cavity to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the reconstructive method. Patients and Methods: Forty eight cases of invasive Sq.c.c. affecting the cheek performed in Mansoura University, Surgical Oncology Department. From November 2001 to October 2004 were included. Twenty cafes presented primarily, and 28 were relapsing after previous surgery or radiotherapy. Tumors of T 3 and T 4 size were included. Radical excision with adequate safety margin followed by reconstruction was done in the same setting using: A- Double layered pectorals major flap (n=30). B- Pectorals major flap for external surface and tongue flap for mucosal lining (n=10). C- Pectorals major flap plus free Latissmus dorsi flap (n=3). D- Latissmus dorsi flap plus tongue flap (n=5). Results: Nine cases (18.7%) had local and distant relapse after a median follow up period of 36 months. However, total flap loss was not encountered. There were partial loss of three tongue flaps, seven pectorals flaps corrected with debridement and re approximation. Two patients had oral incompetence. Orocutaneous salivary fistula persistent more than three weeks occurred in eight patients. Functional outcome in terms of oral competence, sensibility, chewing movements was satisfactory in all but three cases. In Conclusion: Radical resection of extensive cheek carcinoma and reconstruction using pedicled flaps is an effective, economic and reliable method for oncologic and functional purposes

  1. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  2. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  3. Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the Black-cheeked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the Black-cheeked Lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis were studied in Zambia. The birds fed on at least 39 species, and food items included seeds, leaves, flowers (especially nectar), fruit pulp, invertebrates, bark, lichen and resin. Terrestrial foraging was dominant, whereas arboreal ...

  4. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  6. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy.

  7. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Gil-Julio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, Derek R; Stowell, Jessica; Jones, Warren H; Armento, Maria E A; Cheek, Jonathan M

    2005-04-01

    Although the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS; Cheek, 1983) is widely used, its psychometric properties largely are unknown. In this investigation, we examined the normative data, factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of the RCBS using a sample of 261 university students. Results provided strong support for the stability of normative data over time, reliability of the measure, and its predicted associations with contemporary measures of shyness, social anxiety, and related constructs. Although support was obtained for a unifactorial conceptualization of shyness, an exploratory factor analysis revealed an alternative 3-factor solution that was supportive of a previously proposed meta-analytic model of shyness (Jones, Briggs, & Smith, 1986) and was consistent with other prominent shyness theories (Buss, 1980; Pilkonis, 1977a, 1977b; Zimbardo, 1977). This factor model was replicable on a holdout sample, and there were some data to support the discriminant validity of factors.

  9. Development of coronal cementum in hypsodont horse cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Noriyuki

    2014-04-01

    The horse is a grazing herbivore whose cheek teeth are hypsodon; that is, they possess long crowns that are completely covered by coronal cement at eruption. For elucidation of the sequential events in the formation of this coronal cementum in the mandibular horse cheek teeth, in the present study the lower 3rd permanent premolar teeth (PM4 ) from 3.5-, 4-, and 5-year-old horses were compared by using radiography, microcomputed tomography (Miro-CT), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The present study clearly showed that prior to coronal cementogenesis tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive odontoclasts resorbed on the enamel surface of the reserve crown in horse cheek tooth. Enamel resorption areas were relatively narrow, and started from the cuspal tips, and moved in the apical direction during tooth development. A primary cementum was initially deposited on the irregularly pitted enamel-cementum junction (ECJ) of the infolding and peripheral enamel. The infolding cementum filled grooves completely by the time of tooth eruption. On the other hand, in the peripheral cementum, the secondary and tertiary cementum layers were sequentially deposited on the primary cementum. These two cementum layers were sites for the insertion of the periodontal ligaments, and were continually laid down on the primary cementum coronally rather than apically throughout the life. The results of the present study suggest that the coronal cementum of horse cheek teeth is a multistructural and multifunctional tissue, meeting the requirements of its many different functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Autoradiographic images in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portu, A.; Molinari, A.J.; Schwint, A.; Saint Martin, G.; Thorp, S.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to summarize the autoradiographic study performed to samples from different protocols of the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The qualitative analysis of histological and autoradiographic images, together with the determination of the boron concentration in the different structures of tumor, premalignant tissue and normal tissue contributed to the knowledge of the microdistribution of boron compounds. Besides, the study led to the optimization of the autoradiography technique applied to BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). (author)

  11. Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy with Morphea of Cheek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Auluck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is a rare collagen disorder in which fibrosis of skin, subcutaneous tissues and muscles can occur with occasional involvement of bones. Localized scleroderma is a benign condition but can cause significant deformity when it affects the face. We report a case of localized scleroderma of the face causing progressive hemifacial atrophy.

  12. [Adhesion of clinical Candida albicans isolate to buccal epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal adherence and germ tube formation are considered to be important virulence factors of C. albicans. Adherence is a precondition for colonisation and invasion. We investigated 11 clinical isolates (among them 5 cases recovered from oesophageal thrush) for quantification of the two characteristics and correlated the results with clinical data. Adherence was measured on buccal epithelial cells and the continuous flow culture was used for quantification of germ tube formation. Adherence of strains recovered from clinically, culturally and serologically confirmed oesophageal thrush adhered stronger to buccal epithelial cells than isolates from patients with heavy colonisation without signs of candidosis. Strains with stronger adherence showed a significantly faster and an increased germ tube formation in the continuous flow culture. Strains from oesophageal thrush therefore show a more marked expression of the investigated virulence factors. Therefore a good adherence is a necessity for infection of the oesophagus by C. albicans. The preferential isolation of C. albicans from oesophageal thrush (> 90%) supports this assumption.

  13. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pmobile phone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on oral buccal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohith Tejashvi, K.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Radiography is the important diagnostic tools essential for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment. X-ray is ionizing radiation which showed various effects include breaking the bond of biological molecules, inducing loss of ability of cell death, increases nuclear alterations. Micronuclei - x000D - (MN) are small chromatin bodies that appear in the cytoplasm by the - x000D - condensation of acrocentric chromosomal fragments or by whole chromosomes. This - x000D - is a sensitive indicator of genetic damage. - x000D - x000D - . To evaluate micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on human buccal cell. Methods: 25 patients who visiting to ABSMIDS, Department of Oral medicine and Radiology for dental checkup exposed to diagnostic X-ray more than 4 times have been selected for this study. The buccal cell for analysis was collected from the cheek mucosa by means of gentle scraping of epithelial using ice-cream sticks and placed in Buffer saline. This sample was smeared on glass slide and then fixed in methanol:glacial acetic acid (3:1). Air dried and stained with Giemsa for 15-25 minutes. Then 250 cells in each slides were analyzed under microscope and frequency of micronucleus was scored (n=4). Repeated X-ray exposed cells showed micronucleus (1.25%) and nuclear alteration (2.3%) compare to the control. Repeated X-ray exposure leads to induces detectable number of micronucleus and nuclear alterations. (author)

  15. Computed tomographic features of apical infection of equine maxillary cheek teeth: a retrospective study of 49 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, M; Fürst, A; Lewis, F I; Kummer, M; Ohlerth, S

    2014-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies evaluating the relevance of individual CT features of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth are lacking. To study the prevalence and relationship of single CT features in horses with and without clinical evidence of apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. Retrospective case-control study. Multislice CT scans of the head of 49 horses were evaluated retrospectively. Changes of the infundibulum, pulp, root, lamina dura, periodontal space and alveolar bone in maxillary cheek teeth were recorded. Single CT changes were much more prevalent in the 28 horses with clinical signs. However, infundibular changes and a nondetectable lamina dura were also common in the 21 horses without clinical evidence of apical infection. Computed tomographic abnormalities of the pulp, root, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture were significantly related. Infundibular changes were not associated with other CT signs of apical infection. Although nondetectable lamina dura was the most frequent CT change in all teeth in both studied groups, it was most commonly a solitary feature in otherwise normal teeth. Apical infections, defined as ≥3 CT changes, occurred mainly in the 108/208, 109/209 and 110/210 (Triadan numbers) and were found only in horses with clinical evidence of apical infection, except in one horse without clinical signs that had one affected root. Combined CT changes of the pulp, root, lamina dura, periapical bone and periodontal space and the presence of a tooth fracture appear to be reliable features to diagnose apical infection in maxillary cheek teeth. As a solitary feature, a nondetectable lamina dura should be interpreted cautiously and may even be considered normal due to its minor thickness and/or too low resolution of the imaging modality. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Celebrity chefs put their left cheek forward: Cover image orientation in celebrity cookbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2017-09-01

    Portrait pose orientations influence perception: the left cheek is more emotionally expressive; females' right cheeks appear more attractive. Posing biases are established in paintings, photographs, and advertisements, however, book covers have not previously been examined. This paper assesses cover image orientation in a book genre that frequently features a cover portrait: the celebrity cookbook. If marketers intuitively choose to enhance chefs' emotional expressivity, left cheek poses should predominate; if attractiveness is more important, right cheek poses will be more frequent for females, with a left or no cheek bias for males. Celebrity cookbook covers (N = 493) were sourced online; identity, portrait orientation, photo type, and sex were coded. For celebrity cookbooks, left cheek covers (39.6%) were more frequent than right cheek (31.6%) or midline covers (28.8%); sex did not predict pose orientation. An interaction between photo type and sex bordered on significance: photo type did not influence females' pose orientation; for males, the left cheek bias present for head and torso images was absent for full body and head only photos. Overall, the left cheek bias for celebrity cookbook covers implies that marketers intuitively select images that make the chefs appear happier and/or more emotionally expressive, enhancing engagement with the audience.

  17. High SMAS facelift: combined single flap lifting of the jawline, cheek, and midface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Timothy J

    2008-10-01

    The traditional low cheek SMAS flap elevated below the zygomatic arch suffers the drawback that it cannot, by design, exert an effect on tissues of the midface and infraorbital region. Low designs target the lower cheek and jaw only and produce little if any improvement in the upper anterior cheek and midface area. Planning the flap higher, along the superior border of the zygomatic arch, and extending the dissection medially to mobilize midface tissue overcomes this problem and allows a combined, simultaneous lift of the jawline, cheek, and midface with a single unified flap. An improved outcome is obtained, and no separate midface lift procedure is needed.

  18. Chronic cheek ulcer caused by odontogenic cutaneous sinus tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Sato

    2015-06-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are often misdiagnosed, and they lead to facial wounds and scarring. Therefore, we must be aware of the possibility of this condition. A dental origin must be considered for chronic ulcers involving the cheek, chin and submental areas. The clinical course of this patient suggests two important clinical issues for prompt diagnosis. First, physical examination, including palpation and probing, are helpful for exploration of sinus tracts. Second, computed tomography is useful to detect the sinus tract and affected teeth. Computed tomography provides radiographic evidence of the relationship between the tooth and cutaneous region, and it may be superior to radiography.

  19. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization.

  20. Nest-site characteristics and breeding biology of the Black-cheeked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nest-site characteristics and breeding biology of the Black-cheeked Lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis in their natural habitat and in captivity were investigated as part of a wider study of the ecology of the species. Seventy-eight nests were found. Black-cheeked Lovebirds nested inside naturally formed cavities in live ...

  1. BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY USING ADHESIVE POLYMERIC PATCHES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkatalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    The buccal mucosa has been investigated for local drug therapy and the systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and other drugs that are subjected to first-pass metabolism or are unstable within the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa of the oral cavity presents a formidable barrier to drug penetration, and one method of optimizing drug delivery is by the use of adhesive dosage forms and the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. The buccal mucosa is very s...

  2. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hung Tang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007–2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o’clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12–15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18–30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4. Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases.

  3. Inlay buccal mucosal graft for reoperative posterior urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shou-Hung; Kao, Chien-Chang; Wu, Seng-Tang; Meng, En; Cha, Tai-Lung

    2012-04-01

    Posterior urethral distraction injury following major pelvic trauma is a surgical challenge. Although rarely seen, cases of failure after formal urethral reconstruction are even more problematic. We adapted the concept of augmented free buccal mucosal grafts, which have been successful in anterior urethroplasty, for repairing the posterior urethra in these rare cases with the aim of reducing the likelihood of penile chordee postoperatively. During 2007-2009, four patients were candidates for the proposed procedure because they had received formal transperineal urethral reconstruction but were unable to urinate through the urethra. The urethra was approached transperineally and opened in the midline, rather than divided. Buccal mucosal grafts of an appropriate size were placed in the created urethral groove from 4- to 8 o'clock in the lithotomy view. After the procedure, the urethral catheter was kept for 3 weeks. All patients voided through the urethra after the procedure. The maximal postoperative urinary flow rates were between 12-15 ml/seconds in all cases for a follow-up period of 18-30 months. The recurrence rate was 50% (2/4). Recurrent strictures were minor, and they showed a web-like stricture ring near the suture line. Restricture within 6 months of surgery responded well to endoscopic internal urethrotomy plus dilatations. In conclusion, without further compromising urethral length, reoperative posterior urethroplasty with the inlay grafting technique can be considered in selective cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cheek and Chin Implants to Enhance Facelift Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Russell W H; Patel, Sagar

    2017-06-01

    The traditional rhytidectomy addresses facial and neck aging as it relates to soft tissue laxity. The modern volumetric facelift provides optimal results by addressing not only skin laxity but also the loss of volume secondary to tissue atrophy and bony resorption. While multiple techniques including fat grafting, dermal fillers, and tissue resuspension are used to correct the tissue loss, alloplastic midface augmentation remains the most permanent method. In our practice we often address midface cheek hollowness or atrophy with the placement of submalar implants at the time of rhytidectomy. In addition to midface volumetric rejuvenation, alloplastic chin implantation can help strengthen and further define a retrusive chin and weak jawline. In this article we discuss technique, indications, and benefits of performing alloplastic augmentation as an adjunct to rhytidectomy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

    2011-02-01

    The buccal route of administration has a number of advantages including bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and the hepatic first pass effect. Mucoadhesive films are retentive dosage forms and release drug directly into a biological substrate. Furthermore, films have improved patient compliance due to their small size and reduced thickness, compared for example to lozenges and tablets. The development of mucoadhesive buccal films has increased dramatically over the past decade because it is a promising delivery alternative to various therapeutic classes including peptides, vaccines, and nanoparticles. The "film casting process" involves casting of aqueous solutions and/or organic solvents to yield films suitable for this administration route. Over the last decade, hot-melt extrusion has been explored as an alternative manufacturing process and has yielded promising results. Characterization of critical properties such as the mucoadhesive strength, drug content uniformity, and permeation rate represent the major research areas in the design of buccal films. This review will consider the literature that describes the manufacture and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal films. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. BUCCAL MUCOSA URETHROPLASTY FOR BULBAR URETHRAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: urethral strictures, buccal mu- cosa, urethroplasty. INTRODUCTION. The treatment of urethral ... The graft is held and stretched on a silicone board with pins. All submucosa fibro-vascular and fatty tissue is ... A grooved 16 Fr. silicon catheter is left postoperatively for one week. The patient must stay in bed for ...

  7. Cellular infiltrative angiolipoma of cheek in an infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Ajoy Kumar; Ash, Hiralal; Chatterji, Kabita; Singh, Revati

    2014-01-01

    Lipomas represent about 1 to 5% of all neoplasms of the oral cavity most commonly presenting as painless, mobile, soft, round mass. Angiolipoma, spindle cell lipoma, mylelolipoma, chondrolipoma and myxolipoma are histological variants of lipoma arising from fat tissues. Although the angiolipoma is the most common tumour in the trunk and the extrimities of young people, it occurs infrequently in the head and neck region. In this article we present clinical, radiological and histological features of a cellular infiltrative angiolipoma exicised from the buccal mucosa of a 9 months old female child. PMID:25937736

  8. Delivery of bioactive peptides and proteins across oral (buccal) mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, S; Kremer, M; Nagy, K; Squier, C

    2001-06-01

    The identification of an increasing array of highly potent, endogenous peptide and protein factors termed cytokines, that can be efficiently synthesized using recombinant DNA technology, offers exciting new approaches for drug therapy. However, the physico-chemical and biological properties of these agents impose limitations in formulation and development of optimum drug delivery systems as well as on the routes of delivery. Oral mucosa, including the lining of the cheek (buccal mucosa), floor of mouth and underside of tongue (sublingual mucosa) and gingival mucosa, has received much attention in the last decade because it offers excellent accessibility, is not easily traumatized and avoids degradation of proteins and peptides that occurs as a result of oral administration, gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peptide absorption occurs across oral mucosa by passive diffusion and it is unlikely that there is a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The principal pathway is probably via the intercellular route where the major permeability barrier is represented by organized array of neutral lipids in the superficial layers of the epithelium. The relative role of aqueous as opposed to the lipid pathway in drug transport is still under investigation; penetration is not necessarily enhanced by simply increasing lipophilicity, for other effects, such as charge and molecular size, also play an important role in absorption of peptide and protein drugs. Depending on the pharmacodynamics of the peptides, various oral mucosal delivery systems can be designed. Delivery of peptide/protein drugs by conventional means such as solutions has some limitations. The possibility of excluding a major part of drug from absorption by involuntary swallowing and the continuous dilution due to salivary flow limits a controlled release. However these limitations can be overcome by adhesive dosage forms such as gels, films, tablets, and patches. They can localize the

  9. Proposal of a Smile Sensor Using Light Reflected from a Cheek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Kitazono, Yuhki; Miyauchi, Makoto; Serikawa, Seiichi

    A new sensor to detect a smile of a person is proposed in this paper. When a person smiles, the shape of cheeks changes. The change is used for the detection of the smile. The sensor consists of a infrared LED, a photodiode and a few electronic parts. When the sensor detects a smile, at first infrared light is irradiated on a cheek. Then the sensor detects the smile by using the strength of light reflected from the cheek. As a result, the sensor is simple and can detect a smile.

  10. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M A Prescott

    Full Text Available Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; red panda (Ailurus fulgens; and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica. m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of

  11. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  12. Demographics of the Golden-cheeked Warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia) on Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jette, Leslie

    1998-01-01

    .... To assist in conservation and recovery of the Golden-cheeked Warbler and comply with the Endangered Species Act, environmental managers need information on the demographic parameters of the population on Fort Hood...

  13. KYSTE DERMOÏDE DU PLANCHER BUCCAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... molle, indolore bien limitée, sessile ou pédiculée, lisse avec un aspect jaune caractéristique[10]. La palpation bidigitale, l'échographie associée à une ponc- tion cytologique, le scanner et au mieux l'IRM sont essen- tiels pour l'orientation étiologique devant toute lésion du plancher buccal [8]. En effet, l'IRM ...

  14. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  15. Complete mobilization of the cheek zone for orbit exenteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Ernesto; Ortiz, Sebastián; Gómez García, Fernando; Barrovechio, Juan Carlos; Valvo, Conrado

    2005-09-01

    Patients with malignant orbital tumors often undergo eyeball excision, orbital tissues and lids, which results in severe deformities. Our experience concerns the use of a skin fascial flap of the cheek zone, the V-Y design, in 10 patients after ocular malignant tumor resection. Seven patients had basal cell carcinomas of the lower lids with invasion of the ocular tissues. The complete tumor resection was controlled by frozen-section biopsy in all patients. The results were evaluated from an oncologic, functional, and aesthetic point of view. We noticed 2 recurrences in a minimum follow up of 2 years. The functional and aesthetic results were quite satisfactory and no serious complications were noticed in our series. The primary advantage of this interesting flap is the dominant vasculature derived from arteria transversa faciei, arteria facialis, and arteria infraorbitalis that secure good vascular contribution. It should be regarded as very useful for surface coverage problems at the orbit because it performs in a one-stage procedure with minimum morbility and good functional result.

  16. Do the Big Five personality traits predict individual differences in the left cheek bias for emotion perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-01-01

    Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.

  17. Pharmacogenetic testing after a simple DNA isolation method on buccal swab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Petal A H M; Drent, Marjolein; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Bekers, Otto

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate whether the quality and quantity of DNA isolated from noninvasively obtained buccal swab (BS) samples, using the previously described isolation method for dried blood spot (DBS) samples was satisfactory. From 25 healthy volunteers, DBS samples were obtained by the capillary finger prick method and BS samples were obtained by rubbing a sterile, dry cotton swab against the inside of their cheek. Thereafter, DNA was isolated. In addition, the quantity of the obtained DNA was measured and melting curve analyses for both sampling methods were performed to establish the quality of the obtained DNA from both the DBS and BS samples. The derivative melting curves of the DNA samples obtained from the capillary blood and BS were comparable and highly reproducible. The mean DNA concentrations measured were 16.0 ng/microl (12.6-19.4 ng/microl) and 70.2 ng/microl (57.3-83.1 ng/microl), respectively, for the DBS and BS samples (p < 0.001). The DBS DNA isolation method appeared to be extremely useful to discriminate between genotypes. This expands the possibilities of this quick and easy DNA isolation procedure. In particular, the noninvasive BS sampling method appeared to be a good alternative to invasive sampling methods.

  18. Diet-related buccal dental microwear patterns in Central African Pygmy foragers and Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.

  19. NOVEL APROACHES ON BUCCAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyalochan Mohanty* , C. Gurulatha, Dr.Vasudha Bakshi, B. Mavya

    2018-01-01

    Among novel drug delivery system ,Buccal mucoadhesive systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually ,bioadhesion refers to any bond formed between two biological surface or a bond between a biological and a systemic surface. Buccal mucosa is preferred for both systemic and local drug action. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it relatively permeable. Buccal mucoadhesive films ...

  20. Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells of Young Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke(WTS is an unhealthy life style that may increase the risk of genotoxic responses and chronic diseases such as cancer. Micronucleus test is a successful and reliable method which is used for screening of genetotoxic responses of whole body and also for screening those people who had already exposed to genotoxic compounds. In this study, specific questionnaires were designed and used for studying the role of shisha smoking on the extent of genotoxic responses and cases were looked for MNs with this biomonitoring method. The study population was 20 young adults (12men and 8 women who born and lived in Tehran and had continuously smoked shisha more than 2 times weekly for more than 2 years . The associations between all recorded background, environmental and nutritional factors and increased incidence of Micronucleus in buccal cells of all cases were considered by statistical methods. In order to count Micronucleus levels, buccal cells were collected from buccal mucosa of these people with small-headed toothbrush and was placed the head of tooth brush into buccal cell buffer, slides were prepared and cells were stained with Schiff’s reagent and light green .Finally 1000 differentiated cells were recorded by optical microscope in each slide and the mean level of MN was determined for each volunteer . All steps were performed according to the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay protocol. Increased incidence of Micronucleus was associated with the extent of shisha smoking per week (p=0.021, alcohol consumption ( p=0.021 and BMI ( p=0.027. The other effective factor in the occurrence of Micronucleus was gender/sex ( p=0.011 but nutritional factors didn’t change the level of Micronucleus in our cases. The relationship between other background and environmental factors were not significant too. It seems that long term consumption of shisha in both genders could increase the risk of genetic toxicity and occurrence of

  1. Microemulsion containing triamcinolone acetonide for buccal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, C; Telò, I; Di Ianni, A; Pescina, S; Nicoli, S; Santi, P

    2018-03-30

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential of microemulsions for the buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide. Microemulsions were developed by the construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams, using the aqueous titration method. Among all microemulsions prepared and tested for stability, three were selected and submitted to characterization and in vitro permeation/retention experiments, using pig esophageal epithelium, an accepted model of the buccal mucosa. Furthermore, one microemulsion was added of excipients (stearylamine, CTAB and chitosan) able to alter the charge of droplets. The results obtained show that the permeation of triamcinolone acetonide across pig esophageal epithelium was not influenced by the droplet size nor by the composition, but only by the presence of chitosan, polysaccharide able to increase the transport across mono and stratified epithelia. The determination of the permeation parameters allowed us to show that chitosan acts on the diffusion parameter across the tissue and not on the partitioning parameter; for the same reason the tissue retention of triamcinolone acetonide was not modified. Triamcinolone flux (2.6 μg cm -2  h -1 ) was too low to make systemic administration feasible (dose required 2.5 to 60 mg/day). The amount of triamcinolone acetonide recovered in the mucosa after only 10 min. of microemulsion application was much higher than after overnight application of the commercial paste Omicilon® A. This suggests that triamcinolone acetonide microemulsions can be an interesting alternative to the commercial formulation to treat diseases of the buccal mucosa. Owing to the fast uptake by the tissue, the formulation can be used as a mouthwash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. KYSTE DERMOÏDE DU PLANCHER BUCCAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. Le kyste dermoïde du plancher buccal représente 1,6% des kystes dermoïdes cervico-faciaux. Il s'agit le plus sou- vent d'un kyste congénital mais découvert généralement entre la 2ème et la 3ème décennie de la vie. Nous rappor- tons l'observation d'un nourrisson, chez qui nous avons.

  3. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of a bioadhesive patch for buccal delivery of tizanidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Pendekal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tizanidine hydrochloride (THCl is an antispasmodic agent which undergoes extensive first pass metabolism making it a possible candidate for buccal delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare a monolayered buccal patch containing THCl using the emulsification solvent evaporation method. Fourteen formulations were prepared using the polymers Eudragit® RS 100 or Eudragit® RL 100 and chitosan. Polymer solutions in acetone were combined with a THCl aqueous solution (in some cases containing chitosan by homogenization at 9000 rpm for 2 min in the presence of triethyl citrate as plasticizer and cast in novel Teflon molds. Physicochemical properties such as film thickness, in vitro drug release and in vitro mucoadhesion were evaluated after which permeation across sheep buccal mucosa was examined in terms of flux and lag time. Formulations prepared using a Eudragit® polymer alone exhibited satisfactory physicomechanical properties but lacked a gradual in vitro drug release pattern. Incorporation of chitosan into formulations resulted in the formation of a porous structure which did exhibit gradual release of drug. In conclusion, THCl can be delivered by a buccal patch formulated as a blend of Eudragit® and chitosan, the latter being necessary to achieve gradual drug release.

  5. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  6. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize buccal transmucosal delivery system of enalapril maleate for overcoming its low bioavailability, and hence provide improved therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent ...

  7. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop mucoadhesive patches for buccal administration of metoprolol succinate and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo bioadhesion. Methods: The mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting technique using two different mucoadhesive polymers. The formulations were tested for in vitro ...

  8. Robotic Buccal Ureteroplasty: a Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Benjamin; Lee, Ziho; Kidd, Laura; Kaplan, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Metro, Michael; Liu, Jeffrey; Eun, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the literature on buccal mucosal ureteroplasty for ureteral stricture disease, with a specific focus on the application of the robotic platform to buccal ureteroplasty. In our review, we highlight the results of Zhao et al. from the New York University School of Medicine Department of Urology, as well as our own results from Temple University Hospital. Zhao et al. published the first series of four patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty. Mean stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a mean follow-up of 15 months, all repairs remained patent. We also describe our results in 10 patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty at Temple University Hospital. Median stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a median follow-up of 5 months, all repairs remain patent. Robotic buccal ureteroplasty offers a promising option for repair of complex ureteral strictures.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, Erica L.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Longhino, Juan; Blaumann, Herman; Calzetta, Osvaldo

    2003-01-01

    We have proposed and validated the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer for BNCT studies separately. We herein report the first evidence of the usefulness of BNCT for the treatment of oral cancer in an experimental model. We assessed the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal oral tissue to BPA-mediated BNCT employing the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. BNCT leads to complete remission by 15 days post-treatment in 78% of tumors and partial remission in a further 13% of tumors with virtually no damage to normal tissue. (author)

  10. Extrapair paternity in golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Marina; Roos, Christian; Binh, Vo Thanh; Chivers, David

    2011-01-01

    We observed 18 groups of golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest in Cat Tien National Park from January 2004 to December 2005 to obtain information about the social organization of this little-studied species, in an area where the population is recovering through increased protection and forest regeneration. DNA from faecal samples of 10 infants and juveniles identified 1 case of extrapair paternity. DNA from faecal samples of 18 adults from three communities revealed the majority of adults sampled of both sexes to be related to adults in neighbouring territories. Overall, the indications are that in this empty habitat, gibbons appear to be able to establish territories adjacent to those of their kin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Lugol's test reexamined again: buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin L; Leon, Julie A

    2004-01-01

    Lugol's iodine staining technique was used to examine oral samples from 10 men and 10 women. Examination of saliva samples before and after extraction with water shows that the low levels (49 positive cells and 3,951 negative cells) of glycogen in buccal epithelial cells become even lower after water extraction (0 positive cells and 4,000 negative cells). In addition to the 20 samples used in this paper, 40 oral swabs extracted with water were examined under classroom conditions with much less than 1% of the epithelial cells being positive for glycogen. Furthermore, 119 saliva samples from chewed gauze in sexual assault kits were extracted with water and all of them yielded less than 1% glycogen positive cells. This paper proposes that when more than 1% of the nucleated squamous epithelial cells are glycogen positive with Lugol's test after extraction in water, it is reasonable to eliminate the mouth as a source of these glycogen positive cells.

  12. Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana

    2017-01-01

    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.

  13. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...... comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...... concentrations of nicotine, the P(app) values decreased, which can partly be explained by an effect on the paracellular pathway. Similar results were also obtained when using the models for bi-directional as well as for uni-directional studies. The TR146 cell culture model may be used as model for buccal...

  14. Customized Cheek Plumper with Friction Lock Attachment for a Completely Edentulous Patient to Enhance Esthetics: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Prem; Aras, Meena A; Coutinho, Ivy; Rajagopal, Praveen; Mysore, Ashwin R; Kumar, Swati

    2017-01-25

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient should never be restricted to the replacement of missing teeth. The ultimate aim of complete denture treatment should be restoration of the full range of oral functions and esthetics. Slumped cheeks are always a concern for esthetically demanding complete denture patients. This article describes a simple, scientific, cost-effective technique to improve facial esthetics in a completely edentulous patient with the help of a cheek plumper. The technique used here implements the concept of neutral zone to precisely determine the amount of space available for the cheek plumper. The simple friction lock attachments that retained the cheek plumpers on the prosthesis were also fabricated after determining the space available in the appropriate areas. Thus an effort was made to keep the cheek plumpers unobtrusive yet effective to ensure complete integration of the prosthesis into the stomatognathic system. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, C.

    2009-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  16. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  17. The prevalence of secondary dentinal lesions in cheek teeth from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M B; Tremaine, W H

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of detailed oral examination in horses using dental mirrors and rigid endoscopy, secondary dentinal lesions are observed more frequently. More information regarding the association of secondary dentinal defects with apical dental disease would improve the sensitivity of oral examination as a diagnostic aid for pulpitis. To assess prevalence and severity of secondary dentinal defects observed on examination of occlusal surfaces of cheek teeth (CT) from horses showing clinical signs of pulpitis compared to asymptomatic controls. Records from all cases of equine CT exodontia at the University of Bristol over a 4 year period were examined. Case selection criteria included the presence of clinical signs of pulpitis, an intact extracted tooth and availability of a complete history and follow up. Cases where coronal fracture or periodontal pocketing featured were excluded. CT from cadavers with no history of dental disease served as normal controls. Triadan positions and eruption ages of control teeth were matched with those of teeth extracted from cases. CT from selected cases and control teeth were examined occlusally. Secondary dentinal defects were identified and graded. Prevalence of occlusal lesions in CT with pulpitis and controls was compared. From the records of 120 horses where exodontia was performed, 40 cases matched selection criteria. Twenty-three mandibular and 21 maxillary CT were extracted from cases. The controls consisted of 60 mandibular and 60 maxillary CT from 7 cadaver skulls. Secondary dentinal defects were significantly over-represented in CT extracted from cases of pulpitis (P pulpitis in equine CT.

  18. Factors affecting golden-cheeked warbler nest survival in urban and rural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Rebecca G. Peak

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses concerning temporal, landscape, and habitat effects on nest survival of golden-cheeked warblers (Dendroica chrysoparia) in an urban and a rural landscape during the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006 in central Texas, USA. We found support for temporal effects of year and cubic effect of date and included them in candidate...

  19. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M A; Heber, E M; Monti Hughes, A; Pzzi, E C C; Molinari, A J; Niggg, D W; Bauer, W; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with

  20. Variation in buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simratvir, M; Moghe, G; Singh, D; Dhillon, K

    2012-01-01

    The buccal bulge of the deciduous first molars has always been a restorative challenge to the pediatric dentist. Morphologically it may vary from a slight prominence to a well-developed cusp-like structure. This study was conducted to determine the variable buccal surface morphology of deciduous first molar and its clinical relevance. A prospective study was conducted whereby 2016 patients visiting the outpatient clinic of dental hospital over 1 year were evaluated. Any variation in buccal surface morphology of the deciduous first molars was recorded photographically or by replicating in dental stone. Varied morphological patterns on buccal surface were observed for which a new classification scheme has been proposed. The surface morphology of deciduous teeth crowns must be studied carefully as it may be indicative of pulpal extensions and accessory roots, requiring consideration during restorative treatment planning.

  1. Buccal Transmucosal Delivery System of Enalapril for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliance. Methods: Transmucosal drug delivery systems of enalapril maleate were formulated as buccal films by solvent casting technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone K90, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (high viscosity). The films were evaluated for film weight, thickness, folding endurance ...

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Films Containing Clotrimazole

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Jain, S.; Muthu, M. S.; Tiwari, S.; Tilak, R.

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage...

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Enalapril Maleate

    OpenAIRE

    Semalty, A; Semalty, Mona; Nautiyal, U

    2010-01-01

    Enalapril maleate is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It shows low bioavailability due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. Hence the present work was undertaken to formulate mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate with an objective to improve therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and the bioavailability. In the present study ten formulations of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of enalapril maleate were prepared as buccal films, by solvent casting techni...

  4. A Comparison of Computed Tomographic, Radiographic, Gross and Histological, Dental, and Alveolar Findings in 30 Abnormal Cheek Teeth from Equine Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Liuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEquine cheek teeth disorders, especially pulpar/apical infections, can have very serious consequences due to the frequent extension of infection to the supporting bones and/or adjacent paranasal sinuses. Limited studies have assessed the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT imaging in the diagnosis of these disorders, and no study has directly compared imaging and pathological findings of the alveoli of diseased equine cheek teeth.ObjectiveTo validate the accuracy of CT and radiographic imaging of cheek teeth disorders by comparing CT and radiographic imaging, gross and histological findings in abnormal cheek teeth and their alveoli extracted from equine cadaver heads.Study designEx vivo original study.MethodsFifty-four cadaver heads from horses with unknown histories that had died or been euthanized on humane grounds obtained from a rendering plant had radiography, CT imaging, and gross pathological examinations performed. Based on imaging and gross examination findings, 30 abnormal cheek teeth (26 maxillary and 4 mandibular identified in 26 heads were extracted along with their dental alveoli where possible, and further CT imaging, gross, and histological examinations were performed. Eight maxillary cheek teeth (including four with attached alveolar bone from these heads, that were normal on gross and CT examinations, were used as controls.ResultsGross pathological and histological examinations indicated that 28/30 teeth, including two supernumerary teeth, had pulpar/apical infection, including pulpar and apical changes. A further supernumerary and a dysplastic tooth were also identified. Abnormal calcified tissue architecture was present in all three supernumerary and in the dysplastic tooth. CT imaging strongly indicated the presence of pulpar/apical infection in 27 of the 28 (96.4% pulpar/apically infected teeth, including the presence of intrapulpar gas (N = 19/28, apical clubbing (N = 20, periapical halo (N = 4, root

  5. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...... comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7.......4 and 8.1 were used to obtain different fractions of non- and mono-ionized nicotine. The apparent permeability (P(app)) of nicotine across both models increased significantly with increasing pH, and the P(app) values obtained with the two models could be correlated in a linear manner. With increasing...

  6. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm. As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm. The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm. The results were evaluated using student’s t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  7. Dental anomalies associated with buccally- and palatally-impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajnani, Anand K; King, Nigel M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association of both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines with other dental anomalies. This retrospective study was conducted on a population of 533 southern Chinese children and adolescents who had impacted maxillary canines that had been treated in the Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Clinic, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Descriptions of the impacted canine and other associated anomalies were obtained from the case notes and radiographs. Clinical photographs and study casts were used, where available. A total of 253 (47.5%) patients with impacted maxillary canines were diagnosed with other dental anomalies. Microdontia was the most frequently-occurring anomaly reported in these patients, with the maxillary lateral incisor the most commonly affected tooth. Other odontogenic anomalies that were associated with both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines included hypodontia, supernumerary teeth, transposition of other teeth, enamel hypoplasia, other impacted teeth, and dens invaginatus. Both buccally- and palatally-impacted canines were found to be associated with other odontogenic anomalies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Cytogenetic bio-monitoring in fuel station attendants of Gujrat, Pakistan through buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Faiza; Cheema, Kausar; Nisar, Numrah; Qureshi, Javed

    2017-07-01

    To analyse buccal epithelial cells for scoring the frequency of cytogenetic toxicity in petrol pump workers. The case-control study was conducted at the Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan, from September 2014 to February 2015, and comprised petrol pump workers. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay was carried out by the collection of buccal cells after the written and oral consent of petrol pump workers. Frequencies of genotoxic (micronucleated and binucleated) and cytotoxic (karryorhetic and karyolitic) cells were scored and compared with the control group. The control group samples were collected randomly by keeping in view that these workers had not worked in petrol pumps ever. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 participants, there were 100(50%) workers and 100(50%) controls. Statistically significant results were observed on the comparison of frequencies of different cell anomalies in subjects compared to controls on the basis of job duration, smoking habits and age (p< 0.05 each). Pump workers showed higher frequencies of cytogenetic toxicity compared to controls.

  9. Dysbiosis of oral buccal mucosa microbiota in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Gong, D; Shi, C; Shao, F; Shi, J; Fei, J

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial community structure of buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus was evaluated and compared with healthy control. Buccal scraping samples have been taken on 43 oral lichen planus patients (21 erosive and 22 non-erosive) and 21 mucosal healthy volunteers. The V3 hypervariable 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 94.26% of the total buccal bacteria were classified into 15 abundant genera. Eight of these abundant genera could be detected in all cases, namely Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilu, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. Four abundant bacteria showed significantly different prevalence at the genus level: Streptococcus was more abundant (P < 0.01) in healthy control group, while Fusobacterium (P < 0.01), Leptotrichia (P < 0.001) and Lautropia (P < 0.001) showed higher abundance in OLP group. Few differences can be found between erosive and non-erosive OLP. In general, 19 'core' OTUs at three levels were defined to be OLP specific, comparing with healthy control group. These results suggest that OLP is associated with dysbiosis of the oral microbiome. Further studies should be taken to elucidate the inner relationship between these observed changes and OLP development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Robotic Ureteroplasty with Buccal Mucosa Graft for the Management of Complex Ureteral Strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ziho; Waldorf, Benjamin T; Cho, Eric Y; Liu, Jeffrey C; Metro, Michael J; Eun, Daniel D

    2017-12-01

    Surgical management of proximal and mid ureteral strictures that are not amenable to primary excision and anastomosis is challenging. Although a buccal mucosa graft is commonly used during substitution urethroplasty, its use in substitution ureteroplasty is limited. We describe our technique of robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft to manage complex ureteral strictures and we report our outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 12 patients who underwent robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft between September 2014 and June 2016. The indication for the procedure was a proximal or mid ureteral stricture not amenable to primary excision and anastomosis. The primary outcomes were clinical success, absent symptoms on ureteral pathology and radiological success, defined as absent ureteral obstruction on retrograde pyelography, renal scan and/or computerized tomography. Four of the 12 patients (33.3%) had a ureteropelvic junction stricture, 4 (33.3%) had a proximal stricture and 4 (33.3%) had a mid ureteral stricture. Eight of the 12 patients (66.7%) had previously undergone failed ureteral reconstruction. Median stricture length was 3 cm (range 2 to 5). Median operative time was 217 minutes (range 136 to 344) and mean estimated blood loss was 100 ml (range 50 to 200). Median length of stay was 1 day (range 1 to 6). At a median followup of 13 months (range 4 to 30) 10 of the 12 cases (83.3%) were clinically and radiologically successful. Robotic ureteroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft is associated with low inherent morbidity. It is an effective way to manage complex proximal and mid ureteral strictures. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Buccal Bone Defects and Immediate Placement on the Esthetic Outcome of Maxillary Anterior Single-Tooth Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamperos, Georgios; Zambara, Ioanna; Petsinis, Vassileios; Zambaras, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of buccal bone defects and immediate placement on the esthetic outcome of maxillary anterior single-tooth implants. The archives of the Department of Dental Implants & Tissue Regeneration at Hygeia Hospital during a 5-year period (2010-2014) were retrospectively analyzed, in search of patients treated with a single-tooth implant after extraction of a maxillary incisor. The status of the buccal bone plate and the time of implant placement were recorded. The pink esthetic score (PES) of each case was evaluated, with a maximum score of 14. In total, 91 patients were included in the study. The mean PES was 10.5. The outcome was considered satisfactory (PES ≥ 8) in 89% and (almost) perfect (PES ≥ 12) in 35% of the cases. Immediate implant placement had no impact on PES (P > .05), even though it demonstrated slightly greater variability. On the other hand, buccal bone defects had a negative effect on PES (P implants in the anterior maxilla. The presence of buccal bone defects is considered a negative prognostic factor, whereas immediate implant placement does not affect the esthetic outcome.

  12. Methadone as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stępień

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methadone is an opioid medication which can reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin and other drugs. Methadone is used also as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification program. Apoptosis is the physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated by signal cascades. The aim of this study was to asses how methadone induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Forty albino rats wares divided into two parts and five subgroups each. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in the groups with methadone. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment.

  13. Development of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, H; Hommelsheim, S; Kierdorf, U

    2012-12-01

    The study describes crown and root formation of the permanent mandibular cheek teeth of fallow deer from a gestational age of 22-23 weeks up to a post-natal age of 33 months. Tooth development was recorded using a scoring scheme based on morphological criteria ranging from crypt formation to completion of root growth. The morphological appearance of the enamel surface during three different stages (secretory-stage enamel, maturation-stage enamel and mature enamel) was described, and the approximate age at termination of the secretory stage of amelogenesis in the deciduous and permanent mandibular cheek teeth was determined. The data enable an age estimation of fallow deer up to 3 years of age and provide a basis for assessing the timing of stress episodes that affect tooth crown formation. This information is useful for the management of the species as well as in bioarchaeological and bioindication studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  15. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion.

  16. [Observation on alpha-SMA during Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz obstructs the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhang, S L; Ding, R Y; Hua, L; Zhong, W J

    2000-06-01

    To observe dynamically that Erigeron Breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz (HEr) affects the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). To discuss the probable mechanism of obstructing leukoplakia carcinogenesis of this medicine. 120 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (48), HEr group (48) and control group (6). HEr was applied to obstruct the evolution of carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression level of alpha-SMA with cheek pouch specimen that besmears DMBA in 4-9 weeks. Results were compared with model group. Vessel density dyed with alpha-SMA continuously of HEr group was 65.76 significantly higher than that of model group 42.12 (P<0.001). High classification cases in HEr group were much more than model group when cases were divided into five groups as follow: 100%, 50%, 20%, 10%, 3% (P<0.01). HEr can raise the expression level of alpha-SMA exactly during the evolution of leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster, which shows that this medicine obstructs carcinogenesis by keeping the normal physiological function of vascular myoepithelial cell and integrity of vascular basement membrane.

  17. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Managing a complex case of hypospadias cripple and chordee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Gingu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hypospadias is a congenital affliction in which the urethral meatus is located on the underside of the penis. These cases are usually treated during childhood by pediatric surgeons, but more complex forms tend to reoccur, and after several failed attempts end up as hypospadias cripple in the care of urologists at an adult age. The aim of this paper is to present the management of a complex case of hypospadias cripple associated with penile curvature (chordee. Materials and Methods. A 24 year old patient presented in our clinic with hypospadias cripple and ventral penile curvature. At the physical examination we found a penoscrotal urethral meatus, heavy scaring of the distal ventral penis and a ventral chordee of approximately 90 degrees in erect state. A two stage “Bracka” repair technique with buccal mucosa graft was chosen. The first stage of the surgery consisted of removing the scarred and defective distal urethral plate and the fibrotic tissue responsible for the penile curvature, preparing the corpora cavernosa for the graft, clefting the glans, harvesting two buccal mucosa grafts from both inner cheeks, and finally quilting the grafts on the defect. The second stage of the repair was performed after a period of about six months, and consisted in the tubularization of the matured graft and glans plasty. Results and Conclusions. No immediate or late complications occurred after any of the two stages of the surgery; no significant ventral chordee was observed and no urethral fistula occurred till the one year follow-up. A two stage “Bracka” repair technique is best suited for treating these patients, correcting ventral chordee in the first session.

  19. When Only Buccal Anesthesia Was Done for Maxillary Teeth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Isik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Recently, some authors reported that maxillary teeth could be extracted without using palatal anesthesia, but they did not clearly specify the extracted teeth. This is important, because apparently the local anesthetic solution infiltrates the maxilla and achieves a sufficient anesthesia in the palatal side. Thus, thickness of the bone may affect the depth of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the depth of anesthesia in different parts of the maxilla when only a buccal infiltration anesthesia was done. Patients and Method. The maxilla was divided into anterior, premolar, and molar regions. In each region, 15 teeth were extracted with a single buccal infiltration. The patient marked the pain level on a numerical rating scale. Results. Anesthesia depth was sufficient and was not significantly different (>0.05 among three maxillary regions. Conclusion. Except for surgical interventions, all maxillary teeth can be extracted using only a buccal infiltration anesthesia.

  20. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  1. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  2. Assessment of buccal aerosolized midazolam for pediatric conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Radhika; Marwaha, Mohita

    2015-02-01

    To assess the acceptance and efficacy of aerosolized midazolam through buccal mucosa for conscious sedation. Thirty-five children aged 2-6 years with Grade I and II Frankl behavior rating scale were selected for various dental procedures under local anesthesia. Initially behavior-shaping procedures were used and Houpt behavior scoring was recorded. Thereafter, midazolam was administered using a spray through buccal mucosa and scores for acceptance of drug and behavior after sedation were recorded. The data were compiled and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to assess the difference in behavior before and after the sedation. Eighty-three percent of the patients accepted the drug without any complaint. A statistically significant improvement was seen in the Houpt scores before and after drug administration (P < 0.001). Buccal aerosolized midazolam can be used successfully for pediatric conscious sedation. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Buccal transmucosal delivery of calcitonin in rabbits using thin-film composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhengrong; Mumper, Russell J

    2002-12-01

    Salmon Calcitonin (sCT) is used to treat hypercalcemia resulting from Paget's disease and osteoporosis. sCT is available either in a sterile injectable form or nasal spray. Alternative and more cost-effective dosage forms for the delivery of calcitonin are needed. We sought to deliver sCT transmucosally using a previously reported mucoadhesive bilayer thin-film composite (TFC) via the buccal route. Forty micrograms of salmon calcitonin (200-IU) was loaded on preformed TFCs. In vitro release of sCT from TFCs was monitored in phosphate-buffered saline (10 mM, pH 7.4) at 37degrees C. Female New Zealand White rabbits (n = 6) were dosed with 40 microg of sCT either by injection via the ear vein or by applying sCT-loaded TFCs directly on the buccal pouch. Blood was collected at various times, and the plasma sCT and calcium concentrations were quantified. WinNonlin was used to determine the relevant pharmacokinetic parameters. In vitro, over 80% of sCT was released from the TFCs within 240 min. Super Case-II transport was indicated as the primary release mechanism. Rabbits injected intravenously had C(max), Cls, Vss, and AUC(0-inf) values of 75.1 +/- 6.5 ng/mL, 20.7 +/- 3.3 mL/min, 637 +/- 141 mL, and 1925 +/- 237 ng*min/mL, respectively. Rabbits dosed via the buccal route had C(max) Cls, and AUC(0-400 min values of 4.6 +/- 1.6 ng/mL, 22.0 +/- 5.9 mL/min, and 842.9 +/- 209.7 ng*min/mL, respectively. The relative bioavailability for rabbits treated with the TFCs was 43.8 +/- 10.9% with a CV of 24.9%. The reductions in plasma calcium levels after administration of sCT by both the intravenous and buccal route were comparable. The TFCs effectively delivered therapeutically efficacious amounts of sCT across the buccal mucosa in rabbits.

  4. Genotoxic assessment of chlorhexidine mouthwash on exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in chronic gingivitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX is the gold standard of all chemical plaque control agents and the most commonly prescribed mouthwash. However, several studies have shown cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHX on various eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have used micronuclei as a biomarker of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells of chronic gingivitis patients who were given adjunct 0.2% CHX for plaque control. Materials and Methods: Chronic gingivitis patients who were exclusively on mechanical plaque control methods were taken as control (Group A (n = 101, and chronic gingivitis patients who along with mechanical plaque control measures were taking 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash as adjunct were taken as cases (Group B (n = 255. The Group B was further divided into 5 subgroups (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 (n = 51 on increasing duration of usage of CHX from ≤1 week to 24 weeks. Buccal epithelial cells were gently scrapped from the buccal mucosa using soft toothbrush. The epithelial cells were collected in buffer solution and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 5 min. The buccal epithelial cells were air dried, fixed, and stained with 5% Giemsa stain on preheated glass microscopic slides and observed under microscope to screen 2000 nucleated cells per individual for number of micronucleated cells and micronuclei as genotoxic measure. Results: The mean number of micronucleated cells was found to be 0.41 ± 0.71 for Group A as compared values ranging from 1.65 ± 2.09 (Group B1 to 11.7 ± 1.87 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B, and similarly, the mean number of micronuclei was found to be 0.48 ± 0.80 for Group A as compared to values ranging from 2.57 ± 1.64 (Group B1 to 14.5 ± 2.49 (Group B5 in different subgroups of Group B using analysis of variance (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that CHX mouthwash is genotoxic to buccal epithelial cells and there is incremental trend in genotoxicity as the duration of usage is increased.

  5. Prevalence and some clinical characteristics of equine cheek teeth diastemata in 471 horses examined in a UK first-opinion equine practice (2008 to 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H; Chinn, E; Holmes, S; Barwise-Munro, L; Robertson, V; Mould, R; Bradley, S; Shaw, D J; Dixon, P M

    2012-07-14

    Cheek teeth (CT) diastemata are now recognised as a clinically significant equine disorder, but their prevalence in the general equine population is unknown. There is also limited information on the signalment of affected horses; the more commonly affected Triadan sites; and the shape and clinical characteristics of CT diastemata. During the 12-month study period (2008 to 2009), standardised records were obtained during routine dental examinations performed by five veterinarians in a first-opinion equine practice. Cheek teeth diastemata were identified in 49.9 per cent of all horses (n=471) of mean age 11 years (range one to 30 years), with 83.5 per cent of all diastemata affecting mandibular CT and 16.5 per cent affecting maxillary CT. The mean number of diastemata per case was 1.7 (range one to 20) and the mandibular 07 to 08 position was most commonly affected. Valve diastemata were more common (72.1 per cent prevalence) than open diastemata (27.9 per cent). Food trapping was present in 91.4 per cent of diastemata, with gingivitis and periodontal pockets adjacent to 34.2 per cent and 43.7 per cent, respectively. Halitosis was present in 45.5 per cent of affected horses. There was an age-related increase in both the prevalence of diastemata, and in the numbers of diastemata per affected horse, and horses over 15 years old had a significantly increased proportion of open diastemata.

  6. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  7. Chitosan glutamate hydrogels with local anesthetic activity for buccal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Basile, L; Puglisi, G

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogels for the buccal application of the anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride (LDC) were prepared using chitosan glutamate (CHG), a soluble salt of chitosan, or a binary mixture of CHG and glycerin, at different weight ratios. The in vitro drug release was studied at the pH value of saliva to assess the effect of the different formulations on drug delivery. The anesthetic activity of mucoadhesive LDC-CHG hydrogels was assessed in vivo after application on the buccal mucosa, compared to commercial semisolid formulations containing the same drug. LDC-loaded hydrogels can be proposed for the symptom relief of aphthosis or other painful mouth diseases.

  8. Reconstruction of palate with buccal fat pad secondary to resection of desmoplastic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimappa Mallappa Rudagi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA is an unusual variant of ameloblastoma exhibiting important differences in the anatomical distribution, radiographic features and histologic appearance compared with the classic type of ameloblastoma. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of DA in the anterior left maxilla and to describe a simple method of reconstruction with the use of buccal fat pad (BFP. BFP is an excellent choice for reconstruction of small to medium sized defects. It should be manipulated gently and hemostasis should be achieved meticulously during this surgery. It should not be sutured under tension.

  9. Buccal Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval A. Pate; M. R. Pate; K. R. Pate; N. M. Pate

    2012-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based deliv...

  10. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, A H

    1998-01-01

    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems

  11. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ...] Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300... allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300...

  12. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  13. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Wessells

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... urethritis, and El-Kasaby [3], a pioneer in the use of buccal mucosa for anterior urethroplasty. Bulbar urethral strictures, due to anatom- ical and etiological differences from strictures in the penile urethra, can be treated effectively with very high success rates. In this loca- tion, stricture outcomes are less ...

  14. Absorption of clonazepam after intranasal and buccal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols-Hendriks, M W; Lohman, J J; Janknegt, R; Korten, J J; Merkus, F W; Hooymans, P M

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of clonazepam after intranasal, buccal and intravenous administration were compared in a cross-over study in seven healthy male volunteers. Each subject received a 1.0 mg dose of clonazepam intranasally and buccally and 0.5 mg intravenously. A Cmax of 6.3 +/- 1.0 ng ml-1 (mean; +/- s.d.) was measured 17.5 min (median) (range 15-20 min) after intranasal administration. A second peak (4.6 +/- 1.3 ng ml-1) caused by oral absorption was seen after 1.7 h (range 0.7-3.0 h). After buccal administration a Cmax of 6.0 +/- 3.0 ng ml-1 was measured after 50 min (range 30-90 min) with a second peak of 6.5 +/- 2.5 ng ml-1 after 3.0 h (range 2.0-4.0 h). Two minutes after i.v. injection of 0.5 mg clonazepam the serum concentration was 27 +/- 18 ng ml-1. It is concluded that intranasal clonazepam is an alternative to buccal administration. However, the Cmax of clonazepam after intranasal administration is not high enough to recommend the intranasal route as an alternative to intravenous injection. PMID:7640154

  15. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  16. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the muco......Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving...... the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  17. Buccal infiltration versus inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, who had irreversible ...

  18. Management of anterior urethral strictures with buccal mucosa: Our ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdelwahab Elkassaby

    2016-03-02

    Mar 2, 2016 ... The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inner aspect of the mouth. It has two major layers, namely ... epithelium, found almost everywhere else in the oral cavity, includ- ing buccal, labial and alveolar mucosa [5,6]. ..... Biology of oral mucosa and esophagus. J Natl. Cancer Inst 2001;(29):7–15.

  19. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa J; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-07-01

    To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 using the search terms "mifepristone and medical abortion" and "buccal and misoprostol." Studies were included if they presented clinical outcomes of medical abortion using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 70 days of gestation. Studies with duplicate data were excluded. We included 20 studies with a total of 33,846 women through 70 days of gestation. We abstracted efficacy and ongoing pregnancy rates as an overall rate and by gestational age in days in reference to completed weeks (eg, 49 days or less, 50-56 days, 57-63 days, 64-70 days) and adverse effects when reported. The overall efficacy of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol is 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.5-96.8%) and the continuing pregnancy rate is 0.8% (95% CI 0.7-0.9%) in approximately 33,000 pregnancies through 63 days of gestation. Only 332 women with pregnancies between 64 and 70 days of gestation are reported in the literature with an overall efficacy of 93.1% (95% CI 89.6-95.5%) and a continuing pregnancy rate of 2.9% (95% CI 1.4-5.7%). Currently available data suggest that regimens with a 24-hour time interval between mifepristone and buccal misoprostol administration are slightly less effective than those with a 24- to 48-hour interval. Rates of surgical evacuation for reasons other than ongoing pregnancy range from 1.8% to 4.2%. Severe adverse events like blood transfusion (0.03-0.6%) and hospitalization (0.04-0.9%) are uncommon. Outpatient medical abortion regimens with mifepristone followed in 24-48 hours by buccal misoprostol are highly effective for pregnancy termination through 63 days of gestation. More data are needed to

  20. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Prabha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%, Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%, and unknown in 3 cases (15%. Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm. Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months. Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1. Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome.

  1. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  2. A histological study of peripheral dental caries of equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erridge, Mey E; Cox, Alistair L; Dixon, Padraic M

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral caries of equine cheek teeth is a poorly described disorder and, in particular little is known of its histopathology. Histological examinations of decalcified sections of 21 equine peripheral caries-affected cheek teeth showed two different patterns of cemental lesions; including progressive enlargement of focal, flask-like lesions leading to breakdown of the adjacent cementum, and secondly; a more generalized flaking-off of thin layers of under-run, surface cementum. A thick layer of plaque and food material usually lay on the surface of affected cementum and also within cemental defects. Gram-stained sections showed large numbers of bacteria within the lacunae and canaliculi of affected peripheral cementum and within associated plaque. Pioneer bacteria were also seen within dentinal tubules of adjacent, normal-appearing dentin. Subgingival extension of peripheral caries lesions with localized periodontal destruction was rare. Grading of peripheral caries lesions by gross examination was found to underestimate the severity of the disorder as compared to histological grading.

  3. Can Population-Level Laterality Stem from Social Pressures? Evidence from Cheek Kissing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelain, Amandine; Pimbert, Pauline; Aube, Lydiane; Perrocheau, Océane; Debunne, Gilles; Bellido, Alain; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the origins and functions of behavioural laterality remain largely unclear. One of the most striking unresolved issues is the fact that laterality generally occurs at the population-level. Why would the majority of the individuals of a population exhibit the same laterality, while individual-level laterality would yet provide the advantages in terms of improving behavioural efficiency? Are social pressures the key factor? Can social pressures induce alignment of laterality between the individuals of a population? Can the effect of social pressures overpass the effect of other possible determining factors (e.g. genes)? We tested this important new hypothesis in humans, for the first time. We asked whether population-level laterality could stem from social pressures. Namely, we assessed social pressures on laterality in an interactive social behaviour: kissing on the cheek as a greeting. We performed observations in 10 cities of France. The observations took place in spots where people of the city meet and greet each other. We showed that: a) there is a population-level laterality for cheek kissing, with the majority of individuals being aligned in each city, and b) there is a variation between populations, with a laterality that depends on the city. These results were confirmed by our complementary data from questionnaires and internet surveys. These findings show that social pressures are involved in determining laterality. They demonstrate that population-level laterality can stem from social pressures.

  4. A Chromosomal Inversion Unique to the Northern White-Cheeked Gibbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; Nadler, Tilo; Moisson, Pierre; Ryder, Oliver; Roos, Christian; de Jong, Pieter J.

    2009-01-01

    The gibbon family belongs to the superfamily Hominoidea and includes 15 species divided into four genera. Each genus possesses a distinct karyotype with chromosome numbers varying from 38 to 52. This diversity is the result of numerous chromosomal changes that have accumulated during the evolution of the gibbon lineage, a quite unique feature in comparison with other hominoids and most of the other primates. Some gibbon species and subspecies rank among the most endangered primates in the world. Breeding programs can be extremely challenging and hybridization plays an important role within the factors responsible for the decline of captive gibbons. With less than 500 individuals left in the wild, the northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys, NLE) is the most endangered primate in a successful captive breeding program. We present here the analysis of an inversion that we show being specific for the northern white-cheeked gibbon and can be used as one of the criteria to distinguish this subspecies from other gibbon taxa. The availability of the sequence spanning for one of the breakpoints of the inversion allows detecting it by a simple PCR test also on low quality DNA. Our results demonstrate the important role of genomics in providing tools for conservation efforts. PMID:19319194

  5. Observation of buccal foramen in mandibular body using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Nakahara, Kino; Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Aimiya, Hidetoshi; Ariji, Eiichiro; Gotoh, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    The location and course of the mandibular canal and multiple mental foramina are important in dental implant insertion and any surgical procedures involving the mandible. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess buccal foramen presence in the mandible using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 84 patients were enrolled in this investigation. Buccal foramen presence in the mandibular body, which was defined as a buccal bone defect of the bony canal penetrating through the buccal cortical bone, was assessed using two- and three-dimensional CBCT images. Buccal foramen presence, located from the median to molar regions, was observed in 44% of patients. There was no significant difference among gender and age. Also, a buccal foramen showing continuity with the mandibular canal was observed in 7.1% of patients. Buccal foramen presence in the mandibular body could be assessed in detail using CBCT images. (author)

  6. Uneven distribution of enamel, dentine and cementum in cheek teeth of domestic horses (Equus caballus): A micro computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englisch, Lauritz Martin; Kostrzewa, Kathrin; Kopke, Susan; Failing, Klaus; Staszyk, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Hypsodont equine cheek teeth possess large dental crowns, resting partly in the bony alveolus. Over a horse's life cheek teeth erupt continuously to compensate for occlusal wear of 3-4 mm per year. Parts of the crown initially resting in the bony alveolus become progressively exposed at the occlusal surface with time. Hitherto, it is unclear whether the typical structure of the equine occlusal surface, composed of a complex arrangement of enamel, dentin and cementum, remains constant or undergoes structural changes with age. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the occlusal surface composition does not remain constant by a quantitative analysis of the dental substances at multiple levels along the dental crown of equine cheek teeth. Micro-computed tomography scans of 20 upper cheek teeth and 16 lower cheek teeth from 19 domestic horses were morphologically analysed using imaging and measurement software. Area for individual dental substances was measured at different levels from the apex to the occlusal surface. The data was statistically analysed to detect changes in the area of individual substance along the dental crown. The area of peripheral cementum was measured separately for levels inside and outside the bony alveolus. In both, upper and lower cheek teeth, enamel area decreased in an apical direction, while dentine area increased. Peripheral Cementum increased dramatically in the occlusal/coronal extra-alveolar position. With increasing age the occlusal surface content of dentine increases while the content of enamel decreases. These changes are considered relevant for the detailed explanation of forage disruption in horses as well as for the recommendation of concepts in equine dentistry.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Bilayered Tablets of Salbutamol

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. N.G Raghavendra Rao; Gururaj S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Salbutamol is a short-acting 2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The salbutamol buccal mucoadhesive tablets were fabricated with objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and prolonging duration of action. Salbutamol mucoadhesive bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression method using the bioadhesive polymers such as xanthan gum, sodium alginate and carbopol 937P along with ethyl...

  8. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of...

  9. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Patches for Buccal Administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    saliva (28.80 g Na2HPO4 and 11.45 g. KH2PO4 in 1000 ml of ... 3/837ac/PH/10). Initially a slight pressure was applied with a finger for one minute till the patch adhered to the buccal mucosa. The rabbits were deprived of food and drinks during the test. ... produce hypotension in normal patients that may be difficult to control.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semalty, A; Semalty, Mona; Nautiyal, U

    2010-09-01

    Enalapril maleate is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. It shows low bioavailability due to high hepatic first pass metabolism. Hence the present work was undertaken to formulate mucoadhesive buccal films of enalapril maleate with an objective to improve therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and the bioavailability. In the present study ten formulations of mucoadhesive drug delivery system of enalapril maleate were prepared as buccal films, by solvent casting technique. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-90 were used as mucoadhesive polymers. Prepared films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, drug content uniformity, in vitro residence time, folding endurance in vitro release and permeation studies. Films exhibited controlled release over more than 10 h in permeation studies. It was concluded that the films containing 20 mg of enalapril maleate in sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2% w/v and hydroxyethyl cellulose 2% w/v (formulation F5), showed good swelling, a convenient residence time and promising controlled drug release, thus can be selected for the development of buccal film for effective therapeutic uses.

  11. The socket-shield technique: first histological, clinical, and volumetrical observations after separation of the buccal tooth segment – a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Daniel; Zuhr, Otto; Rebele, Stephan; Schneider, David; Schupbach, Peter; Hürzeler, Markus

    2015-02-01

    The "socket-shield technique" has shown its potential in preserving buccal tissues. However, front teeth often have to be extracted due to vertical fractures in buccolingual direction. It has not yet been investigated if the socket-shield technique can only be used with intact roots or also works with a modified shield design referring to vertical fracture lines. The aim of this study was to assess histologically, clinically, and volumetrically the effect of separating the remaining buccal root segment in two pieces before immediate implant placement. Three beagle dogs were selected in the study. The third and fourth premolars on both sides of the upper jaw were hemisected and the clinical crown of the distal root was removed. Then, the implant bed preparation was performed into the distal root so that a buccal segment of healthy tooth structure remained. This segment was then separated in a vertical direction into two pieces and implants placed lingual to it. After 4 months of healing, the specimens were processed for histological diagnosis. In a clinical case, the same technique was applied and impressions taken for volumetric evaluation by digital superimposition. The tooth segments showed healthy periodontal ligament on the buccal side. New bone was visible between implant surface and shield as well as inside the vertical drill line. No osteoclastic remodeling of the coronal part of the buccal plate was observed. The clinical volumetric analysis showed a mean loss of 0.88 mm in labial direction with a maximum of 1.67 mm and a minimum of 0.15 mm. The applied modification seems not to interfere with implant osseointegration and may still preserve the buccal plate. It may offer a feasible treatment option for vertically fractured teeth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Seasonal productivity and nest survival of Golden-cheeked Warblers vary with forest type and edge density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca G. Peak; Frank R., III Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the demography and habitat requirements of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is needed for its recovery, including measures of productivity instead of reproductive indices. We report on breeding phenology and demography, calculate model-based estimates of nest survival and seasonal productivity and evaluate...

  13. Investigation of the sensitivity and specificity of radiological signs for diagnosis of periapical infection of equine cheek teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, N B; Hawkes, C S; Rex, R; Boden, L A; Barakzai, S Z

    2011-03-01

    Radiography is commonly used for the diagnosis of equine cheek teeth (CT) infection but, to our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the relative values of individual specific radiographic signs when making a diagnosis. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of individual radiographic signs identified from the literature for the diagnosis of CT apical infection using a retrospective case-control study. Cropped radiographs taken using computed radiography of 41 apically infected CT and 41 control CT were independently blindly evaluated by 3 clinicians for the presence of 12 predetermined radiographic signs associated with CT apical infection. A final diagnosis of either noninfected or infected was made. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the presence or absence of each radiographic sign for each clinician. Uni- and multivariable conditional logistic regression were used to determine strength of association of the 12 radiographic signs with apical infection. Median sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CT apical infection were 76 and 90%, respectively. Periapical sclerosis, clubbing of one or 2 roots, degree of clubbing and periapical halo formation had the highest sensitivities (73-90%), with moderate specificity (61-63%). Multivariable conditional logistic regression revealed that severity of periapical sclerosis and extensive periapical halo were strongly associated with CT apical infection. The presence of periapical sclerosis and formation of a periapical halo were strongly associated with CT apical infection. Computed radiography appears to have a higher sensitivity but similar specificity to previously published results using film radiography to detect CT apical infection. These findings may aid practitioners when interpreting radiographs of equine CT as to the relative significance of their findings. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  14. The Factor Structure of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale in an Undergraduate University Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrum Vahedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS using confirmatory factor analysis among (n = 300 college students. Results indicated that unidimensional measurement model of the RCBS did not provide the best fit for the data. Then three measurement models were tested, and the results showed that a two-factor model taking into account differences in the direction of item wording provided a satisfactory and parsimonious fit to the data. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to better understand the factorial invariance of the scale across genders, and indicated that two-factor structure of the RCBS was equivalent across genders. Supplementary t-tests revealed no other gender differences on shyness.

  15. Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid volumizer injected for cheek augmentation has additional positive effect on nasolabial folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauglitz G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gerd Gauglitz,1 Stephanie Steckmeier,1 Julian Pötschke,2 Hannah Schwaiger,1 1Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum St Georg gGmbH, Leipzig, Germany Purpose: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid (CPM-HA volumizer has been used successfully for several years to reverse biometric volume loss during facial aging. This observational study explored the additive effect on nasolabial folds when CPM-HA volumizer is injected into the neighboring cheek area.Patients and methods: In this open-label, prospective, postmarketing noninterventional study, 18 adult patients seeking esthetic enhancement of the lateral cheek hollows and cheekbone area were injected with CPM-HA volumizer integrated with lidocaine (CPM-HA-VL in the upper or lower cheek area. Safety and performance of CPM-HA-VL up to 12 months after injection with follow-up visits at week 4 and month 3, 6, and 12 were assessed. The primary endpoint was improvement of cheek fullness on the validated Merz Aesthetics Scales. Additionally, changes in nasolabial folds were quantified using a phaseshift rapid in vivo measurement of skin optical three-dimensional (3D in vivo measurement device. Results: Patients (94.4% female, median age 52 years, age range 39–69 years were injected with a mean volume of 2.5±1.1 mL CPM-HA-VL per side. Immediately after injection, mean severity for upper and lower cheek fullness assessed on the validated MAS improved from 2.5±0.6 and 2.8±0.5, respectively, to 1.0±0.0, and remained unchanged through month 12. Improvement in relation to baseline was attested on the Global Aesthetics Improvement Scale for all assessments. Compared with baseline, the following assessments offered a statistical significance in the reduction of wrinkle depth of nasolabial folds (maximum depth reduction by 30.4% at 3 months according to optical 3D in vivo measurements. Pain during

  16. Gross, computed tomographic and histological findings in mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis due to apical infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, M B; Pearson, G R; Perkins, J D; Tremaine, W H

    2015-09-01

    The most prevalent type of equine dental pulpitis due to apical infection is not associated with coronal fractures or periodontal disease. The pathogenesis of this type of pulpitis is not fully understood. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to investigate equine dental disorders. However, gross, tomographic and histopathological changes in equine dental pulpitis have not been compared previously. To compare gross, CT and histological appearances of sectioned mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis without coronal fractures or periodontal disease. To contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of equine dental pulpitis. Descriptive study using diseased and healthy teeth. Mandibular cheek teeth extracted from horses with clinical signs of pulpitis (cases), and from cadavers with no history of dental disease (controls), were compared using CT in the transverse plane at 1 mm intervals. Teeth were then sectioned transversely, photographed and processed for histopathological examination. Tomographs were compared with corresponding gross and histological sections. Cement, dentine and bone had similar ranges of attenuation (550-2000 Hounsfield Units, HU) in tomographs but could be differentiated from pulp (-400 to 500 HU) and enamel (> 2500 HU). Twelve discrete dental lesions were identified grossly, 10 of which were characterised histologically. Reactive and reparative dentinogenesis and extensive pulpar mineralisation, previously undescribed, were identified. Pulpar oedema, neutrophilic inflammation, cement and enamel defects, and reactive cemental deposition were also observed. The CT and pathological findings corresponded well where there was mineralised tissue deposited, defects in mineralised tissue, or food material in the pulpar area. Pulpar and dentinal necrosis and cement destruction, evident grossly and histologically, did not correspond to CT changes. Computed tomography is useful for identifying deposition and

  17. Radiometric temperature reading of a hot ellipsoidal object inside the oral cavity by a shielded microwave antenna put flush to the cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein; Birkelund, Yngve

    2012-05-07

    A new scheme for detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children has recently been proposed in the literature. The idea is to warm bladder urine via microwave exposure to at least fever temperatures and observe potential urine reflux from the bladder back to the kidney(s) by medical radiometry. As a preliminary step toward realization of this detection device, we present non-invasive temperature monitoring by use of microwave radiometry in adults to observe temperature dynamics in vivo of a water-filled balloon placed within the oral cavity. The relevance of the approach with respect to detection of VUR in children is motivated by comparing the oral cavity and cheek tissue with axial CT images of young children in the bladder region. Both anatomical locations reveal a triple-layered tissue structure consisting of skin-fat-muscle with a total thickness of about 8-10 mm. In order to mimic variations in urine temperature, the target balloon was flushed with water coupled to a heat exchanger, that was moved between water baths of different temperatures, to induce measurable temperature gradients. The applied radiometer has a center frequency of 3.5 GHz and provides a sensitivity (accuracy) of 0.03 °C for a data acquisition time of 2 s. Three different scenarios were tested and included observation through the cheek tissue with and without an intervening water bolus compartment present. In all cases, radiometric readings observed over a time span of 900 s were shown to be highly correlated (R ~ 0.93) with in situ temperatures obtained by fiberoptic probes.

  18. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hoag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods: We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results: The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions: This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  19. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfuz, Istiak; Cheng, Wei; White, Stefan J

    2013-11-22

    The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples.

  20. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CARCINOMA OF BUCCAL MUCOSA: ULTRASOUND TECHNIQUE AND EVALUATION OF NEOPLASTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamsundar K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ultrasound in head and neck region is mainly used to evaluate salivary glands, thyroid glands, and cervical lymph nodes. Being a versatile imaging modality, its use can be extended to evaluate maxillofacial region. Buccal mucosa is an important structure in the maxillofacial region as malignancy in this region is on the alarming rise in both developing and developed countries. Diagnosing malignancy at an early stage yields good prognosis. In this study, we discuss: 1 Ultrasound anatomy of buccal mucosa and evaluation techniques. 2 Evaluation of early buccal mucosal cancer on ultrasound. 3 Evaluate the extent of reliability of ultrasound, and its limitations in buccal mucosal cancers.

  1. Buccal absorption of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Jorgensen, A.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The buccal absorption of ketobemidone, a strong narcotic analgesic, and various carboxylate and carbonate ester prodrugs was studied in rats. The compounds were administered in the form of aqueous solutions of pH 7.4. The absolute bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal dosing was 26......% whereas the bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal administration of the prodrugs ranged from 37 to 98%. The highest bioavailability was obtained with the ethyl carbonate ester. An apparent parabolic correlation between bioavailability and lipophilicity of the compounds was seen. All esters were...... lipophilic prodrug may be a useful approach to improve the buccal delivery of this analgesic....

  2. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form.

  3. [Formulation aspects and ex-vivo examination of buccal drug delivery systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barnabás; Hetényi, Gergely; Majoros, Klaudia; Miszori, Veronika; Kállai, Nikolett; Zelkó, Romána

    2011-01-01

    Application of buccal dosage forms has several advantages. Buccal route can be used for systemic delivery because the mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. This route of drug delivery is of special advantages, including the bypass of first pass effect and the avoidance of presystemic elimination within the GIT. Buccal delivery systems enable the systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. In our previous study the physiological background of this application and the excipients of the possible formulations were reviewed. In the present work the formulation and ex vivo examination aspects of buccal drug delivery systems are summarized.

  4. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni; N.G RaghavendraRao; D.Narasimhareddy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesiv...

  5. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tiwari, S; Tilak, R

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of Rifampicin Liposomes for Buccal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankalapalli, Srinivas; Tenneti, V S Vinai Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery through liposomes offers several advantages, but still challenging to the researchers for the use of liposomes as carriers in drug delivery due to their poor physical stability, unpredictable drug encapsulation and systemic availability of the loaded drug. The present investigation was planned with an objective to prepare Rifampicin loaded liposomes by using response surface methodology of statistical 32 factorial design and further to formulate them into pastilles for deliver through buccal route thereby to enhance systemic absorption. Rifampicin liposomes were prepared by using different ratios of soya lecithin and cholesterol by solvent Injection method. These liposomes were characterized by using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro and ex vivo drug release. Main effects and interaction terms of the formulation variables were evaluated quantitatively using a mathematical statistical model approach showing that both independent variables have significant (P value value: 0.0273), percentage entrapment efficiency (P value: 0.0096), percentage drug release through dialysis membrane (P value: 0.0047) and percentage drug release through porcine buccal membrane (P value: 0.0019). The statistical factorial design of liposomal formulations fulfilled all the requirements of the target set and exhibited suitable values for the selected test parameters. Pastilles were prepared for liposomes using glycerol gelatin base and were found to be soft, smooth with uniform drug content and drug release.

  8. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  9. Role of buccal corridor in smile esthetics and its correlation with underlying skeletal and dental structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As the amount of buccal corridor display was increased, smiling images were scored less attractive by the evaluators. The buccal corridor is not influenced by underlying skeletal hard tissues but have mild to moderate inverse correlation with the intercanine and intermolar width.

  10. Influence of periodontal tissue thickness on buccal plate remodelling on immediate implants with xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Luciana P; Reino, Danilo M; Muglia, Valdir A; Almeida, Adriana L G; Nanci, Antonio; Wazen, Rima M; de Oliveira, Paulo T; Palioto, Daniela B; Novaes, Arthur B

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of gingival thickness and bone grafting on buccal bone plate remodelling after immediate implant placement in sockets with thin buccal bone, using a flapless approach. The gingiva of eight dogs was thinned at one side of the mandible, mandibular premolars were extracted without flaps, and four implants were installed on each side at 1.5 mm from the buccal bone. The sites were randomly assigned into: TG (test group) = thin gingiva; TG + GM (TG with grafting material); CG (control group) = normal gingiva; and CG + GM (CG with grafting material). After 12 weeks the dogs were sacrificed and the samples were processed for histological analysis. All animals exhibited a thin buccal bone initially. In all the experimental groups the buccal gap was filled with newly formed bone and the buccal bone level was slightly apical to the implant shoulder. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups for the histomorphometric parameters. The thickness of the buccal bone was a fundamental factor in buccal bone plate resorption, even with flapless implantation. The gingival thickness or the addition of a biomaterial in the gap did not influence the results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante; Renata Janaína Sousa de Paula; Leonardo Peres de Souza; Fabrício Bitu Sousa; Mário Rogério Lima Mota; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g) were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistic...

  12. Estimating golden-cheeked warbler immigration: Implications for the spatial scale of conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Schaub, M.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that drive population dynamics is fundamental to species conservation and management. Since the golden-cheeked warbler Setophaga chrysoparia was first listed as endangered, much effort has taken place to monitor warbler abundance, occupancy, reproduction and survival. Yet, despite being directly related to local population dynamics, movement rates have not been estimated for the species. We used an integrated population model to investigate the relationship between immigration rate, fledging rate, survival probabilities and population growth rate for warblers in central Texas, USA. Furthermore, using a deterministic projection model, we examined the response required by vital rates to maintain a viable population across varying levels of immigration. Warbler abundance fluctuated with an overall positive trend across years. In the absence of immigration, the abundance would have decreased. However, the population could remain viable without immigration if both adult and juvenile survival increased by almost half or if juvenile survival more than doubled. We also investigated the response required by fledging rates across a range of immigration in order to maintain a viable population. Overall, we found that immigration was required to maintain warbler target populations, indicating that warbler conservation and management programs need to be implemented at larger spatial scales than current efforts to be effective. This study also demonstrates that by using limited data within integrated population models, biologists are able to monitor multiple key demographic parameters simultaneously to gauge the efficacy of strategies designed to maximize warbler viability in a changing landscape.

  13. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis

    2009-10-15

    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  14. Periodontal biomechanics: finite element simulations of closing stroke and power stroke in equine cheek teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordes Vanessa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In equine dentistry periodontal diseases, especially periapical inflammation, are frequently occurring problems. Anachoresis is believed to be the most common cause for the development of such disorders. Nevertheless, there is still no substantiated explanation why settlement of pathogen microorganisms occurs in equine periodontal tissues. It is expected that excessive strains and stresses occurring in the periodontal ligament (PDL during the horse’s chewing cycle might be a predisposing factor. In this study this assumption was examined by finite element (FE analyses on virtual 3-D models of equine maxillary and mandibular cheek teeth, established on the basis of μCT datasets. Calculations were conducted both under conditions of closing and power stroke. Results Results showed a uniform distribution of low stresses and strain energy density (SED during closing stroke, whereas during power stroke an occurrence of high stresses and SED could be observed in the PDL near the alveolar crest and in periapical regions. Conclusion The concentration of forces during power stroke in these specific areas of the PDL may cause local tissue necrosis and inflammation and thus establish a suitable environment for the settlement of microorganisms.

  15. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopke Susan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05. In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most

  16. Overview and Future Potential of Buccal Mucoadhesive Films as Drug Delivery Systems for Biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Nicolini, Miguel; Morales, Javier O

    2017-01-01

    The main route of administration for drug products is the oral route, yet biologics are initially developed as injectables due to their limited stability through the gastrointestinal tract and solubility issues. In order to avoid injections, a myriad of investigations on alternative administration routes that can bypass enzymatic degradation and the first-pass effect are found in the literature. As an alternative site for biologics absorption, the buccal route presents with a number of advantages. The buccal mucosa is a barrier, providing protection to underlying tissue, but is more permeable than other alternative routes such as the skin. Buccal films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Conventionally, buccal films for biologics are manufactured by solvent casting, yet recent developments have shown the potential of hot melt extrusion, and most recently ink jet printing as promising strategies. This review aims at depicting the field of biologics-loaded mucoadhesive films as buccal drug delivery systems. In light of the literature available, the buccal epithelium is a promising route for biologics administration, which is reflected in clinical trials currently in progress, looking forward to register and commercialize the first biologic product formulated as a buccal film.

  17. Maxillary arch width and buccal corridor changes with Damon and conventional brackets: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Corey; Kim, Sohyon Michelle; Burnheimer, John

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Damon self-ligating and conventional bracket systems on buccal corridor widths and areas. A retrospective sample of consecutively treated patients using either conventional (CG, n  =  45) or Damon self-ligating (SL, n  =  39) brackets was analyzed to determine any differences in buccal corridor widths and areas both within and between groups. Pretreatment and posttreatment frontal photographs were transferred to Photoshop CC, standardized using intercanthal width, and linear and area measurements were performed with tools in Photoshop CC. Ratios were then calculated for statistical analysis. Relationships between arch widths and buccal corridors were also examined. There were no significant differences in the posttreatment intercanine or intermolar widths either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were no significant differences in any buccal corridor width or area measurement either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were strong correlations with the intercanine width and the corresponding buccal corridor smile width measurements. There was an inverse correlation with the buccal corridor area in relation to the canine and the total smile width. It is likely that posttreatment increases in arch width can be seen in patients treated with either a conventional bracket system or the Damon system. It is highly unlikely that there is any significant difference in buccal corridor width or area in patients treated with the Damon self-ligating system or a conventional bracket system.

  18. Effect of polymer type on characteristics of buccal tablets using factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Esim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A two factor three level factorial design was used to investigate the effects of carbopol and cationic hydrophilic polymers which have a common use in buccal drug formulations. Statistical models with interaction terms were derived to evaluate influence of carbopol (X1 and chitosan (X2 on tablet disintegration (Y1 and dissolution (Y2, mechanical properties (Y3, swelling (Y4. Tablet disintegration studies were carried out using two different pH environments within buccal region pH limits and also two different commonly used dissolution methods for buccal tablets were also investigated to compare the effect of polymer type on dissolution. Polymer type and ratio affect the characteristics of the buccal tablets due to their different physicochemical behavior at buccal pH. Also significant variances between dissolution profiles for buccal tablets, using either USP Paddle or flow through cell methods were found. These results indicate that both polymer type and ratio as well as combination of them effects the drug behavior in different ways. Keywords: Buccal tablet, Hydrophilic matrix, Effect of polymer, Carbopol, Chitosan

  19. Vimentin and laminin are altered on cheek pouch microvessels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Fuentes R Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Normal endothelial cells respond to shear stress by elongating and aligning in the direction of fluid flow. Hyperglycemia impairs this response and contributes to microvascular complications, which result in deleterious effects to the endothelium. This work aimed to evaluate cheek pouch microvessel morphological characteristics, reactivity, permeability, and expression of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components in hamsters after the induction of diabetes with streptozotocin. METHODS: Syrian golden hamsters (90-130 g were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p. or vehicle either 6 (the diabetes mellitus 6 group or 15 (the diabetes mellitus 15 group days before the experiment. Vascular dimensions and density per area of vessels were determined by morphometric and stereological measurements. Changes in blood flow were measured in response to acetylcholine, and plasma extravasation was measured by the number of leakage sites. Actin, talin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, type IV collagen, and laminin were detected by immunohistochemistry and assessed through a semiquantitative scoring system. RESULTS: There were no major alterations in the lumen, wall diameters, or densities of the examined vessels. Likewise, vascular reactivity and permeability were not altered by diabetes. The arterioles demonstrated increased immunoreactivity to vimentin and laminin in the diabetes mellitus 6 and diabetes mellitus 15 groups. DISCUSSION: Antibodies against laminin and vimentin inhibit branching morphogenesis in vitro. Therefore, laminin and vimentin participating in the structure of the focal adhesion may play a role in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the existence of changes related to cell-matrix interactions, which may contribute to the pathological remodeling that was already underway one week after induction of experimental diabetes.

  20. Estimating breeding season abundance of golden-cheeked warblers in Texas, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Mathewson, Heather A.

    2012-02-15

    Population abundance estimates using predictive models are important for describing habitat use and responses to population-level impacts, evaluating conservation status of a species, and for establishing monitoring programs. The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is a neotropical migratory bird that was listed as federally endangered in 1990 because of threats related to loss and fragmentation of its woodland habitat. Since listing, abundance estimates for the species have mainly relied on localized population studies on public lands and qualitative-based methods. Our goal was to estimate breeding population size of male warblers using a predictive model based on metrics for patches of woodland habitat throughout the species\\' breeding range. We first conducted occupancy surveys to determine range-wide distribution. We then conducted standard point-count surveys on a subset of the initial sampling locations to estimate density of males. Mean observed patch-specific density was 0.23 males/ha (95% CI = 0.197-0.252, n = 301). We modeled the relationship between patch-specific density of males and woodland patch characteristics (size and landscape composition) and predicted patch occupancy. The probability of patch occupancy, derived from a model that used patch size and landscape composition as predictor variables while addressing effects of spatial relatedness, best predicted patch-specific density. We predicted patch-specific densities as a function of occupancy probability and estimated abundance of male warblers across 63,616 woodland patches accounting for 1.678 million ha of potential warbler habitat. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, our approach yielded a range-wide male warbler population estimate of 263,339 (95% CI: 223,927-302,620). Our results provide the first abundance estimate using habitat and count data from a sampling design focused on range-wide inference. Managers can use the resulting model as a tool to support conservation planning

  1. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    and porcine buccal mucosa. Further, the permeability rates of ten beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, timolol and tertatolol) across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa were related to their lipophilicity...... x 10(-6) cm/s (metoprolol). For propranolol the cellular permeability value (P(c)) was lower than expected, probably due to accumulation in the TR146 cell layers. Limited correlation of permeability with k' was observed both for the TR146 cell culture model and the porcine buccal mucosa, although...

  2. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  3. Thickness of the Buccal Plate in Posterior Teeth: A Prospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Kayleigh Eaves; Schoolfield, John; Noujeim, Marcel E; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Lasho, David J; Mealey, Brian L

    Buccal plate thickness is an important clinical parameter for postextraction implant treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess buccal plate thickness of the posterior maxilla and mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 265 patients and 934 teeth met the inclusion criteria for this study. CBCT volumes were taken and aligned for measurement at the ideal midsagittal cross-section. Buccal plate thickness was measured at 1, 3, and 5 mm apical to the alveolar crest. The frequency of thick (≥ 1 mm), thin (teeth.

  4. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture model-an in vitro model of the buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portero, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used.......To investigate the potential of chitosan (CS) to enhance buccal peptide and protein absorption, the TR146 cell culture model, a model of the buccal epithelium, was used....

  5. Buccal vs. nasogastric tube administration of tacrolimus after pediatric liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis, JF; Scheenstra, R; Peeters, PMJG; Albers, MJIJ

    Tacrolimus is an important drug for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Bioavailability of enterally administered tacrolimus is poor, and further reduced by gastric residuals or by enteral nutrition. Buccal administration might be an alternative route especially in children. Tacrolimus

  6. Long buccal nerve block injection pain in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pain associated with needle insertion (with or without topical anesthetic) and solution deposition for the long buccal nerve block injection in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Initial pain and any differences by age and gender were also studied. One hundred twelve emergency patients with irreversible pulpitis received long buccal nerve block injections using 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The patients recorded pain of needle insertion and solution deposition on a Heft-Parker visual analog scale (VAS). Moderate-to-severe pain occurred from 41% to 46% of the time with the long buccal nerve block. The use of topical anesthetic did not statistically decrease the pain of needle insertion. In conclusion, 41% to 46% of patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis have the potential for moderate-to-severe pain with the long buccal nerve block. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstruction of the bulbar urethra using dorsal onlay buccal mucosal grafts: New concepts and surgical tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barbagli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal mucosa onlay graft urethroplasty represents one of the most widespread methods for the repair of strictures in the bulbar urethra, because of its thick and highly vascular spongiosum tissue. Recently the location of the patch has become a contentious issue, since we described our original techniques of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. The design rationale for this approach was based on the concept that the corporeal body remains a healthy host for receiving a free transplanted tissues. Moreover, graft fixation onto a defined surface may decrease graft shrinkage and sacculation. The success rate using buccal mucosa grafts for the repair of bulbar urethral strictures has generally been high with dorsal or ventral onlay grafts or using an augmented roof-strip anastomotic urethroplasty. We describe here the fundamental concepts of the bulbar urethra reconstruction using buccal mucosal grafts, presenting a new surgical technique of dorsal onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty using fibrin glue.

  8. Effects of tooth extraction on smile esthetics and the buccal corridor: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Tooth extraction does not affect smile esthetics or buccal corridor. However, additional detailed, large-scale, double-blinded, and randomized controlled trials are required for further evaluation.

  9. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  10. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  11. [Tip and torque changes in maxillary buccal segment after orthodontic treatment: a three-dimensional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui; Qin, Yi-fei; Xu, Tian-min

    2010-11-01

    To investigate three-dimensional imaging registration and superimposition techniques in measuring the tip and torque change of upper canine, premolar and first molar after orthodontic treatment. Twenty-eight subjects (14 extraction cases and 14 non-extraction cases) with full records were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The pre-and post-treatment upper dental casts were digitized with three-dimensional spot laser scanner and superimposed with reverse engineering software. The facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) was transferred from post-treatment teeth to the pre-treatment teeth using three-dimensional imaging registration. The occlusal plane was constructed on the post-treatment upper digital cast and the tip and torque values were measured. In the non-extraction group, the tip of the second premolar decreased by 1.5° (P orthodontic treatment tended to tip the upper second premolar distally and increased the buccal crown torque of the upper premolars while extraction treatment increased the lingual crown torque of the upper canine.

  12. Modified xanthan gum for buccal delivery-A promising approach in treating sialorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffleur, Flavia; Michalek, Martina

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to modify xanthan, a well-known gelling agent, in order to treat sialorrhea, which increases salivary flow due to an excessive stimulus of the salivary reflex. Chemical modification occurs by covalent attachment of l-cysteine (SH) to the polymeric backbone of xanthan (X) via amide bond formation. Safety considerations, water uptake capacity, and erosion were evaluated. Furthermore, mucoadhesiveness on buccal mucosa and vapor uptake studies were performed. In vitro/in vivo correlation of reduce of salivary flow was conducted and drug release of embedded tannin was determined. Safety investigations ensured modified X-SH being safe to use. X-SH exposed 1.5-x higher water uptake capacity in comparison to unmodified xanthan. Then, stability of X-SH augmented 5.5-fold in the case of matrix erosion studies. Reduction of salivary flow could be obtained 1.6-fold improved in case of X-SH compared to X. Furthermore, tannin was 1.8-fold controlled released in comparison to unmodified xanthan. Taking these findings into consideration, chemical modified xanthan emerged with its distinctive properties as a promising approach in treating sialorrhea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Subway Mandibular Buccal Defect Blocked with Two Part Prosthesis Unified by Earth Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2012-01-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tis...

  14. Changes in Morphology of Alveolar Buccal Walls Following Atraumatic Internal Root Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Wilfried; Beltrán, Víctor; Decco, Oscar; Valdivia-Gandur, Iván; Navarro, Pablo; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The buccal alveolar wall represents the most important structure to provide shape and volume of the alveolous following tooth extraction. The aim of the study was the evaluation of buccal alveolar bone structures following minimally invasive surgery. In 15 patients (3 male, 12 female), aged 20–67 years, 3 central incisors, 5 lateral incisors, and 7 bicuspids were removed using flapless enucleation. The enucleation comprised endoscopically assisted mesiodistal root sectioning with inw...

  15. Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishnu M; Prajapati, Bhupendra G; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934 (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal devices were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, surface pH, swelling index, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, and in vitro drug permeation. As compared with bilayered tablets, multilayered tablets showed slow release rate of drug with improved ex vivo bioadhesive strength and enhanced ex vivo mucoadhesion time. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion (value of n between 0.5 and 1.0) for both the buccal devices. The stability of drug in both the optimized buccal devices was tested for 6 hours in natural human saliva; both the buccal devices were found to be stable in natural human saliva. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal devices of PRH can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of PRH.

  16. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

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    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  17. Effect of novel mucoadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol on isoprenaline-induced tachycardia

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    Navneet Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was designed to develop bioadhesive buccal patches of carvedilol (CR and evaluate for isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Buccal patches of carvedilol were prepared by using chitosan (CH, sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as mucoadhesive polymers. The solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of buccal patches. The patches were evaluated for their physical characteristics like patch thickness, weight variation, content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, residence time, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacodynamic study. The swelling index of the patches was found to be proportional to the polymer concentration, whereas surface pH of all the formulated bioadhesive patches was found to lie between neutral ranges. In-vitro release study shows that 94.75% drug was release in 8 hours from the patch, which containing 2% w/v chitosan. The folding endurance result shows good elasticity in all the patches.Application of buccal patches on buccal mucosa of rabbit shows a significant result in % inhibition of isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. Prepared buccal patches of chitosan, NaCMC, and PVA containing Carvedilol meet the ideal requirement for the delivery of cardiovascular drugs and inhibit the isoprenaline tachycardia.

  18. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, M; Sallal, A-K; Darmani, H

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an extract of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and the adhesion of this bacterium to human buccal epithelial cells. Different concentrations of an aqueous extract of thyme were prepared and the effects investigated on growth of S. mutans. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also investigated and compared with the effects of chlorhexidine digluconate. The data revealed that exposure of S. mutans to thyme extract showed a time and concentration-dependent decrease in bacterial viability. The greatest effect was observed when S. mutans had been exposed to 20% thyme extract for a period of 48 h which resulted in 96% inhibition of bacterial growth. Furthermore, the adhesion of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells was also reduced when either buccal epithelial cells or S. mutans had been pre-incubated with different concentrations of aqueous thyme extracts (83-98% and 75-89% inhibition respectively). There was also greater reduction in the adherence of bacterial cells to buccal epithelial cells after mouth rinsing with 20% aqueous thyme extract compared to rinsing with chlorhexidine digluconate (45% and 89% inhibition of bacterial adhesion respectively). The diminished adherence of S. mutans to buccal epithelial cells after exposure to various concentrations of aqueous thyme extract as well as the antimicrobial properties of this plant may have clinical relevance.

  19. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

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    Taketeru Tomita

    Full Text Available Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1 regression of the external gill filaments, (2 development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3 completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4 development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  20. Immediate implant placement: the fate of the buccal crest. A retrospective cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, E; Staas, T A; Graauwmans, F E J; Bronkhorst, E; Verhamme, L; Maal, T; Meijer, G J

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest. After application of the bone substitute, the buccal crest increased in thickness from 0.9mm to 2.4mm (mean). At a mean of 103 weeks after IIP, late postoperative CBCT scans showed that the thickness of the buccal crest was compacted to 1.8mm. In the same period, the height of the buccal crest increased by 1.6mm (mean) to, on average, 1.2mm above the implant shoulder. The aesthetic outcome was analysed using the White and Pink Esthetic Score (WES and PES). Both scored high: 8.4 and 11.8, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the results of this IIP protocol are promising. Long-term prospective research on this topic on a large number of patients is necessary. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  2. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Dixon, P M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C

    2013-12-14

    Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the 25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

  3. Role of tissue engineered buccal mucosa for treatment of urethral stricture

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    Vaddi S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell based therapies in Urology: Cell based therapy for tissue engineering in urology, like in other branches of medicine uses the principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and biomedical engineering to develop biologic substitutes that can restore and maintain function of the damaged or lost genitourinary organs. Most current strategies for tissue engineering depend on a sample of autologous cells from the diseased organ of the host. However in cases where primary autologous cells cannot be expanded, pluripotent stem cells are an ideal source. Biomaterials play a major role in genitourinary tissue engineering. They are used to replace biologic and mechanical functions of the native extracellular matrix. Three classes of biomaterials have been used for the engineering of genitourinary tissues: naturally derived materials, such as collagen and alginate; acellular tissue matrices, such as bladder submucosa and synthetic polymers, such as polyglycolic acid [1]. A lot of research is ongoing in urethral regeneration by tissue engineering and cell based therapy. Tubularized collagen matrices seeded with autologous cells are used to regenerate the urethra [2]. Urinary Bladder reconstruction is possible with bladder shaped biodegradable scaffold seeded with autologous urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells [3]. Ureteral acellular tubular grafts have been used to replace ureteral loss but with poor functional results [4]. Cell-seeded biodegradable polymer scaffolds have been used with more success to reconstruct ureteral tissues [3]. The kidney is the most challenging organ in the genitourinary system to reconstruct because of its complex structure and function. Cell based therapies are used for creation of functional renal structures in vivo. Renal tubular cells have been harvested, expanded in culture and seeded on to a tubular device to function as nephron [5]. The expansion of this system to larger three-dimensional structures is the

  4. A quantitative evaluation method of skin texture affected by skin ageing using replica images of the cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J H; Seo, Y K; Boo, Y C; Chang, M Y; Kwak, T J; Koh, J S

    2014-06-01

    Skin texture is a fine structure of skin surface where the hill and furrow were crossed to form a star shape. This study was performed to establish a quantitative evaluation method of skin texture affected by skin ageing using replica images of the cheek. After producing replicas of the left cheek areas of 80 female subjects, representative replica images were chosen to establish six-level facial skin texture index. Using this new index, skin texture of different-aged subjects was visually assessed by multiple examiners. The number of star configurations was also analysed using the same replica images. Other factors contributing to skin texture, such as skin elasticity, roughness, dermal density, moisture and gloss, were also analysed. The concordance between skin texture scores evaluated by three researchers was high (0.896), and there was a high correlation between skin texture score and age (r = 0.642). The number of star configurations showed high correlations with skin texture scores (r = 0.753) and with age (r = 0.776). Skin texture scores were highly correlated with skin roughness and dermal density, but not with moisture, gloss and elasticity. This study suggests that visual grading of skin texture score based on new facial skin texture index and quantification of star configurations will be useful in evaluating skin ageing. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

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    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  6. Phylogenetic position of the white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys), a newly described primate from southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengfei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhechun; Zhao, Chao; Li, Cheng; Liu, Wulin; Liu, Zhijin; Li, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The white-cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys is a recently described species that was only diagnosed based on photos, without any specimen measurements or molecular genetic diagnosis. Using DNA extracted from four newly collected skin specimens, we studied the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of M. leucogenys using multilocus sequence data, including mitochondrial and Y chromosomal genes. Skin measurements of four individuals showed that the white-cheeked macaque is robust and larger than M. assamensis but is similar in body size to M. thibetana. Although the holotype male of M. leucogenys was observed to have a round glans penis in three photos and a 15-s video, the current phylogenetic analysis placed this species in the sinica group, which has a sagittate glans penis. Our results confirm full species status of M. leucogenys and indicate that this species might have diverged from its closest relatives c. 2.5million years ago. The mitochondrial gene tree showed that M. leucogenys is phylogenetically close to M. munzala and M. radiata within the sinica group; however, their relationships were unresolved by Y chromosomal phylogenies, which indicates possible historical episode of male introgression. Further studies using an integrative approach that combines morphological and ecological characterizations and population-based genome-wide analysis are needed to investigate divergence and reproductive isolation, which are very likely to elucidate mechanisms underlying these Asian macaque radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patch of acyclovir utilizing inclusion phenomenon

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    Ankita Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive buccal patch releasing drug in the oral cavity at a predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms, such as tablets, gels and solutions. A buccal patch for systemic administration of acyclovir in the oral cavity was developed using polymers hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K4M, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (K15M, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and poly vinyl pyrolidone (K30, plasticizer poly ethylene glycol (400 and a backing membrane of Eudragit (RL100. The films were evaluated in terms of swelling, residence time, mucoadhesion, release, and organoleptic properties. The optimized films showed lower release as compared to controlled drug delivery systems. Hence, an inclusion complex of acyclovir was prepared with hydrophilic polymer hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin in the molar ratio of 1:1. The inclusion complex was characterized by optical microscopy, FAB mass spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. Patches formulated with the acyclovir inclusion complex were evaluated along the same lines as those containing acyclovir alone. The in vitro release data revealed a substantial increase from 64.35% to 88.15% in the case of PS I and PS II batches, respectively, confirming the successful use of inclusion complexes for the formulation of buccal patch of acyclovir.Mucoadesivos bucais liberadores de fármacos para a cavidade oral com taxa de liberação pré-determinada podem apresentar distintas vantagens em relação às formas farmacêuticas convencionais como comprimidos, géis e soluções. Neste trabalho, um adesivo bucal para administração sistêmica de aciclovir através da cavidade oral foi desenvolvido empregando-se os polímeros hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K4M, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (K15M, carboximetil celulose sódica e polivinil pirrolidona (K30, polietilenoglicol plastificado (400 e uma membrana suporte de Eudragit (RL100. Os filmes obtidos foram avaliados em termos de

  8. Clinical and Radiographic comparative evaluation of buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy in periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics with surgical bur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Addanki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a clinical procedure that combines selective corticotomy, particulate grafting, and application of orthodontics. It reduces treatment time, increases stability of teeth, and prevents relapse of orthodontic tooth moment. The present study was aimed to explore the clinical and radiographic comparison of bone density changes, retraction time differences in buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy which was done by surgical bur. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth was designed in 16 patients and divided into right (buccal and palatal corticotomy (Group I, left (buccal corticotomy (Group II sides. In both groups, decortication was done with surgical bur. Clinical parameters such as gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Bone density changes were measured by computed tomography at baseline and after 6 months after surgery and also used for evaluating differences in bone density changes between two groups. Retraction time differences were also measured in both groups. Results: In both groups, there was significant difference between bone density changes at baseline and 6 months after surgery. However, the difference between two groups was not significant. The difference in clinical parameters between two groups was not significant. The difference in retraction time differences was not significant. Conclusion: Within limits of the study, it may be concluded that there was difference between bone density changes before and 6 months after surgery. Difference in total treatment time found to be no significant between two groups.

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Comparative Evaluation of Buccal and Palatal Corticotomy with Buccal Corticotomy in Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics with Surgical Bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addanki, Pavankumar; Gooty, Jagadish Reddy; Palaparthy, Rajababu

    2017-01-01

    Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a clinical procedure that combines selective corticotomy, particulate grafting, and application of orthodontics. It reduces treatment time, increases stability of teeth, and prevents relapse of orthodontic tooth moment. The present study was aimed to explore the clinical and radiographic comparison of bone density changes, retraction time differences in buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy which was done by surgical bur. A split-mouth was designed in 16 patients and divided into right (buccal and palatal corticotomy) (Group I), left (buccal corticotomy) (Group II) sides. In both groups, decortication was done with surgical bur. Clinical parameters such as gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Bone density changes were measured by computed tomography at baseline and after 6 months after surgery and also used for evaluating differences in bone density changes between two groups. Retraction time differences were also measured in both groups. In both groups, there was significant difference between bone density changes at baseline and 6 months after surgery. However, the difference between two groups was not significant. The difference in clinical parameters between two groups was not significant. The difference in retraction time differences was not significant. Within limits of the study, it may be concluded that there was difference between bone density changes before and 6 months after surgery. Difference in total treatment time found to be no significant between two groups.

  10. Buccal Cavity Protozoa in Patients Referred to the Faculty of Dentistry in Tehran, Iran

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    MR Jahani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal cavity as a compound ecosystem has always been ignored in parasitic infection studies; however it seems that studying on mouth and tooth prevalent parasitic infections is of great importance. In this study, from 120 patients of both sexes referred to Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, (2001-2002 240 samples were taken from the plaques and calculus of depth of tooth and gum pockets. Wet-mount technique is regarded as the best and quickest diagnostic method for Trichomonas. tenax while Entamoeba. gingivalis is best diagnosed by Trichrome vitelli staining method using Bovin fixative. 41.7% and 9.2% of the cases were infected by Entamoeba. gingivalis and T.tenax, respectively, while 3.3% were infected by both parasitic protozoa. Infection to mouth amoeba was more prevalent in males at the age of 21-30 yr old while no relation was found between age/sex as to infection with Trichomonas. tenax. Accordingly, a direct relation was found between the frequency of the parasites and some factors such as periodontal tissue condition, degree of gum bleeding and inflammation, gum color and tooth decay.

  11. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  12. Ex Vivo Correlation of the Permeability of Metoprolol Across Human and Porcine Buccal Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-01-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability...... model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.......0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa...

  13. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Soni, Rajeev; Rawat, Manoj Kumar; Jain, Achint; Deshpande, Shripad Bhimarao; Deshpande, Shripad Bheemrao; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Muthu, Madaswamy Sona

    2010-03-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of salbutamol sulphate (SS) for the treatment of asthma. The films were designed to release the drug for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms of SS. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol 940P (CP 940P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and anti asthmatic effect (bronchoprotection) in histamine induced bronchospasm of guinea pigs. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using guinea pig buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing SCMC : CP 940P ratio of 76 : 24 was found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force and in vitro drug release. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion as release mechanism. The prolonged in vivo effect (bronchoprotection) obtained from the buccal bioadhesive film of SS administered via buccal route may improve the treatment of asthmatic disorders by reducing the frequency of administration which is associated with the tolerance effect of SS. Additionally for the clinical benefit, it is also expected to reduce the major adverse effects of SS such as tachycardia and arrhythmias via buccal absorption.

  15. Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusi, M; Santi, P; Colombo, P; Junginger, H E

    2003-01-02

    Thiocolchicoside, a muscle-relaxant agent, is administered by the oral, intra-muscular and topical route. After oral administration the extent of bioavailability compared with intra-muscular administration is low, due to a first pass effect. In this paper, the delivery of thiocolchicoside through oral mucosa is studied to improve the bioavailability. Thiocolchicoside in vitro permeation through porcine oral mucosa and in vivo buccal transport in humans were investigated. Two dosage forms, a bioadhesive disc and a fast dissolving disc for buccal and sublingual administration of thiocolchicoside, respectively, were designed. The in vitro permeation of thiocolchicoside through porcine buccal mucosa from these dosage forms was evaluated and compared with in vivo absorption. Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that thiocolchicoside is quite permeable across porcine buccal mucosa and that permeation enhancers, such as sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, were not able to increase its flux. The in vivo thiocolchicoside absorption experiments, in which the drug loss from oral cavity was measured, indicated that both formulations could be useful for therapeutic application. The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time.

  16. Buccal sulcus versus intranasal approach for postoperative periorbital oedema and ecchymosis in lateral nasal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazipour, Ali; Alani, Nadereh; Ghavami Lahiji, Shervin; Akbari Dilmaghani, Nader

    2014-10-01

    Lateral osteotomies are used in rhinoplasty to narrow the nasal bones, close the open roof deformity after hump removal, and achieve symmetry of an asymmetrical framework. But this procedure causes periorbital oedema & ecchymosis. Different techniques have been described for lateral osteotomy. To compare the postoperative ecchymosis and oedema after buccal sulcus lateral osteotomy versus intranasal lateral osteotomy. In a prospective experimental study, buccal sulcus approach was performed on the right side and an intranasal approach performed on the left side of patients randomly. Then blind analysis of postoperative photographs was performed to determine the incidence of oedema and ecchymosis on each side. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study after exclusion of unfit patients. On the right side (buccal approach osteotomies), a significantly lower incidence of upper and lower eyelid oedema and upper eyelid ecchymosis was seen on both the 2nd day and after 7th day (P ecchymosis was 2.66 (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09-5.52, p = 0.048) in intranasal group compare to buccal sulcus group. No significant complication observed. The buccal sulcus approach is a safe method for lateral osteotomy with a lower rate of postoperative oedema and ecchymosis and no significant complications. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prescribed fire on fuels, vegetation, and Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) demographics in Texas juniper-oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R., III Thompson; Carl Schwope; Scott Rowin; James M. Mueller

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia) is an endangered songbird that breeds in mature juniper-oak woodlands restricted to Central Texas. This habitat is increasingly susceptible to crown fire due to climate change, land use change, and fire suppression. Prescribed fire is a potential tool to reduce the risk of crown fire and may be a...

  18. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients' Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients' face was randomly selected for different experience of dressing while the main intervention was different length of tape and steri-strip dressing. In one group, the right side and in the rest, the left side of face was applied with steri-stip from the nose to lateral malar and cheek. In the opposite side of the face, steri-strip taping was done from the nose to medical malar and cheek. The mean area of ecchymosis after rhinoplasty through our trial was 1.55 mm and 2.31 mm, respectively in sides with and without steri-strip which differed significantly. When patients' age and sex were taken into account, the distribution of ecchymosis had no significant difference in this regard. The present study showed significant reduction in the area of post-rhinoplasty ecchymosis in lower lid, malar and cheek soft tissues as well as the obvious increase in satisfaction rate among intervention side of face in comparison to the control side. But longer steri-strip tape failed to control sub conjunctival bleeding or decrease it.

  19. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients’ Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. METHODS Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients’ face was randomly selected for different experience of dressing while the main intervention was different length of tape and steri-strip dressing. In one group, the right side and in the rest, the left side of face was applied with steri-stip from the nose to lateral malar and cheek. In the opposite side of the face, steri-strip taping was done from the nose to medical malar and cheek. RESULTS The mean area of ecchymosis after rhinoplasty through our trial was 1.55 mm and 2.31 mm, respectively in sides with and without steri-strip which differed significantly. When patients’ age and sex were taken into account, the distribution of ecchymosis had no significant difference in this regard. CONCLUSION The present study showed significant reduction in the area of post-rhinoplasty ecchymosis in lower lid, malar and cheek soft tissues as well as the obvious increase in satisfaction rate among intervention side of face in comparison to the control side. But longer steri-strip tape failed to control sub conjunctival bleeding or decrease it. PMID:27308241

  20. [Histologic study on impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis of golden hamster cheek pouch about Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand-Mazz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C T; Zhong, W J; Hua, L; Hu, H F; Jin, Z G

    2000-06-01

    To observe the effect of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant) Hand Mazz (HEr) in impeding oral leukoplakia carcinogenesis, and to seek effective Chinese herb medicine that can impede precarcinoma of oral mucosas. 132 golden hamsters were randomly divided into model group (60 animals), HEr group (60 animals), and control group 12 animals. Salley's leukoplakia carcinogenesis model of golden hamster cheek pouch was used in this study. HEr was injected into the stomach to impede evolution of carcinogenesis. Pathological specimens were observed via naked eye and light microscope between model group and HEr group. Results were compared. Observation via naked-eye showed that leukoplakia rate of HEr group (18.2%) was lower than that of model group (27.3%). Observation via light microscope showed that carcinogenesis rate descended one fold and displasia rate descended 0.4 fold in HEr group. HEr has exact effect in impeding leukoplakia carcinogenesis.

  1. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  2. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal mucosa with respect to the enzyme activity in the tissues. For this purpose, the contents of aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase and esterase in homogenate supernatants of the TR146...... cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... (3.73+/-0.53 nmol/min per mg protein), whereas the level of esterase activity was significantly higher (223.39+/-69.82 nmol/min per mg protein). In the TR146 cell culture model, the apical esterase activity was found significantly higher than the basal activity, and found comparable to the porcine...

  3. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of buccal bone thickness following maxillary expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyalcin, Sercan; Englih, Jeryl D.; Stephens, Claude R.; Winkelmann, Sam [Dept. of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Schaefer, Jeffrey S. [Todd Hughes Orthodontics, Houston (United States)

    2013-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the buccal alveolar bone thickness following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-four individuals (15 females, 9 males; 13.9 years) that underwent RME therapy were included. Each patient had CBCT images available before (T1), after (T2), and 2 to 3 years after (T3) maxillary expansion therapy. Coronal multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure the linear transverse dimensions, inclinations of teeth, and thickness of the buccal alveolar bone. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the changes between the three times of imaging. Pairwise comparisons were made with the Bonferroni method. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. The mean changes between the points in time yielded significant differences for both molar and premolar transverse measurements between T1 and T2 (p<0.05) and between T1 and T3 (p<0.05). When evaluating the effect of maxillary expansion on the amount of buccal alveolar bone, a decrease between T1 and T2 and an increase between T2 and T3 were found in the buccal bone thickness of both the maxillary first premolars and maxillary first molars. However, these changes were not significant. Similar changes were observed for the angular measurements. RME resulted in non-significant reduction of buccal bone between T1 and T2. These changes were reversible in the long-term with no evident deleterious effects on the alveolar buccal bone.

  5. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  7. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these s......Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency...

  8. Azone® decreases the buccal mucosal permeation of Diazepam in a concentration-dependent manner via a reservoir effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Jin, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine concentration-dependent effects of Azone® (AZ) on the buccal absorption of diazepam (DIAZ). Porcine buccal mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers and pretreated with 10 μL of 0%, 5%, 20%, and 50% (w/v) AZ in ethanol. DIAZ was administered to the don...

  9. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  10. Effect of Flapless Immediate Implantation and Filling the Buccal Gap with Xenograft Material on the Buccal Bone Level: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following tooth extraction, soft and hard tissue alterations occur; Different factors can affect this process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gap filling on buccal alveolar crestal bone level after immediate implant placement after 4- to 6-month observation period.Materials and Methods: This   randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients (mean age of 38.8 years requiring tooth extraction in a total of 27 areas in the anterior maxilla. The treatment strategy was as follows: atraumatic flapless tooth extraction, implant placement, insertion of a graft (test group or no material (control group between the implant and the socket wall, connection healing abutment placement and suturing the area. Clinical and cone beam computed tomographic examinations were performed before implant placement (baseline, 24 hours after surgery and 4-6 months (T2 after implant placement, to assess the buccal plate height (BH and implant complications.Results: After 4 months of healing, a reduction in different bone measurements was noticed in the two groups. No statistically significant differences were assessed in bone height measurements between the test and control groups at different time points. The study demonstrated that immediate implantation resulted in 1.30 and 1.66 mm reduction in buccal bone plate in the test and control groups, respectively.Conclusions: The study demonstrated that immediate implantation in the extraction socket together with xenograft failed to prevent bone resorption.

  11. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

    2011-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds. PMID:21753876

  12. Clinicopathological study of surgical margins in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Azeem Mohiyuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the margins of resected specimen of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and to document the surgical margin (measured at the time of resection and margins at the time of pathological examination (after immersion of the specimen in formalin. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed and confirmed with squamous carcinoma of buccal mucosa were included in the study. Patients underwent resection of the tumor with a margin of 1 cm. Soon after resection, the distance between outermost visible margin of the tumor and the margin of the specimen was measured and documented. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for gross and histopathological examination. The closest histopathologic margin was compared with the in situ margin (10 mm to determine and document any shrinkage of the margin and the percentage of discrepancy if any. Results: A total of 52 specimens were collected from patients between January 2014 and December 2014. All specimens were obtained from the oral cavity (n = 52 of which 43 (82.7% were squamous cell carcinoma and 9 (17.3% were verrucous variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The average decrease in tumor margins measured after fixation in formalin was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05 in 65% of cases. Conclusion: Tumor margin shrinks significantly after formalin fixation by about 25%. The operating surgeon and pathologist should be well aware of such changes while planning for further management thereby ensuring adequate margin of resection and adjuvant treatment wherever required to prevent possible local recurrence of the disease. Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Formalin fixation, Margin of resection, Recurrence

  13. Detection and characterization of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen using CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisman, Y; Sahman, H; Sekerci, AE; Tokmak, T T; Aksu, Y; Mavili, E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and characteristics of the mandibular accessory buccal foramen (ABF) with CT. Methods A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 504 patients referred to the Erciyes University Medical School (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. Presence, location, diameter, area and number of ABFs and their continuity with mandibular canal and distance to the mental foramen were evaluated using axial, sagittal and three-dimensional CT images. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS® v. 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results 14 ABFs were observed in 10 (2%) of 504 patients. The frequency of ABFs was found to be 2.6% in males and 1% in females. The mean distance between the ABF and the mental foramen was 5.0 mm [standard deviation (SD) ± 2.48]. The mean long axis of the ABFs was 1.4 mm (SD ± 0.4) and the mean area of them was 1.5 mm2 (SD ± 0.8). The mean area of the mental foramen on the side with the ABF was 4.1 mm2 (SD ± 2.71). Conclusions This study presents a relatively lower frequency of ABFs than that in the literature. These foramina could have more complex neurovascular structures than was previously thought. Thus, in special cases where a direct surgical exploration during the planned surgery is not indicated, CT or cone beam CT examination to determine the possible presence of ABFs may be indicated. PMID:22499130

  14. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  15. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  16. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Ibrahim Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To formulate and evaluate anti-asthmatic drug montelukast in mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods: Buccal patches were formulated by using different hydrophilic polymers by solvent casting technique. Buccal patches were evaluated by seven physical appearances, in addition to in vitro drug release study. Results: All patches were uniform and translucent, and had smooth surface. In vitro release studies were conducted for montelukast buccal patches proved that release in the range of 75.26%-92.30% in 8 h. Emission of montelukast from all patches simulated zero order and diffusion mechanism. Finally it can be concluded that F3, F15 and F16 are the best formulation. Conclusions: The investigation concluded that patch of 5 mg of montelukast sodium were formulated by using sodium alginate with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M with sodium alginate (F3, F15 and F16 formulations were the best formulations.

  18. Polymeric mucoadhesive tablets for topical or systemic buccal delivery of clonazepam: Effect of cyclodextrin complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, P; Cirri, M; Mennini, N; Casella, G; Maestrelli, F

    2016-11-05

    Two kinds of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of clonazepam (CLZ) were developed to provide, a prolonged local or systemic delivery respectively. Tablets prepared by direct compression of combinations of different polymers were tested for swelling, erosion and residence time properties. Carbopol 971P/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Poloxamer/chitosan mixtures were the best and were selected for drug loading. The effect of CLZ complexation with different cyclodextrins was investigated. Randomly-methylated-βCD (RAMEßCD) was the most effective, allowing 100% drug released increase from local-delivery buccal tablets. Kollicoat was the best among the tested backing-layers, assuring a unidirectional release from systemic-delivery buccal tablets (<0.8% drug released in simulated saliva after 24h). In vitro permeation studies from coated-tablets showed that CLZ loading as RAMEßCD-coground enabled a 5-times increase in drug flux and permeability. Therefore, complexation with RAMEßCD was a successful strategy to improve the CLZ performance from buccal tablets for both local or systemic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of buccal adhesive patches containing propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V M; Prajapati, B G; Patel, J K; Patel, M M

    2006-07-01

    Buccal adhesive patches containing 20 mg of propranolol hydrochloride were prepared using solvent casting method. Chitosan was used as a natural bioadhesive polymer. Patches were prepared at different ratios of PVP K-30 and evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics such as weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex-vivo residence time, in vitro drug release and in vitro buccal permeation study. Patches exhibited sustained release over a period of 7 hours. The mechanism of drug release was found to be Non-Fickian diffusion. Addition of PVP K-30 generally enhanced the releasing rate. The ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength was performed using sheep buccal mucosa on modified physical balance. Optimized patches (batch F4) showed satisfactory bioadhesive strength (9.6 degrees 2.0 gram) and ex vivo residence time (272 degrees 0.25 minutes). Swelling index was proportional to PVP K-30. The surface pH of all batches was within satisfactory limit (7.0+/-1.5) and hence patches would not cause irritation in the buccal cavity. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug release and in vitro drug permeation with correlation coefficient of 0.9364. Stability of optimized patches was performed in natural human saliva showed that both drug and dosage forms were stable in human saliva.

  20. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of transnasal, sublingual, and buccal disk dosage forms of butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, W C; Mayol, R F; Pfeffer, M; Pittman, K A; Gammans, R E; Barbhaiya, R H

    1993-07-01

    A series of three-way crossover randomized studies were conducted to evaluate the absolute bioavailability of butorphanol, a potent agonist-antagonist analgesic, from transnasal, sublingual, and buccal disk formulations in order to identify a practical alternative to oral administration. In each study, healthy male volunteers received 2 mg doses of butorphanol tartrate intravenously and either transnasally, sublingually or buccally. Serial blood samples were collected over 12 h and butorphanol plasma concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma concentration data were subjected to non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The elimination half-life of butorphanol was about 3-5 h and was independent of the route of administration. Absorption of butorphanol following transnasal administration was faster than that observed following sublingual or buccal administration. Mean absolute bioavailabilities of sublingual tablet and buccal disk formulation were only 19 per cent and 29 per cent, respectively, but for transnasal administration the value rose significantly, to 70 per cent. Based on the results of these studies, transnasal dosage form of butorphanol was selected for further clinical trials of treatment of moderate to severe pain.

  1. Testing Dietary Hypotheses of East African Hominines Using Buccal Dental Microwear Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Laura Mónica; Estebaranz-Sánchez, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines. We provide evidence from buccal dental microwear data that supports softer dietary habits than expected for P. aethiopicus and P. boisei based both on masticatory apomorphies and isotopic analyses. On one hand, striation densities on the buccal enamel surfaces of paranthropines teeth are low, resembling those of H. habilis and clearly differing from those observed on H. ergaster, which display higher scratch densities indicative of the consumption of a wide assortment of highly abrasive foodstuffs. Buccal dental microwear patterns are consistent with those previously described for occlusal enamel surfaces, suggesting that Paranthropus consumed much softer diets than previously presumed and thus calling into question a strict interpretation of isotopic evidence. On the other hand, the significantly high buccal scratch densities observed in the H. ergaster specimens are not consistent with a highly specialized, mostly carnivorous diet; instead, they support the consumption of a wide range of highly abrasive food items.

  2. Testing Dietary Hypotheses of East African Hominines Using Buccal Dental Microwear Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mónica Martínez

    Full Text Available There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines. We provide evidence from buccal dental microwear data that supports softer dietary habits than expected for P. aethiopicus and P. boisei based both on masticatory apomorphies and isotopic analyses. On one hand, striation densities on the buccal enamel surfaces of paranthropines teeth are low, resembling those of H. habilis and clearly differing from those observed on H. ergaster, which display higher scratch densities indicative of the consumption of a wide assortment of highly abrasive foodstuffs. Buccal dental microwear patterns are consistent with those previously described for occlusal enamel surfaces, suggesting that Paranthropus consumed much softer diets than previously presumed and thus calling into question a strict interpretation of isotopic evidence. On the other hand, the significantly high buccal scratch densities observed in the H. ergaster specimens are not consistent with a highly specialized, mostly carnivorous diet; instead, they support the consumption of a wide range of highly abrasive food items.

  3. Inhibition of DMBA carcinogenesis of hamster buccal pouch by phenanthrene and dimethylnaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, D S; Shklar, G

    1981-01-01

    Phenanthrene (Phe) and to a lesser degree 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMeN) were each found to retard the development of epidermoid carcinomas in hamster buccal pouch induced by the thrice weekly application of a 0.5 per cent solution of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in heavy mineral oil.

  4. Registration of occlusion by buccal scan in Cerec software version 3.80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans C

    2010-01-01

    With the software version 3.80, the Sirona company also delivers the Buccal Scan feature, among other features. This opens up a completely new way of high-precision registration of the occlusion. The new method can be used easily and universally.

  5. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  6. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  7. Occurrence of bacteria in the buccal cavity, gill and skin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric characteristics of Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus, Sardinella maderensis and Mugil cephalus species collected from Lagos lagoon were studied. Swab samples were taken from the gills, buccal cavity and skin of the three fish species. The cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics of the bacterial ...

  8. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  9. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards wi...

  10. Comparison of lingual mucosa and buccal mucosa grafts used in inlay urethroplasty in failed hypospadias of pre-pubertal boys in a Chinese group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hongyong

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of the buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa used in children who received multiple failed hypospadias surgeries.We conducted a retrospective study of 62 children who received buccal or lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in our hospital between 2012 and 2015. The ages ranged from 3.5-11 y. All cases included multiple failed hypospadias procedures, and the subjects received previous operations 2-3 times. All patients underwent one-stage operations. Thirty-three cases were treated with lingual mucosa grafts. The patient ages ranged from 3.5 to 11 y (median 7.5 y, and they had previous operations 2-3 times (mean 2.8±0.7. Grafts ranged from lengths of 2-6 cm (mean 5.1±0.46 cm and widths of 0.5-1.5 cm (mean 1.2± 0.16 cm. Our follow-up was 5 to 12 m (mean 8.3±1.2 m. Twenty-nine cases were treated with buccal mucosa grafts. The patient ages ranged from 4 to 9.2 y (median 7.0 y, and they had previous operations 2-3 times (mean 2.5±0.2. Grafts ranged from lengths of 2-5.3 cm (mean 4.9± 0.28 cm and widths of 0.5-1.5 cm (mean 1.0±0.11 cm. Our follow-up was 5 to 12 m (mean 7.9±0.5 m. The results were tested with SPSS 18.0. The rates of complications were compared by a chi-square test, and pre-operative conditions were compared by t test.For the outcomes of the two groups, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, preoperative surgery time, and the length and width of the grafts (p>0.05. For the lingual mucosa graft group, fistula: 2/33 (6.0%, stricture: 1/33(3.0%, ventral curvature: 2/33(6.0%, complications: 5/33(15.0%, success rate: 28/33(84.8%, Hose score: 14.34±0.95, peak flow: 6.5 ml/s-12.0 ml/s, and mean peak flow: 9.3±0.4 ml/s. For the buccal mucosa graft group, fistula: 2/29(6.8%, stricture: 2/29(6.8%, ventral curvature: 1/29 (3.4%, complication rate: 5/29(17.0%, success rate: 24/29 (83.0%, Hose score: 14.28±1.03, peak flow: 6.5 ml/s-12.0 ml/s, and mean peak

  11. Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjerstad, Mary; Sivin, Irving; Lichtenberg, E Steve; Trussell, James; Cleland, Kelly; Cullins, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Background From 2001 to March 2006, Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Planned Parenthood) health centers throughout the U.S. provided medical abortion principally by a regimen of oral mifepristone followed 24–48 h later by vaginal misoprostol. In late March 2006, analyses of serious uterine infections following medical abortions led Planned Parenthood to change the route of misoprostol administration and employ additional measures to minimize subsequent serious uterine infection. We conducted an extensive audit in August 2006 of medical abortion with the new buccal misoprostol regimen so that patients could be given accurate information about the success rate of the new regimen. Objectives We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the buccal medical abortion regimen and examine correlates of its success during routine service delivery. Methods Audits at 10 large urban service points were conducted in 2006 to estimate success rates of the buccal regimen. Success was defined as medical abortion without vacuum aspiration. These audits also permitted an estimate of success rates with oral misoprostol following mifepristone in a subset in which 98% of the subjects stemmed from 2 sites. Results Effectiveness of the buccal misoprostol-mifepristone regimen was 98.3% for women with gestational ages below 60 days. The oral misoprostol-mifepristone regimen, used by 278 women with a gestational age below 50 days, had a success rate of 96.8%. Conclusion In conjunction with 200 mg of mifepristone, buccal use of 800 mcg of misoprostol up to 59 days of gestation is as effective as vaginal use of 800 mcg of misoprostol up to 63 days of gestation. PMID:19698822

  12. Updated anatomy of the buccal space and its implications for plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Thilo L; Koban, Konstantin C; Schlattau, Alexander; Frank, Konstantin; Sclafani, Anthony P; Giunta, Riccardo E; Roth, Malcolm Z; Gaggl, Alexander; Gotkin, Robert H; Cotofana, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The buccal space is an integral deep facial space which is involved in a variety of intra- and extra-oral pathologies and provides a good location for the harvest of the facial artery. The age-related anatomy of this space was investigated and compared to previous reports. We conducted anatomic dissections in 102 fresh frozen human cephalic specimens (45 males, 57 females; age range 50-100 years) and performed additional computed tomographic, magnetic resonance and 3-D surface volumetric imaging studies to visualize the boundaries and the contents of the buccal space after injection of contrast enhancing material. The mean vertical extent of contrast agent injected into the buccal space was 25.2 ± 4.3 mm and did not significantly differ between individuals of different age (p = 0.77) or gender (p = 0.13). The maximal injected volume was 10.02 cc [range: 3.09-10.02] without significant influence of age (p = 0.13) or gender (p = 0.81). The change in surface volume was 3.64 ± 1.04 cc resulting in a mean surface-volume-coefficient of 0.87 ± 0.12 without being statistically significant influenced by age (p = 0.53) or gender (p = 0.78). The facial artery was constantly identified within the buccal space whereas the facial vein was found to course within its posterior boundary. The buccal space did not undergo age-related changes in volume or size which highlights this space is a reliable and predictable landmark for various plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic procedures. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dental microwear variability on buccal tooth enamel surfaces of extant Catarrhini and the Miocene fossil Dryopithecus laietanus (Hominoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, J; Moyà-Solà, S; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of buccal tooth microwear have been used to trace dietary habits of modern hunter-gatherer populations. In these populations, the average density and length of striations on the buccal surfaces of teeth are significantly cor-related with the abrasive potential of food items consumed. In non-human pri-mates, tooth microwear patterns on both occlusal and buccal wear facets have been thoroughly studied and the results applied to the characterization of dietary habits of fossil species. In this paper, we present inter- and intra-specific buccal microwear variability analyses in extant Cercopithecoidea (Cercopithecus mitis, C. neglectus, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus spp., Papio anubis) and Hominoidea (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus). The results are tentatively compared to buccal microwear patterns of the Miocene fossils Dryopithecus and Oreopithecus. Significant differences in striation density and length are found among the fossil taxa studied and the extant primates, suggesting that buccal microwear can be used to identify dietary differences among taxa. The Dryopithecus buccal microwear pattern most closely resembles that of abrasive, tough plant foods consumers, such as the gorilla, in contrast to stud-ies of dental morphology that suggest a softer, frugivorous diet. Results for Oreopithecus were equivocal, but suggest a more abrasive diet than that previously thought. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  15. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Mata, Kayure Rocha da; Rocha, Karina Silva; Costa, Brenda do Nascimento; Neves, Fernando; Barbosa, George Caique Gouveia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%). To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA). The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient's facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  16. Cheek Tooth Morphology and Ancient Mitochondrial DNA of Late Pleistocene Horses from the Western Interior of North America: Implications for the Taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus

    OpenAIRE

    Barron-Ortiz, Christina; Rodrigues, Antonia; Theodor, Jessica; Kooyman, Brian; Yang, Dongya; Speller, Camilla Filomena

    2017-01-01

    Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Inter...

  17. The Effect of Steri-Strip Dressing on Patients? Satisfaction and Reduction of Ecchymosis in Lower Eyelid, Malar and Cheek Following Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Farahvash, Mohammad Reza; Khorasani, Ghasemali; Mahdiani, Yadollah; Taheri, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early postoperative edema and ecchymosis are the most common factors to complicate initial patient perceptions about rhinoplasty. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of longer steri-strip tape on patient malar and cheek in terms of ecchymosis control and reduction. METHODS Through a randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent rhinoplasty were randomly enrolled. One side of the patients? face was randomly selected for different experience of ...

  18. Surgical treatment of complications after radiotherapy of malignant tumours of cheeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipikasa, A.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases are described of plastic surgery made on patients suffering from radiodermatitis of the face developed after radiotherapy of malignant tumours. It is pointed out that in the therapy of skin tumours, concerted efforts are always required from oncologists, dermatologists and surgeons alike. (L.O.)

  19. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar with Buccal Cortical Plate to Replace Vertically Fractured Mandibular Second Molar: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufía, Juan; Abella, Francesc; Trebol, Ivan; Gómez-Meda, Ramón

    2017-09-01

    Tooth replacement often leads to inadequate vertical volume in the recipient site bone when a tooth has been extracted because of a vertical root fracture (VRF). This case report presents the autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar (tooth #32) with the attached buccal cortical plate to replace a mandibular second molar (tooth #31) diagnosed with a VRF. After extraction of tooth #31, the recipient socket was prepared based on the size measured in advance with cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The precise and calculated osteotomy of the cortical bone of tooth #32 allowed for the exact placement of the donor tooth in the position of tooth #31. The total extraoral time was only 25 minutes. The block was fixed to the recipient socket with an osteosynthesis screw and splinted with a double resin wire for 8 weeks. At the 6-month follow-up, the screw was removed, and the stability of the tooth and the regeneration obtained throughout the vestibular area were confirmed. At the 2-year follow-up, the transplanted tooth was asymptomatic and maintained a normal bone level. Advantages of autotransplantation over dental implants include maintenance of proprioception, possible orthodontic movements, and a relatively low cost. This case report demonstrates that an autotransplantation of a third molar attached to its buccal cortical plate is a viable option to replace teeth with a VRF. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and buccal administration in cats, and effects on thermal threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, A R; Pypendop, B H; Shilo-Benjamini, Y; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E

    2014-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine, following i.v. and buccal administration, and the relationship between buprenorphine concentration and its effect on thermal threshold. Buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was administered intravenously or buccally to six cats. Thermal threshold was determined, and arterial blood sampled prior to, and at various times up to 24 h following drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was determined using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fitted to the time-concentration data. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models were fitted to the concentration-thermal threshold data. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than baseline 44 min after buccal administration, and 7, 24, and 104 min after i.v. administration. A two- and three-compartment model best fitted the data following buccal and i.v. administration, respectively. Following i.v. administration, mean ± SD volume of distribution at steady-state (L/kg), clearance (mL·min/kg), and terminal half-life (h) were 11.6 ± 8.5, 23.8 ± 3.5, and 9.8 ± 3.5. Following buccal administration, absorption half-life was 23.7 ± 9.1 min, and terminal half-life was 8.9 ± 4.9 h. An effect-compartment model with a simple effect maximum model best predicted the time-course of the effect of buprenorphine on thermal threshold. Median (range) ke0 and EC50 were 0.003 (0.002-0.018)/min and 0.599 (0.073-1.628) ng/mL (i.v.), and 0.017 (0.002-0.023)/min and 0.429 (0.144-0.556) ng/mL (buccal). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ossifying fibroma in the sinonasal tract: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charavarty, Shekhar; Datta, Debashish; Boro, Esha; Dutta, Bijita

    2014-08-01

    Ossifying fibroma involving the sinonasal tract is an extremely rare occurrence. We are reporting a case of ossifying fibroma in the left maxillary sinus in a 19-year-old female who presented with a mass in the left cheek and nasal obstruction. On examination, the swelling in the left cheek seemed to originate from the left maxilla and was smooth and bony hard. Patient underwent detailed radiological and image guided cytopathological investigations. Depending on the results of these tests complete surgical excision of the mass was done. Histopathological evaluation of the excised mass revealed it to be an Ossifying Fibroma.

  2. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...

  3. A prospective, randomized, single-blind comparative evaluation of anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay; Ansari, Irfan; Kohli, Sarita

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anesthetic efficacy of posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve blocks, buccal infiltrations, and buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-four adult patients participated in this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. The patients were divided into 3 treatment groups on a random basis. Twenty-eight patients received a PSA nerve block, 33 patients received buccal infiltrations, and 33 patients received buccal plus palatal infiltrations with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injection. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Success was recorded as "none" or "mild" pain. Statistical analysis using nonparametric chi-square tests revealed that there was no statistical difference between the anesthetic success of PSA nerve blocks (64%), buccal infiltrations (54%), and buccal plus palatal infiltrations (70%). None of the tested methods gave 100% anesthetic success rates in maxillary first molars with irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  5. Factors affecting the possibility to detect buccal bone condition around dental implants using cone beam computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedke, Gabriela S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors with impact on the conspicuity (possibility to detect) of the buccal bone condition around dental implants in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium (Ti) or zirconia (Zr) implants and abutments were inserted into 40 bone blocks...... in a way to obtain variable buccal bone thicknesses. Three combinations regarding the implant-abutment metal (TiTi, TiZr, or ZrZr) and the number of implants (one, two, or three) were assessed. Two CBCT units (Scanora 3D - Sc and Cranex 3D - Cr) and two voxel resolutions (0.2 and 0.13 mm) were used....... Reconstructed sagittal images (2.0 and 5.0 mm thickness) were evaluated by three examiners, using a dichotomous scale when assessing the condition of the buccal bone around the implants. A multivariate logistic regression was performed using examiners' detection of the buccal bone condition as the dependent...

  6. Effect of cryoprotectants for maintaining drug permeability barriers in porcine buccal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Axelsen, Mary Carlos; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    if permeability barriers for small molecules (nicotine and diazepam) were maintained after freezing porcine buccal mucosa with cryoprotectants to -80°C. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide, bovine serum albumin, glycerol and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. The permeability of nicotine and diazepam across...... fresh or frozen/thawed tissue was determined using modified Ussing chambers. Haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections for histology were prepared. The permeability of nicotine across tissue frozen without cryoprotectants was significantly higher compared to tissue frozen with cryoprotectants or fresh...... tissue. Freezing with or without cryoprotectants did not significantly affect the flux of diazepam compared to fresh tissue. Only minor histological changes were seen in frozen/thawed porcine buccal mucosa compared to fresh tissue. In conclusion, permeability barriers for nicotine and diazepam were...

  7. Endo-buccal dental radiology - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celier, D.; Megnigbeto, C.; Aubert, B.; Talbot, A.; Vidal, J.P.; Biau, A.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Ariscon, J.M.; Barret, C.; Devaux, M.J.; Dohan, D.; Gambini, D.; Guerin, C.; Rocher, P.

    2009-04-01

    This document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing endo-buccal examinations. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process of snapshot taking, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks. In appendix, a table indicates radiation measurements about two endo-buccal radiography devices in specific use conditions

  8. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Amjad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB and lidocaine HCl (LID was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9 were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium alginate (SA. The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release, which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  9. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  10. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  11. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, Y.T.; Benzie, I.F.F.; Collins, A.R.; Choi, S.W.; Cheng, C.Y.; Yow, C.M.N.; Tse, M.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H 2 O 2 ) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in Trolox

  12. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  13. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Acinic cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Aravind

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is a rare epithelial malignant neoplasm of salivary glands affecting predominantly the female population. Unusual occurrences of this neoplasm are reported in hard palate, maxillary sinuses, lip, etc. [1] We report one such case where a submandibular swelling that is provisionally diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma due to its clinical and radiological findings, turned out to be ACC on histopathological evaluation.

  15. COMPARISON OF MICRONUCLEATED CELL IN BUCCAL SMEARS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The health complexities caused due to tobacco smoking has not been restricted to any geographic region and has spread worldwide. As the oral mucosal cells, which line the oral cavity are the first barrier, they represent the preferred target site for the early genotoxic events. Tobacco use is one of the most important aetiological factors in initiation of oral cancer as it increases the risk of cancer by exposing the buccal mucosal to the carcinogenic chemicals either through inhalation or by ingestion. Micronuclei are round to oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass, which occurs as a result of segregation defects due to chromosomal instability causing chromatin to be excluded from the reformed nucleus. Micronuclei assay in exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and less invasive method for monitoring genetic damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 male subjects (50 smokers, 50 non-smokers were examined. Buccal smears were wet fixed and stained with pap stain. 100 cells per slide were counted and assessed for micronuclei count. T-test and Pearson correlation was used as a statistical tool for analysis. RESULTS Significantly, smokers had higher percentage of micronucleated cells (T-5.865; P (0.000, total number of micronuclei (T- 6.713; P (0.000 and mean micronuclei count (T-5.865; P (0.000 than non-smokers. Pack years correlated significantly and positively with mean micronuclei count. However, pack year did not have significant relation with percentage of micronucleated cells and total number of micronuclei. CONCLUSION The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. Micronuclei assay can be used as a simple and reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation.

  16. Buccal mucosal graft onlay repair for a ureteric ischemic injury following a pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Agrawal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with long stricture in the left upper ureter following a pyeloplasty causing persistent flank pain. A left PCNL with an antegrade endopyelotomy was attempted in view of a concomitant left renal 1.5 cm calculus in the lower calyx but it failed. Subsequently, a buccal mucosal onlay graft was applied on the strictured ureter. Follow-up at 3 months showed good uptake of the graft with patent passage for urine drainage.

  17. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    -assisted microscope work-station. For evaluation of cell morphology, cell contours were recognized semiautomatically and used for determination of cell area, cell spreading and number and length of processes. We found that the cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was only approximately 50% of the cellular...... and motility pattern amongst the three fibroblast types could not be explained by differences in secretion of extracellular matrix components and are therefore believed to reflect phenotypic differences amongst fibroblast subpopulations....

  18. Orally-dissolving film for sublingual and buccal delivery of ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka Lun; Fang, Yuan; Han, Hao; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Ho Yin; Chow, Shing Fung; Lam, Tai Ning; Lee, Wai Yip Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Ropinirole is a very important treatment option for Parkinson's disease (PD), a major threat to the aging population. However, this drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low oral bioavailability. Moreover, the necessity of frequent administration due to the short half-life of ropinirole may jeopardize patient compliance. Indeed, taking this drug in solid oral dosage forms (e.g. Tablet) can be a challenge because of the tremor, rigidity, limited mobility, and impaired drug absorption experienced by PD patients. In light of these, there is a pressing need to devise formulations for the delivery of ropinirole that allow simple and easy administration and fast drug action, as well as avoidance of first-pass metabolism and overcoming the challenge of impaired absorption due to gastrointestinal dysfunctions, etc. Herein, we seek to overcome all these challenges via sublingual or buccal delivery of orally-dissolving films. Accordingly, we aimed to fabricate and characterize orally-dissolving films of ropinirole and assess their in vivo pharmacokinetics after sublingual and buccal administration. The ropinirole oral film was non-toxic and exhibited fast disintegration and dissolution and was physically stable for at least 28 days. Upon buccal/sublingual administration of the oral films, ropinirole reached the systemic circulation within 15 min and bioavailability was significantly improved, which may be attributable to avoidance of first-pass metabolism via absorption through the oral cavity. In conclusion, our ropinirole oral film improved bioavailability after sublingual or buccal administration. This formulation potentially overcomes biopharmaceutical challenges and provide a convenient means of administration of ropinirole or other anti-PD drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    OpenAIRE

    Sheela, A; Haque,Sk Ershadul

    2015-01-01

    Shaikh Ershadul Haque, Angappan Sheela Materials Chemistry Division, Centre for Nanomaterials, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metform...

  20. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a focus on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkar, Dattatraya Manohar; Dhake, Avinash Sridhar; Setty, Chitral Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the concept of mucoadhesion has gained considerable interest in pharmaceutical technology. The various advantages associated with these systems made buccal drug delivery as a novel route of drug administration. It prolongs the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application. These systems remain in close contact with the absorption tissue, the mucous membrane, and thus contribute to improved and/or better therapeutic performance of the drug and of both local and systemic effects. This review highlights the anatomy and structure of oral mucosa, mechanism and theories of mucoadhesion, factors affecting mucoadhesion, characteristics and properties of desired mucoadhesive polymers, various types of dosage forms, and general considerations in design of mucoadhesive buccal dosage forms, permeation enhancers, and evaluation methods. Over the past few decades the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system has received a great deal of attention to develop mucoadhesive dosage forms to enable the prolonged retention at the site of action, providing a controlled release of drug for improved therapeutic outcome. Mucoadhesive drug delivery gives facility to include a permeation enhancer/enzyme inhibitor or pHmodifier in the formulation and versatility in designing as multidirectional or unidirectional release systems for local and systemic action. Local delivery to tissues of the oral cavity has a number of applications, including treatment of local conditions such as periodontal disease, bacterial and fungal infections, and aphthous stomatitis and vesiculo bullous diseases. For the treatment of chronic diseases, the mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system allows easily accessibility and is generally well-accepted for administeringdrugs by systemic action.

  1. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyun-A; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Jae-Young; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The enamel knot (EK), which is located in the center of bud and cap stage tooth germs, is a transitory cluster of non-dividing epithelial cells. The EK acts as a signaling center that provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps by inducing secondary EKs. The morphological, cellular, and molecular events leading to the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs have not been described clearly. This study investigated the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs in the maxillary and mandibular first molars of mice. The location of the primary EK and secondary EKs was investigated by chasing Fgf4 expression patterns in tooth germ at some intervals of in vitro culture, and the relationship between the primary EK and secondary EK was examined by tracing the primary EK cells in the E13.5 tooth germs which were frontally half sliced to expose the primary EK. After 48 hr, the primary EK cells in the sliced tooth germs were located on the buccal secondary EKs, which correspond to the future paracone in maxilla and protoconid in mandible. The Bmp4 expression in buccal part of the dental mesenchyme might be related with the lower growth in buccal epithelium than in lingual epithelium, and the Msx2 expressing area in epithelium was overlapped with the enamel cord (or septum) and cell dense area. The enamel cord might connect the primary EK with enamel navel to fix the location of the primary EK in the buccal side during the cap to bell stages. Overall, these results suggest that primary EK cells strictly contribute to form the paracone or protoconid, which are the main cusps of the tooth in the maxilla or mandible.

  2. Analysis of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells in patients subjected to panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waingade, Manjushri; Medikeri, Raghavendra S

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen in humans. Chromosomal aberrations and formation of micronuclei in cell cytoplasm are early biological evidence of carcinogenesis. This study was undertaken to assess the genotoxic effect of panoramic radiography in the buccal epithelial cells. The study included 60 healthy individuals (median age 23.5 years; age range 12-65 years) who underwent panoramic radiographic examination. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were obtained immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained with Giemsa and evaluated for micronuclei by scoring 1000 cells per sample. The paired 't ' test was used to find out the significance of difference in the number of micronuclei before and after x-ray exposure. The Karl Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find out the correlation between age and micronucleated cell frequencies and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells. The ANOVA test was used to find out if there were significant differences in micronucleated cell frequencies between different age-groups. Student's unpaired 't' test was used to find out the significance of difference in micronucleated cell frequencies and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells between genders. The paired 't' test showed that micronucleated cell frequencies (P = 0.02) and number of micronucleus per 1000 cells (P = 0.047) were significantly higher after radiographic exposure. The mean number of micronucleated cells before and after radiation exposure were 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.51 ± 0.15, respectively. There was statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in buccal epithelial cells after exposure to panoramic radiography. The correlation of micronucleus frequency with age and gender was statistically nonsignificant. The results indicate that panoramic radiography may induce genotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells. Considering this risk, panoramic radiography should be used cautiously.

  3. Aloin delivery on buccal mucosa: ex vivo studies and design of a new locoregional dosing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Viviana; Scaturro, Anna Lisa; Di Prima, Giulia; Avellone, Giuseppe; Sutera, Flavia Maria; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Giannola, Libero Italo

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprevention of potential malignant disorders or cancerous lesions that affect oral mucosae requires extended duration of treatment. Locoregional delivery of natural products could represent a promising strategy for this purpose. To investigate the aptitude of aloin to permeate through, or accumulate in, the buccal mucosa and to develop a new prolonged oro-mucosal drug delivery system. Permeation/accumulation of aloin from Curacao Aloe (containing 50% barbaloin) was evaluated ex vivo, using porcine buccal mucosa as the most useful model to simulate human epithelium. Oro-mucosal matrix tablets were prepared by dispersing aloin (10% w/w) in Eudragit® RS 100 as, biocompatible, low permeable, pH-independent, and non-swelling polymer. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, weight variation, drug uniformity content, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, and drug release. Aloin has low tendency to cross buccal mucosa, permeation is marginal, and high drug amounts remain entrapped into the epithelium. Matrix tablets characteristics were in agreement with pharmacopoeial requirements. Drug release showed highly reproducible Higuchian profile. Delivery through matrix tablets promoted drug accumulation in the mucosal tissue. Following application of matrix tablets on porcine buccal mucosa, the amount of discharged drug recovered in the tissue should be sufficient to produce the desired effects, providing therapeutic drug levels directly at the site of action. Aloin-loaded tablets are valid candidates for prevention/treatment of potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer and could potentially lead to clinically relevant drug delivery system as coadjuvant of conventional chemotherapy/radiation therapy.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Oral Film of Dicyclomine as potential route of Buccal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Tomar; Kiran Sharma; Nitesh S Chauhan; Ashu Mittal; Umakant Bajaj

    2012-01-01

    Buccal delivery is considered to be an important alternative to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs, as it considered the most convenient, easy, safest route of administration. Oral mucosa has rich vasculization, offers better permeability to many drugs & it act as an excellent site for the absorption of drugs. Fast dissolving oral film (FDOF) is used as a novel approach, as it dissolve rapidly in mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. Oral film technol...

  5. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sumita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the

  6. Evaluation of the Tolerability of Switching Patients on Chronic Full ?-Opioid Agonist Therapy to Buccal Buprenorphine

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Lynn; Gruener, Daniel; Kirby, Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective?Assess whether patients with chronic pain receiving 80 to 220?mg oral morphine sulfate equivalent of a full ?-opioid agonist could be transitioned to buccal buprenorphine at approximately 50% of their full dose without inducing opioid withdrawal or sacrificing analgesic efficacy. Methods.?A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, two-period crossover study in adult patients receiving around-the-clock full opioid agonist therapy and confirmed to be opioid dependent...

  7. Cell cycle indicators of buccal epithelial cells in the treatment of different types of removable plate partial dentures

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Beliaiev; M. P. Odud; D. A. Lysenko

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the work. To investigate nuclear DNA and buccal epithelial cells proliferative activity in patients with dental defects, who use removable partial dentures plates made of acrylic or thermoplastic. Materials and Methods. The study of buccal epithelial cell cycle parameters was carried out in 70 people. Among them 23 patients were treated with acrylic dentures prostheses, 23 patients – with thermoplastic-based prostheses. The comparison group consisted of 24 clinically health...

  8. Buccal dental microwear variability in extant African Hominoidea: taxonomy versus ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Estebaranz, Ferran; Martínez, Laura M; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    Buccal microwear patterns on teeth are good indicators of the abrasiveness of foodstuffs and have been used to trace the dietary habits of fossil species, including primates and hominids. However, few studies have addressed the variability of this microwear. The abrasiveness of dietary components depends not only on the hardness of the particles ingested, but also on the presence of dust and other exogenous elements introduced during food processing. These elements are responsible for the microwear typology observed on the enamel surfaces of primate teeth. Here we analyzed the variability of buccal microwear patterns in African Great Apes (Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes), using tooth molds obtained from the original specimens held in several osteological collections. Our results suggest that ecological adaptations at subspecies or population level account for differences in microwear patterns, which are attributed to habitat and ecological conditions within populations rather than differences between species. The findings from studies on the variability of buccal dental microwear in extant species will contribute to a better understanding of extinct hominids' diet and ecology.

  9. Proteomics of buccal squamous cell carcinoma: the involvement of multiple pathways in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; He, Qing-Yu; Yuen, Anthony Po-Wing; Chiu, Jeng-Fu

    2004-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the buccal mucosa is an aggressive oral cancer. It mainly occurs in Central and Southeast Asia, and is closely related to the practice of tobacco smoking and betel squid chewing. The high recurrence and low survival rates of buccal SCC require our continued efforts to understand the pathogenesis of the disease for designing better therapeutic strategies. We used proteomic technology to analyze buccal SCC tissues aiming at identifying tumor-associated proteins for the utilization as biomarkers or molecular targets. With the exception of alpha B-crystallin being substantially reduced, a number of proteins were found to be significantly over-expressed in cancer tissues. These increased proteins included glycolytic enzymes, heat-shock proteins, tumor antigens, cytoskeleton proteins, enzymes involved in detoxification and anti-oxidation systems, and proteins involved in mitochondrial and intracellular signaling pathways. These extensive protein variations indicate that multiple cellular pathways were involved in the process of tumorigenesis, and suggest that multiple protein molecules should be simultaneously targeted as an effective strategy to counter the disease. At least, SCC antigen, G protein, glutathione S-transferase, manganese superoxide dismutase, annexins, voltage-dependent anion channel, cyclophilin A, stratifin and galectin 7 are candidates for targeted proteins. The present findings also demonstrated that rich protein information can be produced by means of proteomic analysis for a better understanding of the oncogenesis and pathogenesis in a global way, which in turn is a basis for the rational designs of diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

  10. Effect of nickel and chromium exposure on buccal cells of electroplaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Saba; Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    The electroplating industry commonly involves the use of nickel and chromium. An assessment of the genotoxic effects of these metals can be carried out by micronucleus (MN) test in buccal cells. Other nuclear anomalies (NA) observed in buccal cells viz., karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis are also the indicators of genotoxicity. The current study aims at determining the extent of genotoxic damage in relation to the duration of exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium via micronuclei induction and other nuclear anomalies. The present investigation included 150 subjects of which 50 individuals with no history of nickel/chromium exposure (Group I) were taken as control, 50 electroplaters exposed to nickel and hexavalent chromium for duration of less than 10 years (Group II) and 50 electroplaters exposed for ≥10 years (Group III) were included. Slides of buccal cells were prepared and the frequency of MN (‰) and NA (‰) were calculated. ANOVA was applied to test significance. Results were considered significant at p exposure increased. Plasma nickel and chromium levels were also determined which showed a positive correlation with frequency MN and other nuclear abnormalities (p < 0.01).

  11. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  13. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose.

  14. Modeling of the buccal and lingual bone walls of fresh extraction sites following implant installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Wennström, Jan L; Lindhe, Jan

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether the reduction of the alveolar ridge that occurs following tooth extraction and implant placement is influenced by the size of the hard tissue walls of the socket. Six beagle dogs were used. The third premolar and first molar in both quadrants of the mandible were used. Mucoperiostal flaps were elevated and the distal roots were removed. Implants were installed in the fresh extraction socket in one side of the mandible. The flaps were replaced to allow a semi-submerged healing. The procedure was repeated in the contra later side of the mandible after 2 months. The animals were sacrificed 1 month after the final implant installation. The mandibles were dissected, and each implant site was removed and processed for ground sectioning. Marked hard tissue alterations occurred during healing following tooth extraction and implant installation in the socket. The marginal gap that was present between the implant and the walls of the socket at implantation disappeared as a result of bone fill and resorption of the bone crest. The modeling in the marginal defect region was accompanied by marked attenuation of the dimensions of both the delicate buccal and the wider lingual bone wall. Bone loss at molar sites was more pronounced than at the premolar locations. Implant placement failed to preserve the hard tissue dimension of the ridge following tooth extraction. The buccal as well as the lingual bone walls were resorbed. At the buccal aspect, this resulted in some marginal loss of osseointegration.

  15. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction - less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  16. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  17. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of Greek farmers using the micronucleus assay in peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, S; Gutiérrez, S; Creus, A; Xamena, N; Piperakis, S; Marcos, R

    2001-11-01

    The potential cytogenetic damage associated with pesticide use in Greek agricultural workers was evaluated using micronuclei (MN) as biomarkers in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa. In addition, the effects of pesticide exposure and other variables on the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in lymphocytes were also evaluated. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Nea Makri, a village near Athens (Greece). This location was selected for its high greenhouse density. Micronuclei were analysed in 50 agricultural workers exposed to pesticides (30 men and 20 women) and in 66 non-exposed individuals that constituted the control group (41 men and 25 women). The comparison between workers and controls did not reveal any statistical significant difference in the MN frequency for either lymphocytes or buccal cells. Nevertheless, the multiple regression analysis revealed that the age and the interaction between gender and the number of X-ray examinations during the last 3 years preceding the sampling increased the number of MN in lymphocytes. Moreover, the results of the negative binomial regression analysis suggested that the level of MN in buccal cells could be reduced by the intake of fish, whilst being increased by olive oil consumption. Regarding CBPI, the value found in the exposed group was lower than in controls, the difference being statistically significant. On the other hand, CBPI was inversely associated with both age and X-ray exposure.

  19. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque SE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shaikh Ershadul Haque, Angappan Sheela Materials Chemistry Division, Centre for Nanomaterials, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met, an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7. The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: chitosan, sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose, drug-delivery system, immediate release

  20. Micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells from hairdresser who expose to hair products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hui Yee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdresser is one of the fastest growing occupations in today’s society. Hairdresser help styling, cutting, colouring, perming, curling, straightening hair and various treatment to customer. Somehow, hairdresser are constantly exposed to chemical substances such as aromatic amines, hydrogen peroxide, thioglycolic acid, formaldehyde in hair products which can cause damage to human’s genome. Micronucleus is one of the effective biomarker for processes associated with the induction of DNA damage. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells of hairdresser who were exposed to chemical of hair products. Method: This study was conducted on twenty female subjects, who were divided into 2 groups: exposed and non-exposed (control group. All subjects recruited were working in the same beauty salon. Buccal cells were obtained from each individual by using cytobrush. The cells were stained with modified Feulgen-Ronssenback method and counting of micronucleus per 1000 cell was done under light microscope. The data were analyzed using independent t-test and one-way Anova (p<0.05. Result: The result showed a significant difference in micronucleus frequency between 2 groups. There were a significantly increase of micronucleus frequency in hairdressers and increase of  micronucleus frequency with the longer duration of exposure. Conclusion: It concluded that the chemical substances of hair products had affected the micronucleus frequency ofthe epithelial cells in buccal mucosa of hairdressers.

  1. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Minhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment, and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p<0.05. Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy.

  2. Buccal or sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzonzini, G; Hofmeyr, G J

    2004-10-18

    This is one of a series of reviews of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. Misoprostol administered by the oral and sublingual routes have the advantage of rapid onset of action, while the sublingual and vaginal routes have the advantage of prolonged activity and greatest bioavailability. To determine the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol administered buccally or sublingually for third trimester cervical ripening and induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (8 December 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003), and bibliographies of relevant papers. Randomised controlled trials comparing buccal or sublingual misoprostol used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A generic strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. Data were extracted onto standardized forms, checked for accuracy, and analysed using RevMan software. Three studies (502 participants) compared buccal/sublingual misoprostol respectively with a vaginal regimen (200 microg versus 50 microg) and with oral administration (50 versus 50 microg and 50 versus 100microg).The buccal route was associated with a trend to fewer caesarean sections than with the vaginal route (18/73 versus 28/79; relative risk (RR) 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 1.15). There were no significant differences in any other outcomes. When the same dosage was used sublingually versus orally, the sublingual route was associated with less failures to achieve vaginal delivery within 24 hours (12/50 versus 19/50; RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.16), reduced oxytocin augmentation (17/50 versus 23/50; RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.21) and reduced caesarean section (8/50 versus 15/50; RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.25 to

  3. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in

  4. Division within the North American boreal forest: Ecological niche divergence between the Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) and Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Alyssa M

    2017-07-01

    Sister species that diverged in allopatry in similar environments are expected to exhibit niche conservatism. Using ecological niche modeling and a multivariate analysis of climate and habitat data, I test the hypothesis that the Bicknell's Thrush ( Catharus bicknelli ) and Gray-cheeked Thrush ( C. mimimus ), sister species that breed in the North American boreal forest, show niche conservatism. Three tree species that are important components of breeding territories of both thrush species were combined with climatic variables to create niche models consisting of abiotic and biotic components. Abiotic-only, abiotic+biotic, and biotic-only models were evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) criterion. Abiotic+biotic models had higher AUC scores and did not over-project thrush distributions compared to abiotic-only or biotic-only models. From the abiotic+biotic models, I tested for niche conservatism or divergence by accounting for the differences in the availability of niche components by calculating (1) niche overlap from ecological niche models and (2) mean niche differences of environmental values at occurrence points. Niche background similarity tests revealed significant niche divergence in 10 of 12 comparisons, and multivariate tests revealed niche divergence along 2 of 3 niche axes. The Bicknell's Thrush breeds in warmer and wetter regions with a high abundance of balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ), whereas Gray-cheeked Thrush often co-occurs with black spruce ( Picea mariana ). Niche divergence, rather than conservatism, was the predominant pattern for these species, suggesting that ecological divergence has played a role in the speciation of the Bicknell's Thrush and Gray-cheeked Thrush. Furthermore, because niche models were improved by the incorporation of biotic variables, this study validates the inclusion of relevant biotic factors in ecological niche modeling to increase model accuracy.

  5. Beyond-use date determination of buprenorphine buccal solution using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren Madden; Brown, Stacy D

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study included developing and validating a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection for the determination of buprenorphine in a buccal solution for veterinary use, and applying that method to determine the stability of a 3 mg/ml buprenorphine preparation in room temperature and refrigerated storage conditions. This preparation, intended for buccal administration in feline patients, plays an important role in pain management in cats. A stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for system suitability, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, specificity, linearity and robustness based on US Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter . The method was then applied to the study of potency changes over 90 days in a buccal buprenorphine solution stored at two temperatures. All HPLC-UV method data met acceptable criteria for the quantification of buprenorphine in a buccal solution formulation. The buprenorphine concentrations found in each stability sample remained within the 90-110% of label claim throughout the 90 days of study. All stability test bottles of the buprenorphine buccal solution retained their original appearance. For the room temperature bottles, some white particulate matter was noted in the threads of the container bottles starting at day 21. The pH of the preparations during the course of the study was in the range of 3.57-4.06 and 4.01-4.16 for the room temperature and refrigerated samples, respectively. Pharmacists have compounded a concentrated 3 mg/ml buccal solution to use easily in the home care or outpatient setting for treatment of feline pain. Prior to this investigation, pharmacists empirically assigned beyond-use dates to this formulation based on standards in USP General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding - Nonsterile Preparations. This study of a 3 mg/ml buprenorphine buccal solution indicates stability through 90 days. © ISFM and

  6. Sodium borocaptate (BSH) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: boron biodistribution at 9 post administration time-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M.A.; Heber, E.M.; Monti, Hughes A.; Molinari, A.J.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) depends centrally on boron concentration in tumor and healthy tissue. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as boron carriers for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Given the clinical relevance of sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) as a boron carrier, the aim of the present study was to expand the ongoing BSH biodistribution studies in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. In particular, we studied 3 additional post-administration time-points and increased the sample size corresponding to the time-points evaluated previously, to select more accurately the post-administration time at which neutron irradiation would potentially confer the greatest therapeutic advantage. BSH was dissolved in saline solution in anaerobic conditions to avoid the formation of the dimer BSSB and its oxides which are toxic. The solution was injected intravenously at a dose of 50 mg 10 B/kg (88 mg BSH / kg). Different groups of animals were killed humanely at 7, 8, and 10 h after administration of BSH. The sample size corresponding to the time-points 3, 4, 6, 9 and 12 h was increased. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous tissue, normal pouch tissue, cheek mucosa, parotid gland, palate, skin, tongue, spinal cord marrow, brain, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were processed for boron measurement by Optic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron concentration in tumor peaked to 24-34 ppm, 3-10 h post-administration of BSH, with a spread in values that resembled that previously reported in other experimental models and human subjects. The boron concentration ratios tumor/normal pouch tissue and tumor/blood ranged from 1.3 to 1.8. No selective tumor uptake was observed at any of the time points evaluated. The times post-administration of BSH that would be therapeutically most useful would be 5, 7 and 9 h. The

  7. Effect of buccal gap distance on alveolar ridge alteration after immediate implant placement: a microcomputed tomographic and morphometric analysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluemsakunthai, Warunee; Le, Bach; Kasugai, Shohei

    2015-02-01

    The buccal bone resorption and the deformation of soft tissue contour are major problems of immediate implant treatment. This study aims to examine the changes of alveolar bone and soft tissue after immediate implant placement in different buccal gap distances. Eight implants were placed randomly in the mandibular premolar sockets of 6 hybrid dogs with 1, 2, and 3 mm buccal gap distances. The dogs were killed after 2 or 4 months for morphometric and microcomputed tomography analyses. After 2 months, the 3-mm group had the highest buccal bone volume (BV), buccal bone/soft tissue thickness, and the lowest bone resorption. The wider the buccal gap, the more buccal bone and soft tissue were formed in this experimental setting. After 4 months, the buccal BV had decreased significantly in the 1-mm and the 2-mm groups, whereas the 3-mm group resisted to buccal bone resorption. This difference was more pronounced at the crest. The 3 mm is the optimal gap distance among the groups examined, which drastically influences the healing of bone and soft tissue surrounding the implants.

  8. Effects of bone grafting, performed with corticotomies and buccal tooth movements, on dehiscence formation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare-Welchel, Britney; Campbell, Phillip M; Gonzalez, Marianela; Buschang, Peter H

    2017-06-01

    A randomized split-mouth experiment was performed in dogs to determine the effects of bone grafting, together with corticotomies and buccal tooth movements, on dehiscence formation. Bilateral full-thickness mucoperiosteal buccal flaps were raised, and corticotomies were performed with a piezosurgery unit adjacent to the maxillary second premolars in 7 dogs. The experimental (graft+) side received a demineralized freeze-dried allograph and a resorbable collagen membrane. The second premolars were expanded with archwires for 9 weeks, followed by 3 weeks of consolidation. Soft tissue measurements included probing depths, attachment loss, and recession. Tooth movements were monitored using intraoral, radiographic, and model measurements. Bone surrounding the second premolars was evaluated with microcomputed tomography. New bone formation was analyzed histologically using calcein and alizarin fluorescent labels, and hematoxylin and eosin stains. Postsurgical healing progressed normally with no signs of infection. The graft+ and control (graft-) second premolars underwent similar amounts of expansion (about 2.5 mm intraorally; about 1.7 mm radiographically) and tipping, with no statistically significant side differences. The soft tissue periodontium was not affected on either side. There were bony dehiscences on both the graft+ and graft- sides, with slightly but significantly (P = 0.038) more bone loss over the mesial root on the graft- side. Bone material density was significantly (P = 0.028) greater on the graft+ side. Buccal bone apposition was evident surrounding graft particles, and mineralized particulate graft material was present at the apical aspect of the roots on the graft+ side. Bone grafting does not prevent dehiscence formation because only a limited amount of new bone is formed, primarily at the more apical aspects of the tooth's roots. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  10. Second trimester medical abortion with mifepristone followed by unlimited dosing of buccal misoprostol in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Karmen S; Chong, Erica; Tsereteli, Tamar; Avagyan, Gayane; Abrahamyan, Ruzanna; Winikoff, Beverly

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and acceptability of a regimen using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol with unlimited dosing for second trimester abortion in Armenia. Women seeking to terminate 13-22 week pregnancies were enrolled in the study. Participants swallowed 200 mg mifepristone in the clinic and were instructed to return to the hospital for induction 24-48 h later. During induction, women were given 400 μg buccal misoprostol every 3 h until the fetus and placenta were expelled. The abortion was considered a success if complete uterine evacuation was achieved without oxytocin or surgery. A total of 120 women with a median gestational age of 18 weeks participated in the study. All women began misoprostol induction around 24 h after taking mifepristone. Complete uterine evacuation was achieved in 119 (99.2%) women. The median induction-to-abortion interval was 10.3 h (range 4-17.4) with a mean of 9.5 ± 2.5 h. A median of four misoprostol doses (range 2-6) with a mean of 4 ± 1 misoprostol doses were administered. The induction-to-abortion interval, number of misoprostol doses, pain score and analgesia use increased as gestational age advanced. Acceptability of the method was high among both patients and providers. The medical abortion regimen of 200 mg mifepristone followed 24 h later by induction with 400 μg buccal misoprostol administered every 3 h, with no limit on the number of doses used for the termination of pregnancies of 13-22 weeks' gestation is an effective and acceptable option for women.

  11. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oro-buccal symptoms (dysphagia, dysarthria, and sialorrhea) in patients with Parkinson's disease: preliminary analysis from the French COPARK cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, S; Nègre-Pagès, L; Ojero-Senard, A; Damier, P; Destée, A; Tison, F; Merello, M; Rascol, O

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal oro-buccal functions including dysarthria, sialorrhea and dysphagia commonly affect patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). To estimate the prevalence of such oro-buccal symptoms at baseline in the first 419 patients with PD included in the COPARK cohort and to analyze their correlations with patients' demographics, clinical characteristics, and drugs consumption. Patients were assessed using the Unified PD Rating Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDQ-39. Dysarthria, sialorrhea, and dysphagia were defined as UPDRS items 5, 6, or 7 ≥ 1. Dysarthria, sialorrhea, or dysphagia were present in 51%, 37%, or 18% out of the 419 patients, respectively. At least one of these symptom was present in 267/419 patients (65%), whilst a combination of symptoms was present in 136/419 (33%). Logistic regression showed that the presence of each of the three oro-buccal symptoms was significantly correlated with that of the two others. Other correlations included male gender, hallucinations, disease severity, levodopa use and lack of opiates consumption for dysarthria; disease severity, orthostatic hypotension and absence of antidepressants consumption for sialorrhea; female gender, motor fluctuations, and depressive symptoms for dysphagia. None of the three oro-buccal symptoms were associated with a reduced PDQ-39 score. Oro-buccal symptoms were present in two of three patients with moderate PD, the presence of each symptoms being significantly correlated with that of the two others. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  13. The Anterior SMAS Approach for Facelifting and for Buccal Fat Pad Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Malcolm D

    2017-10-01

    Having performed numerous varieties of SMAS advancement including: plication, resection, flap elevation with variable anterior deep dissection, the author has developed a direct approach to the mobile anterior SMAS which allows correction of midface descent, modest elevation of the modiolus, jawline correction, and, where indicated, direct access for buccal fat pad resection. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  14. The mechanics of buccal canine retraction springs for removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, N E

    1982-07-01

    The force-displacement characteristics of three types of buccal-canine retraction spring to both horizontal (normal) and vertical displacements is derived from simple beam theory. The analyses are used to examine theoretically the effect of variations in the geometry of a given type of spring and also to compare the merits of three designs in terms of the force applied on activation, and their stability to vertical displacement. Experimental measurements on enlarged models of the force-displacement behaviour were in good agreement with the values predicted by the derived equations.

  15. Postradiation immunoendocrine homeostasis in patients with cancer of the buccal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, N.P.; Pavlov, A.S.; Lyasko, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    A follow-up of the immune and endocrine homeostasis was carried out for 1 to 3 years in 80 patients with cancer of the buccal mucose (T 1-2 , N 0 , M 0 ), exposed to intratissue therapy with 252 Cf and 60 Co alone and in combination with longdistance gamma-beam therapy. The status of the postradiation immune and endocrine homeostasis was found to depend on the dose load of the critical organs, the thymus and hypophysis. Complete recovery of the parameters was obsered in the patients administered lower irradiation dose, whereas after higher doses of irradiation no complete recovery was observed in remote periods after radiotherapy

  16. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in a sodium carboxymethylcellulose gel after buccal transmucosal administration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotscheck, Ursula; Boothe, Dawn Merton; Little, Amy A; Erb, Hollis N

    2010-01-01

    Alternatives to intravenous administration of opioids are needed in veterinary medicine. Previous research suggests that opioids can be administered through the buccal mucosa in dogs. This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine HCl (0.05 mg/kg) administered transmucosally in six dogs compared with those of buprenorphine HCl (0.015 mg/kg) administered intravenously. The results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine HCl administered intravenously or transmucosally are similar and that transmucosal administration may be considered as a noninvasive alternative to intravenous administration.

  17. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity

  18. The administration of beta carotene to prevent and regress oral carcinoma in the hamster cheek pouch and the associated enhancement of the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L; Shklar, G; Flynn, E; Trickler, D

    1990-01-01

    In the past four years this laboratory has utilized the hamster cheek pouch tumor model to investigate the anticancer activities of antioxidants, such as beta carotene. These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. The results have been either the inhibition of tumor growth, or the regression of tumor. Adjacent to the degenerating tumors a dense inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. The results indicated that tumor cells accumulated the liposomes and were lysed while normal mucosal cells did not demonstrate this effect. Therefore antioxidants such as beta carotene can be localized to a tumor site, without a toxic response. Future studies on the anticancer activity of the antioxidants need to focus on the cellular and molecular changes produced in the immune effectors and in the mucosal cells following administration of the antioxidants.

  19. Postnatal mandibular cheek tooth development in the miniature pig based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yoshiaki; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Matsunaga, Satoru; Iwanaga, Takehiro; Tominaga, Noriko; Tamaki, Yuichi

    2013-08-01

    The miniature pig is a useful large laboratory animal model. Various tissues and organs of miniature pigs are similar to those of humans in terms of developmental, anatomical, immunological, and physiological characteristics. The oral and maxillofacial region of miniature pigs is often used in preclinical studies of regenerative dentistry. However, there is limited information on the dentition and tooth structure of miniature pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the time-course changes of dentition and tooth structure (especially the root) of the miniature pig mandibular cheek teeth through X-ray analyses using soft X-ray for two-dimensional observations and micro-CT for three-dimensional observations. The mandibles of male Clawn strain miniature pigs (2 weeks and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, and 29 months of age) were used. X-ray analysis of the dentition of miniature pig cheek teeth showed that the eruption pattern of the miniature pig is diphyodont and that the replacement pattern is vertical. Previous definitions of deciduous and permanent teeth often varied and there has been no consensus on the number of teeth (dentition); however, we found that three molars are present in the deciduous dentition and that four premolars and three molars are present in the permanent dentition. Furthermore, we confirmed the number of tooth roots and root canals. We believe that these findings will be highly useful in future studies using miniature pig teeth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altered anatomy in a case with a buccally impacted maxillary canine tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Comes, C A; Stanciu, D; Ciuluvică, R C; Motoc, A; Niculescu, M C; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral dissections of maxilla were performed in a human adult cadaver head, male, aged 53 years. After the en block removal of the soft tissues in the oral and infraorbital regions, the antero-lateral surface of maxilla was exposed and also the vestibular aspect of the upper alveolar process. An oblique labially impacted right upper canine was evidenced, completely submucosal: its apex was tangent to the maxillary sinus floor, while the superior side of the apical part of the root was in close relation with the floor of the laterally expanded inferior nasal meatus. Superior and adjacent to the neck of that impacted canine a follicular cyst was evidenced and the antral wall presented distally to the apex of the impacted canine a dehiscent area, where the antral mucosa was only covered by an incomplete thin bony lamella. The incisors on that side were present but no resorption was identified at their level. Within the anterior border of the wall separating the maxillary sinus, small, and the inferior nasal meatus, the nerve for that impacted canine was coursing; the nerves for the upper incisors were initially located within the antero-lateral wall of the inferior nasal meatus. Although small, the maxillary sinus presented a supero-medial recess above the enlarged inferior nasal meatus and lateral to the normally-sized middle nasal meatus.

  1. Testosterone Buccal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland, (a small gland in the brain), or hypothalamus (a part of the brain) that cause hypogonadism. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have breast cancer or have or may have prostate cancer. Your ...

  2. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55 ± 5 and 35 ± 5 min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets.

  3. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  4. Low-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy preserves good quality of life in buccal mucosa cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayier, A.; Hayashi, Keiji; Yoshimura, Ryoichi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the results and long-term changes in radiation toxicity of stage I-II buccal mucosa cancer patients treated by low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy with 198 Au grains. A total of 133 stage I-II buccal mucosa carcinomas patients received 198 Au grain implantation brachytherapy between January 1982 and July 2005: 75 of them were treated by 198 Au grain implantation alone and 58 were treated by 198 Au implantation in combination with external irradiation. The average 198 Au-grain dose was 70 Gy in 7 days. Gross tumor areas ranged from 2.4 cm 2 to 9 cm 2 , and the clinical target areas ranged from 6 cm 2 to 15 cm 2 . The follow-up periods ranged from 3 months to 20 years (mean: 5 years 11 months and median: 5 years 1 months). Failure at the site of the primary lesion occurred in 17 patients. Post-treatment mucosal ulceration developed in 15 patients, and all were cured within 25 months by conservative treatment. Osteoradionecrosis was diagnosed in 8 patients, but only one patient required surgical treatment. No severe complications or aggravation of complications developed more than 10 years after treatment. The results of low-dose-rate (LDR)-brachytherapy (BT) alone and LDR-BT in combination with external irradiation at a total dose of 25 Gy were acceptable from the standpoint of cure rate and quality of life (QOL). (author)

  5. Development of Buccal Patches for Delivery of Darifenacin from Beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati C. Jagdale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-cyclodextrin complexes improve aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solubilisation followed by buccal delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs can be advantageous for increasing drug absorption. Darifenacin is an antispasmodic used against urinary incontinence and specifically blocks M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in smooth muscle. M3 receptors are mainly located in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. The oral absorption of darifenacin is poor owing to its low solubility. It also has poor bioavailability (15-19% due to a high rate of first-pass metabolism. Complexation with beta-cyclodextrin was carried out to enhance solubility. The best results were obtained by co-grinding in a 1:1 molar ratio of drug: β-cyclodextrin. The solid inclusion complexes were characterized by DSC, X-ray diffractometry and FTIR. Inclusion complexes showed higher dissolution rates than the pure drug. Controlledrelease mucoadhesive patches were prepared with two hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC polymers, K100M CR and K15. The patches were assessed for surface pH, folding endurance, swelling, mucoadhesive properties, in-vitro residence time, vapor transmission test and in-vitro (cellophane, egg membrane and exvivo (goat buccal mucosa release. Formulations Ha2 (2% HPMC K100M CR and Pa4 (4% HPMC K15 showed good mucoadhesive strength, in-vitro and exvivo residence times, with controlled release for 10 hours.

  6. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Ascolong: a new buccal dosage form of acetylsalicylic acid to be used and antiaggregant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurina, E V; Suslina, Z A; Khromov, G L; Davydo, A B; Metelitsa, V I; Ionova, V G; Tanashian, M M; Demina, E G; Bochkareva, E V; Belolipetskaia, V G; Deev, A D; Kucheriaeva, N G; Zidra, S I; Gorin, N N; Rumiantsev, D O

    1998-01-01

    Study of the tolerance and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ascolong, a new buccal dosage form of aspirin containing a very low dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): 12.5 mg. The study was carried out in 43 healthy men (assessment of the drug tolerance) and 19 male patients with coronary disease or cerebrovascular disorders. In 10 patients the antiaggregant efficacy of ascolong administered once or regularly (for 2 weeks) in a dose of 12.5 mg was compared with placebo, in 9 patients a random cross study of 2-week courses of ascolong and Russian aspirin tablets in a dose of 100 mg was carried out. Platelet aggregation was assessed on days 1 and 14 of each course before and 2, 4, and 24 h after the drug intake. Ascolong containing a very low dose of ASA exerts a reliable antiaggregant effect after a single and regular intake, although this effect is less manifest than after aspirin tablets. Profiles of ASA concentrations in the blood were studied. Transbuccal entry of ASA in systemic circulation decelerated its metabolism into a less active metabolite, salicylic acid, due to which fact the ASA microdose had an expressed antiaggregant effect. The drug was sufficiently well tolerated. The new buccal film form of aspirin containing a very low dose of ASA possesses a good antiaggregant effect and is promising in subjects with contraindications to oral intake of aspirin.

  8. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  9. Comparison of cytological parameters of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in different temperament groups

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    Zahra Zendehboodi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temperament (Mizaj forms the basic concept of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM, and greatly influences the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as maintains the ideal healthy state of an individual. In particular, temperament is presumed to affect the morphological, physiological, and psychological features of a person; however, its influence on biological features remains unclear in practical ITM. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the temperament and the cytological features of buccal mucosa in healthy people. Methods: The study sample included 75 healthy individuals from Fars province, southern Iran. The temperament was determined using a self-reported temperament identification scale. Based on the questionnaire, volunteers were classified in nine temperaments including one equilibrium, four simple temperaments (warm, cold, moist, and dry, and four combined temperaments (warm–moist, warm–dry, cold–moist, cold–dry. Smears collected from the buccal mucosa of participants were analyzed for biomarkers of DNA damage, cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential, and cell death using micronucleus (MN assay. Student’s t-test or Mann–Whitney U test was applied to identify the differences between groups. Results: DNA damage (nuclear buds and cell death biomarkers (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexic, pyknotic, and karyolitic cells reported significant differences between certain temperament groups. Conclusions: The present study reported that the aforementioned cytological parameters could be affected by the temperament; however, more studies with greater sample sizes are warranted.

  10. Evaluation of polyvinyl alcohols as mucoadhesive polymers for mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared by direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Ishihara, Chizuko; Onishi, Hiraku

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate polyvinyl alcohols (PVAs) as a mucoadhesive polymer for mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared by direct compression. Various polymerization degree and particle diameter PVAs were investigated for their usability. The tensile strength, in vitro adhesive force, and water absorption properties of the tablets were determined to compare the various PVAs. The highest values of the tensile strength and the in vitro adhesive force were observed for PVAs with a medium viscosity and small particle size. The optimal PVA was identified by a factorial design analysis. Mucoadhesive tablets containing the optimal PVA were compared with carboxyvinyl polymer and hydroxypropyl cellulose formulations. The optimal PVA gives a high adhesive force, has a low viscosity, and resulted in relatively rapid drug release. Formulations containing carboxyvinyl polymer had high tensile strengths but short disintegration times. Higher hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration formulations had good adhesion forces and very long disintegration times. We identified the optimal characteristics of PVA, and the usefulness of mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing this PVA was suggested from their formulation properties.

  11. Smile attractiveness related to buccal corridor space in 3 different facial types: A perception of 3 ethnic groups of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Smita; Oh, Yih Y; Mok, Reei Y; Tioh, Jing Y; Yew, Kai J; Patil, Pravinkumar G

    2018-03-16

    Buccal corridor space and its variations greatly influence smile attractiveness. Facial types are different for different ethnic populations, and so is smile attractiveness. The subjective perception of smile attractiveness of different populations may vary in regard to different buccal corridor spaces and facial patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine esthetic perceptions of the Malaysian population regarding the width of buccal corridor spaces and their effect on smile esthetics in individuals with short, normal, and long faces. The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial face was modified to create 2 different facial types (brachyfacial and dolicofacial). Each face form was further modified into 5 different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%). The images were submitted to 3 different ethnic groups of evaluators (Chinese, Malay, Indian; 100 each), ranging between 17 and 21 years of age. A visual analog scale (50 mm in length) was used for assessment. The scores given to each image were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, and pairwise comparison was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). All 3 groups of evaluators could distinguish gradations of dark spaces in the buccal corridor at 2%, 10%, and 28%. Statistically significant differences were observed among 3 groups of evaluators in esthetic perception when pairwise comparisons were performed. A 15% buccal corridor was found to score esthetically equally within 3 face types by all 3 groups of evaluators. The Indian population was more critical in evaluation than the Chinese or Malay populations. In a pairwise comparison, more significant differences were found between long and short faces and the normal face; the normal face was compared with long and short faces separately. The width of the buccal corridor space influences smile attractiveness in different facial types. A medium buccal corridor (15%) is the esthetic characteristic preferred by all groups of evaluators

  12. Laparoscopic creation of neovagina and neocervix, followed by their reconstruction with polytetrafluoroethylene graft/buccal mucosa and pudendal artery perforator flap

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    Yi-Chieh Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cervical agenesis of is a rare Müllerian anomaly that may be associated with partial or complete vaginal aplasia and renal anomalies. Symptoms such as amenorrhea and abdominal pain usually develop shortly after menarche, when the absence or obstruction of the cervical canal results in blood accumulation in the uterus and fallopian tubes, and finally in the peritoneal cavity. Physical examination sometimes reveals normally developed external sex organs. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may potentially result in extensive endometriosis, which may potentially cause severe adhesion and damage to reproductivity. Such consequences could complicate further the management of the disease. Traditionally, hysterectomy has been the treatment of choice in these cases because of the high failure rate of canalization procedures and risk of serious ascending infection. With advanced laparoscopic techniques, conservative management seems feasible and has been recommended. We herein present a patient with complete cervical and vaginal agenesis. Creation of a neovagina and uterovaginal anastomosis were performed first under the guidance of laparoscopy (Figure 1. A neocervix was composed of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft and a piece of oral mucosa retrieved from the buccal area. The neovagina was reconstructed with an external pudendal artery perforator flap. A cervical Fr 16 size Foley was left in place as a stent. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery and fair wound healing at the outpatient follow-up. Congenital agenesis of the uterine cervix and vagina can be differentiated accurately and reconstructed laparoscopically. Using mesh-buccal mucosa composite and pudendal perforator flap is a practical way to reconstruct neocervix and neovagina after their creation.

  13. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

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    Gavin A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Gavin,1 Jimmy TH Pham,2 Dawei Wang,2 Bill Brownlow,3 Tamer A Elbayoumi3 1College of Dental Medicine, 2Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy-Glendale, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA Abstract: Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs, containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen, were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (-28 mV exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05. Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE

  14. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl buccal for cancer pain management by administration through a soluble film: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Guay, Marvin Omar

    2010-01-01

    More than half of patients receiving prescription medicine for cancer pain have been reported to experience inadequate pain relief or breakthrough pain. Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. Literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed). Search terms included combinations of the following: cancer pain, fentanyl, fentanyl buccal soluble film, pharmacology, kinetics, safety, efficacy and toxicity. FBSF is an oral transmucosal form of fentanyl citrate developed as a treatment of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer. Studies have shown that it is well tolerated in the oral cavity, with adequate bioavailability and safety in cancer patients. Further studies are warranted to evaluate, in comparison with other short-acting opioids, its efficacy in the management of breakthrough cancer pain, its addictive potential and its economic impact in cancer patients

  15. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  16. Buccal, intranasal or intravenous lorazepam for the treatment of acute convulsions in children in Malawi: An open randomized trial

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    Samantha Lissauer

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Intravenous lorazepam effectively treats most childhood seizures in this setting. Intranasal and buccal routes are less effective but may be useful in pre-hospital care or when intravenous access cannot be obtained. Further studies comparing intranasal lorazepam to other benzodiazepines, or alternative doses by a non-intravenous route are warranted.

  17. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75 NGFR , a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO 2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75 NGFR , BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75 NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75 NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75 NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75 NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75 NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  18. Efficacy of lignocaine in gel and spray form during buccal infiltration anesthesia in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshul; Suprabha, B S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic, in reducing pain, during buccal infiltration in children. Forty-two patients aged between 7 and 12 years requiring restorative procedures/extraction/pulp therapy of primary/ permanent teeth in the maxillary arch, under buccal infiltration anesthesia were selected for the study. The participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 21 each. In group A, 8% lignocaine gel and in group B, 15% lignocaine spray was applied prior to buccal infiltration. Pain was assessed using Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPRS) and faces legs activity cry and consolability (FLACC) painscale. Pearson's chi-square test revealed that there was no significant difference in the FLACC scores of the two groups (p = 0.54). Independent t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference in Wong-Bakers faces pain score between the two agents (p = 0.07). There is no significant difference in the efficacy of 15% lignocaine spray and 8% lignocaine gel as a topical anesthetic in controlling pain during buccal infiltration anesthesia, in children.

  19. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using computerised axial tomography with histological and ultrastructural examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toit, Nicole du; Burden, Faith A; Kempson, Sue A; Dixon, Padraic M

    2008-12-01

    Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

  20. Assessment of improved buccal permeation and bioavailability of felodipine microemulsion-based cross-linked polycarbophil gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra; Kanoujia, Jovita; Parashar, Poonam; Arya, Malti; Tripathi, Chandra B; Sinha, V R; Saraf, Shailendra K; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2018-02-08

    The oral bioavailability of felodipine (FEL) is very low, i.e., about 15%. This could be due to low water solubility and hepatic first-pass effect. The objective of the present study was to develop FEL microemulsion-based gel, to bypass the first pass effect, for buccal delivery. The optimized FEL microemulsion (OPT-MEF) was used to prepare buccoadhesive gels, with varying concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E4M and polycarbophil (PCP), and evaluated. The cross-linking of the PCP gelling agent was done by adjusting the pH with a neutralizing agent, triethanolamine (TEA). The formulations, namely drug suspension, OPT-MEF, microemulsion-based buccal gel containing 1% w/v (MEF-E4M1), 2% w/v (MEF-E4M2), and 3% w/v (MEF-E4M3) of HPMC K4M and 1% w/v (MEF-PCP1), 2% w/v (MEF-PCP2), and 3% w/v (MEF-PCP3) of PCP were prepared and optimized on the basis of ex vivo permeation study, mucoadhesion force, and viscosity. The optimized buccal gel (MEF-PCP1) showed significantly higher (p pseudoplastic flow behavior of MEF-PCP1 buccal gel. The C max value 9.21 ± 2.88 μg/ml of MEF-PCP1 gel was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) compared to the same dose administered by oral route (C max value 3.51 ± 1.74 μg/ml). The relative bioavailability (F r ) of the optimized MEF-PCP1 buccal gel was about 397.39% higher than that of oral route. In conclusion, consistent and effective buccal gel containing optimized FEL-loaded microemulsion, with improved buccal permeation and pharmacokinetic parameters was developed successfully to improve the bioavailability of FEL.

  1. Exo-buccal dental radiology - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celier, D.; Megnigbeto, C.; Aubert, B.; Rehel, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.; Biau, A.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Ariscon, J.M.; Barret, C.; Devaux, M.J.; Dohan, D.; Gambini, D.; Guerin, C.; Le Denmat, D.; Rocher, P.; Sevalle, M.

    2009-10-01

    This document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing exo-buccal examinations (by either panoramic radiography or by volume tomography). It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process of snapshot taking, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks

  2. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  3. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

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    Barbosa Maria do

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group] or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]. Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  4. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus.

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    Christina I Barrón-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus and a non-caballine (E. conversidens species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  5. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Ortiz, Christina I; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Theodor, Jessica M; Kooyman, Brian P; Yang, Dongya Y; Speller, Camilla F

    2017-01-01

    Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus) and a non-caballine (E. conversidens) species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis) was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  6. Fibrous dysplasia of the maxillary sinus: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalakshmi Subramaniam; Adarsha Tuluvinakoppa Vasudeva Herle

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Fibrous dysplasia is a non-neoplastic lesion of unknown origin with one-fourth involving head and neck. The aim of this paper is to report a case of fibrous dysplasia of the maxillary sinus, describing its clinical presentation, radiological features, histopathological appearance and surgical management. Case report: 3-year-old female patient who presented with a history of fullness of the right cheek and intraoral swelling was diagnosed to have fibrous dysplasia o...

  7. The efficacy of six local anesthetic formulations used for posterior mandibular buccal infiltration anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Boynes, Sean; Moore, Paul; Seifikar, Shahrooz; Al-Jazzaf, Abdulaziz; Alshuraidah, Abdullah; Zovko, Jayme; Close, John

    2009-08-01

    The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate pulpal anesthesia achieved after mandibular infiltration of five commonly marketed dental local anesthetic formulations as compared with a control formulation of lidocaine with epinephrine. The authors evaluated 2 percent lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (L100) against 4 percent articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (A100), 4 percent articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (A200), 4 percent prilocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (P200), 3 percent mepivacaine without vasoconstrictor (Mw/o) and 0.5 percent bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (B200). This repeated-treatment trial involved 18 healthy participants. The investigators administered mandibular infiltration injections (six sessions per participant) of 0.9 milliliters of anesthetic into the buccal fold adjacent to the distal root of the mandibular first molar. The authors determined anesthetic efficacy across a 20-minute period by measuring changes in sensory threshold to electrical pulp test (EPT) stimulation. Twelve female and six male participants (mean age, 24.9 years; range, 18-53 years) completed the study. The maximum mean increase from baseline of EPT measurements for the six formulations were 43.5 percent for L100, 44.8 percent for B200, 51.2 percent for P200, 66.9 percent for A200, 68.3 percent for Mw/o and 77.3 percent for A100 (A100 versus L100, P = .029). Adverse reactions were minor and not formulation dependent. The authors found that mandibular infiltration with 0.9 mL of the tested dental anesthetics could induce only partial pulpal anesthesia, a level likely to be inadequate for most dental procedures. When compared with L100, only the A100 induced statistically greater pulpal anesthesia after mandibular buccal infiltration.

  8. Corneal regeneration by induced human buccal mucosa cultivated on an amniotic membrane following alkaline injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rohaina Che; Yong, Then Kong; Hwei, Ng Min; Halim, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul; Zahidin, Aida Zairani Mohd; Ramli, Roszalina; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Hj

    2017-01-01

    Various clinical disorders and injuries, such as chemical, thermal, or mechanical injuries, may lead to corneal loss that results in blindness. PURPOSE : The aims of this study were to differentiate human buccal mucosa (BMuc) into corneal epithelial-like cells, to fabricate engineered corneal tissue using buccal mucosal epithelial cells, and to reconstruct a damaged corneal epithelium in a nude rat model. BMuc were subjected to 10 d of induction factors to investigate the potential of cells to differentiate into corneal lineages. Corneal stem cell markers β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, p63, and CK3 were upregulated in the gene expression analysis in induced BMuc, whereas CK3 and p63 showed significant protein expression in induced BMuc compared to the uninduced cells. BMuc were then left to reach 80% confluency after differential trypsinization. The cells were harvested and cultivated on a commercially available untreated air-dried amniotic membrane (AM) in a Transwell system in induction medium. The corneal constructs were fabricated and then implanted into damaged rat corneas for up to 8 weeks. A significant improvement was detected in the treatment group at 8 weeks post-implantation, as revealed by slit lamp biomicroscopy analysis. The structure and thickness of the corneal layer were also analyzed using histological staining and time-domain optical coherence tomography scans and were found to resemble a native corneal layer. The protein expression for CK3 and p63 were continuously detected throughout the corneal epithelial layer in the corneal construct. In conclusion, human BMuc can be induced to express a corneal epithelial-like phenotype. The addition of BMuc improves corneal clarity, prevents vascularization, increases corneal thickness and stromal alignment, and appears to have no adverse effect on the host after implantation.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of nano-based films for buccal delivery of zolpidem

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    Bandar Essa AL-DHUBIAB

    Full Text Available Abstract Insomnia is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world general population. Therapies used by patients include over-the-counter therapies, herbal and dietary supplements, and pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments. Among these, zolpidem is a pharmacological treatment popularly used for insomnia. Zolpidem is well tolerated and especially efficacious for initiation of sleep, and therefore is effective for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate zolpidem nanoparticle-impregnated buccal films to prolong the duration of its action. Zolpidem nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation and then loaded into buccoadhesive films (Z1-Z4 comprised of different concentrations of HPMC K100, Eudragit® RL 100, and carbopol 974P. The prepared films were characterized for physicomechanical properties, mucoadhesion, percent hydration, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, and in vivo studies. In vitro drug release was found to depend upon film composition. Ex vivo studies showed that film Z4 had the highest flux. In vivo studies revealed that administration of zolpidem nanosphere-impregnated film enhanced absorption of the drug (p < 0.0001, with a higher peak plasma concentration (52.54 ± 8.22 ng/mL and area under the curve from time 0 to α (236.00 ± 39.51 ng.h/mL than oral administration. The increase in time taken to reach the maximum drug concentration (1.5 h further signifies the potential of these films to provide prolonged drug release. Given these promising results, we concluded that these buccal films could be an alternative route for effective zolpidem delivery.

  10. Comparison of esthetic smile perceptions among male and female Indonesian dental students relating to the buccal corridors of a smile

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    Astriana Nurfitrah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smile constitutes a form of measurement as to whether or not an orthodontic treatment has proved successful. A smile is said to be ideal if a balance exists between the shape of the face and teeth. One benchmark used to assess the quality of an ideal smile is that of buccal corridors. These are formed of the black space between the lateral edge of maxillary posterior teeth and the corner of the lip which appears during the action of smiling. Evaluating the contrasting perceptions of male and female smiles based on buccal corridor aspects is considered important to identifying the specific qualities an ideal smile. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between the perceptions of an ideal smile held by Indonesian dental students of both genders based on buccal corridors. Methods: A total of 36 dental students, equally divided between male and female students and ranging in age from 18-21 years old, were enrolled in this study. The smiles of all subjects were photographed from the front for later assessment by the subjects themselves. Assessment was undertaken twice, with a two-week interval between the first and second, by comparing subjects’ photographs with reference pictures of buccal corridors. Data gathered were analyzed by using kappa-statistic and U-Mann Whitney. Results: The results indicated that all the subjects showed a good level of coincidence in their analysis (κ=0.76. Statistical analysis showed that the score of 0.123 (p>0.05 was shown in U-Mann Whitney. Conclusion: Indonesian male and female dental students have the same perception of an aesthetic smile with regard to its buccal corridor.

  11. Cell cycle indicators of buccal epithelial cells in the treatment of different types of removable plate partial dentures

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    E. V. Beliaiev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work. To investigate nuclear DNA and buccal epithelial cells proliferative activity in patients with dental defects, who use removable partial dentures plates made of acrylic or thermoplastic. Materials and Methods. The study of buccal epithelial cell cycle parameters was carried out in 70 people. Among them 23 patients were treated with acrylic dentures prostheses, 23 patients – with thermoplastic-based prostheses. The comparison group consisted of 24 clinically healthy persons without defects in the dentition. DNA content in human buccal epithelial cells nuclei was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The obtained indicators of buccal epithelial cell cycle of the control group indicate a high intensity of cell self-renewal in the normal range. It is suggested by a significant percentage of events occurring within the Sub-G1 range that characterizes apoptosis, as well as the fact that more than half of the cells were in the range of S + G2/M. It has been revealed by flow cytometry that the percentage of apoptosis in cells was higher in patients using acrylic dentures base plastic, showed initial signs of keratinization that was confirmed by increase in cells in the range of Sub-G1 and by their decrease in the range of S-G2/M. It has been established in the study of buccal epithelium cell cycle indicators in the dentures bases thermoplastic application that these prostheses did not affect the proliferative activity of buccal epithelial cells compared to the group using acrylic dentures bases with prolonged use. This is evident in almost the same number of cellular events ranging Sub-G1, so apoptosis in the thermoplastic dentures bases application corresponded to the control group indicators both in the early period and over a year of use. Conclusions. The direct negative effect of prostheses with acrylic bases on the complex mechanism of the oral cavity mucous membrane functioning has been revealed. Absence of dentures

  12. Three atypical manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis: lateral medullary syndrome, anterior cheek mass and melting scleritis of eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavandeh, Saeedeh; Petramfar, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener granulomatosis) is a vasculitis with various organ involvement. There have been a few cases of CNS stroke and rare cases of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) as a manifestation of GPA. Also there have been reports of sinuses, nose and laryngeal masses mistakenly referred as carcinomas and subsequently GPA was diagnosed in their pathological reports. Another severe fulminant manifestation can be necrotizing scleritis leading to perforation of sclera. Therefore, here we present some rare and fulminant manifestations of GPA in 3 separate cases for further emphasis of the unusual manifestations of GPA that should always be kept in mind.

  13. Pacientes remitidos por el Programa de Detección de Cáncer Bucal. Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana. 1999-2006 Patients referred by the Program for Detection of buccal cancer. Stomatology Faculty of La Habana, 1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Dolores Miranda Tarragó

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos propusimos caracterizar los pacientes remitidos por el Programa de Detección de Cáncer Bucal (PDCB a la Clínica de Patología Bucal de la Facultad de Estomatología de febrero de 1999 a julio de 2006. Se realizó un estudio transversal, descriptivo, observacional de los pacientes inscritos en el registro de remitidos por el PDCB a la Clínica de Patología de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana. Se estudiaron 1 008 pacientes, el diagnóstico presuntivo y definitivomás mayormente representado fue el de otra lesión, con 33,7 % de presentación, seguido por la leucoplasia con 33,7 %. La coincidencia entre el diagnóstico presuntivo y el definitivo fue de 69,0 %, el carrillo estaba afectado en un 25,8 %. El carcinoma epidermoide representó un 85,0 % de las neoplasias malignas diagnosticadas. No hubo diferencias entre los sexos de los pacientes remitidos y el rango de edades más afectado fue el de 34 a 59 años de edad. La mitad de los pacientes remitidos tenían hábito de fumar, mucho más elevado en los pacientes con leucoplasia y neoplasias malignas. Las localizaciones anatómicas más afectadas por las lesiones motivo de remisión fueron carrillo, encía y paladar. El carcinoma epidermoide grado I y la etapa clínica I mostraron los mayores porcentajes.The aim of present paper was to characterize the patients referred by the Program for Detection of Buccal Cancer (PDBC to Clinic of Buccal Pathology of the Stomatology Faculty from February, 1999 to July, 2006. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in patients inscribed in Referred Registry by PDBC to Clinic of Pathology from the Stomatology Faculty of La Habana. A total of 1 008 patients were studied, the more numerous presumptive diagnosis and the definitive diagnosis of other lesion with 33.7 % followed by leucopenia with 33.7 %, coincidence between the presumptive diagnosis and the definitive one was of 69.0 %, the cheek was involved in the 25

  14. Genotoxic effects of daily personal exposure to particle mass and number concentrations on buccal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Daniela S.; da Costa, Silvano César; Ribeiro, Marcos; Moreira, Camila A. B.; Beal, Alexandra; Squizzato, Rafaela; Rudke, Anderson Paulo; Rafee, Sameh Adib Abou; Martins, Jorge A.; Palioto, Graciana Freitas; Kumar, Prashant; Martins, Leila D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess personal exposure to Particle Number Concentrations (PNC) in four size ranges between 0.3 and 10 μm, and particulate matter (PM1; PM2.5; PM4; PM10) in order to evaluate possible genotoxic effects through a comet assay in buccal cells. A convenience cohort of 30 individuals from a Brazilian medium-sized city was selected. These individuals aged between 20 and 61 and worked in typical job categories (i.e., administrative, commerce, education, general services and transport). They were recruited to perform personal exposure measurements during their typical daily routine activities, totaling 240 h of sampling. The 8-h average mass concentrations in air for volunteers ranged from 2.4 to 31.8 μg m-3 for PM1, 4.2-45.1 μg m-3 for PM2.5, 7.9-66.1 μg m-3 for PM4 and from 23.1 to 131.7 μg m-3 for PM10. The highest PNC variation was found for 0.3-0.5 range, between 14 and 181 particles cm-3, 1 to 14 particles cm-3 for the 0.5-1.0 range, 0.2 to 2 particles cm-3 for the 1.0-2.5 range, and 0.06 to 0.7 particles cm-3 for the 2.5-10 range. Volunteers in the 'education' category experienced the lowest inhaled dose of PM2.5, as opposed to those involved in 'commercial' activities with the highest doses for PM10 (1.63 μg kg-1 h-1) and PM2.5 (0.61 μg kg-1 h-1). The predominant cause for these high doses was associated with the proximity of the workplace to the street and vehicle traffic. The comet assay performed in buccal cells indicated that the volunteers in 'commerce' category experienced the highest damage to their DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) compared with the control category (i.e. 'education'). These results indicate the variability in personal exposure of the volunteers in different groups, and the potential damage to DNA was much higher for those spending time in close proximity to the vehicle sources (e.g. commercial services) leading to exposure to a higher fraction of fine particles. This study builds understanding on the exposure

  15. Buccal bioadhesive drug delivery--a promising option for orally less efficient drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Yajaman; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2006-08-10

    Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Over the last few decades' pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Among the various transmucosal sites available, mucosa of the buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. Further, these dosage forms are self-administrable, cheap and have superior patient compliance. Developing a dosage form with the optimum pharmacokinetics is a promising area for continued research as it is enormously important and intellectually challenging. With the right dosage form design, local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to

  16. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics of Single- and Multiple-dose Buprenorphine Buccal Film in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Stephen A; Xiang, Qinfang; Finn, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Buprenorphine, a partial μ-receptor agonist, is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain, but it has low oral bioavailability. Two open-label studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of buprenorphine from buccal film formulations of buprenorphine. Both studies enrolled healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, who received concurrent oral naltrexone to reduce adverse events (AEs); subjects with a history or evidence of substance abuse or current use of any product affecting cytochrome P450 3A4 activity were excluded. The first study (n = 25) was a 5-period crossover trial with 4 single doses (75 and 300 and 300 and 1200 μg) of 2 formulations (F14 and F24) of buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) and a 300-μg intravenous dose of buprenorphine with a 7-day washout between periods. In the second study, each subject (n = 10) received 6 doses of 4 BBUP strengths (60, 120, 180, and 240 μg BID) in a dose-escalation design. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine were assayed, and pharmacokinetics were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed by using a linear mixed effects model (single-dose study). AEs were recorded. In the single-dose study, the 2 formulations exhibited comparable bioavailability of 46% to 51% that was independent of dose, with a single buprenorphine peak concentration from each BBUP dose occurring at 2.5 to 3 hours. The mean buprenorphine Cmax across the doses ranged from 0.17 ng/mL for the 75-µg dose to 1.43 ng/mL for the 1200-µg dose. AUC0-∞, AUC0-last, and Cmax were proportional to the dose of BBUP administered. Cmax of norbuprenorphine after BBUP administration was approximately one tenth that of buprenorphine Cmax. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached within 3 days of BID dosing. There was a linear increase in exposure across the dose range from 60 to 240 μg BID. Treatment-emergent AEs in both studies were consistent with those reported with opiate administration to

  17. Topical methotrexate pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effect of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy on hamster buccal pouch precancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Fu Yang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that topical MTX-pretreatment can increase intracellular PpIX production in hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions and significantly improves the outcomes of the precancerous lesions treated with topical ALA-PDT.

  18. An overview of polymeric dosage forms in buccal drug delivery: State of art, design of formulations and their in vivo performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Chorilli, Marlus

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. The main difficulty for administration via the buccal route is an effective physiological removal mechanism of the oral cavity that takes way the formulation from the buccal site and decreases the bioavailability of drugs. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery shows assessing buccal drug permeation and absorption, however some studies bring an in vivo performance. This review points to the use of polymers in the manufacture of drug delivery systems (hydrogels, films and tablets) and shows the results of their in vivo performance tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

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    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  20. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

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    Pendekal Mohamed S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC. Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH, ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal

  1. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB.

  2. Evaluation of a Novel, Natural Locust Bean Gum as a Sustained Release and Mucoadhesive Component of Tizanidine Hcl Buccal Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishnan.V

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purpose of increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Mainly synthetic polymers are in use for this purpose. Probably the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, In the present work mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Tizanidine hydrochloride (TZD HCl) were prepared by using locust bean gum that have better mucoadhesive p...

  3. The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Philip; Harvey, Sarah; Gruner, Tini; Fenech, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay was used to investigate biomarkers for DNA damage, cell death and basal cell frequency in buccal cells of healthy young, healthy old and young Down's syndrome cohorts. With normal ageing a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.05, average increase +366%), karyorrhectic cells (P < 0.001, average increase +439%), condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average increase +45.8%) and basal cells (P < 0.001, average increase +233%) is reported relative to young controls. In Down's syndrome we report a significant increase in cells with micronuclei (P < 0.001, average increase +733%) and binucleated cells (P < 0.001, average increase +84.5%) and a significant decrease in condensed chromatin cells (P < 0.01, average decrease -52%), karyolytic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -51.8%) and pyknotic cells (P < 0.001, average decrease -75.0%) relative to young controls. These changes show distinct differences between the cytome profile of normal ageing relative to that for a premature ageing syndrome, and highlight the diagnostic value of the cytome approach for measuring the profile of cells with DNA damage, cell death and proportion of cells with proliferative potential (i.e., basal cells). Significant correlations amongst cell death biomarkers observed in this study were used to propose a new model of the inter-relationship of cell types scored within the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. This study validates the use of a cytome approach to investigate DNA damage, cell death and cell proliferation in buccal cells with ageing

  4. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of Salvia desoleana Atzei & Picci essential oil from topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Moretti, M D; Demontis, S; Peana, A T

    2000-02-15

    In the light of recent studies, which have shown that the essential oil derived from some Lamiaceae species has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity, moderate anti-microbial action and the ability to inhibit induced hyperalgesia, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of Salvia desoleana Atzei & Picci (S. desoleana) essential oil through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful for a possible application in the stomatological field. Topical formulations (microemulsions, hydrogels and microemulsion-hydrogels) were prepared for application to the buccal mucosa. The mucosa permeation of the oil from the formulations was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulations (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chambers. The study also aimed at optimising the permeability of the S. desoleana essential oil by means of an enhancer, the diethylene glycol monoethyl ether Transcutol. The diffusion of the oil through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of essential oil components present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by gas chromatographic analysis. All the formulations allow a high permeability coefficient in comparison with the pure essential oil. In particular, the components with a terpenic structure (beta-pinene, cineole, alpha-terpineol and linalool) have the highest capacity to pass through the porcine buccal mucosa when compared to the other components (linalyl acetate and alpha-terpinil acetate). Moreover, the enhancer, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether largely increases the permeation of the essential oil components in relation to the concentration.

  5. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, XIAOMIN; OH, SOON-HWAN; HOYER, LOIS L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  6. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and control...

  7. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(₅₀%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  9. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  10. Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Efficacy and safety of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for early medical abortion in an Australian clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Philip; Walker, Clara; Hawtin, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, a composite pack containing mifepristone-buccal misoprostol, indicated for use to 63 days gestation replaced the existing regimen for early medical abortion (EMA) in Australia. To provide updated efficacy and safety information for the use of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for EMA in Australia, and assess the effect of patient age and gestational age on efficacy. Observational cohort study of 15 008 women attending one of 16 Marie Stopes International clinics in Australia for an EMA (gestational age ≤ 63 days) between 1 March 2013 and 30 September 2015. Administration of 200 mg oral mifepristone in-clinic was followed 24-48 h later by 800 μg buccal misoprostol self-administered at home. Method success was defined as complete abortion not requiring surgical intervention. Follow-up information was available for 87.14% (13 078/15 008) of women. Likelihood of follow-up was significantly lower for women from rural or remote locations (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; P misoprostol is an effective and safe alternative to surgical termination of pregnancy up to 63 days gestation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds.

  13. Development of Triamcinolone Acetonide-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) for Buccal Drug Delivery Using the Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisit, Pakorn; Sarisuta, Narong

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this present work was to prepare triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-loaded NLCs) for buccal drug delivery systems using the Box-Behnken design. A hot homogenization method was used to prepare the TA-loaded NLCs. Spermaceti (X₁), soybean oil (X₂), and Tween 80 (X₃) were used as solid lipid, liquid lipid, and stabilizer, respectively. The particle size of TA-loaded NLCs was lower than 200 nm and the zeta potential displayed the negative charge in all formulations. The percentage encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of the TA-loaded NLCs showed that it was higher than 80% for all formulations. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) confirmed that the size of TA-loaded NLCs was approximately 100 nm and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the TA could be incorporated in the NLC system. The Higuchi model gave the highest value of the R², indicating that this model was a fit for the TA release profiles of TA-loaded NLCs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to observe the drug penetration within the porcine buccal mucosa and Nile red-loaded NLCs showed significantly higher penetration depth at 8 h than at 2 h. Therefore, TA-loaded NLCs could be an efficient carrier for drug delivery through the buccal mucosa.

  14. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E

    2010-03-22

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as L(3.5)(body). The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution.

  15. Error rates in buccal-dental microwear quantification using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, J; Martínez, L M; López-Amor, H M; Espurz, V; Hiraldo, O; Romero, A; De Juan, J; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2005-01-01

    Dental microwear, usually analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, is a good indicator of the abrasive potential of past human population diets. Scanning electron microscopy secondary electrons provide excellent images of dental enamel relief for characterizing striation density, average length, and orientation. However, methodological standardization is required for interobserver comparisons since semiautomatic counting procedures are still used for micrograph characterization. The analysis of normally distributed variables allows the characterization of small interpopulation differences. However, the interobserver error rates associated with SEM experience and the degree of expertise in measuring striations are critical to population dietary interpretation. The interobserver comparisons made here clearly indicate that the precision of SEM buccal microwear measurements depends heavily on variable definition and the researcher's expertise. Moreover, error rates are not the only concern for dental microwear research. Low error rates do not guarantee that all researchers are measuring the same magnitudes of the variables considered. The results obtained show that researchers tend to maintain high intrapopulation homogeneity and low measurement error rates, whereas significant interobserver differences appear. Such differences are due to a differential interpretation of SEM microwear features and variable definitions that require detailed and precise agreement among researchers. The substitution of semiautomatic with fully automated procedures will completely avoid interobserver error rate differences.

  16. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Metgud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The petroleum derivatives consist of a complex mixture of chemical compounds one among which is benzene. Petrol station workers who pump fuel to vehicles absorb the products of fuel fumes and the products of combustion. Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure to petroleum derivatives such as benzene, exfoliated buccal cells from 40 petrol station attendants and 40 age-matched control subjects were examined for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis frequency by using feulgen and Giemsa stains. Statistical evaluation was performed with ANOVA test. Results: In the present study, inter-comparison of mean values for micronuclei, binucleation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis using Fuelgen stain between smokers of study and control group, as well as between smokers and non-smokers of study and control group revealed statistically highly significant results with P value 0.00002 and 0.0001 respectively. Whereas inter comparison between non-smokers of study and control group using Feulgen stain and inter comparison between smokers of study and control group, using Giemsa stain revealed statistically significant results with P value 0.0034 and 0.0004, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  17. Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18-29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259-1.790, p BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration.

  18. Preformulation Studies of Furosemide-Loaded Electrospun Nanofibrous Systems for Buccal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kovács

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Furosemide loaded electrospun fibers were prepared for buccal administration, with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability of the poorly soluble and permeable crystalline drug, which can be achieved by the increased solubility and by the circumvention of the intensive first pass metabolism. The water soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC was chosen as a mucoadhesive polymer. In order to improve the electrospinnability of HPC, poly (vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used. During the experiments, the total polymer concentration was kept constant at 15% (w/w, and only the ratio of the two polymers (HPC-PVP = 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1 was changed. A combination of rheological measurements with scanning electron microscopic morphological images of electrospun samples was applied for the determination of the optimum composition of the gels for fiber formation. The crystalline–amorphous transition of furosemide was tracked by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A correlation was found between the rheological properties of the polymer solutions and their electrospinnability, and the consequent morphology of the resultant samples. With decreasing HPC ratio of the system, a transition from the spray-dried droplets to the randomly oriented fibrous structures was observed. The results enable the determination of the polymer ratio for the formation of applicable quality of electrospun fibers.

  19. [Health community agent: subject of the buccal health practice in Alagoinhas, Bahia state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Aurea Alécio de Oliveira; Santos, Adriano Maia Dos; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo

    2010-05-01

    This study about the work of micro politics was carried out by the Buccal Health Team (ESB) in the Family Health Program (PSF) of Alagoinhas, Bahia State, and has as central theoretical purpose the specific and singular forms in the practice of daily work, using the technologies (hard, light-hard and light). The methodological trajectory is based on the historical-social current in view of a dialectic approach of qualitative nature. The techniques of data collection used were: semi structured interview, observation of the work process and documental analysis. The analysis of the data was oriented by the hermeneutics-dialectics, allowing to compare the different levels of analysis, articulating the theoretical with the empirical evidence. The results reveal that the Family Health Teams are multidisciplinary, but have still not developed an interdisciplinary work, hence occurring juxtaposition of skills. Each unit plans their work process according to the singularities of the social subjects, implementing different characteristics in how to welcome, inform, attend and refer. An effort in changing the work process can be perceived in the perspective of amplified clinic with the health community agent standing out as a social/collective subject.

  20. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  1. Dexamethasone sodium phosphate-loaded Chitosan based delivery systems for buccal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Stancampiano, A H S; Ventura, C A; Puglisi, G

    2007-11-01

    Chitosan (CH) was used as a biocompatible and bioadhesive polymer material to prepare solid dispersions as well as hydrogels loaded with dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP), a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent clinically used for treatment of different mouth diseases. Binary solid dispersions at various drug-to-polymer weight ratios were prepared by freeze-drying; their direct compression gave tablets which were characterized for the swelling behaviour and drug release in vitro. Similarly, DSP-loaded hydrogels composed of CH and glycerine were prepared and characterized. CH and DSP showed a good physical compatibility. A slow and prolonged release of the drug was observed in vitro from both kinds of systems. The swelling properties of the polymer seemed to be the main parameter affecting the drug release profile from both tablets and hydrogels at the pH value of mouth. In vivo buccal application of both the systems allowed to obtain a prolonged release of DSP, as compared with a glycerine solution of the drug. From the in vitro swelling studies and in vivo test, the 2:1 CH-DSP solid dispersion in particular can be designated for further investigation.

  2. Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal epithelial cells of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykanat, Banu; Demircigil, Gonca Cakmak; Buyan, Necla; Baskin, Esra; Gulleroglu, Kaan; Fidan, Kibriya; Bayrakci, Umut Selda; Dalgic, Aydin; Karakayali, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet; Burgaz, Sema

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to reveal the likely genomic instability in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using micronucleus (MN) assay on buccal epithelial cells (BEC). We investigated the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies, such as nuclear buds, binucleated cells, condensed chromatin, and karyorrhectic and pyknotic cells in BEC. Children with CKD were grouped as follows: children in the pre-dialysis (PreD) stage (N=17), children on regular haemodialysis (HD) (N=14), and children who have undergone transplantation (Tx) (N=17). As a control group, twenty age- and gender-matched healthy children were selected. The MN frequency in BEC of all groups of children with CKD was significantly elevated (5- to 7-fold) as compared to the control group (pchildren with CKD relative to the control group (p<0.001). Our results show that the BEC of pediatric PreD, HD, and Tx patients with CKD display increased cytogenetic, cytokinetic, and cytotoxic effects. They also point to the sensitivity and usefulness of the BEC MN assay in the assessment of genetic susceptibility of patients with CKD.

  3. “Sequential” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Marcela A. Garabalino; Silvia I. Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Jorge Quintana; Gustavo A. Santa Cruz; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel “Tandem” Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with “Tandem BNCT”, i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly [(BPA + GB-10)-BNCT] was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. “Tandem” BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  4. Non-invasive characterization of normal and pathological tissues through dynamic infrared imaging in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María. S.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Salva, Natalia; Padra, Claudio; Schwint, Amanda; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical infrared thermography, a non-invasive and functional imaging method, provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of tissues in terms of spatial and temporal variations in body infrared radiance. It is especially attractive in cancer research due to the hypervascular and hypermetabolic activity of solid tumors. Moreover, healthy tissues like skin or mucosa exposed to radiation can be examined since inflammation, changes in water content, exudation, desquamation, erosion and necrosis, between others, are factors that modify their thermal properties. In this work we performed Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) to contribute to the understanding and evaluation of normal tissue, tumor and precancerous tissue response and radiotoxicity in an in vivo model, the hamster cheek pouch, exposed to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In this study, we particularly focused on the observation of temperature changes under forced transient conditions associated with mass moisture transfer in the tissue-air interface, in each tissue with or without treatment. We proposed a simple mathematical procedure that considerers the heat transfer from tissue to ambient through convection and evaporation to model the transient (exponential decay o recover) thermal study. The data was fitted to determined the characteristic decay and recovery time constants of the temperature as a function of time. Also this model allowed to explore the mass flux of moisture, as a degree of evaporation occurring on the tissue surface. Tissue thermal responses under provocation tests could be used as a non-invasive method to characterize tissue physiology.

  5. 'Sequential' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT): A Novel Approach to BNCT for the Treatment of Oral Cancer in the Hamster Cheek Pouch Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Ana J.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C.; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Heber, Elisa M.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E.; Aromando, Romina F.; Nigg, David W.; Quintana, Jorge; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the therapeutic effect and/or potential radiotoxicity of the novel 'Tandem' Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (T-BNCT) for the treatment of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model at RA-3 Nuclear Reactor. Two groups of animals were treated with 'Tandem BNCT', i.e. BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) followed by BNCT mediated by sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) either 24 h (T-24h-BNCT) or 48 h (T-48h-BNCT) later. A total tumor dose-matched single application of BNCT mediated by BPA and GB-10 administered jointly ((BPA + GB-10)-BNCT) was administered to an additional group of animals. At 28 days post-treatment, T-24h-BNCT and T-48h-BNCT induced, respectively, overall tumor control (OTC) of 95% and 91%, with no statistically significant differences between protocols. Tumor response for the single application of (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT was 75%, significantly lower than for T-BNCT. The T-BNCT protocols and (BPA + GB-10)-BNCT induced reversible mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue around treated tumors, reaching Grade 3/4 mucositis in 47% and 60% of the animals respectively. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was associated to tumor control for any of the protocols. 'Tandem' BNCT enhances tumor control in oral cancer and reduces or, at worst, does not increase, mucositis in dose-limiting precancerous tissue.

  6. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Spiny-Cheek Crayfish (Orconectes limosus) from Lake Gopło: Effect of Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Magdalena; Dąbrowski, Janusz; Różański, Szymon; Janicki, Bogdan; Długosz, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the concentrations of metals in the abdominal muscle and exoskeleton of 3-year-old males and 4-year-old females and males of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) collected from Lake Gopło. A total of 93 males and 35 females were collected in autumn (October 2014). The analyzes of heavy metals were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with a PU9100X spectrometer. The content of mercury was determined using AMA 254 mercury analyser. As analyses indicated heavy metals accumulated in the muscle and exoskeleton in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Hg and Mn > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu > Hg, respectively. Statistically significant differences between 3- and 4-year-old males were found for all analyzed metals. Gender dependent differences were calculated only for Ni in the muscle tissue and for Mn and Hg in the exoskeleton. In comparison with the study carried out 2 years ago notably higher concentrations of Pb were found in the muscle and a higher content of Zn, Pb, Mn and Ni was determined in the exoskeleton.

  7. A Slowly Growing Orange Patch on the Cheek: Diagnosis of Lupus Vulgaris 20 Years After Onset of First Skin Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pföhler, Claudia; Klotz, Michael; Wehler, Thomas; Vogt, Thomas; Müller, Cornelia S L

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide occurring disease that affects approximately 20-40% of the world's population and in particular in developing countries. However, in times of migration, industrialised countries are again being more and more affected. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare and lupus vulgaris represents its most common form. Preferentially, young adults in developing or low-income countries are affected from cutaneous tuberculosis, which usually occurs in previously sensitized persons with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity and a good immunoresponse. In Europe, more elderly people are involved. We present a case of lupus vulgaris that was diagnosed with a delay of about 20 years after onset of first skin changes.

  8. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC) use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents. A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297) students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259) were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848) were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51), and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30), respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26). However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders. Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  9. The association between electronic-cigarette use and self-reported oral symptoms including cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among adolescents: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Cho

    Full Text Available Little is known about oral health related to electronic-cigarette (EC use, even though EC use is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between EC use and oral health, including 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 'cracked or broken teeth' among adolescents.A total of 65,528 students in 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study.For EC use, 0.5% (n = 297 students were daily users, 1.9% (n = 1259 were '1 to 29 days past month users', and 5.9% (n = 3848 were former users. Overall, 18.5% students reported they had experienced 'gingival pain and/or bleeding', 11.0% reported 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain', and 11.4% reported a 'cracked or broken tooth' within the past 12 months. When comparing 'daily EC users', '1 to 29 days past month EC users', and 'former EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted ORs for 'cracked or broken tooth' were 1.65 (95% CI: 1.19-2.27, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.06-1.51, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.04-1.30, respectively. Comparing 'daily EC users' with 'never EC users', the adjusted OR for 'tongue and/or inside-cheek pain' was 1.54 (1.05-2.26. However, EC use among adolescents was not associated with 'gingival pain and/or bleeding' when adjusted for the potential confounders.Based on the results, the odds of cracked or broken teeth among daily, '1 to 29 days past month', and former EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. The odds of tongue and/or inside-cheek pain among daily EC users were significantly higher than those among never EC users. In conclusion, the results suggest that daily EC use among adolescents may be a risk factor for cracked or broken teeth and tongue and/or inside-cheek pain.

  10. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The sensitivity of biomarkers for genotoxicity and acute cytotoxicity in nasal and buccal cells of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Jakse, Robert; Beham, Alfred; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Welders are inhalatively exposed to fumes which contain genotoxic carcinogens and it was found in epidemiological studies that they have increased cancer rates which may be causally related to DNA damage. In order to assess their health risks and to find out which chemicals cause the adverse effects, bioassays can be performed which enable the detection of genetic damage. The aim of the present study was a comparative investigation with exfoliated buccal and nasal cells in regard to induction of chromosomal alterations and acute cytotoxicity in welders and unexposed controls (n=22 per group). To elucidate the factors which account for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, additional biochemical parameters were monitored reflecting the redox status as well as concentrations of different metals and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in body fluids. We found in the nasal cells significant induction of alterations which are indicative for DNA damage, i.e. of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear buds, while elevated rates of nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic effects (condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, karyolylsis) were detected in cells from both organs. The levels of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni), but not markers of oxidative damage were significantly higher in the body fluids of the welders. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses indicate that exposure to Mo (15% MNi increase by one standard deviation increase of Mo in serum), Ni (9% increase) and Mn (14% increase) are positively associated with the induction of MNi in nasal cells while Ni was associated with cytotoxic effects in both types of cells (12 and 16% increase). Taken together, our findings indicate that epithelial cells from the respiratory tract are suitable for the detection of DNA-damaging and cytotoxic effects in welders and can be used to assess health risks associated with genomic instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration. I. Penetration rate and release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, H; Taguchi, H; Iida, K; Danjo, K

    2001-12-13

    We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost GL-content-dependently, while an optimum GL content was observed for the LC penetration rate. No LC penetration was observed from an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.4) of LC, suggesting only unionized LC can substantially penetrate through the mucosa. A significant relationship between the penetration rate of LC and the release rate of unionized LC was found, suggesting that the in vitro dissolution study is a useful tool to predict the penetration rate taking the unionized drug fraction into consideration.

  13. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Movassagh; Ghahari; Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris) or buccal root (radix paramolaris) can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, c...

  14. Design and characterization of a novel neutron shield for BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch at RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, E.C.C.; Curotto, P.; Monti Hughes, A.; Nigg, D.W.; Schwint, A.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Thorp, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Our research group at the Radiation Pathology Division of the Department of Radiobiology (National Atomic Energy Commission) has previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different BNCT protocols to treat oral cancer in an experimental hamster cheek pouch model. In particular, to perform studies in this experimental model at the thermal facility constructed at RA-3, we designed and constructed a shielding device for thermal neutrons, to be able to expose the cheek pouch while minimizing the dose to the rest of the body. This device allowed for the irradiation of one animal at a time. Given the usage rate of the device, the aim of the present study was to design and construct an optimized version of the existing shielding device that would allow for the simultaneous irradiation of 2 animals at the thermal facility of RA-3. Taking into account the characteristics of the neutron source and preliminary biological assays, we designed the shielding device for the body of the animal, i.e. a rectangular shaped box with double acrylic walls. The space between the walls contains a continuous filling of 6Li 2 CO 3 (95% enriched in 6Li), approximately 6 mm thick. Two small windows interrupt the shield at one end of the box through which the right pouch of each hamster is everted out onto an external acrylic shelf for exposure to the neutron flux. The characterization of the shielding device showed that the neutron flux was equivalent at both irradiation positions confirming that we were able to design and construct a new shielding device that allows for the irradiation of 2 animals at the same time at the thermal facility of RA-3. This new version of the shielding device will reduce the number of interventions of the reactor operators, reducing occupational exposure to radiation and will make the procedure more efficient for researchers. In addition, we addressed the generation of tritium as a product of the capture reaction in lithium. It was considered as a

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boron-rich liposomes for oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Kueffer, Peter J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Maitz, Charles A; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Nigg, David W; Curotto, Paula; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-11-11

    The application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by liposomes containing (10)B-enriched polyhedral borane and carborane derivatives for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model is presented. These liposomes are composed of an equimolar ratio of cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] (MAC) in the bilayer membrane while encapsulating the hydrophilic species Na3[ae-B20H17NH3] (TAC) in the aqueous core. Unilamellar liposomes with a mean diameter of 83 nm were administered i.v. in hamsters. After 48 h, the boron concentration in tumors was 67 ± 16 ppm whereas the precancerous tissue contained 11 ± 6 ppm, and the tumor/normal pouch tissue boron concentration ratio was 10:1. Neutron irradiation giving a 5-Gy dose to precancerous tissue (corresponding to 21 Gy in tumor) resulted in an overall tumor response (OR) of 70% after a 4-wk posttreatment period. In contrast, the beam-only protocol gave an OR rate of only 28%. Once-repeated BNCT treatment with readministration of liposomes at an interval of 4, 6, or 8 wk resulted in OR rates of 70-88%, of which the complete response ranged from 37% to 52%. Because of the good therapeutic outcome, it was possible to extend the follow-up of BNCT treatment groups to 16 wk after the first treatment. No radiotoxicity to normal tissue was observed. A salient advantage of these liposomes was that only mild mucositis was observed in dose-limiting precancerous tissue with a sustained tumor response of 70-88%.

  16. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  17. Prevalence of Candida species in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-07

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology.

  19. Bio-Oss collagen in the buccal gap at immediate implants: a 6-month study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Linder, Elena; Lindhe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    following tooth extraction and immediate implant installation, the edentulous site of the alveolar process undergoes substantial bone modeling and the ridge dimensions are reduced. objective: the objective of the present experiment was to determine whether the process of bone modeling following tooth extraction and immediate implant placement was influenced by the placement of a xenogenic graft in the void that occurred between the implant and the walls of the fresh extraction socket. five beagle dogs about 1 year old were used. The 4th premolar in both quadrants of the mandible ((4) P(4) ) were selected and used as experimental sites. The premolars were hemi-sected and the distal roots removed and, subsequently, implants were inserted in the distal sockets. In one side of the jaw, the marginal buccal-approximal void that consistently occurred between the implant and the socket walls was grafted with Bio-Oss Collagen while no grafting was performed in the contra-lateral sites. After 6 months of healing, biopsies from each experimental site were obtained and prepared for histological analyses. the outline of the marginal hard tissue of the control sites was markedly different from that of the grafted sites. Thus, while the buccal bone crest in the grafted sites was comparatively thick and located at or close to the SLA border, the corresponding crest at the control sites was thinner and located a varying distance below SLA border. it was demonstrated that the placement of Bio-Oss Collagen in the void between the implant and the buccal-approximal bone walls of fresh extraction sockets modified the process of hard tissue healing, provided additional amounts of hard tissue at the entrance of the previous socket and improved the level of marginal bone-to-implant contact.

  20. Unexpected close surgical margin in resected buccal cancer: very close margin and DAPK promoter hypermethylation predict poor clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hon-Yi; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lin, Ru-Inn; Tseng, Chih-En; Chang, Shu-Mei; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Hsu, Wen-Lin; Liu, Dai-Wei; Su, Yu-Chieh; Li, Szu-Chi; Chan, Michael W Y

    2013-04-01

    In resected buccal cancer patients, an unexpected close surgical margin has been observed to correlate with poor clinical outcomes. However, close surgical margin alone does not independently guide post-operative therapies, revealing a clinical debate. Hence, the present study intended to explore epigenetic-based bio-predictors for further stratifying this debating patient population. Between 2000 and 2008, we retrospectively recruited 44 resected buccal cancer patients with a close surgical margin of ≤5 mm. All patients had post-operative radiotherapy. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumor-enrich areas that contained cancer cells of >70%. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to detect promoter methylation of four tumor suppressor genes, including RASSF1A, DAPK, IRF8, and SFRP1. Post-irradiation locoregional control was defined as the primary end point. There were 40 males and 4 females, with a median age of 53.5 years (range, 32-82 years). Multivariate analysis identified two independent predictors for locoregional recurrence: very close margin of ≤1 mm (HR: 4.96; 95% CI, 1.63-15.09; P=0.018) and promoter hypermethylation of DAPK (HR: 2.83; 95% CI, 1.05-7.63; P=0.042). The highest risk of locoregional recurrence was observed in patients with both of the two factors (HR, 8.05; 95% CI, 2.56-25.82; P=0.002) when compared with patients with none. Shorter disease-free survival, but not overall survival, was also observed. More aggressive managements should be considered in resected buccal cancer patients with both very close margin and DAPK promoter hypermethylation rather than post-operative observation or radiotherapy alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Localization of molecular correlates of memory consolidation to buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons after learning that food is inedible in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J

    2012-10-15

    Training paradigms affecting Aplysia withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of memory formation after a training paradigm affecting feeding. Buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons expressed increases in mRNA expression for the transcription factor ApC/EBP, and for the growth factor sensorin-A, within the first 2 h after training with an inedible food. No increases in expression were detected in the rest of the buccal ganglia. Increased ApC/EBP expression was not elicited by food and feeding responses not causing long-term memory. Increased ApC/EBP expression was directly related to a measure of the efficacy of training in causing long-term memory, suggesting that ApC/EBP expression is necessary for the expression of aspects of long-term memory. In behaving animals, memory is expressed as a decrease in the likelihood to respond to food, and a decrease in the amplitude of protraction, the first phase of consummatory feeding behaviors. To determine how changes in the properties of mechanoafferents could cause learned changes in feeding behavior, synaptic contacts were mapped from the mechanoafferents to the B31/B32 neurons, which have a key role in initiating consummatory behaviors and also control protractions. Many mechanoafferents monosynaptically and polysynaptically connect with B31/B32. Monosynaptic connections were complex combinations of fast and slow excitation and/or inhibition. Changes in the response of B31/B32 to stimuli sensed by the mechanoafferent could underlie aspects of long-term memory expression.

  2. Reduction of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated protein synthesis with age in buccal epithelial cells of healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Burak; Demirtas, Halil; Eroz, Recep; Imamoglu, Nalan

    2015-04-01

    Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) consist of the rRNA coding gene family (rDNA) in the cell nucleus. The argyrophilic proteins are selectively stained with silver nitrate and bind these regions. It was reported that NOR (rDNA) activity decreases in human lymphocytes, fibroblasts and bone marrow with age. However, to our knowledge there have not been any studies related to the NORs in oral epithelial cells of healthy individuals. Our aim is to detect any correlation between age and Total AgNOR area/Total nucleus area (TAA/TNA) values in buccal epithelial cells of healthy individuals. Oral epithelial cells from 50 healthy individuals (age range of 2-80 years old) were spread onto a clean glass slide, air dried and fixed. Then the AgNOR staining protocol was performed on these cells. TAA/TNA ratio and AgNOR dots were calculated using software. From each person 50 oral epithelial cells were evaluated. Statistically significant correlations were found between mean TAA/TNA values and age (Rsq = 0.534, p < 0.001 for linear and Rsq = 0.728, p < 0.0001 for polynominal regression), and between AgNOR number and age (Rsq = 0.621, p < 0.001 for linear and Rsq = 0.693, p < 0.0001 for polynominal regression). There is a significant correlation between age and AgNOR amount (ribosome biosynthesis rate) in buccal epithelial cells of healthy individuals. AgNORs in buccal epithelial cells may be used for detection of age.

  3. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Raut, P P; Prasanth, K V; Prasad, R G

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 3(2) factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported.

  4. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried buccal tablet for the rapid delivery of naloxone in opioid overdose. The tablet composition was optimized to produce an amorphous matrix, which was confirmed by the absence of peaks associated with crystallinity observed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Tablets with high gelatin content lacked adequate porosity. Mannitol was added to the formulation to bridge and intercalate gelatin's tight polymer aggregates, however sodium bicarbonate was also required to prevent crystallization within the tablets. A linear reduction in mannitol's recrystallization enthalpy was observed with increasing sodium bicarbonate concentration (ΔrecryH = -20.3[NaHCO3] + 220.9; r(2) = 0.9, n = 18). The minimum sodium bicarbonate concentration for full inhibition of mannitol crystallization was 10.9% w/w. Freeze-dried tablets with lower amounts of sodium bicarbonate possessed a crystalline fraction that PXRD identified as mannitol hemihydrate from the unique peak at 9.7° 2θ. Mannitol's greater affinity for both ions and residual water rather than its affinity for self-association was the mechanism for the inhibition of crystallization observed here. The optimized tablet (composition mannitol 24% w/w (4.26 mg), gelatin 65% w/w (11.7 mg), sodium bicarbonate 11% w/w (1.98 mg), and naloxone 800 μg) formed predominantly amorphous tablets that disintegrated in less than 10 s. Optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable over 9 months storage at 25 °C. As speed of drug liberation is the critical performance attribute for a solid dosage form designed to deliver drug in an emergency, a novel imaging based in vitro disintegration assay for buccal tablets was developed. The assay was optimized with regard to conditions in the buccal cavity: i.e., temperature 33-37 °C, volume of medium (0.1-0.7 mL), and use of mucin-containing biorelevant medium. The disintegration assay was sensitive to temperature

  5. Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells in Moderately Differentiated Buccal Mucosal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify and characterize cancer stem cells (CSC in moderately differentiated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (MDBMSCC. Methods 4μm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MDBMSCC samples from six patients underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB immunohistochemical (IHC staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC markers NANOG, OCT4, SALL4, SOX2 and pSTAT3; cancer stem cell marker CD44; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC marker EMA; and endothelial marker CD34. The transcriptional activities of the genes encoding NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4, STAT3 and CD44 were studied using NanoString gene expression analysis and colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH for NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4 and STAT3. Results DAB and immunofluorescent (IF IHC staining demonstrated the presence of (1 an EMA+/CD44+/SOX2+/SALL4+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ CSC subpopulation within the tumor nests; (2 an EMA-/CD44-/CD34-/SOX2+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ subpopulation within the stroma between the tumor nests; and (3 an EMA-/CD44-/CD34+/SOX2+/ SALL4+/OCT4+/pSTAT3+/NANOG+ subpopulation on the endothelium of the microvessels within the stroma. The expression of CD44, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG was confirmed by the presence of mRNA transcripts, using NanoString analysis and NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4 and STAT3 by CISH staining. Conclusion This study demonstrated a novel finding of three separate CSC subpopulations within MDBMSCC: (1 within the tumor nests expressing EMA, CD44, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG; (2 within the stroma expressing SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG; and (3 on the endothelium of the microvessels within the stroma expressing CD34, SOX2, SALL4, OCT4, pSTAT3 and NANOG.

  6. The effect of a flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with or without a xenograft on buccal bone crest remodeling compared by histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Raquel Rezende Martins; Novaes, Arthur Belém; de Carvalho, Jessica Pires; de Almeida, Adriana Luisa Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated buccal bone crest remodeling, socket composition after healing, and dimensional ridge preservation after flapless tooth extraction procedures with or without a xenograft comparing histomorphometric and microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) data. The mandibular premolars of eight dogs were extracted without flaps. One socket on each side received a grafting material (test group), and the other remained only with a blood clot (control group). Twelve weeks after treatment, buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions, and composition were analyzed by histomorphometry and micro-CT. Two- and three-dimensional evaluations showed better results for the grafted group when compared to the non-grafted group. The flapless alveolar ridge preservation procedure with deproteinized bovine bone material enhanced buccal bone crest, alveolar ridge dimensions and bone formation when compared to sockets with the blood clot only, as observed by histomorphometric and micro-CT analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Collection of Human Genomic DNA From Buccal Cells for Genetics Studies: Comparison Between Cytobrush, Mouthwash, and Treated Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Mulot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources such as buccal cells have already been tested for genetic studies and epidemiological investigations. Thirty-seven volunteers participated in this study to compare cytology brushes, mouthwash, and treated cards for DNA collection. Quantity and quality of DNA and cost and feasibility were assessed. The mean DNA yield at 260 nm was found to be 3.5, 4, and 2.6μg for cytobrushes, mouthwashes, and treated cards, respectively. A second quantification technique by fluorescence showed differences in the DNA yield with 1.1 and 5.2μg for cytobrushes and mouthwash, respectively. All buccal samples allowed isolation of DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. According to the procedure of sample collection, the yield and purity of collected DNA, and storage conditions, the use of cytobrush appears to be the more appropriate method for DNA collection. This protocol has been validated and is currently applied in three large-scale multicentric studies including adults or children.

  8. Genetic-relatedness of peri-implants and buccal Candida albicans isolates determined by RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Adriana M; Rosa, Alcira C; Nastri, Natalia; Santillán, Hector D; Ariza, Yamila; Iovannitti, Cristina A; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia M

    2016-12-01

    Molecular techniques have been used in recent studies to identify a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens in periimplant pockets of the oral cavity. However, the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of yeasts and species distribution related to periimplantitis are as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of yeasts in periimplant biofilm and to study genetic relatedness of Candida albicans. Yeasts recovered from periimplant biofilm samples (n=89) and buccal samples (n=120) were studied in 40 immunocompetent nonsmoking patients who visited the dental clinic of the Asociación Implantodontológica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and had received oral rehabilitation with implants for more than five years. Yeasts recovered from samples were studied by typing assays using RAPDPCR. The prevalence of yeasts in the periimplant sulcus was 73% (n=29). C. albicans was the most prevalent species identified in this study population. The RAPD analysis showed identical genotypes in most C. albicans spp. from the two different sampling sites: buccal and periimplant. These findings suggest that periimplant biofilm is an ecological niche that favors the growth of yeast species. Most C. albicans found in periimplant biofilm originate from the endogenous infection caused by commensal strains. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  9. Efficacy of single buccal infiltrations for maxillary first molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy Ulusoy, Ö İ; Alaçam, T

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a single buccal infitration using 4% articaine hydrochloride (HCl) with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine HCl with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate for obtaining adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal roots of maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, fifty subjects were randomly allocated to receive maxillary buccal injections of 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine (n = 25) or 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine bitartrate (n = 25). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pulse rate measurements were recorded during access cavity preparation and initial file placement into the mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals. Data were analysed using Duncan and t-tests. There was no significant difference between the two anaesthetic solutions regarding the VAS scores and pulse rate measurements during endodontic procedures. The mean VAS ratings of the 50 patients during file placement into the palatal canals were significantly higher compared with the other three root canal procedures (P pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microbial Changes in Subgingival Plaque and Polymicrobial Intracellular Flora in Buccal Cells after Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Montaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral ecosystem is strictly related to a balance maintained by specific niches recognized as sites, where oral bacteria can metabolize avoiding the immune system response. The oral bacteria species that colonize the ecological niches vary during fixed orthodontic treatment, with a prevalence of periodontal bacterial species. Qualitative analysis of five periodontal pathogens was used to investigate the microbial colonization rate in the crevice and buccal epithelial cells. The presence of inadequate oral hygiene was considered as a modulation variable for microbial colonization. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. A value lower than 0.05 was assumed as statistically significant. Tannerella forsythia was the only periodontal pathogen detected with a statistically admissible frequency. The positivity for Tannerella forsythia was correlated to sampling time and oral hygiene motivation. In buccal epithelial cells, both factors contributed to microbial decrease (, whereas, in crevice, oral hygiene motivation promoted a decrease in the microbial colonization rate (. According to microbiological findings, it is possible to identify how correct motivation for oral hygiene is more than enough to modulate or to avoid an upset of the oral ecosystem balance in early stages of orthodontic treatment.

  11. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  12. Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of hela cells through akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) as a member of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) superfamily was isolated from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica, the blood suckers in the marine. Previous studies showed CRBGP could suppress angiogenesis probably due to its ion channel blocking activity. Whether CRBGP could also affect the activity of tumor cells has not been reported yet. In this study, CRBGP suppressed the proliferation of Hela cells with an IC 50 of 6.7 μM by inducing apoptosis. Both microscopic observation and Western blot indicated that CRBGP was able to induce the nuclei shrinking, downregulate the protein level of BCL2 and caspase 3 as well as upregulate the level of BAX in Hela cells, suggested that CRBGP might induce apoptosis of Hela cells in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Furthermore, CRBGP could disturb F-actin organization, which would finally cause the Hela cells to lose their shape and to lessen their abilities on adhesion, migration and invasion. Finally, CRBGP was shown to reduce the phosphorylation level of Akt, which indicated that CRBGP might inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of Hela cells through Akt pathway. CRBGP, as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, also possesses the anti-tumor abilities which provided information on the effects and action manner of the other CRISPs. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(11):856-866, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Development of chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate as a buccal mucoadhesive patch to treat desquamative gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad; Houshmand, Behzad; Eslahi, Niloofar; Khoshroo, Kimia; Rasoulianboroujeni, Morteza; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate as a buccal mucoadhesive patch to treat desquamative gingivitis, which was fabricated through an environmental friendly process. Mucoadhesive films increase the advantage of higher efficiency and drug localization in the affected region. In this research, mucoadhesive films, for the release of hydrocortisone sodium succinate, were prepared using different ratios of chitosan, gelatin and keratin. In the first step, chitosan and gelatin proportions were optimized after evaluating the mechanical properties, swelling capacity, water uptake, stability, and biodegradation of the films. Then, keratin was added at different percentages to the optimum composite of chitosan and gelatin together with the drug. The results of surface pH showed that none of the samples were harmful to the buccal cavity. FTIR analysis confirmed the influence of keratin on the structure of the composite. The presence of a higher amount of keratin in the composite films resulted in high mechanical, mucoadhesive properties and stability, low water uptake and biodegradation in phosphate buffer saline (pH = 7.4) containing 10 4  U/ml lysozyme. The release profile of the films ascertained that keratin is a rate controller in the release of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate. Finally, chitosan/gelatin/keratin composite containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate can be employed in dental applications.

  14. Horizontal mucosal thickness at implant sites as it correlates with the integrity and thickness of the buccal bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Sager, Martin; Golubovic, Vladimir; Iglhaut, Gerhard; Becker, Kathrin

    2016-10-01

    To histologically assess the association between the horizontal mucosal thickness (MT) at implant sites with the integrity and thickness of the buccal bone plate in a canine model. Two-piece titanium implants were placed at chronic-type lateral ridge defects. The resulting vestibular dehiscence-type defects (vertical dimensions of 2-8 mm) were left untreated. After a submerged healing period of 2 and 8 weeks (n = 6 fox hounds each), dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analyses [e.g. MT, bone thickness (BT) and residual defect length]. Linear regression revealed significant associations between vestibular MT and BT values after 2 (R 2  = 0.22, B = -0.37, P R 2  = 0.37, B = -0.45, P < 0.001) of healing. The present analysis has pointed to an inverse relationship between horizontal MT and BT values at the vestibular aspect of submerged titanium implants. MT was most pronounced in the absence of a buccal bone plate. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. Published by Oxford University Press 2015.

  16. Esthetic effect of the buccal corridor size and amount of tooth-gingival display on smile attractiveness in two student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3- Dentist   Background and Aims: An attractive, well-balanced smile is a paramount treatment objective of the modern orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the buccal corridor size and tooth-gingival display on the smile esthetics as perceived by two groups of the students.   Materials and Methods: A colored image of a woman frontal posed smile was selected. The image was altered digitally to produce different buccal corridor sizes (6%, 12.5% and 20% and different tooth-gingival displays (maxillary central incisors and 2 mm of gingival, maxillary central incisors and dental papilla and 80% of the maxillary central incisors. The different buccal corridor sizes and tooth-gingival displays were combined to produce 9 images. These altered images were rated by 120 medical and dental students using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Pairwise comparison LSD test, Repeated measure MANOVA and ICC (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.   Results: The smile which had the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and complete incisor display without gingival display received the highest rates among the nine smile images in the dental students group. But in the medical students group the smile with the buccal corridor size of 12.5% and 2 mm gingival display, received the highest rates among the nine smile images. There was no significant difference in judging between the male and female raters for the both groups (P>0.05. The dental students were more critical about the increasing of the gingival display.   Conclusion: In the treatment procedure that may lead to the combination of wide buccal corridor and more tooth-gingival show, more caution should be considered.

  17. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B

    2014-01-01

    by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed....... In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when...

  18. Buccal absorption of diazepam is improved when administered in bioadhesive tablets-An in vivo study in conscious Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva......-pigs. Presentation of the compound in the amorphous form lead to a very fast absorption, however, the obtained bioavailability was at the same level observed following buccal administration of a commercially immediate release tablet. Addition of chitosan, as a mucoadhesive excipient, resulted in a higher absolute...

  19. Long-term safety and analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine buccal film in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Martin Hale,1 Veronica Urdaneta,2 M Todd Kirby,3 Qinfang Xiang,4 Richard Rauck5 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, USA; 2Pharmacovigilance and Risk Management, 3Clinical Development, 4Biometrics, Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Malvern, PA, USA; 5Carolinas Pain Institute, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston Salem, NC, USA Background: This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a novel buprenorphine formulation, buprenorphine buccal film, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids.Methods: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of buprenorphine buccal film. Five hundred and six patients who completed previous studies with buprenorphine buccal film (n=445; rollover patients or were recruited de novo for this study (n=61 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a dose titration period of ≤6 weeks, during which doses of buprenorphine buccal film were adjusted to a maximum 900 µg every 12 hours, depending on tolerability and the need for rescue medication. An optimal dose was defined as the dose that the patient found satisfactory for both pain relief and tolerability, without the need for rescue medication or with ≤2 tablets of rescue medication per day. Once the optimal dose was reached, treatment was continued for ≤48 weeks. Pain intensity was measured throughout the study using a 0–10 numerical rating scale.Results: Of 435 patients achieving an optimal dose of buprenorphine buccal film who commenced long-term treatment, 158 (36.3% completed 48 weeks of treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 116 patients (22.9% during the titration phase and 61 patients (14.0% during the long-term treatment phase, and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 14 (2.8% and 14 (3.2% patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were those typically

  20. Management of long segment anterior urethral stricture (≥ 8cm using buccal mucosal (BM graft and penile skin (PS flap: outcome and predictors of failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Alsagheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the surgical outcome and predictors of failure of substitution urethroplasty using either dorsal onlay buccal mucosal (BM graft or ventral onlay penile skin flap (PS for anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8cm. Patients and methods Between March 2010 and January 2016, 50 patients with anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8 cm were treated at our hospital. The surgical outcome and success rate were assessed. The predictors of failure were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Failure was considered when subsequent urethrotomy or urethroplasty were needed. Results Dorsal onlay BM graft was carried out in 24 patients, while PS urethroplasty in 26 patients. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding patients demographics, stricture characteristics or follow-up period. One case in the BM group was lost during follow-up. Stricture recurrence was detected in 7 (30.4% patients out of BM group while in 6 (23.1% patients out of PS group (p value= 0.5. No significant differences between both groups regarding overall early and late complications were observed. Occurrence of early complications and the stricture length were the only predictors of failure in univariate analysis, while in multivariate analysis the occurrence of early complications was only significant. Conclusion On short-term follow-up, both dorsal onlay BM graft and ventral onlay PS flap urethroplasty have similar success rates. However, BM graft has a potential advantage to reduce operative time and is also technically easier. The surgeon should avoid early local complications as they represent a higher risk for failure.

  1. A study of DNA damage in buccal cells of consumers of well- and/or tap-water using the comet assay: Assessment of occupational exposure to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Boucard, Celia; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Mercier, Laurence; Ramírez Orozco, Martín; Serrano Pinto, Vania; Anguiano, Gerardo; Cazares, Linette; Díaz, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption. Taking into account the professions of well- and/or tap-water consumers, agricultural workers exposed directly (those who fumigated) or indirectly (those not involved in fumigating) to agrochemicals showed greater genetic damage than controls. This difference persisted even when age, and whether the person smoked or consumed alcoholic drinks were considered. These factors were not associated with the level of genetic damage observed. Chemical analyses of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals were carried out to evaluate the water quality of wells, faucets, and surface water of canals consumed by the population and/or used for irrigation. High concentrations of α and β endosulfan were detected in water of surface canals. Although our inventory of agrochemicals employed in the region showed the use of products considered carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, they were not detected by the analytical techniques used. Heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) were detected in water of some wells used for irrigation and human consumption. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:619-627, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Educación Comunitaria en Salud Bucal para niños Community Education for childrens buccal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerys Tayme Tan Suárez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de las técnicas afectivo-participativas para la promoción de salud bucal en niños se realizó un estudio de intervención en el consultorio 61 área Oeste de la ciudad de Camagüey. La muestra quedó constituida por 35 infantes. Se realizarón dos exámenes; el primero antes de las actividades educativas y el segundo concluidas estas, se les tomó el Índice de Análisis de la Higiene Bucal de Love, el Índice MEDI-MED de Rossetti y una entrevista estructurada para valorar el nivel de información. Se ejecutaron dos sesiones educativas mensuales durante un trimestre. Como conclusión se obtuvo que dichas técnicas constituyeron una opción válida para la promoción de salud bucal porque después de ejecutadas casi la totalidad de los pequeños obtuvieron bien en la eficiencia del cepillado, predominando las mentes y encías sanas, el promedio de dientes permanentes sanos no sufrió cambios y el nivel de información satisfactorio fue alcanzado por la mayoría.With the objective of determining the influence of the affective-participative techniques for the promotion of buccal health in children, an intervention study in clinic 61, West area of Camagüey city was carried out. The sample was constituted by 35 infants. Two exams were carried out; the first one before the educational activities and the second one after concluding these. The Index of Buccal Hygiene Analysis of Love, the MEDI-MED Index of Rossetti and an interview structured in order to value the level of information of these children were used. Two monthly educational sessions were made during a trimester. To sum up, these techniques constituted a valid option for the promotion of buccal health because after applying them almost all children obtained a good mark in the efficiency of teeth brushing, prevailing healthy minds and gums, the average of healthy permanent teeth didn't suffer any changes and a satisfactory level of information

  3. Urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa graft. Is it still the method of choice in long term urethral stenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pavone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to evaluate the long-term changes in symptoms (median 42 months and to analyze data for any negative predictive factors for the application of the procedure, in patients who underwent to urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa graft. During the period from 2010 to 2015 27 patients were examined. Than they underwent urethroplasty using dorsal buccal mucosa graft (graft of 4 x 2.5 cm. The evaluation of symptoms has been addressed through the application of the IPSS Quality of Life Questionnaire (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and the evaluation of urinary flow has been carried out by a comparative analysis between the pre- and post-operative uroflowmetry. As our study has shown, data obtained by the screening tests in the post-operative follow-up indicate that there is an increase in the maximum flow of urine until 1 month after surgery. The results in the long-term follow-up are different because they show a partial reduction of the maximum flow although it is maintained around an average value of 23 ml/s being still higher than the maximum flow in the pre-operative period. According to our results it follows that there is a low failure rate of the procedure after a median of 42 months. Only in patients with urethral stenosis longer than 2 cm, a lower long term success is achieved. From what we could observe, this length of the stenosis seems to be the only negative predictive factor for long-term maintenance of a good Quality of Life in patients undergoing the procedure. The results obtained from our study confirm literature data according to which, the gold standard for 2-cm long bulbar urethral stricture whose lumen is well preserved with circumferential spongiofibrosis limited to 1-2 mm is the dorsal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosa that in our study showed success rates higher of 80% after a median follow up of 42 months and a percentage of relapse-free patients of 82.1% ( median 3.5 years.

  4. Comparison of Anaesthetic Efficacy of 4 percent Articaine Primary Buccal Infiltration Versus 2 percent Lidocaine Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Symptomatic Mandibular First Molar Teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, M.; Khattak, S. U. R.; Shah, S. A.; Fayyaz, M.; Sikandar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate success of pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4 percentage articaine in buccal infiltration versus 2 percentage lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Operative Dentistry, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandhara University, Peshawar, from March to August 2014. Methodology: One hundred and fifty-six emergency patients, who had 1st molar diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups by random allocation. One group received 4 percentage articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 2 percentage lidocaine. Subjects self-reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anaesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. Results: Mean age of subjects was 31.46 ±10.994 years. The success rate of 4 percentage buccal infiltration was 76.9 percentage; whereas the success rate of 2 percentage lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block was 62.8 percentage. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: 4 percentage articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to 2 percentage lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic therapy. (author)

  5. Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea and its relation to the type of feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.

  6. Buccal telomere length and its associations with cortisol, heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to an acute social evaluative stressor in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Livitz, Irina E; Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between stress and telomere length (a marker of cellular aging) is of great interest for reducing aging-related disease and death. One important aspect of acute stress exposure that may underlie detrimental effects on health is physiological reactivity to the stressor. This study tested the relationship between buccal telomere length and physiological reactivity (salivary cortisol reactivity and total output, heart rate (HR) variability, blood pressure, and HR) to an acute psychosocial stressor in a sample of 77 (53% male) healthy young adults. Consistent with predictions, greater reductions in HR variability (HRV) in response to a stressor and greater cortisol output during the study session were associated with shorter relative buccal telomere length (i.e. greater cellular aging). However, the relationship between cortisol output and buccal telomere length became non-significant when adjusting for medication use. Contrary to past findings and study hypotheses, associations between cortisol, blood pressure, and HR reactivity and relative buccal telomere length were not significant. Overall, these findings may indicate there are limited and mixed associations between stress reactivity and telomere length across physiological systems.

  7. Mifepristone followed by home administration of buccal misoprostol for medical abortion up to 70 days of amenorrhoea in a general practice in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Adriana A.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of home administration of buccal misoprostol after mifepristone for medical abortion up to 70 days' gestation in a general practice in Curacao, where induced abortion is severely restricted by law. Methods In a prospective study 330 women received 200 mg

  8. Buccal bone thickness at dental implants in the aesthetic zone : A 1-year follow-up cone beam computed tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Kirsten W.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    Sufficient buccal bone thickness (BBT) is important for an optimal aesthetic outcome of implant treatment in the aesthetic zone. The aim of the study was to assess BBT at dental implants placed in the aesthetic zone (incisor, canine or first premolar in the maxilla) (immediate or delayed, with or

  9. Immediate placement of a porous-tantalum, trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant with demineralized bone matrix into a socket with deficient buccal bone: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharit, Sompop; Byrd, Warren C; Hosseini, Bashir

    2015-04-01

    A missing or deficient buccal alveolar bone plate is often an important limiting factor for immediate implant placement. Titanium dental implants enhanced with porous tantalum-based trabecular metal material (PTTM) are designed for osseoincorporation, a combination of vascularized bone ingrowth and osseointegration (bone on-growth). Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) contains growth factors with good handling characteristics. However, the combination of these 2 materials in facial alveolar bone regeneration associated with immediate implant therapy has not been reported. A 65-year-old Asian woman presented with a failing central incisor. Most of the buccal alveolar bone plate of the socket was missing. A PTTM enhanced implant was immediately placed with DBM. Cone beam computed tomography scans 12 months after the insertion of the definitive restoration showed regeneration of buccal alveolar bone. A combination of a PTTM enhanced implant, DBM, and a custom healing abutment may have an advantage in retaining biologically active molecules and form a scaffold for neovascularization and osteogenesis. This treatment protocol may be a viable option for immediate implant therapy in a failed tooth with deficient buccal alveolar bone. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A randomized clinical multicentre trial comparing enamel matrix derivative and membrane treatment of buccal class II furcation involvement in mandibular molars. Part III: patient factors and treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, T.; Richter, S; Meyle, J.; Gonzales, J.R.; Heinz, B.; Arjomand, M.; Sculean, A.; Reich, E.; Jepsen, K.J.; Jepsen, S.; Boedeker, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of patient factors on the outcome of regenerative treatment of buccal mandibular class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat population 21 patients were allocated into the sequence left treatment with

  11. Long-term safety and analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine buccal film in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin; Urdaneta, Veronica; Kirby, M Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Rauck, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a novel buprenorphine formulation, buprenorphine buccal film, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of buprenorphine buccal film. Five hundred and six patients who completed previous studies with buprenorphine buccal film (n=445; rollover patients) or were recruited de novo for this study (n=61) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a dose titration period of ≤6 weeks, during which doses of buprenorphine buccal film were adjusted to a maximum 900 µg every 12 hours, depending on tolerability and the need for rescue medication. An optimal dose was defined as the dose that the patient found satisfactory for both pain relief and tolerability, without the need for rescue medication or with ≤2 tablets of rescue medication per day. Once the optimal dose was reached, treatment was continued for ≤48 weeks. Pain intensity was measured throughout the study using a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Of 435 patients achieving an optimal dose of buprenorphine buccal film who commenced long-term treatment, 158 (36.3%) completed 48 weeks of treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 116 patients (22.9%) during the titration phase and 61 patients (14.0%) during the long-term treatment phase, and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 14 (2.8%) and 14 (3.2%) patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were those typically associated with opioids, such as nausea, constipation, and headache. In both rollover and de novo patients, pain intensity scores remained constant at approximately 3-4 during long-term treatment, and the dose of buprenorphine buccal film remained unchanged in 86.2% of patients. In appropriate patients, buprenorphine buccal film demonstrated tolerability and efficacy

  12. Tubal Buccal Mucosa Graft without Anastomosis of the Proximal Urethra for Long Segment Posterior Urethral Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byung-Dal; Lee, Eui-Tai; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok Joong; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2012-10-01

    A 31-year-old man was referred for further management of a urethral stricture. He was a victim of a traffic accident and his urethral injury was associated with a pelvic bone fracture. He had previously undergone a suprapubic cystostomy only owing to his unstable general condition at another hospital. After 3 months of urethral injury, direct urethral anastomosis was attempted, but the surgery failed. An additional 4 failed internal urethrotomies were performed before the patient visited Chungbuk National University Hospital. Preoperative images revealed complete posterior urethral disruption, and the defect length was 4 cm. We performed a buccal mucosa tubal graft without anastomosis of the proximal urethra for a long segment posterior urethral defect. The Foley catheter was removed 3 weeks after the operation and the patient was able to void successfully. After 8 months, he had normal voiding function without urinary incontinence.

  13. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay of populations under chronic heavy metal and other metal exposure along the Santiago River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zúñiga-González, G M; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Zamora-Perez, A L; Rojas-Ramírez, J P; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Sobrevilla-Navarro, A A; Arellano-Avelar, M A; Guerrero-de León, A A; Armendáriz-Borunda, J S; Sánchez-Parada, M G

    2017-09-26

    The Santiago River is one of the most contaminated rivers in Mexico, with heavy metal levels above the allowed limits. Scientific evidence indicates that chronic heavy metal exposure leads to cytogenotoxic effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of such exposure in buccal mucosa cells by micronucleus (MN) assay and to identify other nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as nuclear buds (NBUDs), binucleated cells (BNs), pyknotic nuclei (PNs), karyorrhexis (KX), karyolysis (KL), and abnormally condensed chromatin (CC). Assays were performed on samples from four populations located alongside the Santiago River that are under chronic exposure to heavy metals and other metals (HMMs), and the results were compared with those of a population without exposure to HMMs. The exposed group showed increased frequencies of NAs (KX, CC, and KL), which are associated with cytotoxic damage, and NBUDs, which are associated with genotoxic damage. Increased frequencies of NBUDs and CC were observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán, Ocotlán, and Paso de Guadalupe, and an increase in KX frequency was observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán. Significant differences in KL frequency were observed in subjects from La Barca, El Salto/Juanacatlán, Paso de Guadalupe, and Ocotlán. Predictors for increased development of MNs and NBUDs were high concentrations of Al, Zn, and Cu. In conclusion, chronic exposure to HMMs, especially Al, Cu, and Zn, in the studied population could be related to increased frequencies of NAs, such as NBUDs, KX, CC, and KL, in the buccal mucosa cells.

  14. Intraoperative and early postoperative complications using the buccal fat pad during cleft palate surgery in East Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Vere Konijnendijk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six baby’s with cleft are born in Indonesia every hour. There is no standardized treatment of cleft in East Indonesia. Closure is an important aspect during cleft lip and palate surgery. Various techniques have been advocated to gain tissue for closure of cleft area. Mostly these techniques may only provide a small amount of additional length. For lager defects they may be use the local flaps or the buccal fat pad flap. The aim of this study is gain more information about intraoperative and early postoperative complications using the buccal fat pat during cleft palate surgery in East Indonesia. The mouth can be divided in six parts therefor the LAHSAL index will be used. This LAHSAL system is a diagrammatic classification of cleft lip and palate. The LAHSAL system is being used for this study as this system classifies the cleft primarily on location and also on the cleft being complete or incomplete, which can be significant for the research. After diagnosis and classification, the following patient data was obtained: patient age, weight, gender, type of surgery (primary or following, i.e. when the surgery is a correction of a previous treatment, if a bone graft is needed for closure, history of maxillofacial surgery or orthodontics, operation technique, operation duration, type of an aesthesia (local or general, radiographical records and light photos. These data were collected during the pre-operative consultation, about 24 hours before surgery. It was the policy of the team to admit and see all patients one day prior to surgery for counselling, postoperative instructions and evaluating the patient's facial defect.

  15. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study

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    Poonam Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic agent capable of inducing both mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation may induce genomic instability favoring carcinogenesis. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis of the disease and is used in medical and dental practice. It has been believed that the number of micronucleus and increased frequency of other nuclear alterations, including karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis, are related to the increasing effects of carcinogens. Many approaches and techniques have been developed for the monitoring of human populations exposed to various mutagens, but the analysis of micronuclei (MN has become a standard approach for the assessment of chromosomal damage in human populations. Aim: To assess the effects of radiation exposure from panoramic radiography on the buccal epithelial cells (BECs of pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 pediatric patients who had to undergo panoramic radiography for further dental treatment. Exfoliated BECs were obtained and examined immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained using rapid Papanicolaou (PAP kit. Evaluation for MN and nuclear alterations was carried out by an oral pathologist and data were statistically analyzed using the "t" test. Results: The mean number of MN in the BECs before exposure of pediatric patients to panoramic radiography was 4.25 and after exposure was 4.40. This difference was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. However, the mean nuclear alterations of 8.70 and 15.75 before and after exposure were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Panoramic radiographs can induce cytotoxicity but not genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when deemed indispensable.

  16. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Poonam; Vinuth, Dhundanalli Puttalingaiah; Haranal, Shashidevi; Thippanna, Chandrashekar K; Naresh, Nitesh; Moger, Ganapathi

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagenic agent capable of inducing both mutation and chromosomal aberrations. Non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation may induce genomic instability favoring carcinogenesis. In spite of their mutagenic potential, this kind of radiation is an important tool for diagnosis of the disease and is used in medical and dental practice. It has been believed that the number of micronucleus and increased frequency of other nuclear alterations, including karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis, are related to the increasing effects of carcinogens. Many approaches and techniques have been developed for the monitoring of human populations exposed to various mutagens, but the analysis of micronuclei (MN) has become a standard approach for the assessment of chromosomal damage in human populations. To assess the effects of radiation exposure from panoramic radiography on the buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of pediatric patients. The study included 20 pediatric patients who had to undergo panoramic radiography for further dental treatment. Exfoliated BECs were obtained and examined immediately before and 10 days after radiation exposure. The cells were stained using rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) kit. Evaluation for MN and nuclear alterations was carried out by an oral pathologist and data were statistically analyzed using the "t" test. The mean number of MN in the BECs before exposure of pediatric patients to panoramic radiography was 4.25 and after exposure was 4.40. This difference was not found to be statistically significant (P Panoramic radiographs can induce cytotoxicity but not genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when deemed indispensable.

  17. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

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    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of buccal buprenorphine in opioid-naive patients with moderate to severe chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard L; Potts, Jeffrey; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine HCl buccal film has been developed for treating chronic pain utilizing BioErodible MucoAdhesive (BEMA(®)) delivery technology. Buccal buprenorphine (BBUP; Belbuca(TM), Endo Pharmaceuticals) was evaluated for the management of moderate to severe chronic low back pain (CLBP) requiring around-the-clock analgesia in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal study in opioid-naive patients. Patients (n = 749) were titrated to a dose of BBUP (range, 150-450 µg every 12 h) that was generally well tolerated and provided adequate analgesia for ≥14 days, and then randomized to BBUP (n = 229) or placebo (n = 232), respectively. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 of double-blind treatment in the mean of daily average pain intensity scores (numeric rating scale from 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain imaginable]). Patients were experiencing moderate to severe pain at study entry: mean (SD) = 7.15 (1.05). Following titration, pain was reduced to the mild range; 2.81 (1.07). After randomization, mean (SD) pain scores increased from baseline to week 12 more with placebo (1.59 [2.04]) versus BBUP: (0.94 [1.85]) with a significant between-group difference (-0.67 [95% CI: -1.07 to -0.26]; p = 0.0012). A significantly larger percentage of patients receiving BBUP versus placebo had ≥30% pain reduction (63% vs 47%; p = 0.0012). During double-blind treatment, the most frequent adverse events (AEs) with BBUP were nausea (10%), constipation (4%) and vomiting (4%). The most common AEs with placebo were nausea (7%), upper respiratory tract infection (4%), headache (3%) and diarrhea (3%). These findings demonstrate the efficacy and tolerability of BBUP among opioid-naive patients requiring around-the-clock opioid treatment for CLBP.

  19. Comparative Study of Genotoxicity in Different Tobacco Related Habits using Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Jose, Maji; Saxena, Kartikay; K, Deepa; Prabhu, Vishnudas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating diseases afflicting mankind. Consumption of tobacco in various forms constitutes one of the most important etiological factors in initiation of oral cancer. When the focus of today’s research is to determine early genotoxic changes in human cells, micronucleus (MN) assay provides a simple, yet reliable indicator of genotoxic damage. Aims and Objectives: To identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa in individuals with different tobacco related habits and control group, to compare the genotoxicity of different tobacco related habits between each group and also with that of control group. Patients and Methods: In the present study buccal smears of 135 individuals with different tobacco related habits & buccal smears of 45 age and sex matched controls were obtained, stained using Giemsa stain and then observed under 100X magnification in order to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. Results: The mean Micronucleus (MN) count in individuals having smoking habit were 3.11 while the count was 0.50, 2.13, and 1.67 in normal control, smoking with beetle quid and smokeless tobacco habit respectively. MN count in smokers group was 2.6 times more compared to normal controls. MN count was more even in other groups when compared to normal control but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: From our study we concluded that tobacco in any form is genotoxic especially smokers are of higher risk and micronucleus assay can be used as a simple yet reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation. PMID:24995238

  20. Telomere length of circulating leukocyte subpopulations and buccal cells in patients with ischemic heart failure and their offspring.

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    Liza S M Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to find support for the hypothesis that telomere length (TL is causally involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart failure (IHF. We measured TL in IHF patients and their high-risk offspring and determined whether mean leukocyte TL reflects TL in CD34+ progenitor. We additionally measured TL of offspring of patients and controls to examine heritability throughout different cell types. METHODS AND RESULTS: TL was measured by qPCR in overall leukocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, mononuclear cells (MNCs, and buccal cells in 27 IHF patients, 24 healthy controls and 60 offspring. TL in IHF patients was shorter than healthy controls in leukocytes (p = 0.002, but not in CD34+ cells (p = 0.39, MNCs (p = 0.31 or buccal cells (p = 0.19. Offspring of IHF patients had shorter TL in leukocytes than offspring of healthy subjects (p = 0.04 but not in other cell types. Controls and offspring showed a good within person correlation between leukocytes and CD34+ cells (r 0.562; p = 0.004 and r 0.602; p = 0.001, respectively. In IHF patients and offspring the correlation among cell types was blunted. Finally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all four cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced leukocyte TL in offspring of IHF subjects suggests a potential causal link of TL in ischemic heart disease. However, this causality is unlikely to originate from exhaustion of TL in CD34+ progenitor or MNC cells as their lengths are not well captured by overall leukocyte TL. Additionally, we found strong correlations between parent and offspring TL in all examined cell types, suggesting high heritability of TL among cell types.

  1. Factores de riesgo de lesiones premalignas y malignas bucales Factors of risk of lesions premalignas and malignant buccal

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    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre los principales factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de lesiones malignas y premalignas bucales en nuestra área de salud con el propósito de encaminar el trabajo preventivo y para educar a nuestra población. Se encontró que el 67,7 % de los pacientes encuestados presentaron algún factor de riesgo asociado con la aparición de estas lesiones y el 4,8 % presentó algún tipo de lesión. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado, y el uso de prótesis y el hábito de fumar los factores de riesgos más frecuentes. La leucoplasia constituyó la lesión más encontrada, con el 36,7 % y las localizaciones más frecuentes la mucosa del carrillo y el labio inferior.A study on the main risk factors associated with the appearance of malignant and premalignant oral lesions in our health area was conducted aimed at directing our preventive work and at educating our population. It was found that 67.7 % of the surveyed patients presented some risk factor associated with the appearance of these lesions and 4.8 % had some type of lesion. Males were the most affected and the denture wearing and the smoking habit were the most frequent risk factors. Leucoplakia was the most common lesion, accounting for 36.7 %. The cheek mucosa and the lower lip were the most frequent localizations.

  2. Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down: ocorrência e inibição do crescimento por Streptomyces sp Candida albicans isolated from buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome: occurrence and growth inhibition by Streptomyces sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Gonçalves Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparação entre a presença de leveduras de Candida na cavidade bucal de crianças sem e com síndrome de Down mostrou-se estatisticamente significante no caso de crianças afetadas por esta cromossomopatia, tornando-as mais predispostas à candidíase bucal, provavelmente favorecida pelas alterações anátomo-fisiológicas da boca em decorrência da trissomia do cromossomo 21. Recidivas constantes de candidíase bucal em crianças portadoras desta alteração cromossômica levou a busca de prováveis alternativas terapêuticas. Visando determinar a atividade antifúngica de Streptomyces sp isolados de diferentes solos brasileiros, 5 cepas foram testadas frente a Candida albicans, oriundas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down. Observou-se que os isolados apresentaram uma diversidade de tamanho dos halos (9-31mm de diâmetro de inibição de crescimento das leveduras, sugerindo uma possível utilização em terapêutica antifúngica.Comparison of the presence of Candida yeasts in the buccal cavity of children without and with Down's syndrome showed a statistically significant difference in the case of children that were affected by this chromosomopathy, rendering them more predisposed to buccal candidiasis, probably due to anatomicophysiologic alterations of the mouth resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21. Constant recurrence of buccal candidiasis in children with this chromosomal alteration lead to the search for a possible therapeutic alternative. Seeking to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp isolated from various Brazilian soils, 5 strains have been tested for Candida albicans isolated from the buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome. It was observed that the isolate presented a diversity in the size of the halos (9-31mm in diameter of growth inhibition of the yeasts, suggesting a possible use as a therapeutic antifungal.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) translational studies in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration of the RA-6 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Longhino, Juan; Boggio, Esteban [Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Department of Nuclear Engineering, San Carlos de Bariloche, Province Rio Negro (Argentina); Medina, Vanina A.; Martinel Lamas, Diego J. [National Research Council (CONICET), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA), Laboratory of Tumoral Biology and Inflammation, School of Medical Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED CONICET-UCA), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garabalino, Marcela A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Pozzi, Emiliano C.C. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, Maria E. [Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Department of Radiobiology, San Martin, Province Buenos Aires (Argentina); UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, Romina F. [UBA, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, David W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of B-10 carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We demonstrated, in 2001, the therapeutic effect of BNCT mediated by BPA (boronophenylalanine) in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer, at the RA-6 nuclear reactor. Between 2007 and 2011, the RA-6 was upgraded, leading to an improvement in the performance of the BNCT beam (B2 configuration). Our aim was to evaluate BPA-BNCT radiotoxicity and tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer at the new ''B2'' configuration. We also evaluated, for the first time in the oral cancer model, the radioprotective effect of histamine against mucositis in precancerous tissue as the dose-limiting tissue. Cancerized pouches were exposed to: BPA-BNCT; BPA-BNCT + histamine; BO: Beam only; BO + histamine; CONTROL: cancerized, no-treatment. BNCT induced severe mucositis, with an incidence that was slightly higher than in ''B1'' experiments (86 vs 67%, respectively). BO induced low/moderate mucositis. Histamine slightly reduced the incidence of severe mucositis induced by BPA-BNCT (75 vs 86%) and prevented mucositis altogether in BO animals. Tumor overall response was significantly higher in BNCT (94-96%) than in control (16%) and BO groups (9-38%), and did not differ significantly from the ''B1'' results (91%). Histamine did not compromise BNCT therapeutic efficacy. BNCT radiotoxicity and therapeutic effect at the B1 and B2 configurations of RA-6 were consistent. Histamine slightly reduced mucositis in precancerous tissue even in this overly aggressive oral cancer model, without compromising tumor control. (orig.)

  4. Traumatic Bone Cyst of Idiopathic Origin? A Report of Two Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the term "traumatic bone cyst" is the most widely used name today (1). Case Details: A 15 years old male patient presented with a complaint of swelling with mild, intermittent and non-radiating pain in the lower left back teeth region. There was expansion of the buccal cortical plate. Radiograph showed a multilocular lesion ...

  5. The Effects of Environmental Pollution with Heavy Metals in Frequency of Micronuclei in Epithelial Buccal Cells of Human Population in Mitrovica

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    K. Letaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was evaluation of genotoxic effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals in inhabitants of Mitrovica town (which is located close to smelter “Treça” down closed. In this study, 55 inhabitants (males from Mitrovica town and 20 (males control subjects with similar mean ages and smoking prevalence were enrolled for analysis of micronuclei frequency in epithelial buccal cells. The subjects of Mitrovica town showed significant increase micronuclei frequency (p< 0.001 in epithelial buccal cells compared to controls and with respect to their smoking habits. The current study suggests that chronic exposure to pollution with heavy metals could lead to increase of DNA damage.

  6. Mucin dispersions as a model for the oromucosal mucus layer in in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability studies of small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxen, Eva; Mosgaard, Mette Dalskov; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    The mucus layer is believed to play a part in drug permeation across the oral mucosa. Human freeze-dried saliva (HFDS) and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was evaluated as model for mucus layer per se or in conjunction with in vitro and ex vivo buccal permeability models. Four small molecules (nicotine...... on nicotine and mannitol. Incubation of porcine buccal mucosa with mucin dispersions for 24 h compromised the integrity of the tissue, whereas 30 min incubation did not affect tissue integrity. Tissue incubation with mucin dispersions did not decrease nicotine permeability. For the studied model drugs......, it is concluded that mucin dispersions constitute a minor barrier for drug diffusion compared to the epithelium....

  7. A study of the low level radiation effect on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the defects of the low level irradiation on the mitotic index of the basal cells in the buccal pouch of hamsters (golden hamster: APG strain). After colchicine was administrated to the hamsters through the intraperitoneal, the low level radiation (5461 mR) was exposed in the buccal pouch of hamsters. The mitotic index of the basal cells was estimated 2 hours after irradiation. The results were as follows: 1. The mean mitotic index of the control group was 4.32. 2. The mean mitotic index of the irradiated group was 2.46. 3. T-test of data in the irradiated group showed significant difference from the mitotic endex in the control group. These results suggested the lowered mitotic index of the irradiated group resulted from the low level irradiation.

  8. Effects of platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin on healing of extraction sockets with buccal dehiscence in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Marukawa, Eriko; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence.

  9. The effect of the heights and thicknesses of the remaining root segments on buccal bone resorption in the socket-shield technique: An experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen; Kang, Jian; Liu, Wenjia; Wang, Hang

    2018-02-08

    To date only a few studies have been done on the use of the socket-shield technique for preserving the resorption of the buccal bone in aesthetically sensitive sites. Besides, there have been no further studies on the effect of the heights and thicknesses of the remaining root segments on buccal bone resorption when using this method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different heights and thicknesses of the remaining root segments on bone resorption in the socket-shield technique. Four healthy female beagle dogs were used in this study. The third premolar (P3) and the fourth premolar (P4) on both sides of the mandible were hemisected in the buccal-lingual direction, and the clinical crown of the distal root was beheaded. In the experimental groups, the roots were worn down in the apical direction until they were located at the buccal crestal level (Group A) or 1 mm higher than that level (Group B). In the control group, the distal root segments were extracted. Then, implant placement was performed into the distal root. After 3 months of healing, the specimens were prepared for histological diagnosis. There was no difference between Group A and Group B when using the socket-shield technique, but the results of both groups were better than those of the control group. The height of the root segments has little effect on the bone absorption of alveolar bone, while the bone absorption was strongly influenced by the thickness of the root segments. More precisely, the absorption may decrease if the thickness of the root fragment increases, when the thickness of the root plate is in the 0.5-1.5 mm range. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anesthetic Success of an Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Supplemental Articaine Buccal Infiltration for Molars and Premolars in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the anesthetic success of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block, and supplemental articaine buccal infiltration after a failed IAN block, in first and second molars and premolars in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. As part of 6 studies, 375 emergency patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis received 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine via an IAN block. After profound lip numbness, endodontic access and instrumentation were initiated. If the patient felt moderate to severe pain, a supplemental buccal infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was administered (204 patients), and endodontic treatment continued. Success was defined as the ability to access and instrument the tooth without pain (visual analogue scale rating of 0) or mild pain (visual analogue scale rating less than or equal to 54 mm). IAN block success was 28% for the first molars, 25% for the second molars, and 39% for the premolars. There were no significant differences when comparing molars with premolars. For the supplemental articaine buccal infiltration, success was 42% for the first molars, 48% for the second molars, and 73% for the premolars. There were no significant differences when comparing the molars, but there was a significant difference when comparing the premolars with the molars. For patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, the success rates for the IAN block and supplemental buccal infiltration of articaine of the molars and premolars would not be high enough to ensure profound pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Platelet-Poor Plasma, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Healing of Extraction Sockets with Buccal Dehiscence in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence. PMID:24098948

  12. Buccal Epithelial Cells as Potential Non- invasive Materials for the Monitoring of Mitochondrial Disturbances to Track Huntington‘s Disease Progression. A Pilot Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodinová, M.; Trefilová, E.; Lišková, Irena; Klempíř, J.; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Vidinská, Daniela; Motlík, Jan; Zeman, J.; Hansíková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 49-54 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and IV * buccal epithelial cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2015

  13. Systèmes nanostructurés décorés par du chitosane pour la délivrance buccale de la curcumine

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzarino, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of mucoadhesive nanostructured systems, including chitosan-coated nanoparticles and films containing nanoparticles, aiming the buccal delivery of curcumin. Two different systems of nanoparticles were developed: polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles and xyloglucan-block-polycaprolactone (XGO-b-PCL) nanoparticles. PCL nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation technique, while XGO-b-PCL nanoparticles were prepared by the co-solvent method. Both coll...

  14. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Tessier number 7 cleft: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco-Gomes, João; Duarte, Carla; Pereira, Elsa; Matias, Alexandra; Montenegro, Nuno; Merz, Eberhard

    2017-05-01

    Lateral or transverse facial clefts are the most frequent of the atypical facial clefts, classified by Tessier as no. 7 clefts. Most of the cases are diagnosed at birth, while few cases are diagnosed prenatally. We report a case of prenatal ultrasound detection and three-dimensional characterisation of a lateral facial cleft at 21 weeks of gestation, which was terminated at 22 weeks. It was a transverse cleft, running through the left cheek towards the ear, along with micrognathia and mild polyhydramnios. We also present a review on classification, anatomical features and prenatal diagnosis of Tessier no. 7 cleft.

  15. A case report of osteosarcoma occurred in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hwa; Jeon, Seon Doo

    1996-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone, The mean age of occurrence of osteosarcoma in the jaws is around 30, somewhat older than for other sites in the body. These lesions occur about equally in the maxilla and mandible. They most frequently develop in the body in the mandible, and the antrum and the posterior portion of alveolar ridge in the maxilla. We report a case of osteosarcoma in 35 years old female complaining swelling of the left cheek. Radiographic features showed cotton wool appearance in upper left posterior area. Histopathologic findings exhibited pleomorphic malignant osteoblasts and neoplastic osteoid.

  16. Enhanced transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery: effect of chemical enhancers and electrical assistance on in vitro sCT buccal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Ho; Chun, Kyeung-Hwa; Jeon, Sang-Ok; Kang, Jeong-Won; Lee, Sangkil

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance on transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery, using fresh swine buccal tissue. We placed 200 IU (40 μg/mL) of each sCT formulation--containing various concentrations of ethanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and sodium deoxyglycocholate (SDGC)--onto the donor part of a Franz diffusion cell. Then, 0.5 mA/cm(2) of fixed anodal current was applied alone or combined with chemical enhancers. The amount of permeated sCT was analyzed using an ELISA kit, and biophysical changes of the buccal mucosa were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, and hematoxylin-eosin staining methods were used to evaluate histological alteration of the buccal tissues. The flux (J(s)) of sCT increased with the addition of absorption enhancer groups, but it was significantly enhanced by the application of anodal iontophoresis (ITP). FT-IR study revealed that all groups caused an increase in lipid fluidity but only the groups containing SDGC showed statistically significant difference. Although the histological data of SDGC groups showed a possibility for tissue damage, the present enhancing methods appear to be safe. In conclusion, the combination of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transbuccal sCT delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Buccal absorption of diazepam is improved when administered in bioadhesive tablets-An in vivo study in conscious Göttingen mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2016-12-30

    Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini-pigs. Presentation of the compound in the amorphous form lead to a very fast absorption, however, the obtained bioavailability was at the same level observed following buccal administration of a commercially immediate release tablet. Addition of chitosan, as a mucoadhesive excipient, resulted in a higher absolute bioavailability compared to tablets without chitosan. The absorption rate for the chitosan-based tablets was significant slower, probably due to the slower diffusion of the compound out of the tablet. In vitro release data was able to predict the variations in t max , but otherwise no correlation could be found between in vitro and in vivo data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Buccal misoprostol plus laminaria for cervical preparation before dilation and evacuation at 21-23 weeks of gestation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drey, Eleanor A; Benson, Lyndsey S; Sokoloff, Abby; Steinauer, Jody E; Roy, Geneviève; Jackson, Rebecca A

    2014-04-01

    To describe the effectiveness of buccal misoprostol as an adjunct to laminaria for cervical ripening before later second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation (D&E). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 196 women undergoing D&E between 21 and 23 weeks of gestation. Subjects had overnight laminaria and 400 mcg buccal misoprostol or placebo 3-4 h before the abortion. We used logarithmic transformation of the primary outcome--D&E procedure duration--to achieve a normal distribution. Mean D&E duration was 1.7 min shorter with misoprostol (p=.02). The median duration was 9.7 versus 10.4 min in the misoprostol and placebo groups, respectively (p=.09). Cervical dilation was slightly greater with misoprostol (median 75 mm vs. 73 mm, p=.04); however, physicians did not find the misoprostol D&Es easier to complete. Half of subjects reported severe pain after misoprostol vs. 11% with placebo (p<.001). Adjuvant buccal misoprostol results in slightly shorter D&Es at the cost of more side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of periosteal membrane as a barrier membrane for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects in lower molars: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To use the periosteum as a barrier in treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. Materials and Methods : This technique was performed on 12 patients with bilateral buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars. On a random basis, one furcation defect of each pair was selected for the control group and other for the experimental group. Debridement was done in the defect area in both groups. In the control group, after debridement, mucoperiosteal flap was sutured back. In the experimental group, after reflection of the mucoperiosteal flap, a portion of the periosteum along with a layer of connective tissue (periosteal membrane was incised and mobilized in the defect area for defect coverage as a barrier, and then the periosteal membrane and mucoperiosteal flap were fixed with suture, respectively. Horizontal dimension of the furcation defect was the primary outcome measure. Gingival index, probing attachment level (PAL, and vertical dimension of furcation defect were the secondary outcome measures. Clinical parameters were registered at baseline and at 6 months. Results : Every clinical parameter was improved by surgery. Significant gain in PAL as well as horizontal and vertical dimensions of the furcation defects was found. Conclusion: This periosteum displacement technique is effective for the treatment of buccal Grade II furcation defects of lower molars.

  20. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of buccal misoprostol to reduce the need for additional uterotonic drugs during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castro, Flavio; López-Serna, Norberto; Treviño-Salinas, Emilio M; Soria-López, Juan A; Sordia-Hernández, Luis H; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery in conjunction with active management of the third stage of labor reduces the need for additional uterotonic drugs. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed in Monterrey, Mexico, between February 2008 and December 2013. Eligible women had risk factors for uterine atony and were to undergo cesarean delivery under epidural block. Using a computer-generated sequence and blocks of six, patients were randomly assigned to receive 400μg misoprostol or 800μg placebo buccally after cord clamping. Both groups received an intravenous oxytocin infusion. The primary outcome was the need for additional uterotonic drugs. Analyses were performed per protocol. Patients, investigators, and data analysts were masked to group assignment. A total of 120 women were included in analyses (60 in each group). At least one additional uterotonic drug was required in 24 (40%) women in the placebo group versus 6 (10%) women in the misoprostol group (relative risk 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.44). No adverse effects due to misoprostol were recorded. Buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery reduced the need for additional uterotonic drugs to treat uterine atony. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01733329. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Brazilian workers exposed to pesticides: micronucleus analysis in buccal epithelial cells of soybean growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Giorgia Moura de; Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri de; Silva, Luciano Basso da

    2009-04-30

    Pesticides have been considered potential chemical mutagens and various agrochemical ingredients possess mutagenic properties. Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals. In general genetic damage associated with pesticides occurs in human populations subject to high exposure levels due to intensive use, misuse or failure of control measures. Few studies have been carried out using the micronucleus (MN) analysis in buccal cells of farm workers and, from the available data, only one has found a positive relationship. Micronuclei were analyzed in 29 Brazilian workers exposed to pesticides in soybean fields and in 37 non-exposed individuals. The results obtained indicate that the mean number of cells with MN in the exposed group (3.55+/-2.13) was significantly higher than in the control group (1.78+/-1.23). The number of cells with MN was not influenced by age, smoking habit, smoking time, number of cigarettes/day, alcohol consumption and years of exposure to pesticides. The genotoxic potential of the pesticides used in soybean fields may explain the detectable increase of cells with MN in exposed workers.

  2. Proteomics of Buccal Cavity Mucus in Female Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis spp.): A Comparison between Parental and Non-Parental Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iq, Koe Chun; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    Mouthbrooding is an elaborate form of parental care displayed by many teleost species. While the direct benefits of mouthbrooding such as protection and transportation of offsprings are known, it is unclear if mouthbrooding offers additional benefits to embryos during incubation. In addition, mouthbrooding could incur negative costs on parental fish, due to limited feeding opportunities. Parental tilapia fish (Oreochromis spp.) display an elaborated form of parental care by incubating newly hatched embryos in oral buccal cavity until the complete adsorption of yolk sac. In order to understand the functional aspects of mouthbrooding, we undertake a proteomics approach to compare oral mucus sampled from mouthbrooders and non-mouthbrooders, respectively. Majority of the identified proteins have also been previously identified in other biological fluids or mucus-rich organs in different organisms. We also showed the upregulation of 22 proteins and down regulation of 3 proteins in mucus collected from mouthbrooders. Anterior gradient protein, hemoglobin beta-A chain and alpha-2 globin levels were lower in mouthbrooder samples. Mouthbrooder oral mucus collectively showed increase levels of proteins related to cytoskeletal properties, glycolytic pathway and mediation of oxidative stress. Overall the findings suggest cellular stress response, probably to support production of mucus during mouthbrooding phase. PMID:21533134

  3. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis for novel biomarkers of buccal squamous cell carcinoma arising in background of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zeng, Lijuan; Li, Ning; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Canhua; Guo, Feng; Chen, Xinqun; Su, Tong; Xu, Chunjiao; Zhang, Shanshan; Fang, Changyun

    2016-08-02

    In South and Southeast Asian, the majority of buccal squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) can arise from oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). BSCCs develop in OSF that are often not completely resected, causing local relapse. The aim of our study was to find candidate protein biomarkers to detect OSF and predict prognosis in BSCCs by quantitative proteomics approaches. We compared normal oral mucosa (NBM) and paired biopsies of BSCC and OSF by quantitative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to discover proteins with differential expression. Gene Ontology and KEGG networks were analyzed. The prognostic value of biomarkers was evaluated in 94 BSCCs accompanied with OSF. Significant associations were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox-proportional hazards analysis. In total 30 proteins were identified with significantly different expression (false discovery rate quantitative proteomics analysis for tissues of BSCC and OSF is a reliable strategy. A significantly up-regulated ANXA4 and FLNA could be not only candidate biomarkers for BSCC prognosis but also potential targets for its therapy.

  5. Macro- and microstructural tracking of ageing-related changes of papaverine hydrochloride-loaded electrospun nanofibrous buccal sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazsoki, Adrienn; Szabó, Péter; Süvegh, Károly; Vörös, Tamás; Zelkó, Romána

    2017-09-05

    Electrospun papaverine hydrochloride-loaded nanofibrous sheets consist of hydroxypropyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite were prepared for buccal administration for cerebral ischemia. The nanofibrous drug delivery system was subjected to accelerated stability test for four weeks in order to scrutinize the solid state changes relating to the stress induced (40±2°C/75±5% relative humidity) physical ageing. Micro- and macrostructural alterations were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Significant changes were revealed at both supramolecular and macroscopic levels. Microscopic morphology uncovered major morphological transitions. Subtle variations of Raman and FTIR spectra indicated that the local chemical environment of papaverine was altered suggesting a partial phase transition of the active. Discrete o-Ps lifetimes and lifetime-distributions unveiled a two-step ageing process of the drug carrier. In addition to the tracking of the glassy-to-rubbery transition of the fiber forming polymers, the Raman spectroscopy enabled monitoring the kinetics of the phase transition observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and characterisation of cellulose based electrospun mats for buccal delivery of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Kazem; Kontogiannidou, Eleni; Ahmad, Rita Haj; Gratsani, Aggeliki; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Sunar, Burde Suheyla; Armitage, David; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Chang, Ming-Wei; Li, Xiang; Fatouros, Dimitrios G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-05-01

    In this study conventional electrospinning (ESp) was used to prepare a series of buccal films containing indomethacin (INDO, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), Ethocel (10), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Tween ® 80 at various concentrations. The films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Drug release behaviour was assessed in vitro (buffer pH6.8). SEM revealed film morphology and mean fibre diameter was dependent on the process formulation. INDO was encapsulated in the amorphous state once electrospun as evidenced from DSC and XRD studies. The presence of other excipients within fibrous matrices was confirmed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Loading and release of INDO from filamentous structures was influenced by formulation composition; indicating potential to 'fine-tune' dosage forms. Given that ESp is a one-step preparation method and operational at ambient conditions; an attractive route for engineering tailored film type dosage forms is presented. This is a valuable approach for optimizing dosage forms as needed in a single step for various age groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin polymer on release of drugs from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yotaro; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) polymer on in vitro release of two drugs with different lipophilicities (i.e., lidocaine and ketoprofen) from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms. When beta-CyD polymer was added to hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA) film dosage forms, the release of lidocaine into artificial saliva (pH 5.7) was reduced by 40% of the control. In contrast, the release of ketoprofen from the polymer film was enhanced by addition of beta-CyD polymer to the vehicle. When lidocaine and ketoprofen was incubated with beta-CyD polymer in the artificial saliva, concentration of free lidocaine molecules decreased in a beta-CyD polymer concentration-dependent manner. The association constant with beta-CyD polymer was 6.9+/-0.6 and 520+/-90 M(-1) for lidocaine and ketoprofen, respectively. Retarded release of the hydrophilic lidocaine by beta-CyD polymer might be due to the decrease in thermodynamic activity by inclusion complex formation, whereas enhanced release of the lipophilic ketoprofen by the beta-CyD polymer might be due to prevention of recrystallization occurring after contacting the film with aqueous solution. Thus, effects of low-molecular-weight beta-CyD polymer to the drug release rate from film dosage forms would vary according to the strength of interaction with and the solubility of active ingredient.

  8. COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, DNA-INTERCALATORS, C60-FULLERENE AND CAFFEINE ON HUMAN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Skamrova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Now the number of physical and chemical biologically active damage factors dramatically increased. The ways to neutralize such effects have not been studied enough. In this work the techniques of visual assessment of chromatin granulation and of electronegativity of human buccal epithelium cell nuclei were used in order to study the combined effects of the exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range electromagnetic radiation and to the DNA-binding compounds, such as: antibiotic doxorubicin, mutagens ethidium bromide and proflavine, as well as to caffeine and C60 -fullerene which are not directly interact with DNA. When the action of electromagnetic radiation and DNA-binding compounds is combined, a synergistic effect of reducing the cell response was observed in contrast to the effects caused by electromagnetic radiation and drugs separately. When cells were irradiated in the presence of C60 -fullerene or caffeine, a protective effect of compounds against electromagnetic radiation influence was observed. The obtained results may provide perspectives in the use of the C60 fullerene and caffeine as DNA-protectors under the action of electromagnetic radiation.

  9. Management of moderate to severe chronic low back pain with buprenorphine buccal film using novel bioerodible mucoadhesive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Fleischer, Charles; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Taylor, Robert

    2016-01-01

    With a global prevalence of ~9%-12%, low back pain (LBP) is a serious public health issue, associated with high costs for treatment and lost productivity. Chronic LBP (cLBP) involves central sensitization, a neuropathic pain component, and may induce maladaptive coping strategies and depression. Treating cLBP is challenging, and current treatment options are not fully satisfactory. A new BioErodible MucoAdhesive (BEMA ® ) delivery system for buprenorphine has been developed to treat cLBP. The buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) film developed for this product (Belbuca™) allows for rapid delivery and titration over a greater range of doses than was previously available with transdermal buprenorphine systems. In clinical studies, BBUP was shown to effectively reduce pain associated with cLBP at 12 weeks with good tolerability. The most frequently reported side effects with the use of BBUP were nausea, constipation, and vomiting. There was no significant effect on the QT interval vs placebo. Chronic pain patients using other opioids can be successfully rotated to BBUP without risk of withdrawal symptoms or inadequate analgesia. The role of BBUP in managing cLBP remains to be determined, but it appears to be a promising new product in the analgesic arsenal in general.

  10. Radix Entomolaris: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movassagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During endodontic treatment the variety of mandibular sectorial in the form of an extra lingual (radix entomolaris or buccal root (radix paramolaris can often cause difficulties. In other words, awareness and understanding of this unusual root, and its canal morphology, are factors that can affect the outcome of root canal treatment. Case Presentation A 30-year-old male patient with a history of severe, throbbing, constant pain in the lower mandibular molars was referred to the department of endodontics of Hamedan Dental university. The patient’s medical history was noncontributory. The buccal object rule (same-lingual opposite-buccal technique confirmed the additional root as a distolingual root (radix entomolaris. Following the evaluation of vitality tests, we began endodontic treatment for this patient, after administration of local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Daroupakhsh, Tehran, Iran and rubber dam isolation. The working length was determined by a Root ZX apex locator (Dentaport ZX, J Morita and later confirmed by parallel periapical radiograph. Canals were shaped in a crown down fashion with Protaper Nickel Titanium rotary instruments (Dentsply, Maillefer under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and lubrication with RC-Prep. After drying the canals with paper points, the master gutta-percha points were fitted within the canals and confirmation radiography was taken. The root canal system was obturated with the cold lateral compaction technique. Conclusions This case is about a mandibular molar with radix entomolaris and the radiographic exploration and endodontic order. Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular molars. The initial diagnosis of a radix entomolaris or paramolaris before root canal treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure.

  11. Efficacy of imidazolquinoline on treatment of condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, Davi Silva Carvalho; Leite-Ribeiro, Patrícia Miranda; Torregrossa, Vinicius Rabelo; Vieira, Vinicius Costa; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida

    2017-01-01

    The condylomata acuminata is a benign epithelial neoplasm induced by papillomavirus, and it is characterized by the proliferation of stratified squamous epithelial tissue that affects the anogenital and oral mucosa. It is considered to be a sexually transmitted disease and has a higher prevalence in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Various therapies have been used for the removal of lesions, such as cryotherapy, surgical laser and surgical excision, which are painful and scarring. These techniques, however, do not eliminate the virus and relapses are common shortly after treatment. The use of immunomodulators has been proposed to be an alternative treatment, as imidazolquinoline has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lesions in the anogenital region. However, its use in the oral cavity has been the subject of few reports in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe a case of warts in the labial mucosa of an HIV positive patient using imidazolquinoline 5%. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cancer Stem Cells in Moderately Differentiated Buccal Mucosal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Express Components of the Renin-Angiotensin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Featherston

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim We have recently identified and characterized cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations within moderately differentiated buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (MDBMSCC. We hypothesized that these CSCs express components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS.Methods 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB immunohistochemical (IHC staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MDBMSCC samples to investigate the expression of the components of the RAS: pro(renin receptor (PRR, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II receptor 1 (ATIIR1 and angiotensin II receptor 2 (ATIIR2. NanoString mRNA gene expression analysis and Western Blotting (WB were performed on snap-frozen MDBMSCC samples to confirm gene expression and translation of these transcripts, respectively. Double immunofluorescent (IF IHC staining of these components of the RAS with the embryonic stem cell markers OCT4 or SALL4 was performed to demonstrate their localization in relation to the CSC subpopulations within MDBMSCC.Results DAB IHC staining demonstrated expression of PRR, ACE, ATIIR1 and ATIIR2 in MDBMSCC. IF IHC staining showed that PRR was expressed by the CSC subpopulations within the tumor nests, the peri-tumoral stroma and the endothelium of the microvessels within the peri-tumoral stroma. ATIIR1 and ATIIR2 were localized to the CSC subpopulations within the tumor nests and the peri-tumoral stroma, while ACE was localized to the endothelium of the microvessels within the peri-tumoral stroma. WB and NanoString analyses confirmed protein expression and transcription activation of PRR, ACE and ATIIR1 but not of ATIIR2, respectively.

  13. Challenges of post-authorization safety studies: Lessons learned and results of a French study of fentanyl buccal tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Bidollari, Ilda; Kaplan, Sigal; Bartov, Netta

    2017-10-13

    Recruiting and retaining participants in real-world studies that collect primary data are challenging. This article illustrates these challenges using a post-authorization safety study (PASS) to assess adverse events (AEs) experienced with fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) over 3 months of treatment. This was an observational, prospective, multicenter study in France conducted over 1 year. The study employed primary data collection in FBT-treated patients and their treating physicians via a site qualification questionnaire and patient log completed by physicians and a questionnaire and pain diary completed by patients. Strategies to increase participation included reminders, newsletters, frequent follow-up telephone calls, and reducing the extent of data collected. Of the 1118 physicians contacted who returned the participation form or responded to a telephone call, only 128 expressed willingness to participate. Key reasons for non-participation were lack of interest (69.7%) and FBT not being used in practice by the contacted physician (25.1%). Overall, 224 patients were screened by 31 physicians, and 97 were enrolled. Key reasons for patient non-inclusion were unwillingness or inability to complete the patient AE diary or questionnaire (40.9% [52/127]) and patients' decision (33.9% [43/127]). Despite efforts to increase participation, enrollment in this study was low. Recruitment and retention methods are limited in their capacity to optimally execute a primary data collection in a PASS. For a PASS to provide reliable and valid information on medication use, involvement from health care agencies, regulators, and pharmaceutical companies is needed to establish their importance, drive study participation, and reduce patient withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Regenerative medicine for Parkinson's disease using differentiated nerve cells derived from human buccal fat pad stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Haruka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of human adipose stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad (hBFP-ASCs) for nerve regeneration. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons. PD is a candidate disease for cell replacement therapy because it has no fundamental therapeutic methods. We examined the properties of neural-related cells induced from hBFP-ASCs as a cell source for PD treatment. hBFP-ASCs were cultured in neurogenic differentiation medium for about 2 weeks. After the morphology of hBFP-ASCs changed to neural-like cells, the medium was replaced with neural maintenance medium. Cells differentiated from hBFP-ASCs showed neuron-like structures and expressed neuron markers (β3-tubulin, neurofilament 200, and microtubule-associated protein 2), an astrocyte marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein), or dopaminergic neuron-related marker (tyrosine hydroxylase). Induced neural cells were transplanted into a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat hemi-parkinsonian model. At 4 weeks after transplantation, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were subjected to apomorphine-induced rotation analysis. The transplanted cells survived in the brain of rats as dopaminergic neural cells. No tumor formation was found after cell transplantation. We demonstrated differentiation of hBFP-ASCs into neural cells, and that transplantation of these neural cells improved the symptoms of model rats. Our results suggest that neurons differentiated from hBFP-ASCs would be applicable to cell replacement therapy of PD.

  15. [Effects of anti-infection treatment on expressions of HLA-DR and CD86 in dendritic cells in rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue with inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhang; Nini, Zhang; Guilin, Huang; Xiaohua, Hu; Jie, Yi; Li, Yao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of anti-infection treatment on the expressions of antigen-presenting-related membrane-surface molecules HLA-DR and CD86 in dendritic cells (DCs) in rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue complicated with local inflammation. Rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation models that were established by inflammation was induced by inoculation VX2 tumor, mechanical trauma, and drinking of milk with high sugar viscosity. The animals were divided into four groups. Group A (n=12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, procaine penicillin was intramuscularly given, and tinidazole tablets were given by gavage for three consecutive days. Group B (n = 12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, normal saline was intramuscularly given, and aspirin were given by gavage for three consecutive days. Group C (n = 12): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma with local inflammation, normal saline was given intramuscularly and by gavage for three consecutive days. Group D (n = 10): rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma, normal saline was given intramuscularly and by gavage for three consecutive days. All the rabbits were sacrificed for collection of tumor specimens, and the expression levels of membrane-surface HLA-DR and CD86 in DCs of tumor specimens were detected viaflow cytometry. The positive expression rate of HLA-DR and the double positive expression rate of HLA-DR and CD86 were group A > group D > group B > group C. The positive expression rate of CD86 were group A > group D > group B and group C (P < 0.05). Anti-infection treatment significantly increased the expressions of HLA-DR and CD86 in DCs of rabbit buccal VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue complicated with local inflammation.

  16. Ridge Preservation with Modified “Socket-Shield” Technique: A Methodological Case Series

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    Markus Glocker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After tooth extraction, the alveolar bone undergoes a remodeling process, which leads to horizontal and vertical bone loss. These resorption processes complicate dental rehabilitation, particularly in connection with implants. Various methods of guided bone regeneration (GBR have been described to retain the original dimension of the bone after extraction. Most procedures use filler materials and membranes to support the buccal plate and soft tissue, to stabilize the coagulum and to prevent epithelial ingrowth. It has also been suggested that resorption of the buccal bundle bone can be avoided by leaving a buccal root segment (socket shield technique in place, because the biological integrity of the buccal periodontium (bundle bone remains untouched. This method has also been described in connection with immediate implant placement. The present case report describes three consecutive cases in which a modified method was applied as part of a delayed implantation. The latter was carried out after six months, and during re-entry the new bone formation in the alveolar bone and the residual ridge was clinically evaluated as proof of principle. It was demonstrated that the bone was clinically preserved with this method. Possibilities and limitations are discussed and directions for future research are disclosed.

  17. Paramolar - A supernumerary molar: A case report and an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Gurudutt Nayak; Shashit Shetty; Inderpreet Singh; Deepti Pitalia

    2012-01-01

    Paramolar is a supernumerary molar usually small and rudimentary, most commonly situated buccally or palatally to one of the maxillary molars. Paramolar is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Reports of this entity are rarely found in the dental literature. This article presents a case report of an unusual occurrence of a paramolar in the maxilla in otherwise a healthy individual. In addition, literature review, prevale...

  18. Large oral lipoma: Case report and literature review in Iran

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    Ahmad Motagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoma is a benign mesenchymal tumor of fat with uncertain pathogenesis. Although the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in trunk and proximal portions of the extremities, it is rarely seen in the oral cavity. Oral lipomas are clinically soft, smooth-surfaced nodular masses that mostly are less than 3 cm in size. Typically the tumor is asymptomatic unless bitten or become noticeable because of their size. The buccal mucosa and buccal vestibule are the most common intraoral sites and account for 50% of all cases. Reported here is a relatively large lipoma of buccal mucosa that was treated surgically under local anesthesia. In an 18-month postsurgical follow up no complication or recurrence has occurred. This case will also be compared to intraoral lipomas reported in Iranian population. As lipomas are usually smaller than 3 cm in diameter, lipoma with the size reported, is of clinical importance. Since the large lipomas are in differential diagnosis with other, even malignant, mesenchymal, or salivary gland tumors. Thus, this case report recommends clinical awareness in diagnosis of large intraoral soft tissue lesions.

  19. Influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants after extraction of teeth with different defects in the buccal bone.

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    Pang, Chaoyuan; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin; Zhou, Hongzhi; Qin, Ruifeng; Hou, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of preservation of the alveolar ridge on delayed implants with different defects in the buccal bone. We enrolled 60 patients who had one posterior mandibular tooth extracted. Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) was used to measure the buccal bone defects in the alveolar ridge before the tooth was extracted (level A=3 to 5 mm, and level B=more than 5 mm). After the tooth had been extracted, the socket either had the alveolar ridge preserved (trial group) or it was left to heal spontaneously (control group). The changes in the dimensions of the alveolar ridge from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively were evaluated by cone-beam CT. Suitable implants were inserted 6 months later, and their length and diameter recorded. The implant stability quotient was evaluated for the following 3 months. The dimensions of the bone in the alveolar ridge in the trial group were significantly less than those in the control groups in both levels. Fifty-seven patients required implants (except 3 in level B in the control group). There were more longer and wider implants in the trial group than in the control group in Level B. 3 months after implantation, there were no significant differences in implant stability quotients between the groups, though in the control group, Level B, the mean (SD) value was 69.50 (1.00) while in the other groups values were all above 70 at 3 months. We conclude that when the defect in the buccal bone was more than 5mm, the alveolar ridge preservation demonstrated a remarkable effect in preserving the alveolar ridge dimension and delayed implantation. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytogenetic biomonitoring in individuals exposed to cone beam CT: comparison among exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, cells of tongue and epithelial gingival cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Hao, Shuai; Gong, Xu; Li, Gang

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate chromosomal damage and cytotoxicity in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, cells of the tongue and epithelial gingival cells from adults following CBCT scan and to compare the sensitivity of the different exfoliated cells to a same dosage of ionizing radiation. The study included 46 healthy participants (median age 27 years; age range 23-42 years) who had a CBCT scan. Exfoliated mucosa cells were collected immediately before the CBCT scan and 10 days after. Cells were centrifuged, fixed in the fluid of methanol : glacial acetic acid (3 : 1) and stained using the method of Schiff's reagent and fast green. One observer analyzed all the slides. For interobserver variances, a second observer scored 16 slides chosen from all the subjects. The same set of 16 slides were analyzed once again a month later for intraobserver variances. There is no significant differences for micronucleated cells before and after a CBCT scan in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells (p = 0.476), cells of the tongue (p = 0.884) and epithelial gingival cells (p = 0.362). The frequencies of pyknosis cell and karyolysis cell had significantly increased after CBCT scan in the three groups. No significant difference was found among the three kinds of mucosa cells (p = 0.557). The interobserver (p = 0.624) and intraobserver (p = 0.193) variances were not significant. A CBCT scan may induce cytotoxicity but not chromosomal damage in the oral mucosa cells, including buccal mucosa cells, cells of the tongue or epithelial gingival cells. The sensitivity of the different exfoliated cells to the same dosage of radiation had no statistically significant difference.