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Sample records for bubonic plague model

  1. Bubonic plague: a metapopulation model of a zoonosis.

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    Keeling, M J; Gilligan, C A

    2000-01-01

    Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is generally thought of as a historical disease; however, it is still responsible for around 1000-3000 deaths each year worldwide. This paper expands the analysis of a model for bubonic plague that encompasses the disease dynamics in rat, flea and human populations. Some key variables of the deterministic model, including the force of infection to humans, are shown to be robust to changes in the basic parameters, although variation in the flea searching efficiency, and the movement rates of rats and fleas will be considered throughout the paper. The stochastic behaviour of the corresponding metapopulation model is discussed, with attention focused on the dynamics of rats and the force of infection at the local spatial scale. Short-lived local epidemics in rats govern the invasion of the disease and produce an irregular pattern of human cases similar to those observed. However, the endemic behaviour in a few rat subpopulations allows the disease to persist for many years. This spatial stochastic model is also used to identify the criteria for the spread to human populations in terms of the rat density. Finally, the full stochastic model is reduced to the form of a probabilistic cellular automaton, which allows the analysis of a large number of replicated epidemics in large populations. This simplified model enables us to analyse the spatial properties of rat epidemics and the effects of movement rates, and also to test whether the emergent metapopulation behaviour is a property of the local dynamics rather than the precise details of the model. PMID:11413636

  2. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

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    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  3. Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India

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    Christakos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896–1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time dependence structure and uncertainty sources of the epidemic system and providing a composite space-time picture of the disease propagation characteristics. Results Informative spatiotemporal maps were generated that represented mortality rates and geographical spread of the disease, and epidemic indicator plots were derived that offered meaningful characterizations of the spatiotemporal disease distribution. The bubonic plague in India exhibited strong seasonal and geographical features. During its entire duration, the plague continued to invade new geographical areas, while it followed a re-emergence pattern at many localities; its rate changed significantly during each year and the mortality distribution exhibited space-time heterogeneous patterns; prevalence usually occurred in the autumn and spring, whereas the plague stopped moving towards new locations during the summers. Conclusion Modern stochastic modelling and geographical information science provide powerful means to study the spatiotemporal distribution of the bubonic plague epidemic under conditions of uncertainty and multi-sourced databases; to account for various forms of interdisciplinary knowledge; and to generate informative space-time maps of mortality rates and propagation patterns. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of plague maps and plots become available for the first time, thus providing novel perspectives concerning the distribution and space-time propagation of the deadly epidemic. Furthermore, systematic maps and indicator plots make possible the comparison of the spatial-temporal propagation

  4. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

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    Xiaodong Xiao

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  5. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

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    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  6. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

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    Fanny Gascuel

    Full Text Available Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  7. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

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    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  8. Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?

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    McMichael, Anthony J

    2010-08-27

    Pandemics of bubonic plague have occurred in Eurasia since the sixth century AD. Climatic variations in Central Asia affect the population size and activity of the plague bacterium's reservoir rodent species, influencing the probability of human infection. Using innovative time-series analysis of surrogate climate records spanning 1,500 years, a study in BMC Biology concludes that climatic fluctuations may have influenced these pandemics. This has potential implications for health risks from future climate change.

  9. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

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    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  10. Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?

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    McMichael Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pandemics of bubonic plague have occurred in Eurasia since the sixth century ad. Climatic variations in Central Asia affect the population size and activity of the plague bacterium's reservoir rodent species, influencing the probability of human infection. Using innovative time-series analysis of surrogate climate records spanning 1,500 years, a study in BMC Biology concludes that climatic fluctuations may have influenced these pandemics. This has potential implications for health risks from future climate change. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/112

  11. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

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    Françoise Guinet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla

  12. New Insights into How Yersinia pestis Adapts to Its Mammalian Host during Bubonic Plague

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    Pradel, Elizabeth; Lemaître, Nadine; Merchez, Maud; Ricard, Isabelle; Reboul, Angéline; Dewitte, Amélie; Sebbane, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Bubonic plague (a fatal, flea-transmitted disease) remains an international public health concern. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of bubonic plague has improved significantly over the last few decades, researchers have still not been able to define the complete set of Y. pestis genes needed for disease or to characterize the mechanisms that enable infection. Here, we generated a library of Y. pestis mutants, each lacking one or more of the genes previously identified as being up-regulated in vivo. We then screened the library for attenuated virulence in rodent models of bubonic plague. Importantly, we tested mutants both individually and using a novel, “per-pool” screening method that we have developed. Our data showed that in addition to genes involved in physiological adaption and resistance to the stress generated by the host, several previously uncharacterized genes are required for virulence. One of these genes (ympt1.66c, which encodes a putative helicase) has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Deletion of ympt1.66c reduced Y. pestis' ability to spread to the lymph nodes draining the dermal inoculation site – probably because loss of this gene decreased the bacteria's ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that (i) intracellular survival during the early stage of infection is important for plague and (ii) horizontal gene transfer was crucial in the acquisition of this ability. PMID:24675805

  13. New insights into how Yersinia pestis adapts to its mammalian host during bubonic plague.

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    Elizabeth Pradel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubonic plague (a fatal, flea-transmitted disease remains an international public health concern. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of bubonic plague has improved significantly over the last few decades, researchers have still not been able to define the complete set of Y. pestis genes needed for disease or to characterize the mechanisms that enable infection. Here, we generated a library of Y. pestis mutants, each lacking one or more of the genes previously identified as being up-regulated in vivo. We then screened the library for attenuated virulence in rodent models of bubonic plague. Importantly, we tested mutants both individually and using a novel, "per-pool" screening method that we have developed. Our data showed that in addition to genes involved in physiological adaptation and resistance to the stress generated by the host, several previously uncharacterized genes are required for virulence. One of these genes (ympt1.66c, which encodes a putative helicase has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Deletion of ympt1.66c reduced Y. pestis' ability to spread to the lymph nodes draining the dermal inoculation site--probably because loss of this gene decreased the bacteria's ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that (i intracellular survival during the early stage of infection is important for plague and (ii horizontal gene transfer was crucial in the acquisition of this ability.

  14. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination.

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    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably.The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1-Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50 caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50. Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1- Y. pestis.VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection against the two forms of plague after a single

  15. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin-gentamicin combination therapy in murine bubonic plague.

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    Nadine Lemaître

    Full Text Available Potential benefits of combination antibiotic therapy for the treatment of plague have never been evaluated. We compared the efficacy of a ciprofloxacin (CIN and gentamicin (GEN combination therapy with that of each antibiotic administered alone (i against Yersinia pestis in vitro and (ii in a mouse model of bubonic plague in which animals were intravenously injected with antibiotics for five days, starting at two different times after infection (44 h and 56 h. In vitro, the CIN+GEN combination was synergistic at 0.5x the individual drugs' MICs and indifferent at 1x- or 2x MIC. In vivo, the survival rate for mice treated with CIN+GEN was similar to that observed with CIN alone and slightly higher than that observed for GEN alone 100, 100 and 85%, respectively when treatment was started 44 h post challenge. 100% of survivors were recorded in the CIN+GEN group vs 86 and 83% in the CIN and GEN groups, respectively when treatment was delayed to 56 h post-challenge. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Five days after the end of treatment, Y. pestis were observed in lymph nodes draining the inoculation site (but not in the spleen in surviving mice in each of the three groups. The median lymph node log(10 CFU recovered from persistently infected lymph nodes was significantly higher with GEN than with CIN (5.8 vs. 3.2, p = 0.04 or CIN+GEN (5.8 vs. 2.8, p = 0.01. Taken as the whole, our data show that CIN+GEN combination is as effective as CIN alone but, regimens containing CIN are more effective to eradicate Y. pestis from the draining lymph node than the recommended GEN monotherapy. Moreover, draining lymph nodes may serve as a reservoir for the continued release of Y. pestis into the blood - even after five days of intravenous antibiotic treatment.

  16. THE BUBONIC PLAGUE OF 1349, THE WAGE-TO-RENT RATIO, AND THE ENGLISH PEASANT FAMILY

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    Stephanie O. Crofton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  17. Epidemiologic analysis of a previous outbreak of bubonic plague:The first identified outbreak with bacteriological confirmation in Kobe and Osaka,Japan

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    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the case fatality and estimate the symptomatic period of bubonic plague.Methods:Epidemiologic analyses of a previous outbreak of plague in Osaka and Kobe,two major port cities in Japan, from 1899-1900 were performed.In addition to date of onset of symptoms,gender,age and the date of death were extracted from the historical data.The time from onset to death (symptomatic period)was fitted to gamma distribution using the maximum likelihood method.Results:Temporal distribution revealed suspected chains of transmission of the primary pneumonic plague at the late stage of the outbreak.The case fatality of bubonic plague without specific treatment was 83.4 %,and the mean time from onset to death was estimated as 4.7 days (95 % confidence interval:4.0,5.5).Conclusion:Case fatality of bubonic plague without specific treatment was extremely high.The symptomatic period of bubonic plague appeared to be longer than that of pneumonic plague.

  18. Imaging of bubonic plague dynamics by in vivo tracking of bioluminescent Yersinia pestis.

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    Toan Nham

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis dissemination in a host is usually studied by enumerating bacteria in the tissues of animals sacrificed at different times. This laborious methodology gives only snapshots of the infection, as the infectious process is not synchronized. In this work we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI to follow Y. pestis dissemination during bubonic plague. We first demonstrated that Y. pestis CO92 transformed with pGEN-luxCDABE stably emitted bioluminescence in vitro and in vivo, while retaining full virulence. The light produced from live animals allowed to delineate the infected organs and correlated with bacterial loads, thus validating the BLI tool. We then showed that the first step of the infectious process is a bacterial multiplication at the injection site (linea alba, followed by a colonization of the draining inguinal lymph node(s, and subsequently of the ipsilateral axillary lymph node through a direct connection between the two nodes. A mild bacteremia and an effective filtering of the blood stream by the liver and spleen probably accounted for the early bacterial blood clearance and the simultaneous development of bacterial foci within these organs. The saturation of the filtering capacity of the spleen and liver subsequently led to terminal septicemia. Our results also indicate that secondary lymphoid tissues are the main targets of Y. pestis multiplication and that colonization of other organs occurs essentially at the terminal phase of the disease. Finally, our analysis reveals that the high variability in the kinetics of infection is attributable to the time the bacteria remain confined at the injection site. However, once Y. pestis has reached the draining lymph nodes, the disease progresses extremely rapidly, leading to the invasion of the entire body within two days and to death of the animals. This highlights the extraordinary capacity of Y. pestis to annihilate the host innate immune response.

  19. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

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    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  20. Small todents fleas from the bubonic plague focus located in the Serra dos Órgãos Mountain Range, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382, followed by P. (Neopolygenis pradoi, representing 20% (N:185 and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae, representing 18.9% (N:175. The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.

  1. Plague

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    ... In the Middle Ages in Europe, massive plague epidemics killed millions of people. Plague has not been eliminated. It can still be found in Africa, Asia, and South America. Today, plague is rare in the United States. ...

  2. Human Plague Risk: Spatial-Temporal Models

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    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This chpater reviews the use of spatial-temporal models in identifying potential risks of plague outbreaks into the human population. Using earth observations by satellites remote sensing there has been a systematic analysis and mapping of the close coupling between the vectors of the disease and climate variability. The overall result is that incidence of plague is correlated to positive El Nino/Southem Oscillation (ENSO).

  3. A Yersinia pestis tat mutant is attenuated in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic challenge models of infection but not as attenuated by intranasal challenge.

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    Joel Bozue

    Full Text Available Bacterial proteins destined for the Tat pathway are folded before crossing the inner membrane and are typically identified by an N-terminal signal peptide containing a twin arginine motif. Translocation by the Tat pathway is dependent on the products of genes which encode proteins possessing the binding site of the signal peptide and mediating the actual translocation event. In the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis, the tatA gene was deleted. The mutant was assayed for loss of virulence through various in vitro and in vivo assays. Deletion of the tatA gene resulted in several consequences for the mutant as compared to wild-type. Cell morphology of the mutant bacteria was altered and demonstrated a more elongated form. In addition, while cultures of the mutant strain were able to produce a biofilm, we observed a loss of adhesion of the mutant biofilm structure compared to the biofilm produced by the wild-type strain. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed a partial disruption of the F1 antigen on the surface of the mutant. The virulence of the ΔtatA mutant was assessed in various murine models of plague. The mutant was severely attenuated in the bubonic model with full virulence restored by complementation with the native gene. After small-particle aerosol challenge in a pneumonic model of infection, the mutant was also shown to be attenuated. In contrast, when mice were challenged intranasally with the mutant, very little difference in the LD50 was observed between wild-type and mutant strains. However, an increased time-to-death and delay in bacterial dissemination was observed in mice infected with the ΔtatA mutant as compared to the parent strain. Collectively, these findings demonstrate an essential role for the Tat pathway in the virulence of Y. pestis in bubonic and small-aerosol pneumonic infection but less important role for intranasal challenge.

  4. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

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    Florent Sebbane

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  5. Plague

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    Abbott, Rachel C.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague offers readers an overview of this highly complex disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. The history of the disease, as well as information about Yersinia pestis and its transmission by fleas, is described. The section Geographic Distribution presents areas of the world and United States where plague occurs most commonly in rodents and humans. Species Susceptibility describes infection and disease rates in rodents, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the complex relationship among rodents, domestic and wild animals, and humans and explores possible routes of transmission and maintenance of the organism in the environment. The effects of climate change, the potential for Y. pestis to be used as a bioweapon, and the impact of plague on conservation of wildlife are considered in Points to Ponder. Disease Prevention and Control outlines methods of prevention and treatment including vaccination for prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. A glossary of technical terms is included. Tonie E. Rocke, the senior author and an epizootiologist at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), is a prominent researcher on oral vaccination of prairie dogs to prevent plague. She is currently working to transfer her success in the laboratory to the field to control plague in prairie dogs. Rachel C. Abbott, a biologist at the NWHC, is assisting Dr. Rocke in this process and will coordinate field trials of the vaccine. Milt Friend, first director of the NWHC, wrote the foreword. Plague is intended for scholars and the general public. The material is presented in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. Numerous illustrations and tables provide easily understood summaries of key points and information.

  6. Empirical assessment of a threshold model for sylvatic plague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Viljugrein, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plague surveillance programmes established in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, during the previous century, have generated large plague archives that have been used to parameterize an abundance threshold model for sylvatic plague in great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations. Here, we assess the model...

  7. Thinking extreme social violence: the model of the literary plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2007-12-01

    The author uses literary plagues as a model for thinking psychoanalytically about the basic anxieties activated among perpetrators of sanctioned massacres. The model of the plague allows abstracting an underlying primitive psychological organization characterized by syncretism and a powerful anxiety of de-differentiation and confusion, leading characteristically to imitative behavior within the in-group as well as to the disavowal of the out-group members similarities to oneself, i.e. the disavowal of the other's humanity. Recognizing the historical and social foundations of discrimination and genocide, the author analyzes the interaction between group and individual processes that allow ordinary people to join daily acts of immoral violence. She dramatizes the model of the plague through a psychoanalytic reading of three literary plagues: Thebes' plague according to Sophocles, Camus's chronicle of the plague in Oran, and Saramago's meditation on the plague of white blindness.

  8. Modeling plague transmission in Medieval European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Katharine Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death pandemic swept through Europe during the Middle Ages leading to high mortality from plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. How the disease was transmitted in Europe is not fully elucidated, and prior to the identification of the bacterium in medieval tooth samples, the nature of the pandemic led to speculation that the Black Death was not the same disease as current-day plague. In the classical mode of transmission to humans, black rats act as an intermediate host an...

  9. Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Samia, Noelle I.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2006-01-01

    The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. In Central Asia, where human plague is still reported regularly, the bacterium is common in natural populations of great gerbils. By using field data from 1949-1995 and previously undescribed statistical techniques, we show that Y. pestis...... prevalence in gerbils increases with warmer springs and wetter summers: A 1°C increase in spring is predicted to lead to a >50% increase in prevalence. Climatic conditions favoring plague apparently existed in this region at the onset of the Black Death as well as when the most recent plague pandemic arose...... in the same region, and they are expected to  continue or become more favorable as a result of climate change.  Threats of outbreaks may thus be increasing where humans live in close contact with rodents and fleas (or other wildlife) harboring endemic plague....

  10. The use of high-resolution remote sensing for plague surveillance in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addink, E A; De Jong, S M; Davis, S A

    2010-01-01

    Bubonic plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, persists as a public health problem in many parts of the world, including central Kazakhstan. Bubonic plague occurs most often in humans through a flea bite, when a questing flea fails to find a rodent host. For many of the plague foci...... in Kazakhstan the great gerbil is the major host of plague, a social rodent well-adapted to desert environments. Intensive monitoring and prevention of plague in gerbils started in 1947, reducing the number of human cases and mortalities drastically. However, the monitoring is labour-intensive and hence...... expensive and is now under threat due to financial constraints. Previous research showed that the occupancy rate of the burrow systems of the great gerbil is a strong indicator for the probability of a plague outbreak. The burrow systems are around 30 m in diameter with a bare surface. This paper aims...

  11. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker James R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948 and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources

  12. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  13. Plague Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas through three techniques: Environmental management Public health education Preventive drug therapy Environmental Management Preventing epidemic plague requires the reducing or eliminating house rat populations in both urban and rural areas. Control of plague in such situations requires two ...

  14. Prediction of Frost Risks and Plagues using WRF model: a Port Wine region case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Rocha, A.; Monteiro, A.; Quénol, H.; de Freitas, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    In viticulture where the quality of the wine, the selection of the grapevines or even the characteristics of the farming soil, also depending from local soil features like topography, proximity of a river or water body, will act locally on the weather. Frosts are of significant concern to growers of many cultures crops such as winegrapes. Because of their high latitude and some altitude, the vineyards of the Demarcated Douro Region (DDR) are subjected to the frost, which cause serious damages. But the hazards of vineyard don't confine to the incidents of the fortuitous and meteorological character. The illnesses and plagues affect frequently the vineyards of Demarcated Douro Region due, namely to the weather, to the high power of the regional stocks, to the dense vegetation badly drained and favourable to the setting of numberless fungi, viruses and/or poisonous insects. In the case of DDR it is worth noticing the meteorological conditions due to the weather characteristics. Although there are several illnesses and plagues the most important enemies for the vine in the DDR are the mildew, oidium, grey rottenness, grape moth,. . . , if the climatic conditions favour their appearance and development. For this study, we selected some months for different periods, at the 16 weather stations of the Region of Douro. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to study and possibly predict the occurrence of risk and plagues (mildew) episodes. The model is first validated with the meteorological data obtained at the weather stations. The knowledge of frost and plagues occurrence allows one to decrease its risks not only by selecting the cultural species and varieties but also the places of growth and the planting and sowing dates.

  15. Inhaled Liposomal Ciprofloxacin Protects against a Lethal Infection in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Karleigh A.; Armstrong, Stuart J.; Barnes, Kay B.; Davies, Carwyn; Laws, Thomas; Blanchard, James D.; Harding, Sarah V.; Atkins, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, ‘ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (CFI, Lipoquin®) and ‘dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation’ (DRCFI, Pulmaquin®) containing CFI and ciprofloxacin solution, are in development. These were evaluated as potential therapies for infection with Y. pestis. In a murine model of pneumonic plague, human-like doses of aerosolized CFI, aerosolized DRCFI or intraperitoneal (i.p.) ciprofloxacin were administered at 24 h (representing prophylaxis) or 42 h (representing treatment) post-challenge. All three therapies provided a high level of protection when administered 24 h post-challenge. A single dose of CFI, but not DRCFI, significantly improved survival compared to a single dose of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, single doses of CFI and DRCFI reduced bacterial burden in lungs and spleens to below the detectable limit at 60 h post-challenge. When therapy was delayed until 42 h post-challenge, a single dose of CFI or DRCFI offered minimal protection. However, single doses of CFI or DRCFI were able to significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the spleen compared to empty liposomes. A three-day treatment regimen of ciprofloxacin, CFI, or DRCFI resulted in high levels of protection (90–100% survival). This study suggests that CFI and DRCFI may be useful therapies for Y. pestis infection, both as prophylaxis and for the treatment of plague. PMID:28220110

  16. Pneumonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  17. Histopathological observation of immunized rhesus macaques with plague vaccines after subcutaneous infection of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Tian

    Full Text Available In our previous study, complete protection was observed in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques immunized with SV1 (20 µg F1 and 10 µg rV270 and SV2 (200 µg F1 and 100 µg rV270 subunit vaccines and with EV76 live attenuated vaccine against subcutaneous challenge with 6×10(6 CFU of Y. pestis. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs of the immunized animals and control animals were checked by electron microscopy. The results show no signs of histopathological lesions in the lungs, livers, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleens and hearts of the immunized animals at Day 14 after the challenge, whereas pathological alterations were seen in the corresponding tissues of the control animals. Giemsa staining, ultrastructural examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed bacteria in some of the organs of the control animals, whereas no bacterium was observed among the immunized animals. Ultrastructural observation revealed that no glomerular immune deposits on the GBM. These observations suggest that the vaccines can effectively protect animals from any pathologic changes and eliminate Y. pestis from the immunized animals. The control animals died from multi-organ lesions specifically caused by the Y. pestis infection. We also found that subcutaneous infection of animals with Y. pestis results in bubonic plague, followed by pneumonic and septicemic plagues. The histopathologic features of plague in rhesus macaques closely resemble those of rodent and human plagues. Thus, Chinese-origin rhesus macaques serve as useful models in studying Y. pestis pathogenesis, host response and the efficacy of new medical countermeasures against plague.

  18. Improvement of disease prediction and modeling through the use of meteorological ensembles: human plague in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Moore

    Full Text Available Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases.

  19. Improvement of disease prediction and modeling through the use of meteorological ensembles: human plague in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Griffith, Kevin S; Apangu, Titus; Mead, Paul S; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February) and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases.

  20. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet becomes sick, seek care from a veterinarian as soon as possible. Do not allow dogs or cats that roam free in endemic areas to sleep on your bed. Note: A plague vaccine is no longer available in the United States. ...

  1. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hawkey, S.; Kleij, D. van der; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Silman, N.J.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    We determined the role of Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague. Eleven strains of Y. pestis were characterized using PCR assays to detect the presence of known virulence genes both encoded by the three plasmids as well as chromosomal markers. The virulence of all

  2. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Kaman (Wendy); S. Hawkey; D. van der Kleij (Desiree); M.P. Broekhuijsen; N.J. Silman; F.J. Bikker (Floris)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe determined the role of Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague. Eleven strains of Y. pestis were characterized using PCR assays to detect the presence of known virulence genes both encoded by the three plasmids as well as chromosomal markers. The virul

  3. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology.

  4. Earthquakes and plague during Byzantine times: can lessons from the past improve epidemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Marketos, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters have always been followed by a fear of infectious diseases. This raised historical debate about one of the most feared scenarios: the outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis. One such event was recorded in the Indian state Maharashtra in 1994 after an earthquake. In multidisciplinary historical approach to the evolution of plague, many experts ignore the possibility of natural foci and their activation. This article presents historical records from the Byzantine Empire about outbreaks of the Plague of Justinian occurring months or even up to a year after high-magnitude earthquakes. Historical records of plague outbreaks can be used to document existence of natural foci all over the world. Knowledge of these historical records and the contemporary examples of plague support the assumption that, in terms of organising humanitarian aid, poor monitoring of natural foci could lead to unpredictable epidemiological consequences after high-magnitude earthquakes.

  5. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  6. Plague: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plague? Plague is an infectious disease that affects rodents, certain other animals, and humans. It is caused ... of plague? Fleas become infected by feeding on rodents, such as chipmunks, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, mice, ...

  7. 腺鼠疫病人治疗的探讨%Treatment of bubonic plague patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨腺鼠疫病人的治疗方法.方法 从发病机理入手,阐述了一般腺鼠疫和特殊病例的治疗措施.结果 首选药物为链霉素,但对过敏及孕妇可采用替代药品、包括联合用药以及中医疗法等.结论 在使用链霉素的同时,联合用药以及结合几百年来中医在治疗恶核方面的良方,将会大大缩短腺鼠疫的疗程.

  8. New Insights into Autoinducer-2 Signaling as a Virulence Regulator in a Mouse Model of Pneumonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the infamous Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, have a highly conserved interbacterial signaling system that is mediated by the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing molecule. The AI-2 system is implicated in regulating various bacterial virulence genes in diverse environmental niches. Deletion of the gene encoding the synthetic enzyme for the AI-2 substrate, luxS, leads to either no significant change or, paradoxically, an increase in in vivo bacterial virulence. We showed that deletion of the rbsA and lsrA genes, components of ABC transport systems that interact with AI-2, synergistically disrupted AI-2 signaling patterns and resulted in a more-than-50-fold decrease in Y. pestis strain CO92 virulence in a stringent pneumonic plague mouse model. Deletion of luxS or lsrK (encoding AI-2 kinase) from the ΔrbsA ΔlsrA background strain or complementation of the ΔrbsA ΔlsrA mutant with the corresponding gene(s) reverted the virulence phenotype to that of the wild-type Y. pestis CO92. Furthermore, the administration of synthetic AI-2 in mice infected with the ΔrbsA ΔlsrA ΔluxS mutant strain attenuated this triple mutant to a virulence phenotype similar to that of the ΔrbsA ΔlsrA strain in a pneumonic plague model. Conversely, the administration of AI-2 to mice infected with the ΔrbsA ΔlsrA ΔluxS ΔlsrK mutant did not rescue animals from lethality, indicating the importance of the AI-2–LsrK axis in regulating bacterial virulence. By performing high-throughput RNA sequencing, the potential role of some AI-2-signaling-regulated genes that modulated bacterial virulence was determined. We anticipate that the characterization of AI-2 signaling in Y. pestis will lead to reexamination of AI-2 systems in other pathogens and that AI-2 signaling may represent a broad-spectrum therapeutic target to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which represent a global crisis of the 21st century. IMPORTANCE

  9. Viper Plague Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    a private herpetological collection infested with ticks (Kiel et al, 2006). Viper Plague presented signs and symptoms in the reptiles that were...1. Introduction The term Viper Plague was coined for a lethal disease state seen in snakes belonging to a private herpetological collection...Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This was performed because this particular species of rattlesnake was present in the original herpetological collection

  10. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  11. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  12. The NlpD lipoprotein is a novel Yersinia pestis virulence factor essential for the development of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Tidhar

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. Previously we have isolated an attenuated Y. pestis transposon insertion mutant in which the pcm gene was disrupted. In the present study, we investigated the expression and the role of pcm locus genes in Y. pestis pathogenesis using a set of isogenic surE, pcm, nlpD and rpoS mutants of the fully virulent Kimberley53 strain. We show that in Y. pestis, nlpD expression is controlled from elements residing within the upstream genes surE and pcm. The NlpD lipoprotein is the only factor encoded from the pcm locus that is essential for Y. pestis virulence. A chromosomal deletion of the nlpD gene sequence resulted in a drastic reduction in virulence to an LD(50 of at least 10(7 cfu for subcutaneous and airway routes of infection. The mutant was unable to colonize mouse organs following infection. The filamented morphology of the nlpD mutant indicates that NlpD is involved in cell separation; however, deletion of nlpD did not affect in vitro growth rate. Trans-complementation experiments with the Y. pestis nlpD gene restored virulence and all other phenotypic defects. Finally, we demonstrated that subcutaneous administration of the nlpD mutant could protect animals against bubonic and primary pneumonic plague. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Y. pestis NlpD is a novel virulence factor essential for the development of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Further, the nlpD mutant is superior to the EV76 prototype live vaccine strain in immunogenicity and in conferring effective protective immunity. Thus it could serve as a basis for a very potent live vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  13. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  14. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hawkey, S.; van der Kleij, D.; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Silman, N.J.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the Gram-negative bacterial agent of plague, is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects wild rodents and is transmitted by fleas. Y. pestis is one of the most invasive and virulent bacterial pathogens and has caused devastating pandemics, including the Black Death of 14th century

  15. Plague in Yosemite

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-23

    Dr. Vicki Kramer, with the California Department of Public Health, discusses two cases of plague in Yosemite National Park.  Created: 3/23/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/23/2017.

  16. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  17. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences...... Africa and Madagascar. We show that public health concerns regarding the current plague situation are justified and that the disease should not be neglected, despite the sometimes questionability of the numbers of cases. We conclude that improving plague surveillance strategies is absolutely necessary...

  18. Plague: history and contemporary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Didier; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bitam, Idir; Piarroux, Renaud; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Plague has caused ravaging outbreaks, including the Justinian plague and the "black death" in the Middle Ages. The causative agents of these outbreaks have been confirmed using modern molecular tests. The vector of plague during pandemics remains the subject of controversy. Nowadays, plague must be suspected in all areas where plague is endemic in rodents when patients present with adenitis or with pneumonia with a bloody expectorate. Diagnosis is more difficult in the situation of the reemergence of plague, as in Algeria for example, told by the first physician involved in that outbreak (NM). When in doubt, it is preferable to prescribe treatment with doxycycline while waiting for the test results because of the risk of fatality in individuals with plague. The typical bubo is a type of adenitis that is painful, red and nonfluctuating. The diagnosis is simple when microbiological analysis is conducted. Plague is a likely diagnosis when one sees gram-negative bacilli in lymph node aspirate or biopsy samples. Yersinia pestis grows very easily in blood cultures and is easy to identify by biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Pneumonic plague and septicemic plague without adenitis are difficult to diagnose, and these diagnoses are often made by chance or retrospectively when cases are not part of an epidemic or related to another specific epidemiologic context. The treatment of plague must be based on gentamicin or doxycycline. Treatment with one of these antibiotics must be started as soon as plague is suspected. Analysis of past plague epidemics by using modern laboratory tools illustrated the value of epidemic buboes for the clinical diagnosis of plague; and brought new concepts regarding its transmission by human ectoparasites.

  19. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Welford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues" and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  20. Comparative Analyses of Transcriptional Profiles in Mouse Organs Using a Pneumonic Plague Model after Infection with Wild-Type Yersinia pestis CO92 and Its Braun Lipoprotein Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi L. Galindo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed Murine GeneChips to delineate the global transcriptional profiles of the livers, lungs, and spleens in a mouse pneumonic plague infection model with wild-type (WT Y. pestis CO92 and its Braun lipoprotein (Δlpp mutant with reduced virulence. These organs showed differential transcriptional responses to infection with WT Y. pestis, but the overall host functional processes affected were similar across all three tissues. Gene expression alterations were found in inflammation, cytokine signaling, and apoptotic cell death-associated genes. Comparison of WT and Δlpp mutant-infected mice indicated significant overlap in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- associated gene expression, but the absence of Lpp perturbed host cell signaling at critical regulatory junctions resulting in altered immune response and possibly host cell apoptosis. We generated a putative signaling pathway including major inflammatory components that could account for the synergistic action of LPS and Lpp and provided the mechanistic basis of attenuation caused by deletion of the lpp gene from Y. pestis in a mouse model of pneumonic plague.

  1. Study on the Basic Plague Pattern of Jianchuan Plague Natural Focus, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jie

    2001-01-01

    Since the plague natural focus of Jianchuan was found in 1974, it had broken the disputation whether Yunnan has plague natural focus among Chinese and foreign scholars for long. Because the focus locates the middle part of transversal mountains with higher biological diversity and complex landscape, many problems raised at beginning in distinguishing the major hosts and vectors, modeling the structure of the focus, and resolving the contradiction between theory and excitation. In review of that, according to the principle of unified of biological structure and function, the basic plague pattern has been systematically studied on through the generalized information concept in this paper. It suggests that the focus takes the community of Apodemus chevrieri + Rattus norvegicus : Neopsylla specialis + Frontopsylla. spadix + Menopsyllus anisus + Loptopsylla segnis as maintenance subsystem, the community of E. miletus:Ctenophthalmus quadratus + Neopsylla specialis as epidematic (amplifying) subsystem, the communities of squirrel rodent-flea as alternate subsystem. The relationship between subsystems is nonlinear. No human plague case is determined by the systematicness of the plague ecosystem. The possibility of human plague will remain in systemic changing or coming into chaos. Although most researches try to analysis of plague as system by means of experiments with many quantitative criterion, these measures are difficult to comprehension the systemic essence without application of the concept of systemic theory. They are often direct, discursive and paradoxical description of appearance rather than the analysis and generalization of interaction relationship between elements, thus reversing the basic ecological concept of Y.pestis as a living thing and agent of plague.

  2. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells. A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50. Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  3. The analysis of monitoring results of plague and plague in Honghe County%红河县鼠疫概况及鼠疫监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2013-01-01

    目的:介绍红河县鼠疫概况,并分析1998年建立鼠疫监测机构后所做的鼠疫监测数据。方法对1998---2012年红河县鼠疫监测资料进行整理、统计、分析。结果红河县属于滇闽家鼠鼠疫疫源地,到目前发现动物疫点23个,人间疫点6个,腺鼠疫病人15例,分布于13个乡(镇)中的4个乡(镇)。检出鼠疫菌27株,IHA阳性血清15份,RIHA阳性42份。结论红河县鼠疫流行期己过,鼠疫可能转入静息期。%Objective Brief introduction of Honghe County plague,plague monitoring data and analysis of the monitoring mechanism established in 1998 after the plague.Method To collate,statistics,analysis of the Honghe County plague monitoring data of 1998---2012.Result Honghe County of Yunnan and Fujian plague fo-cus,to animal epidemic currently found in 23,the world was 6,15 cases of bubonic plague patients,distributed in 13 townships(town)in 4 townships(town).Detection of 27 strains of Yersinia pestis,IHA 15 positive sera,42 samples were positive for RIHA.Conclusion Honghe County plague epidemic period has elapsed,the plague may lead to the resting period.

  4. Syndrome Differentiation of Bubonic Plague by Lingnan Doctors%岭南医家对鼠疫的辨证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永宸; 赖文

    2007-01-01

    鼠疫自1867年传入广西北海.即在岭南迅速蔓延,1911年以前岭南共有991县次的疫情记录,其中鼠疫就占了493县次,尤其是1894年穗港鼠疫,仅广州因鼠疫而死者达10万之众。在长达半个多世纪的时间里,岭南医家不懈地与鼠疫抗争,灵活运用中医理法方药治疗鼠疫,在鼠疫病因病机的认识、辨证治疗、预防禁忌等方面,积累了丰富的经验。本文主要介绍岭南医家对鼠疫的辨证。

  5. Plague and climate: scales matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ben-Ari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations.

  6. Plague and climate: scales matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-09-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations.

  7. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  8. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework...... to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many...... environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission...

  9. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  10. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Eisen

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m. Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  11. Lovastatin protects against experimental plague in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Ayyadurai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is an ectoparasite-borne deadly infection caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium classified among the group A bioterrorism agents. Thousands of deaths are reported every year in some African countries. Tetracyclines and cotrimoxazole are used in the secondary prophylaxis of plague in the case of potential exposure to Y. pestis, but cotrimoxazole-resistant isolates have been reported. There is a need for additional prophylactic measures. We aimed to study the effectiveness of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug known to alleviate the symptoms of sepsis, for plague prophylaxis in an experimental model. METHODOLOGY: Lovastatin dissolved in Endolipide was intraperitoneally administered to mice (20 mg/kg every day for 6 days prior to a Y. pestis Orientalis biotype challenge. Non-challenged, lovastatin-treated and challenged, untreated mice were also used as control groups in the study. Body weight, physical behavior and death were recorded both prior to infection and for 10 days post-infection. Samples of the blood, lungs and spleen were collected from dead mice for direct microbiological examination, histopathology and culture. The potential antibiotic effect of lovastatin was tested on blood agar plates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lovastatin had no in-vitro antibiotic effect against Y. pestis. The difference in the mortality between control mice (11/15; 73.5% and lovastatin-treated mice (3/15; 20% was significant (P<0.004; Mantel-Haenszel test. Dead mice exhibited Y. pestis septicemia and inflammatory destruction of lung and spleen tissues not seen in lovastatin-treated surviving mice. These data suggest that lovastatin may help prevent the deadly effects of plague. Field observations are warranted to assess the role of lovastatin in the prophylaxis of human plague.

  12. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  13. Plague Outbreak in Libya, 2009, Unrelated to Plague in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci. PMID:23347743

  14. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    it is possible to establish a stable formula for plague narratives despite the spread over centuries and in different text types, and to explain this formula and possible variations of it. The initial and tentative hypothesis is that a formulaic narrative structure exists for accounts, both documentary...... and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  15. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...

  16. The threatened plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses changes in disease patterns affecting human health that may be related to environmental and social changes in the world. The World Health Report reveals that 30 new diseases emerged in the past 20 years. Old diseases are becoming resistant to new drugs. Infectious diseases that were in decline are spreading: diphtheria, whooping cough, and measles. Illnesses such as malaria, fevers, cholera, and rodent-borne viruses are becoming more frequent. Diseases that are transmitted by animals or water are related to environmental and social changes. Degraded environments are susceptible to the appearance of opportunistic species, such as weeds, rodents, insects, and microorganisms. Stable environments support the welfare of large predators and control opportunistic species. Owls, coyotes, and snakes eat rodents that carry Lyme disease ticks and a variety of viruses, plague, and bacteria. Reptiles, birds, spiders, ladybugs, bats, and fish consume larvae and mosquitoes that cause malaria and fevers. Habitat loss and fragmentation, monocultures, excessive use of toxic chemicals, climate change, and weather instability are widespread global changes that reduce the predator population. Small wilderness habitats favor pests. Monocultures reduce genetic diversity and increase vulnerability. Excessive use of pesticides harms birds and helpful insects. A sign of a failing ecosystem is the population explosion of pests and disequilibrium. The Environmental Distress Syndrome is characterized as: 1) emerging infectious diseases, 2) loss of biodiversity, 3) increased generalist species and decreased specialist species, 4) declines in specific specialists, such as pollinators responsible for preservation of flowering plants, and 5) increased coastal algal blooms. The impacts of disease mean considerable costs to humans, agriculture, and livestock. Loss of resources is also costly.

  17. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-05-22

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed.

  18. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plagu...

  19. Plague in the genomic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M

    2012-03-01

    With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries.

  20. Landscape structure and plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs on grasslands of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape structure influences the abundance and distribution of many species, including pathogens that cause infectious diseases. Black-tailed prairie dogs in the western USA have declined precipitously over the past 100 years, most recently due to grassland conversion and their susceptibility to sylvatic plague. We assembled and analyzed two long-term data sets on plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to explore the hypotheses that plague occurrence is associated with colony characteristics and landscape context. Our two study areas (Boulder County, Colorado, and Phillips County, Montana) differed markedly in degree of urbanization and other landscape characteristics. In both study areas, we found associations between plague occurrence and landscape and colony characteristics such as the amount of roads, streams and lakes surrounding a prairie dog colony, the area covered by the colony and its neighbors, and the distance to the nearest plague-positive colony. Logistic regression models were similar between the two study areas, with the best models predicting positive effects of proximity to plague-positive colonies and negative effects of road, stream and lake cover on plague occurrence. Taken together, these results suggest that roads, streams and lakes may serve as barriers to plague in black-tailed prairie dog colonies by affecting movement of or habitat quality for plague hosts or for fleas that serve as vectors for the pathogen. The similarity in plague correlates between urban and rural study areas suggests that the correlates of plague are not altered by uniquely urban stressors. ?? Springer 2005.

  1. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-06-21

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions.

  2. [The complex plague--reconsiderations of an epidemic from the past].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseng, Ole Georg

    2007-12-13

    Speculations have arisen about the black plague in recent years - was it a disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS: or something else? Extensive outbreaks in India in the 1890s have formed the basis for descriptions of the plague, both for those who believe that the medieval plagues and modern plague were different diseases and for those who claim that the plague has been one and the same disease throughout history. The plague was more or less defined as a disease in the 1890s, and the understanding of its clinical course and dissemination at the time has uncritically been understood as the general model for spreading of the plague. But plague is a many-faceted disease. It has spread to five continents in modern times, through an array of ecosystems and under widely different climatic conditions. It can also be passed on to man, and from one individual to another, in different ways. The biological conditions that prevailed in India have not been relevant for medieval Norway. The preconditions for spreading of plague epidemics of the past in a Nordic climate must therefore have been different. It can only be expected that contemporary descriptions of historic epidemics are different from those in modern times.

  3. Are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague foci. For three years, we systematically sampled carnivores in two distinct habitat types to determine whether carnivores may play a role in maintenance or transmission of Y. pestis and to identify habitats associated with increased plague prevalence. We sampled 83 individuals representing six carnivore species and found only two that had been exposed to Y. pestis. The low overall rate of plague exposure in carnivores suggests that plague may be ephemeral in this study system, and thus we cannot draw any conclusions regarding habitat-associated plague foci or temporal changes in plague activity. Plague epizootics involving prairie dogs were confirmed in this study system during two of the three years of this study, and we therefore suggest that the targeting carnivores to survey for plague may not be appropriate in all ecological systems.

  4. Epidemic situation of human plague in Qinghai Province from 2004 to 2015%2004-2015年青海省人间鼠疫疫情及控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐洪文; 郭文涛; 魏荣杰; 张爱萍; 王祖郧

    2016-01-01

    pneumonic plague,4 cases were primary pneumonic plague developed into septicemia and 4 cases were bubonic plague developed into septicemic plague,1 case was primary septicemic plague developed into pneumonic plague,2 cases was bubonic plague,1 case was bubonic plague and plague cellulitis,1 case was bubonic plague developed into septicemic plague and pneumonic plague.In the 10 outbreaks,seven initial cases were reported after death.The epidemic occurred from June to November,peaked in September and October.Active contact with the Marmot was still the main way of infection,accounted for 70% (7/10).The infected shepherd became the source of human pneumonic plague outbreaks.Conclusions Human plague in Qinghai Province has an obvious animal plague precursor.Village doctors should play more important roles in control of the plague.Education and management of migrant workers should be strengthened.All kinds of emergency measures should be readily available.

  5. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  6. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a disease that affects humans and other mammals. People typically get infected after being bitten by ... Facilities Biosafety Laboratory Sites Rutgers University University of Alabama George Mason University Tufts University Tulane University Regional ...

  8. Yersinia pestis requires the 2-component regulatory system OmpR-EnvZ to resist innate immunity during the early and late stages of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Angéline; Lemaître, Nadine; Titecat, Marie; Merchez, Maud; Deloison, Gaspard; Ricard, Isabelle; Pradel, Elizabeth; Marceau, Michaël; Sebbane, Florent

    2014-11-01

    Plague is transmitted by fleas or contaminated aerosols. To successfully produce disease, the causal agent (Yersinia pestis) must rapidly sense and respond to rapid variations in its environment. Here, we investigated the role of 2-component regulatory systems (2CSs) in plague because the latter are known to be key players in bacterial adaptation to environmental change. Along with the previously studied PhoP-PhoQ system, OmpR-EnvZ was the only one of Y. pestis' 23 other 2CSs required for production of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. In vitro, OmpR-EnvZ was needed to counter serum complement and leukocytes but was not required for the secretion of antiphagocyte exotoxins. In vivo, Y. pestis lacking OmpR-EnvZ did not induce an early immune response in the skin and was fully virulent in neutropenic mice. We conclude that, throughout the course of Y. pestis infection, OmpR-EnvZ is required to counter toxic effectors secreted by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the tissues.

  9. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  10. In 2008 Daan animal bubonic plague monitors the report%2008年大安市动物鼠疫监测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀光; 潘新; 勾万杰

    2008-01-01

    为了及时掌握动物间鼠疫疫情信息,以及黄鼠的种群数量、分布,小型鼠的数量、种类及黄鼠体外寄生蚤指标等指标,我们于今年在我市的舍力、丰收、叉干镇、海坨和四棵树乡设立了4个黄鼠流动监测点和1个黄鼠调查点,在大岗子镇设立了1个长爪沙鼠调查点,开展了动物鼠疫监测工作.面区鼠疫监测在10个乡镇开展了鼠疫疫源检索工作.现将2008年大安市动物鼠疫监测结果在文中报告.

  11. 近代雷州半岛鼠疫疫源新论%New Theory of Origin of Neoteric Bubonic Plague in Leizhou Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭天祥; 孙碧霞

    2009-01-01

    过去人们一直认为近代雷州半岛的鼠疫是从外地传入的.但随着现代科技检测手段的进步和鼠疫疫源地调查的深入,已有越来越多的证据显示:近代雷州半岛的鼠疫很可能是本地原有的,而不是从外地传入的.

  12. Epidemiological History and Present Status of Bubonic Plague in Gunagdong Province%广东省鼠疫流行历史及现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼青; 张曼碧

    2004-01-01

    广东省鼠疫的发生和流行,过去由于自然因素及社会因素的原因,持续 80年.新中国成立后,在各级政府的重视下,贯彻预防为主的思想,开展调查研究,抓住主要环节,大面积的灭鼠、灭蚤搞好环境卫生,控制和消灭了鼠疫.

  13. Bubonic plague fungus after flea spreading process in related gene%鼠疫菌经蚤传播过程中的相关基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀光; 王身荣

    2008-01-01

    美国落基山实验室的Hinnebusch和Perry等研究人员在上述实验研究领域不间断探索,有大量的研究论文问世,他们的研究成果比较令人信服地证明,表达耶尔森鼠毒素的基因ymt对于侵入蚤类中肠的鼠疫菌的生存和繁殖至关重要,而鼠疫菌染色体pgm位点内的氯化高铁血红素储存系统基因hms的正常表达,是鼠疫菌在蚤类前胃形成菌栓所必需的.

  14. The study on the antibody profiles in bubonic plague patients%腺鼠疫患者血清抗体谱的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志忠; 李蓓; 苏丽琼; 郭兆彪; 苏鹏

    2007-01-01

    目的 检测腺鼠疫患者血清抗体谱及抗体随时间变化趋势.方法 利用一包含145个鼠疫耶尔森氏菌毒力相关蛋白质的蛋白芯片检测云南腺鼠疫患者血清抗体谱及抗体随时间变化趋势.结果 在腺鼠疫患者体内检测到32种蛋白相应的抗体.结论 FI抗体产生的速度最快、幅度最高、持续的时间最长;YopM、YopH、YopE抗体升高不明显;V抗体在患者体内未检测到;在发病后14 d才检测到pH6抗原的抗体,3个月时抗体荧光值没有下降,可持续半年.YopD的抗体在部分患者体内明显升高,但在半年后下降到正常水平.

  15. 基因芯片技术及在鼠疫检测中的应用%The Gene Chip Technology and Examines at Bubonic Plague the Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于东和; 石杲

    2007-01-01

    目的 通过分析基因芯片技术及在鼠疫中的应用,从而明确鼠疫快速检测技术的发展方向.方法 应用查阅文献的方法进行分析.结果 基因芯片是一种有效的诊断工具,可用于鼠疫的诊断.结论 基因芯片尚需要进一步研究出简单的方法,从而可以在现场的鼠疫监测中推广应用.

  16. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection

    OpenAIRE

    Isaäcson, Margaretha; Taylor, Paul; Arntzen, Lorraine

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculati...

  17. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  18. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  19. Plague metapopulation dynamics in a natural reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Klassovskiy, N; Ageyev, V

    2007-01-01

    The ecology of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in its ancient foci in Central Asia remains poorly understood. We present field data from two sites in Kazakhstan where the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the major natural host. Family groups inhabit and defend burrow systems spaced throughout...... the landscape, such that the host population may be considered a metapopulation, with each occupied burrow system a subpopulation. We examine plague transmission within and between family groups and its effect on survival. Transmission of plague occurred disproportionately within family groups although not all...... gerbils became infected once plague entered a burrow system. There were no spatial patterns to suggest that family groups in close proximity to infected burrow systems were more at risk of infection than those far away. At one site, infection increased the chances of burrow-system extinction. Overall...

  20. Climate-driven spatial dynamics of plague among prairie dog colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snäll, T; O'Hara, R B; Ray, C; Collinge, S K

    2008-02-01

    We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for the joint spatial dynamics of a host-parasite system. The model was fitted to long-term data on regional plague dynamics and metapopulation dynamics of the black-tailed prairie dog, a declining keystone species of North American prairies. The rate of plague transmission between colonies increases with increasing precipitation, while the rate of infection from unknown sources decreases in response to hot weather. The mean annual dispersal distance of plague is about 10 km, and topographic relief reduces the transmission rate. Larger colonies are more likely to become infected, but colony area does not affect the infectiousness of colonies. The results suggest that prairie dog movements do not drive the spread of plague through the landscape. Instead, prairie dogs are useful sentinels of plague epizootics. Simulations suggest that this model can be used for predicting long-term colony and plague dynamics as well as for identifying which colonies are most likely to become infected in a specific year.

  1. Ecology of plague in Africa: response of indigenous wild rodents to experimental plague infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaäcson, M; Taylor, P; Arntzen, L

    1983-01-01

    The Mastomys natalensis species complex, subdivided into genetically distinct species having diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 32 and 2n = 36, is a reservoir for several zoonoses including Lassa fever and plague. This report describes a study to determine whether these sibling species and three other rodent species have different potential as reservoirs for plague. It was found that M. natalensis (2n = 32) was significantly more resistant to experimental plague infection (50% survived inoculation with 120 000 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis) than was M. coucha (2n = 36) (none of which survived doses of 190 Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp.pestis). In descending order of resistance were M. natalensis, Aethomys chrysophilus, M. coucha, Tatera leucogaster and A. namaquensis. No A. namaquensis survived inoculation of 10 or more plague bacilli.Previous reports on susceptibility to plague or other infections, which were based exclusively on findings in the universally distributed laboratory-bred Mastomys, are thus not necessarily applicable to the M. natalensis species as a whole but probably only to M. coucha. The Y. pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis fraction-1 passive haemagglutination test appeared to be relatively insensitive in that only 5 out of 47 animals surviving experimental plague infection showed specific antibodies 6 weeks after challenge.The geographic distribution of human plague in southern Africa corresponds closely with that of the plague-susceptible species, M. coucha, while the resistant species, M. natalensis, predominates in areas where human plague has not been recorded. The role of A. namaquensis in the ecology of plague needs to be carefully studied and its possible importance in plague research should be investigated further.

  2. 青海高原藏系绵羊鼠疫流行病学和病原学特征分析%The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏柏青; 熊浩明; 杨晓艳; 杨永海; 祁美英; 靳娟; 辛有全; 李翔; 杨汉青

    2015-01-01

    identification,plasmid analysis,and DFR genotype.Results From 1975 to 2009,14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province.Tibetan sheep,as the infection source,had caused 10 cases of human plague,25 plague patients,and 13 cases of death.All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients,while all the initial cases were bubonic plague.Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality.Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province,which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape.Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep,especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep.This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague.It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype,with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic.As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping,the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5,the two strain isolated from Nangqian county were genomovar 5 and genomovar 7,while those isolated Delingha region were genomovar 8.Conclusion Tibetan sheep were vulnerable to plague infection,hence causing human plague as the infectious source.The Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep plague carried pathogen characteristics of Qinghai-Tibet plateau plague,developing many new characteristics of such plague.

  3. Analysis on epidemiologic characteristics of human plague case form Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan Province%1986-2006年云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地人间鼠疫流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊勇; 董兴齐; 赵文红; 梁云

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic characters of human plague from Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan Province from 1986 to 2006 and to provide references for prevention and control strategy.Methods Data were collected and analyzed on epidemic situation of human plague in the past twenty-one years.Results From 1986 to 2006,the total human plague cases from Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan were 507,accounted for 59.5%(507/866)of the total cases in the whole country.There were three peaks of human plague outbreak in 1990,1996 and 2000.The number of annual cases were 73,88 and 122,accounting for 97.3%(73/75),89.8%(88/98),48.0%(122/254)of the total cases in the whole country respectively.The epidemic areas were mainly located in the west,southwest and southeast pans of Yunnan,but the number of cases changed with year in different prefectures(or cities).Seasonal pattern analyses revealed that the epidemic could occur in whole year,with a peak period through July to November,especially September.There were different prevalence of plague cases in age and professions,which related to the chance of contact with infected animals and infectious fleas.All human plague cases were primary bubonic plague.Conclusions The results suggested that there were clear epidemic characteristics for human plague for Rattus flavipectus plague natural foci in Yunnan.In order to control human plague effectively,it was necessary to reinforce surveillance and warning system to diminish the outbreak of human plague.%目的 分析1986-2006年云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地人间鼠疫流行特征,为制订防治策略提供参考依据.方法 结合疫情现场调查资料和疫情总结报告,采用描述流行病学方法进行分析.结果 1986-2006年,云南省共发现507例人间鼠疫病例,占全国同期病例的58.5%(507/866),居各省份之首.1990、1996、2000午出现3次流行高峰,分别占全国同期病例的97.3%(73/75)、89.8%(88/98)、48

  4. Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Xiaocheng, Liang; Montenieri, John A; Tanda, Dale; Pape, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-06-01

    Human plague risks (Yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. Therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor Y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. The primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in Colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague risk areas and whether these samples provided information useful for predicting human plague case locations. By comparing locations of plague-positive animal samples with a previously constructed GIS-based plague risk model, we determined that the majority of plague-positive Gunnison's prairie dogs (100%) and non-prairie dog sciurids (85.82%), and moderately high percentages of sigmodontine rodents (71.4%), domestic cats (69.3%), coyotes (62.9%), and domestic dogs (62.5%) were recovered within 1 km of the nearest area posing high peridomestic risk to humans. In contrast, the majority of white-tailed prairie dog (66.7%), leporid (cottontailed and jack rabbits) (71.4%), and black-tailed prairie dog (93.0%) samples originated more than 1 km from the nearest human risk habitat. Plague-positive animals or their fleas were rarely (one of 19 cases) collected within 2 km of a case exposure site during the 24 months preceding the dates of illness onset for these cases. Low spatial accuracy for identifying epizootic activity prior to human plague cases suggested that other mammalian species or their fleas are likely more important sources of human infection in high plague risk areas. To address this issue, epidemiological observations and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to preliminarily identify chipmunks as an under-sampled, but potentially important, species for human plague risk in Colorado.

  5. Impact of the plague in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupios, M A

    2004-03-01

    Disease as a pivotal factor in determining the course of human events may be one og the least considered historical variables. When assessing the critical junctures of history, historians seem more inclined to focus on the impact of conquering armies, economic revolutions, and technologic breakthroughs. This analysis attempts to illustrate the seminal effects of the great plague of Athens. By depleting Athenian military personnel, depriving Athens of its charismatic leadership, and dissolving the system of ideals and principles that distinguished Athens from the rest of antiquity, the plague materially altered the outcome of the Peloponnesian War, which in turn deflected the flow of all subsequent Hellenic history.

  6. Yersinia pestis with regulated delayed attenuation as a vaccine candidate to induce protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Kuang, Xiaoying; Branger, Christine G; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-03-01

    Two mutant strains of Yersinia pestis KIM5+, a Deltacrp mutant and a mutant with arabinose-dependent regulated delayed-shutoff crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp), were constructed, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for virulence, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice. Both strains were highly attenuated by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) of the Deltacrp and araC P(BAD) crp mutants were approximately 1,000,000-fold and 10,000-fold higher than those of Y. pestis KIM5+, respectively, indicating that both strains were highly attenuated. Mice vaccinated s.c. with 3.8 x 10(7) CFU of the Deltacrp mutant developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers, both with a strong Th2 bias, and induced protective immunity against subcutaneous challenge with virulent Y. pestis (80% survival) but no protection against pulmonary challenge. Mice vaccinated with 3.0 x 10(4) CFU of the araC P(BAD) crp mutant also developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers but with a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. This strain induced complete protection against s.c. challenge and partial protection (70% survival) against pulmonary challenge. Our results demonstrate that arabinose-dependent regulated crp expression is an effective strategy to attenuate Y. pestis while retaining strong immunogenicity, leading to protection against the pneumonic and bubonic forms of plague.

  7. Evaluation of Yersinia pestis Transmission Pathways for Sylvatic Plague in Prairie Dog Populations in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine L D; Russell, Robin E; Bron, Gebbiena M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2016-06-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. In the western US, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. Several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, consumption of carcasses, and environmental sources of plague bacteria, such as contaminated soil. However, evidence supporting the ability of these proposed alternate pathways to trigger large-scale epizootics remains elusive. Here we present a short review of potential plague transmission pathways and use an ordinary differential equation model to assess the contribution of each pathway to resulting plague dynamics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and their fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta). Using our model, we found little evidence to suggest that soil contamination was capable of producing plague epizootics in prairie dogs. However, in the absence of flea transmission, direct transmission, i.e., contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, could produce enzootic dynamics, and transmission via contact with or consumption of carcasses could produce epizootics. This suggests that these pathways warrant further investigation.

  8. Evaluation of Yersinia pestis transmission pathways for sylvatic plague in prairie dog populations in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Bron, Gebbiena; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. In the western US, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. Several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, consumption of carcasses, and environmental sources of plague bacteria, such as contaminated soil. However, evidence supporting the ability of these proposed alternate pathways to trigger large-scale epizootics remains elusive. Here we present a short review of potential plague transmission pathways and use an ordinary differential equation model to assess the contribution of each pathway to resulting plague dynamics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and their fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta). Using our model, we found little evidence to suggest that soil contamination was capable of producing plague epizootics in prairie dogs. However, in the absence of flea transmission, direct transmission, i.e., contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, could produce enzootic dynamics, and transmission via contact with or consumption of carcasses could produce epizootics. This suggests that these pathways warrant further investigation.

  9. 云南德宏1982~2010年鼠疫流行特征及防治效果分析%Analysis for epidemic characters and prevention and control effect of plague in dehong prefecture, Yunnan Province, 1982 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 罗启松; 场增源; 寸永良; 石兴建; 杜晓红; 田宗茂

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze epidemic characters and prevention and control effect of plague and provide a science basis for establishing the strategies of plague prevention and control. Methods Data on animal and human plague epidemic situation and plague prevention and control in Dehong Prefecture were collected and analyzed using descriptive epidemiology, and plague control and prevention effects were evaluated. Results From 1982 to 2010, plague epidemic experienced 25 years/times, 497 animal plague foci were confirmed, and 319 natural villages or units in 41 townships of 5 counties (cities) were involved. Human plague experienced 9 years/times and total number of human cases was 39 (including 38 bubonic plague cases and 1 septicemic plague case). All cases recovered after appropriate treatment. No human plague case was reported after 2004 and no animal plague epidemic was reported after 2008. Conclusion Plague focus in Dehong Prefecture belongs to one of commensal rodent plague foci. Host and vector without hibernation live around household and wild fields and its activating territory is wider. Animal plague can occur whole year. Local people easily get plague infection for contacting rodent and flea. Plague surveillance and " three report of epidemic situation" should be seriously implemented. In those areas where plague easily occurs and the density for rodent and flea is higher, killing rodents and fleas and improving prevention and control measures will be effective strategies for preventing and control plague occurrence and epidemic.%目的 分析德宏州鼠疫流行特征及防治效果,为制定防治策略提供科学依据.方法 收集德宏州动物和人间鼠疫疫情及防治工作资料,进行描述流行病学分析和防治效果评价.结果 1982 ~2010年德宏州有25年次发生鼠疫流行,判定动物鼠疫疫点497个,疫情波及5县(市)41个乡(镇)319个自然村或单位.有9年次发生人间鼠疫,病例数39例,其中腺鼠疫38

  10. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  11. Epidemiological analysis of the Eyam plague outbreak of 1665–1666

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittles, Lilith K.

    2016-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is one of the deadliest infectious diseases in human history, and still causes worrying outbreaks in Africa and South America. Despite the historical and current importance of plague, several questions remain unanswered concerning its transmission routes and infection risk factors. The plague outbreak that started in September 1665 in the Derbyshire village of Eyam claimed 257 lives over 14 months, wiping out entire families. Since previous attempts at modelling the Eyam plague, new data have been unearthed from parish records revealing a much more complete record of the disease. Using a stochastic compartmental model and Bayesian analytical methods, we found that both rodent-to-human and human-to-human transmission played an important role in spreading the infection, and that they accounted, respectively, for a quarter and three-quarters of all infections, with a statistically significant seasonality effect. We also found that the force of infection was stronger for infectious individuals living in the same household compared with the rest of the village. Poverty significantly increased the risk of disease, whereas adulthood decreased the risk. These results on the Eyam outbreak contribute to the current debate on the relative importance of plague transmission routes. PMID:27170724

  12. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (pplague resistance.

  13. Range-wide determinants of plague distribution in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sean P; Ellis, Christine; Gage, Kenneth L; Enscore, Russell E; Peterson, A Townsend

    2010-10-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host-plague associations (the "Host Niche Hypothesis"), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the "Plague Niche Hypothesis"). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The "plague niche" is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species.

  14. War, plague and exploitation in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimčevska Antoaneta K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Late in autumn 2006 one of the headlines in world media was the first democratic elections in DR Congo. They took place after 30 years of Mobutu Sese Seko’s dictatorship and bloody civil wars in the period 1996-2002. These conflicts, which took approximately 4 million human lives, are called "The First African World War". Elections were held but they did not guarantee the end of trouble for the divided and tormented people in the northeast of Congo, the real scene of bloodshed. The area is still turbulent because it abounds in mineral wealth - gold, diamonds and raw materials for nuclear technology. For a whole decade, unscrupulous actors of the African crisis were fighting there, for illegal profits (achievable in the chaos of bloodshed rather than for democracy, defense of tribal interests, security, etc. as they claimed. In the mines of Eastern Congo unprecedented exploitation of people is still going on, especially of children, victims of conflicts, who suffer in great numbers from violence, starvation and diseases. These slaves of the crisis make local "warlords" and their mentors rich. The looting of the mines has stabilized the crisis because it makes possible enormous accumulation of wealth among armed decision-makers - which also includes availability of countless slaves-miners who have lost everything except their bare lives. Eastern Congo is, however, one of world’s three old focuses of plague; wild exploitation of ores in the area of this endemic disease has activated a sleepy focus and added pneumonic plague to the burdens suffered by the population of the rich but ill-fated region. This was to be expected because endemic plague in the gold-bearing evil circumstances impedes safe mining - and this will be the crucial challenge in the future of Congo. This article is an anthropological outline of the area where gold, plague, weapons and incomparable suffering of people merge together just because of cynic greed producing abuse

  15. Spatial prediction and analysis of Himalayan marmot plague natural epidemic foci in China based on HJ-1 satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Plague,caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis,is a serious and rapidly progressing illness in humans that can be fatal if not treated effectively.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest area of natural Himalayan marmot(Marmota himalayana) plague foci in China and covers more than 630000 km2.Akesai County in Gansu Province is a part of this natural focus of plague and was chosen as a study area.Our study used an ecological niche modeling(ENM) approach to predict the potential distribution of the Himalayan marmot.Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1) data was used to investigate environment factors that affect plague host animal activity.Host animal point data from active surveillance was combined with environmental variables from the HJ-1 satellite and other databases,and the models of the potential distribution of Himalayan marmot were produced with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production(GARP).The probability of marmot presence was divided into 0-5%,5%-20%,20%-40%,40%-80%,and 80%-100% subgroups.Areas with 80%-100% probability exhibited the greatest potential for the presence of Himalayan marmot.According to the predicted potential distribution of Himalayan marmot in the study area,active surveillance of plague hosts and plague control and prevention could be more efficient.

  16. [Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-Ying; Li, Zhi-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man-made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people's efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.

  17. Gr1(+) Cells Control Growth of YopM-Negative Yersinia pestis during Systemic Plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Z.; Kerschen, E.J.; Cohen, D.; Kaplan, A.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Straley, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    YopM, a protein toxin of Yersinia pestis, is necessary for virulence in a mouse model of systemic plague. We previously reported YopM-dependent natural killer (NK) cell depletion from blood and spleen samples of infected mice. However, in this study we found that infection with Y. pestis KIM5 (YopM(

  18. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  19. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  20. Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Plague Mortality in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. However, a data set comprised of burial information from the seventeenth-century Low Countries suggests that plague’s impact on the countryside was far more s

  1. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Tollenaere, C., Pernechele, B., Mäkinen, H., Parratt, S., Nemeth, M., Kovacs, G., Levente, K. Tack, A.; Rahalison, L.; Ranjalahy, M.; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rahelinirina, S.; Telfer, S.; Brouat, Carine

    2010-01-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altit...

  2. [Monitoring the Microtus fuscus plague epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li-Mao; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fuscus plague during 2000 - 2008 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". RESULTS: There were plague...... of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tutua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. CONCLUSION: Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008....

  3. Epidemic situation analysis and Prevention and Control Measures of Plague in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province from 1982 to 2014%德宏州1982-2014年鼠疫流行状况分析及防控措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文红; 郭牧; 段彪; 苏丽琼

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to the plague epidemic analysis since 1982,to provide basis for researchers to research data Method Describe the plague epidemic status in all counties in Dehong since 1982 Chronologically.Result During 1982 to 2007,the plague prevalent in Longchuan,Yingjiang,Ruili,Mangshi,Lianghe,respectively,20,16,12,11,11 years.There were 335 outbreaks occur,478 times outbreaks occur,39 cases of bubonic plague patients,none of them deaths.No cases of plague epidemic during 2008 to 2014.Conclusion Dehong Plauge epidemic has been effectively controlled.%目的 通过对德宏州1982年以来家鼠鼠疫流行情况进行分析,提供学者资料查询依据.方法 按照时间顺序描述1982年以来德宏州各县市鼠疫流行情况.结果 德宏州1982-2007年鼠疫在陇川、盈江、瑞丽、芒市、梁河分别流行20、16、12、11、11年,发生335个疫点,478个疫点次,腺鼠疫病例39例,无死亡病例;2008-2014年期间未发生鼠疫流行.结论 德宏州鼠疫流行得到有效控制.

  4. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. AIMS: The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. METHODS: Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties. Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. RESULTS: Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012. Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. DISCUSSION: Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  5. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-03-01

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order.

  6. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never bee...

  7. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  8. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar.

  9. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940–2015: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maliya Alia; Bitam, Idir; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Yersinia pestis from the Arab Maghreb. PMID:27376053

  10. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  11. Predictors for Abundance of Host Flea and Floor Flea in Households of Villages with Endemic Commensal Rodent Plague, Yunnan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Xiang Yin; Alan Geater; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Xing-Qi Dong; Chun-Hong Du; You-Hong Zhong

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: From 1990 to 2006, fifty-five natural villages experienced at least one plague epidemic in Lianghe County, Yunnan Province, China. This study is aimed to document flea abundance and identify predictors in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague in Lianghe County. METHODS: Trappings were used to collect fleas and interviews were conducted to gather demography, environmental factors, and other relevant information. Multivariate hurdle negative binomial model was ...

  12. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (pdogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  13. Persistence of black-tailed prairie-dog populations affected by plague in northern Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Pepin, Kim M; Savage, Lisa T; Antolini, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in North America has changed from large, contiguous populations to small, isolated colonies in metapopulations. One factor responsible for this drastic change in prairie-dog population structure is plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). We fit stochastic patch occupancy models to 20 years of prairie-dog colony occupancy data from two discrete metapopulations (west and east) in the Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, USA, that differ in connectivity among suitable habitat patches. We conducted model selection between two hypothesized modes of plague movement: independent of prairie-dog dispersal (colony-area) vs. plague movement consistent with prairie-dog dispersal (connectivity to extinct colonies). The best model, which fit the data well (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.94 west area; 0.79 east area), revealed that over time the proportion of extant colonies was better explained by colony size than by connectivity to extinct (plagued) colonies. The idea that prairie dogs are not likely to be the main vector that spreads Y. pestis across the landscape is supported by the observation that colony extinctions are primarily caused by plague, prairie-dog dispersal is short range, and connectivity to extinct colonies was not selected as a factor in the models. We also conducted simulations with the best model to examine long-term patterns of colony occupancy and persistence of prairie-dog metapopulations. In the case where the metapopulations persist, our model predicted that the western metapopulation would have a colony occupancy rate approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the eastern metapopulation (-50% occupied colonies vs. 20%) in 50 years, but that the western metapopulation has -80% chance of extinction in 100 years while the eastern metapopulation has a less than 25% chance. Extinction probability of individual colonies depended on the frequency with which colonies of the

  14. 臭氧层变化与流行性脑膜炎及鼠疫流行的关系%The Relationship Between the Change of Ozone Layer and the Epidemic Meningitis and the Spread of Bubonic Plague

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普布卓玛

    2002-01-01

    通过对1995-1989年一些有关资科进行分析,简单说明了臭氧层变化、太阳话动与流行性脑脊髓(ECM)及鼠疫(HP)传染病发病流行周期特征之间的关系.结果表明,从较长时段看,臭氧层变化、太阳活动与ECM、HP年发病率间存在着较为密切的关系.从较短时段看,发病率的季节变化与某些气象因子的变化有一定的关系.

  15. Soro ou vacina: controvérsia no controle da peste bubônica no Rio de Janeiro (1899-1901 = Serum or vaccine: controversy in the control of the bubonic plague in Rio de Janeiro (1899-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Matheus Alves Duarte da

    2015-01-01

    O artigo analisa uma controvérsia entre Camillo Terni e Oswaldo Cruz,ocorrida no ano de 1900, em torno do controle da peste bubônica no Rio de Janeiro. Oswaldo Cruz, um dos principais líderes do recém inaugurado Instituto Soroterápico Federal, defendia que o soro antipestoso era o produto a ser utilizado para tratar as vítimas de peste e também para imunizar a população, processo conhecido como soro-vacinação. Camillo Terni, diretor do Laboratório Bacteriológico de Messina, na Itália, e enviado ao Brasil para estudar a doença, ao contrário, defendia que o soro era ineficaz e que a principal estratégia para controlar a doença deveria ser vacinar a população, propagandeando o seu método de preparação da vacina antipestosa. O embate entre os dois foi veiculado na imprensa leiga e especializada e acabou vencido por Oswaldo Cruz, pois o soro tornou-se a principal arma contra a peste e a vacina antipestosa utilizada no Rio de Janeiro não foi a de Terni, mas uma versão modificada daquela criada originalmente pela Comissão Alemã enviada à Índia. O presente artigo investiga como essa vitória foi construída, acompanhando os passos de Terni e de sua vacina no Brasil e as alianças e traduções de interesse que ele e Oswaldo Cruz efetuaram de modo a vencer o debate. Dessa forma, o artigo pretende lançar luzes sobre um capítulo pouco conhecido da história do Instituto Soroterápico Federal

  16. The colloidal gold fast examination technology diagnoses at bubonic plague the applied research%胶体金快速检测技术在鼠疫诊断中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于东和; 石杲; 李保荣

    2007-01-01

    目的 通过分析胶体金快速检测技术,从而明确鼠疫快速检测技术的发展方向.方法 通过现场应用和查阅文献的方法进行分析.结果 鼠疫胶体金是一种敏感、特异、快速检测鼠疫的方法.结论 鼠疫胶体金技术适用于基层和突发事件快速诊断鼠疫的新方法.

  17. EPIDEMIC INVESTIGATION FOR A CASE OF BUBONIC PLAGUE IN NANGQIAN COUNTY OF QINGHAI PROVINCE%青海省囊欠县一起人间腺鼠疫的流行病学调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发斌

    2001-01-01

    1996年8月6日,玉树州囊欠县拉索尼二队牧童白某因接触叼食自毙獭的藏猎狗而感染鼠疫,来玉树州地方病防治研究所驻觉拉监测队就诊.怀疑为腺鼠疫后就地隔离治疗,后经血清学确诊为腺鼠疫.患者经积极治疗后痊愈,无续发病例.

  18. 2003 to 2008 Qinghai-Tibet railway along the route bubonic plague epidemiology analysis%2003~2008年青藏铁路青海境内沿线鼠疫流行态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田富彰; 王国钧; 唐新元; 李梅玉; 李君

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解青藏铁路沿线近年来鼠疫流行态势,为今后鼠疫防治工作提供科学依据.方法 收集2003~2008年青藏铁路沿线鼠疫监测结果 和人间鼠疫疫情处置资料,应用描述流行病学方法 进行分析.结果 2003~2008年青藏铁路青海境内沿线动物鼠疫主要发生在格尔木市唐古拉山乡、天峻、乌兰等地区,共分离鼠疫菌60株;检出鼠疫FI抗体阳性血清54份.发生人间鼠疫疫情6起,发病6例,死亡2例,病死率33.33%.结论 青藏铁路青海境内沿线鼠疫防治形势严峻.

  19. 建立快速检测鼠疫耶尔森菌的胶体金免疫层析法%The Establishment of Gold-immunochromatography for Fast Detection of Yersinia Pestis of Bubonic Plague

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孔新; 李伟; 姚李四; 陈维娜; 王静; 闫中强; 周蕾

    2004-01-01

    [目的]建立检测鼠疫耶尔森菌(鼠疫杆菌)的胶体金标记免疫层析方法.[方法]采用柠檬酸三钠还原法制备胶体金颗粒,并标记鼠疫杆菌的抗体,制成免疫层析检测试纸条,进行特异性和敏感性评价,并对面粉、土壤、奶粉、淀粉等不同材料进行模拟添加鼠疫菌检测.[结果]用多种不同的常见细菌或近缘细菌进行测试,未出现非特异性反应,检测鼠疫杆菌的灵敏度为1×105cfu/ml,对水、土壤、奶粉、面粉、淀粉、酵母粉等不同材料中鼠疫杆菌进行检测也取得同样结果,10~15min即可得到结果.[结论]建立了1种可以用于现场快速检测鼠疫杆菌的胶体金免疫层析方法,为进一步大规模应用奠定了基础.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of streptomycin alone or in combination with ciprofloxacin to treat bubonic plague%链霉素单独和联合环丙沙星治疗鼠疫的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新元; 王梅; 田富彰; 张爱萍; 冯建萍; 魏荣杰; 赵忠智; 于守鸿; 王祖郧

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过对以往青海地区链霉素治疗鼠疫病例单独和联合使用抗生素疗效的比较和分析,探索合理使用新型抗生素治疗鼠疫病例的新方法.方法 回顾性调查分析以往鼠疫病例,以年龄、病型、链霉素总用量、链霉素治疗时间为指标,对链霉素单独和联合应用治疗鼠疫病例的疗效进行比较和分析.采用SPSS 10.0软件进行有关统计学分析.结果 链霉素单独和联合应用治疗腺鼠疫,在链霉素总用量和治疗时间上有差别,经统计学检验差异有统计学意义;治疗肺鼠疫差异无统计学意义.结论 链霉素与环丙沙星联合应用治疗腺鼠疫时,可以降低链霉素的用量和缩短治疗时间;但治疗肺鼠疫时,链霉素的用量和缩短治疗时间无明显差异.

  1. The research of bubonic plague and the preventable tactics in Marmota Himarlayana in Qingzang area of China%青藏地区喜马拉雅旱獭的鼠疫及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井燕; 徐来祥; 王玉山

    2007-01-01

    从喜马拉雅旱獭的生物学特征,鼠疫的危害,喜马拉雅旱獭鼠疫的发生与分布特点以及鼠疫检测的方法等方面,论述了多年来我国学者对喜马拉雅旱獭鼠疫研究的进展,进而提出了鼠疫的防治策略.

  2. 危机与应对--以1949年察北鼠疫的防疫为例%Emergency and Response--Taking the Prevention of Chabei Bubonic Plague in 1949 as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞龙; 王小莉

    2005-01-01

    建国初期,防疫察北鼠疫是应对危机事件的典型.广大人民群众在中国共产党的领导下,破除迷信,加强宣传教育,并请苏联专家和防疫队指导工作,采取注射菌苗、捕鼠灭蚤等各种措施,鼠疫很快被扑灭.这充分体现了人民政府对突发事件的应对能力,为以后危机事件的处理积累了宝贵的经验.

  3. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Tollenaere, C., Pernechele, B., Mäkinen, H., Parratt, S., Nemeth, M., Kovacs, G., Levente, K. Tack, A.; Rahalison, L.; Ranjalahy, M.; Rahelinirina, S.; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Brouat, Carine

    2008-01-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a fu...

  4. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  5. CCR5 polymorphism and plague resistance in natural populations of the black rat in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Rahelinirina, S; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2008-12-01

    Madagascar remains one of the world's largest plague foci. The black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague in rural areas. This species is highly susceptible to plague in plague-free areas (low-altitude regions), whereas rats from the plague focus areas (central highlands) have evolved a disease-resistance polymorphism. We used the candidate gene CCR5 to investigate the genetic basis of plague resistance in R. rattus. We found a unique non-synonymous substitution (H184R) in a functionally important region of the gene. We then compared (i) CCR5 genotypes of dying and surviving plague-challenged rats and (ii) CCR5 allelic frequencies in plague focus and plague-free populations. Our results suggested a higher prevalence of the substitution in resistant animals compared to susceptible individuals, and a tendency for higher frequencies in plague focus areas compared to plague-free areas. Therefore, the CCR5 polymorphism may be involved in Malagasy black rat plague resistance. CCR5 and other undetermined plague resistance markers may provide useful biological information about host evolution and disease dynamics.

  6. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains.

  7. Use of a public telephone hotline to detect urban plague cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malberg, J A; Pape, W J; Lezotte, D; Hill, A E

    2012-11-01

    Current methods for vector-borne disease surveillance are limited by time and cost. To avoid human infections from emerging zoonotic diseases, it is important that the United States develop cost-effective surveillance systems for these diseases. This study examines the methodology used in the surveillance of a plague epizootic involving tree squirrels (Sciurus niger) in Denver Colorado, during the summer of 2007. A call-in centre for the public to report dead squirrels was used to direct animal carcass sampling. Staff used these reports to collect squirrel carcasses for the analysis of Yersinia pestis infection. This sampling protocol was analysed at the census tract level using Poisson regression to determine the relationship between higher call volumes in a census tract and the risk of a carcass in that tract testing positive for plague. Over-sampling owing to call volume-directed collection was accounted for by including the number of animals collected as the denominator in the model. The risk of finding an additional plague-positive animal increased as the call volume per census tract increased. The risk in the census tracts with >3 calls a month was significantly higher than that with three or less calls in a month. For tracts with 4-5 calls, the relative risk (RR) of an additional plague-positive carcass was 10.08 (95% CI 5.46-18.61); for tracts with 6-8 calls, the RR = 5.20 (2.93-9.20); for tracts with 9-11 calls, the RR = 12.80 (5.85-28.03) and tracts with >11 calls had RR = 35.41 (18.60-67.40). Overall, the call-in centre directed sampling increased the probability of locating plague-infected carcasses in the known Denver epizootic. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of this methodology at monitoring large-scale zoonotic disease occurrence in the absence of a recognized epizootic.

  8. Susceptibility to Yersinia pestis experimental infection in wild Rattus rattus, reservoir of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Duplantier, J-M; Rahelinirina, S; Telfer, S; Brouat, C

    2010-06-01

    In Madagascar, the black rat, Rattus rattus, is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), a disease still responsible for hundreds of cases each year in this country. This study used experimental plague challenge to assess susceptibility in wild-caught rats to better understand how R. rattus can act as a plague reservoir. An important difference in plague resistance between rat populations from the plague focus (central highlands) and those from the plague-free zone (low altitude area) was confirmed to be a widespread phenomenon. In rats from the plague focus, we observed that sex influenced plague susceptibility, with males slightly more resistant than females. Other individual factors investigated (weight and habitat of sampling) did not affect plague resistance. When infected at high bacterial dose (more than 10⁵ bacteria injected), rats from the plague focus died mainly within 3-5 days and produced specific antibodies, whereas after low-dose infection (plague resistance level and the course of infection in the black rat would contribute to a better understanding of plague circulation in Madagascar.

  9. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  10. Second Language Teacher Education: The Problems That Plague Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedick, Diane J.; Walker, Constance L.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of why change is needed in second-language teacher education considers five problems that plague the profession: lack of consideration of first- and second-language interdependence; fragmentation/isolation of language arts fields; view of language as "object;" focus on methodology; and failure to connect language and culture. (80…

  11. Plague Epidemic s in Syria b etween XIII - XV. Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra ATMACA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic diseases that cause mass death has been one of the greatest fears of the society in the past century Usually due to poor living conditions, poverty, the inadequate treatment. Plague is one of them. Plague word is sometimes used synonymously with t he word tâûn, sometimes considered to be a greater sense of the Word plague. These outbreaks occured repeatedly in human society and many times occured between XIII - XV. centuries. Our research aims to examine the plague occured in Syria in the Mamluk state domination discussed period. One of the outbreaks have occured in the period between the years 1347 - 1351. Epidemic was looming at the same time with the European named the black death or large extinction. Many people have been killed in Syria as in other places where the epidemic has spread. Rumors about them are given in the source is situated in the form of the issuance of the number of people who died in one day and sometimes the total number of deaths took place at a given date range. In this study, we aimed to determine which is more severe than the others in the outbreak, to assess the rumor about the number of deaths from this cause, to reveal the difficulties of the funeral of the dead, to uncover practices that people do to get rid of this disease.

  12. MOLECULAR AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS INTO YERSINIA PESTIS; HARBINGER OF PLAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plague has been the scourge of mankind for millennia; yet it was not until the late 18th Century that its causative agent was identified. Prokaryotic Y. pestis is responsible for plague; bacilli are consumed through arthropod feeding on infected rodential reservoirs. Arthropod uptake is essential for transmission as the bacilli proliferate within their gut before being refluxed into new mammalian hosts. Genomic analysis has elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this cycle along with the means by which bacilli acquire their characteristic virulence. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of Y. pestis provides putative avenues for future research. Whilst plague is considered a disease of the past by many, it interaction with humanity continues across various geographic foci. The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria threatens to bring this ancient foe once again to the fore through the acquisition of drug resistance. This review will detail notable advances of the past decade enabling the elusive possibility of a universal vaccine for the three manifestations of plague. Development of suitable vaccines before drug resistant strains emerge is paramount. Researchers are pitted in an on-going race against bacterial evolution.

  13. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra C.F. Oyston

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.

  14. The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H

    2008-01-01

    . However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory 4 , the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis...

  15. Investigation on the space structure of plague natural foci in the Sanjiangyuan area in Qinghai Province%青海省三江源地区鼠疫自然疫源地空间结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 祁芝珍; 杨永海; 汪元忠; 赵海红; 何键; 魏荣杰; 魏有文; 罗军; 郑谊; 王虎; 王祖郧; 王丽; 魏绍振; 崔百忠; 王国钧; 陈洪舰

    2009-01-01

    distributed over 13 countries, a range nearly 107 000 km2. By the end of 2006, 450 strains of Yersinia pestis were detected and separated from 6 kinds of rodents, 6 kinds of carnivora, 3 kinds of artiodactyls and 9 insects vectors. Between 1960 and 2006, 238 cases and 134 deaths from plague were reported. Most human plague cases occurred in the months from May to November and usually presented as one of three primary forms-bubonic 17.23%(41/238), septicemic 16.81% (40/238), pneumonic 61.34% (146/238) and other types 4.62% (11/238). However, the first epidemic plague case was mainly the glandular plague. Conclusions Date suggested that plague is still a critical public health problem in Sanjiangyuan area, against which countermaeasure needs to be strengthened in the main epidemic areas. More scientific researches on plague should be carried out. Surveillance networks of reporting suspected plague have been established and reduce the number of human plague cases.

  16. The Role of Transition Metal Transporters for Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert D.; Bobrov, Alexander G.; Fetherston, Jacqueline D.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic plague, encodes a multitude of Fe transport systems. Some of these are defective due to frameshift or IS element insertions, while others are functional in vitro but have no established role in causing infections. Indeed only 3 Fe transporters (Ybt, Yfe and Feo) have been shown to be important in at least one form of plague. The yersiniabactin (Ybt) system is essential in the early dermal/lymphatic stages of bubonic plague, irrelevant in the septicemic stage, and critical in pneumonic plague. Two Mn transporters have been characterized (Yfe and MntH). These two systems play a role in bubonic plague but the double yfe mntH mutant is fully virulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. The same in vivo phenotype occurs with a mutant lacking two (Yfe and Feo) of four ferrous transporters. A role for the Ybt siderophore in Zn acquisition has been revealed. Ybt-dependent Zn acquisition uses a transport system completely independent of the Fe-Ybt uptake system. Together Ybt components and ZnuABC play a critical role in Zn acquisition in vivo. Single mutants in either system retain high virulence in a mouse model of septicemic plague while the double mutant is completely avirulent. PMID:25891079

  17. Practical disinfection chemicals for fishing and crayfishing gear against crayfish plague transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussila J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested four commercial disinfectants against crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci spores in both aquatic solutions and with material mimicking fishing and crayfishing gear, e.g. traps, ropes, mesh, etc. The tested disinfectants were Proxitane®5:14, Proxitane®12:20, Wofasteril®E400, Virkon®S and hydrogen peroxide. The effects of the chemicals were initially tested in liquid zoospore cultures and the effective concentrations were then further tested using clean and dirty model materials (PP sheet, nylon rope, cotton fabric contaminated with A. astaci spore solutions. The disinfectants effective against infective crayfish plague spores with both clean and dirty model materials were Proxinate®5:14 (effective concentration was 30 mg·L-1 of PAA and Virkon®S (3 g·L-1, while Proxinate®12:20 (10 mg·L-1 of PAA and Wofasteril®E400 (30 mg·L-1 of PAA worked only with clean model materials. Hydrogen peroxide was not effective in the tested concentrations and conditions. Based on the results, the disinfectants most suitable for the fishing and crayfishing gear disinfection would be Proxitane®5:14 and Virkon®S, with the condition that all the gear should be thoroughly cleaned of organic matter to ensure inactivation of A. astaci spores.

  18. Truth about the Consequence of Bacteriological Warfare of Disseminating Plague Bacteria%散布鼠疫菌(PX)细菌战“战果”之真相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莇昭三[日](著); 韩慧光(译)

    2015-01-01

    日本军在中国实施细菌战的事实,随着中日学者的研究逐渐被揭示,在研究中所用材料大部分都是加害者(当事人)和受害者的口述史,缺乏日本军当时实施细菌战后对被害地的全面详细的疫学调查。731部队细菌战研究人员金子顺一论文《鼠疫效果略算法》,揭示了1940年农安、新京鼠疫流行事件是731部队实施的细菌战的事实。《陆军军医学校防疫研究报告第2部》中的高桥正彦论文中关于农安、新京鼠疫流行事件的论文,是731部队细菌战后对被害地进行的疫学调查。达格威文件Q报告中的部分数据来自“农安细菌战”受害者的病理解剖,其中不仅有中国人,也有日本人。%Facts about bacteriological warfare conducted by Japanese Army in China have been gradually re-vealed by related Chinese and Japanese researchers. However, the majority of materials used in the research are oral history orally accounted by offenders and victims, hence the lack of epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare by Japanese army. The thesis paper by Jun-Ichi Kaneko (bacterial warfare researcher of U-nit 731) namedBubonicPlagueAlgorithmunveiled the fact that plague epidemics which struck Nong’an and Changchun were caused by the Unit 731’s bacteriological warfare. Takahashi’s thesis paper inArmyMedicalCol-legeEpidemicPreventionResearchReport(VolumeⅡ)on plague epidemics that hit Nong’an and Changchun is in connection with the epidemic prevention surveys on the inflicted areas of bacteriological warfare carried out by the U-nit 731. Some data of the Report of“Q”from Dugway Proving Ground Documents came from pathological anatomy of victims of Nong’an bacteriological warfare, some of whom were Chinese and Japanese.

  19. Colonialism versus Nationalism: The Plague of Hong Kong in 1894

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, PT

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon different source materials, this paper examines the significance of the plague of Hong Kong in 1894 in two ways. Firstly, it shows the process by which the colonial power successfully implemented the public health policy in Hong Kong by collaborating with the local Chinese communities. Secondly, it demonstrates how the Chinese in Hong Kong responded to the colonial mandatory measures by resisting them or partially accepting them. This paper highlights the reactions of the Chinese...

  20. Bibliographic Index to the Plague (1965-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-18

    Shiko, Infection Promoting Activity of Htigh Molecular Weight Microbial Polysaccharides on Mouse Peritoneal Infections With irasteurella Pestis. .J...Plague Microbe 710. Admnov, A. K., Molecular Mechanisms of Information Exchange and the Variability of Organisms. In: Microbiol. and Inminol. of Dread...Bibliog.: 6refs. Ref.: R.J " Biologia , 99 2593 798. Bakhrakh, Ye. E., F. K. Drozdovskava and L. I. Glushko, The Affect of the Reduction-Oxidation State of

  1. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V; Huong, L T; Suntsova, N I; Gratz, N G

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

  2. Sylvatic plague vaccine: A new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bunck, Christine M.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  3. Sylvatic plague vaccine: a new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Bunck, Christine M; Rocke, Tonie E

    2012-09-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  4. Characterizing the reproduction number of epidemics with early subexponential growth dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    datasets (pandemic influenza, measles, smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, foot-and-mouth disease, HIV/AIDS and Ebola) with model estimates supporting subexponential growth dynamics. The rapid decline in effective reproduction number predicted by analytical results and observed in real and synthetic...

  5. Emergence, spread, persistence and fade-out of sylvatic plague in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Lise; Storvik, Geir O; Davis, Stephen A; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Klassovskaya, Evgeniya; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-10-01

    Predicting the dynamics of zoonoses in wildlife is important not only for prevention of transmission to humans, but also for improving the general understanding of epidemiological processes. A large dataset on sylvatic plague in the Pre-Balkhash area of Kazakhstan (collected for surveillance purposes) provides a rare opportunity for detailed statistical modelling of an infectious disease. Previous work using these data has revealed a host abundance threshold for epizootics, and climatic influences on plague prevalence. Here, we present a model describing the local space-time dynamics of the disease at a spatial scale of 20 × 20 km(2) and a biannual temporal scale, distinguishing between invasion and persistence events. We used a Bayesian imputation method to account for uncertainties resulting from poor data in explanatory variables and response variables. Spatial autocorrelation in the data was accounted for in imputations and analyses through random effects. The results show (i) a clear effect of spatial transmission, (ii) a high probability of persistence compared with invasion, and (iii) a stronger influence of rodent abundance on invasion than on persistence. In particular, there was a substantial probability of persistence also at low host abundance.

  6. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  7. Predicting small mammal and flea abundance using landform and soil properties in a plague endemic area in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Kimaro, Didas N; Msanya, Balthazar M; Mulungu, Loth S; Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals particularly rodents, are considered the primary natural hosts of plague. Literature suggests that plague persistence in natural foci has a root cause in soils. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between on the one hand landforms and associated soil properties, and on the other hand small mammals and fleas in West Usambara Mountains in Tanzania, a plague endemic area. Standard field survey methods coupled with Geographical Information System (GIS) technique were used to examine landform and soils characteristics. Soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Small mammals were trapped on pre-established landform positions and identified to genus/species level. Fleas were removed from the trapped small mammals and counted. Exploration of landform and soil data was done using ArcGIS Toolbox functions and descriptive statistical analysis. The relationships between landforms, soils, small mammals and fleas were established by generalised linear regression model (GLM) operated in R statistics software. Results show that landforms and soils influence the abundance of small mammals and fleas and their spatial distribution. The abundance of small mammals and fleas increased with increase in elevation. Small mammal species richness also increases with elevation. A landform-soil model shows that available phosphorus, slope aspect and elevation were statistically significant predictors explaining richness and abundance of small mammals. Fleas' abundance and spatial distribution were influenced by hill-shade, available phosphorus and base saturation. The study suggests that landforms and soils have a strong influence on the richness and evenness of small mammals and their fleas' abundance hence could be used to explain plague dynamics in the area.

  8. Rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Robert Jory; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris; Gage, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of Yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. Recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. However, it is unclear if increased rodent or flea abundance predisposes prairie dogs to infection with Y. pestis. We tracked rodent and flea occurrence for 3 years at a number of prairie dog colony sites in Boulder County, Colorado, before, during, and after a local plague epizootic to see if high rodent or flea abundance was associated with plague-affected colonies when compared to colonies that escaped infection. We found no difference in preepizootic rodent abundance or flea prevalence or abundance between plague-positive and plague-negative colonies. Further, we saw no significant before-plague/after-plague change in these metrics at either plague-positive or plague-negative sites. We did, however, find that small rodent species assemblages changed in the year following prairie dog die-offs at plague-affected colonies when compared to unaffected colonies. In light of previous research from this system that has shown that landscape features and proximity to recently plagued colonies are significant predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs, we suggest that landscape context is more important to local plague occurrence than are characteristics of rodent or flea species assemblages.

  9. Landscape ecology of plague in the American southwest, September 19-20, 2000, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    During September 19-20, 2000, a workshop titled "Landscape Ecology of Plague in the American Southwest" was held in Fort Collins, Colorado. The workshop was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Earth Surface Processes Team and sponsored by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center. Forty scientists and natural resource managers and administrators representing 8 federal agencies, 4 state agencies, 6 universities, and other local agencies and nongovernment organizations met to discuss historical and current status of plague in the United States, current activities in plague surveillance, research, and management in wildlife, and research and information needs relative to plague control and management. Eleven individual presentations on plague history, status, and trends; diagnostic technologies; epizootiological studies and observations; and control and management strategies and studies, followed by a panel discussion on the impact of plague on wildlife and ecosystems, led the way to extensive group discussions on important plague-related questions, issues and problems. Workshop attendees participated in identifying important research and information needs relevant to control and management of plague in wildlife, and in the process, established new cooperative and collaborative partnerships and enhanced existing relationships upon which future research and information needs can be met. The proceedings from this workshop are intended to be used by the natural resource managers and researchers from the various participating agencies, research facilities, as well as other stakeholders to aid in the development of future research and information programs and funding initiatives related to both zoonotic and sylvatic plague.

  10. [The time course of changes in cell immunological parameters during administration of live dry plague vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, N V; Darmov, I V; Borisevich, I V; Kriuchkov, A V; Pechenkin, D V

    2009-08-01

    The study of the time course of changes in cell immunological parameters by a magnetic separation technique in human beings during the administration of plague vaccine in relation to the immunological load revealed the higher blood levels of all T lymphocyte subpopulations on day 14 after vaccination. These changes are most typical of a primary vaccinated cohort. The increased frequency of plague vaccine administration and multiple immunizations with live plague, anthrax, and tularemia vaccines produce the time-course of changes in T lymphocyte populations (subpopulations) in response to the regular administration of plague vaccine. A high immunological load in man also promotes a significant reduction in the level of B lymphocytes.

  11. Transmission efficiency of two flea species (Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Tripp, Daniel W; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-06-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in North America circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. The fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and Oropsylla hirsuta. We tested the efficiency of O. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit Y. pestis daily from 24 to 96 h postinfection and compared it to previously collected data for O. hirsuta. We found that O. tuberculata cynomuris has over threefold greater transmission efficiency (0.18 infected fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h postinfection) than O. hirsuta (0.05 fleas transmit). Using a simple model of flea-borne transmission, we combine these laboratory measurements with field data on monthly flea loads to compare the seasonal vectorial capacity of these two flea species. Coinciding with seasonal patterns of flea abundance, we find a peak in potential for flea-borne transmission in March, during high O. tuberculata cynomuris abundance, and in September-October when O. hirsuta is common. Our findings may be useful in determining the timing of insecticidal dusting to slow plague transmission in black-tailed prairie dogs.

  12. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7??104LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Suntsov, V. V.; Huong, L. T.; Suntsova, N. I.; Gratz, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis...

  14. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  15. Relationship between oriental migratory locust plague and soil moisture extracted from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenbo; Shi, Xuezheng; Warner, Eric; Ge, Yunjian; Yu, Dongsheng; Ni, Shaoxiang; Wang, Hongjie

    2008-02-01

    Locust plagues have been the source of some of the most severe natural disasters in human history. Soil moisture content is among the most important of the numerous factors influencing plague onset and severity. This paper describes a study initiated in three pilot locust plague monitoring regions, i.e., Huangzao, Yangguanzhuang, and Tengnan in Huanghua county, Hebei province, China, to examine the impact of soil moisture status on oriental migratory locust [ Locusta migratoria manilensis (L.) Meyen] plague breakout as related to the life cycle, oviposition in autumn, survival in winter, and incubation in summer. Thirty-nine temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) data sets, which represent soil moisture content, were extracted from MODIS remote sensing images for two representative time periods: a severe locust plague breakout year (2001-2002) and a slight plague year (2003-2004). TVDI values demonstrated distinctive soil moisture status differences between the 2 years concerned. Soil moisture conditions in the severe plague year were shown to be lower than those in slight plague year. In all three pilot regions, average TVDI value in the severe plague year was 0.07 higher than that in slight plague year, and monthly TVDI values in locust oviposition period (September and October) and incubation period (March, April and May) were higher than their corresponding monthly figures in slight plague year. No remarkable TVDI differences were found in other months during the locust life cycle between the 2 years. TVDI values for September and October (2001), March, April and May (2002) were 0.11, 0.08, 0.16, 0.11 and 0.16 higher than their corresponding monthly figures in 2003-2004 period, respectively.

  16. AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus) from Madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Duplantier, J-M; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Brouat, C

    2011-03-01

    The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar's rural zones. Black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). To better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. To this purpose, we combined a population genomics approach and an association study, both performed on 249 AFLP markers, in Malagasy R. rattus. Simulated distributions of genetic differentiation were compared to observed data in four independent pairs, each consisting of one population from the plague focus and one from the plague-free zone. We found 22 loci (9% of 249) with higher differentiation in at least two independent population pairs or with combining P-values over the four pairs significant. Among the 22 outlier loci, 16 presented significant association with plague zone (plague focus vs. plague-free zone). Population genetic structure inferred from outlier loci was structured by plague zone, whereas the neutral loci dataset revealed structure by geography (eastern vs. western populations). A phenotype association study revealed that two of the 22 loci were significantly associated with differentiation between dying and surviving rats following experimental plague challenge. The 22 outlier loci identified in this study may undergo plague selective pressure either directly or more probably indirectly due to hitchhiking with selected loci.

  17. 1981-2006年我国鼠疫病例流行病学与临床特征分析%Analysis the epidemiology and clinical feature of plague cases from 1981 to 2006 year in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田富彰; 崔百忠; 王国钧; 辛有全; 王祖郧

    2008-01-01

    Objective To summarize the epidemiological feature of plague cases oceuwed in China.Methods The epidemiological and clinical data from 1981 to 2006 year in China were analyzed with descriptive study method.Result Nine hundred and seveneteen human plague cases were diagnosed in 9 provinces(regions) from 1981 to 2006 years,105 cases died,the mortality rate being 11.45%,and they distributed in 69 counties (cities or banners).In Qinghai Province 108 cases were diagnosed,the mortality rate was 46.30%(50/108),the cases distributed in 17 counties(cities);137 cans in Guizhou,distributing in 2 counties(cities);517 cases in Yunnan,distributing in 26 counties(cities).Plague cases peaked separately in 1983,1990,1996 and 2000 years,they were 25,75,98 and 254 separately.The principal spreading ways were breathing flying particles,touching,skinning and eating marmot in Qinghai;750 cases were of bubonic plague,among whom 4 cases in Tibet died,the fatality rate was 0.53(4/750);121 cases were of pneumonic prague,among whom 65 cases died,was accounting for 53.72%(65/121);31 cases were of septieaemic plague,and 30 cases died(one cases was cured in Inner Mongolia),accounting for 96.77%(30/31).Others were brain plague,intestinal plague,tonsil plague and plague cellulites,which were cured.Conclusion From 1990,human plague epidemical scope and intensity is enlarging continuously compared with 1980-1990 and there is a trend of going up gradually in China.%目的 分析我同鼠疫病例的流行病学特征.掌握我国人间鼠疫发生,发展的规律,为今后鼠疫防治工作提供科学依据.方法 收集1981-2006年我国人间鼠疫疫情的现场凋查和病历等相天资料,分析鼠疫流行病学特征.结果 1981-2006年我国9个省(区)共发生鼠疫病例917例,死亡105例,死亡率11.45%,分布在69个县(市,旗).其中青海108例,分布于17个县(市),贵州137例,分布于2个县(市),云南517例,分布26个县(市).在1983,1990,1996,2000年鼠疫病例数出现4

  18. Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtman, Mark; Morelli, Giovanna; Zhu, Peixuan; Wirth, Thierry; Diehl, Ines; Kusecek, Barica; Vogler, Amy J; Wagner, David M; Allender, Christopher J; Easterday, W Ryan; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Worsham, Patricia; Thomson, Nicholas R; Parkhill, Julian; Lindler, Luther E; Carniel, Elisabeth; Keim, Paul

    2004-12-21

    The association of historical plague pandemics with Yersinia pestis remains controversial, partly because the evolutionary history of this largely monomorphic bacterium was unknown. The microevolution of Y. pestis was therefore investigated by three different multilocus molecular methods, targeting genomewide synonymous SNPs, variation in number of tandem repeats, and insertion of IS100 insertion elements. Eight populations were recognized by the three methods, and we propose an evolutionary tree for these populations, rooted on Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The tree invokes microevolution over millennia, during which enzootic pestoides isolates evolved. This initial phase was followed by a binary split 6,500 years ago, which led to populations that are more frequently associated with human disease. These populations do not correspond directly to classical biovars that are based on phenotypic properties. Thus, we recommend that henceforth groupings should be based on molecular signatures. The age of Y. pestis inferred here is compatible with the dates of historical pandemic plague. However, it is premature to infer an association between any modern molecular grouping and a particular pandemic wave that occurred before the 20th century.

  19. A plague epizootic in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Buskirk, Steven W; Williams, Elizabeth S; Edwards, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plague is the primary cause for the rangewide decline in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) distribution and abundance, yet our knowledge of plague dynamics in prairie dog populations is limited. Our understanding of the effects of plague on the most widespread species, the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), is particularly weak. During a study on the population biology of black-tailed prairie dogs in Wyoming, USA, plague was detected in a colony under intensive monitoring, providing a unique opportunity to quantify various consequences of plague. The epizootic reduced juvenile abundance by 96% and adult abundance by 95%. Of the survivors, eight of nine adults and one of eight juveniles developed antibodies to Yersinia pestis. Demographic groups appeared equally susceptible to infection, and age structure was unaffected. Survivors occupied three small coteries and exhibited improved body condition, but increased flea infestation compared to a neighboring, uninfected colony. Black-tailed prairie dogs are capable of surviving a plague epizootic and reorganizing into apparently functional coteries. Surviving prairie dogs may be critical in the repopulation of plague-decimated colonies and, ultimately, the evolution of plague resistance.

  20. Population genetic structure of the prairie dog flea and plague vector, Oropsylla hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Martin, Andrew P; Jones, Ryan T; Collinge, Sharon K

    2011-01-01

    Oropsylla hirsuta is the primary flea of the black-tailed prairie dog and is a vector of the plague bacterium, Yersinia pestis. We examined the population genetic structure of O. hirsuta fleas collected from 11 prairie dog colonies, 7 of which had experienced a plague-associated die-off in 1994. In a sample of 332 O. hirsuta collected from 226 host individuals, we detected 24 unique haplotype sequences in a 480 nucleotide segment of the cytochrome oxidase II gene. We found significant overall population structure but we did not detect a signal of isolation by distance, suggesting that O. hirsuta may be able to disperse relatively quickly at the scale of this study. All 7 colonies that were recently decimated by plague showed signs of recent population expansion, whereas 3 of the 4 plague-negative colonies showed haplotype patterns consistent with stable populations. These results suggest that O. hirsuta populations are affected by plague-induced prairie dog die-offs and that flea dispersal among prairie dog colonies may not be dependent exclusively on dispersal of prairie dogs. Re-colonization following plague events from plague-free refugia may allow for rapid flea population expansion following plague epizootics.

  1. Enzootic Plague Reduces Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) Survival in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of plague. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997; 10:35–66. Poland, JD, Barnes, AM. Plague. In: Steele, JH, ed. CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses . Boca Raton, FL...Quan, TJ, Barnes, AM, Polland, JD. Yersiniosis. In: Barlows, A, Hausler, WJ, Jr., eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Bacterial, Mycotic and Parasitic

  2. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  3. East to West or West to East: Plague Spread after the Black Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Cui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Black Death, one of the most destructive pandemics in human history, has claimed millions of lives and considerably influenced human civilization. Following the Black Death, plague outbreaks in Europe lasted for several hundred years until late the 18th century. It is generally presumed that the Black Death was caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis and spread from China to Europe in one or more waves. However, because of the lack of etiological research during the medieval period and absence of a natural plague focus in Europe today, the causative agent of this pandemic and its transmission has led to long-term debate among researchers. Thus, several questions remain including whether Y. pestis actually caused the Black Death, whether a natural plague focus existed in medieval Europe and led to post-Black Death plague outbreaks, and whether the Europe plague focus played a role in the spread and evolution of Y. pestis.

  4. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Boris V; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2015-03-10

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe.

  5. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe. PMID:25713390

  6. Origin of the old testament plagues: explications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkranz, N Joel; Sampson, Deborah A

    2008-03-01

    Analyses of past disasters may supply insights to mitigate the impact of recurrences. In this context, we offer a unifying causative theory of Old Testament plagues, which has present day public health implications. We propose the root cause to have been an aberrant El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnection that brought unseasonable and progressive climate warming along the ancient Mediterranean littoral, including the coast of biblical Egypt, which, in turn, initiated the serial catastrophes of biblical sequence - in particular arthropod-borne and arthropod-caused diseases. Located beyond the boundary of focal climate change, inland Goshen would not have been similarly affected. Implicit in this analysis is a framework to consider a possibility of present day recurrence of similar catastrophes and their impact upon essential public services.

  7. [PLAGUE IN PALERMO IN 1575 AND SOCIAL CONTROL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The work moves from the low mortality of the plague of Palermo in 1575 - 1576 in comparison to similar outbreaks and contemporary analysis of the activity of Ingrassia, a man that the city government had wanted at his side. The extraordinary health interventions, including those to favor of the predisposition of health building to isolation, gears for a more wide-ranging than the traditional one. The isolation adopted by Ingrassia wasn't a novelty because it was already in use half a century earlier, as the Previdelli wrote. We assume that the population in crisis, hungry and out of work for the huge military expenditure of king Philip II, would have prompted the City government to use the outbreak for the purposes of . At the same goal always answered in the sixteenth century the establishment of the parish, created to divide the territory in order to guide and control the practice of the faith of the people. Ingrassia, a man next to political power, which in turn welded with the spiritual power in order to implement the Catholic Counter-Reformation, justified the coercive initiatives towards the population. The practice of medicine, as still happens today, is affected by the conditions of the policy, raising one of the fundamental principles of bioethics, the question ofthe independence ofthe doctor: a physician divided by the duty to represent the legitimate interests of the patient and those of political power, perhaps not always shared. It is a new interpretation of the activity of Ingrassia and his results than the plague.

  8. A bibliography of literature pertaining to plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.; Frank, Megan K. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Plague is an acute and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly cycles between small mammals and their fleas; however, it has the potential to infect humans and frequently causes fatalities if left untreated. It is often considered a disease of the past; however, since the late 1800s, plagueis geographic range has expanded greatly, posing new threats in previously unaffected regions of the world, including the Western United States. A literature search was conducted using Internet resources and databases. The keywords chosen for the searches included plague, Yersinia pestis, management, control, wildlife, prairie dogs, fleas, North America, and mammals. Keywords were used alone or in combination with the other terms. Although this search pertains mostly to North America, citations were included from the international research community, as well. Databases and search engines used included Google (http://www.google.com), Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), SciVerse Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), ISI Web of Knowledge (http://apps.isiknowledge.com), and the USGS Library's Digital Desktop (http://library.usgs.gov). The literature-cited sections of manuscripts obtained from keyword searches were cross-referenced to identify additional citations or gray literature that was missed by the Internet search engines. This Open-File Report, published as an Internet-accessible bibliography, is intended to be periodically updated with new citations or older references that may have been missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the audience (users) think need to be included.

  9. The Measures for Plague of Locust and the Views about Plague in Song Dynasty%宋代蝗灾应对和灾异观之变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏根

    2012-01-01

    “灾异说”认为,灾异乃是社会政治问题所致,当局应以改革社会政治应对。主流社会长期以此应对灾异,故对蝗灾也不采取捕杀措施。在唐代姚崇以下以捕杀应对蝗灾的基础上,宋人以全面捕杀为主要手段应对蝗灾,在实践上突破了“灾异说”。与此相应,对“灾异说”,宋代的思想精英们从前人的笃信发展为质疑,乃至彻底抛弃,客观、理性地应对蝗灾等灾异。%In the theory about plague before, a plague was resulted in the relevant social and political errors, and the only mea- sure against the plague was to correct the errors. The authorities had been done against the plagues according to the theory in the period of more than 1000 years, and not killed the locusts in the plagues of locust, just with some exceptions. In Song, killing lo- custs was the popular measure against the plagues of locust, people knew a lot about locust, and some gentlemen began to sus- pect the theory about plague that had been very popular since Hun Dynasty, and even abandoned it at last.

  10. Analysis of clinical research literature about treated plague by using traditional Chinese medicine%中医药治疗瘟疫的临床文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐; 张华敏; 曹洪欣

    2011-01-01

    目的通过对中医药治疗瘟疫临床文献进行分析,提出当今瘟疫临床研究的特点,同时分析其中存在的问题.方法 以文献中某一类瘟疫的辨治方法作为数据的主要来源,围绕病因-症状-病位-病性-方剂-药物等信息,建立某一类瘟疫中医辨治的数据库,对数据库文献进行分析.结果 瘟疫临床研究特点主要表现为:①不同邪气所致瘟疫具有不同的病机特点和演变规律;②当代瘟疫病名以西医病名为主,形成了辨病与辨证相结合的新模式;③给药途径的多样化有利于中药治疗突发传染性疾病.结论 瘟疫研究缺少既体现个体化诊疗,又能把握临床规律的中医临床研究文献.应根据新发瘟疫的病因病机特点和演变规律,研究和丰富中医瘟疫理论,指导临床实践.%Objective To analyze the problems of treating plague by TCM and find out the characteristics of clinical research of contemporary plague by the analysis of clinical research literature on the treatment of plague by TCM. Methods Differential treatment methods of one kind of plague in the literature as the main source of the data and the information that the pathogenesis-symptom-location of disease-nature of disease-prescriptions-drugs were taken to build the data base of the syndrome differentiation and treatment of certain kind of plague. Results Analyzed with literatures,the characteristics of plague clinical research showed: Different pathogenesis characteristics and evolution of plague were caused by diff① erent evils. ②Contemporary plague was named by western disease name. A new model which disease differentiation combined with syndrome differentiation has been formed. ③The diversification of administration promoted the treatment of emergent communicable disease with Chinese medicine. Conclusion The plague research lacked such research literature which could both reflect individualized diagnosis and embody the clinical rules

  11. [Mechanisms of power in disease: the case of the novel "The Plague" by Albert Camus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mansilla, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the elements of power that can be found in an epidemic like the plague. To undertake this task we first studied, the form of containment of the plague from a historical perspective and then, compare them with those described by Camus in his novel The Plague. We also studied the experience of sin among humans in an effort to determine divine power. This last point explores the fear of being touched during an epidemic and how this is overcome by the innate feeling of love among men. Finally in the novel, this is illustrated by the love of Orpheus for Eurydice.

  12. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures.

  13. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfy, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some nei...

  14. Climate predictors of the spatial distribution of human plague cases in the West Nile region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Katherine; Monaghan, Andrew J; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Acayo, Sarah; Acidri, Rogers; Moore, Sean M; Mpanga, Joseph Tendo; Enscore, Russel E; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2012-03-01

    East Africa has been identified as a region where vector-borne and zoonotic diseases are most likely to emerge or re-emerge and where morbidity and mortality from these diseases is significant. Understanding when and where humans are most likely to be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic disease agents in this region can aid in targeting limited prevention and control resources. Often, spatial and temporal distributions of vectors and vector-borne disease agents are predictable based on climatic variables. However, because of coarse meteorological observation networks, appropriately scaled and accurate climate data are often lacking for Africa. Here, we use a recently developed 10-year gridded meteorological dataset from the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model to identify climatic variables predictive of the spatial distribution of human plague cases in the West Nile region of Uganda. Our logistic regression model revealed that within high elevation sites (above 1,300 m), plague risk was positively associated with rainfall during the months of February, October, and November and negatively associated with rainfall during the month of June. These findings suggest that areas that receive increased but not continuous rainfall provide ecologically conducive conditions for Yersinia pestis transmission in this region. This study serves as a foundation for similar modeling efforts of other vector-borne and zoonotic disease in regions with sparse observational meteorologic networks.

  15. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  16. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-23

    Dr. Kiersten Kugeler discusses the Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States.  Created: 2/23/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2015.

  17. [The North African plague and Charles Nicolle's theory of infectious diseases].

    OpenAIRE

    Ben, Néfissa Kmar; Moulin,Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Many infectious diseases were described in North Africa in 18th-19th centuries by European travellers. Most of them were allegedly imported by new migrant populations coming from sub-Saharan, European or Middle East countries. Plague outbreaks have been described since the Black Death as diseases of the Mediterranean harbours. Charles Nicolle and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute were witnesses to the extinction of plague and typhus fever in Tunisia. Both could be considered as endem...

  18. [The North African plague and Charles Nicolle's theory of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Néfissa Kmar; Moulin, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Many infectious diseases were described in North Africa in 18th-19th centuries by European travellers. Most of them were allegedly imported by new migrant populations coming from sub-Saharan, European or Middle East countries. Plague outbreaks have been described since the Black Death as diseases of the Mediterranean harbours. Charles Nicolle and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute were witnesses to the extinction of plague and typhus fever in Tunisia. Both could be considered as endemo-epidemic diseases propagated by ancient nomad communities for centuries. Typhus was exported to other countries; plague was imported by Mediterranean travellers but also hid in unknown wild-animal reservoirs. The role of the bite of a rat's flea was not confirmed and the pneumonic form might have prevailed in the medieval North African cities. Association between plague, typhus, flu and other causes of immune deficiencies could explain the high morbidity and mortality caused by plague in the past. The authors comment the local history of plague at the light of the evolutionary laws of infectious disease proposed by Charles Nicolle in 1930.

  19. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  20. Comparative genomics of 2009 seasonal plague (Yersinia pestis in New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Gibbons

    Full Text Available Plague disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis routinely affects animals and occasionally humans, in the western United States. The strains native to the North American continent are thought to be derived from a single introduction in the late 19(th century. The degree to which these isolates have diverged genetically since their introduction is not clear, and new genomic markers to assay the diversity of North American plague are highly desired. To assay genetic diversity of plague isolates within confined geographic areas, draft genome sequences were generated by 454 pyrosequencing from nine environmental and clinical plague isolates. In silico assemblies of Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR loci were compared to laboratory-generated profiles for seven markers. High-confidence SNPs and small Insertion/Deletions (Indels were compared to previously sequenced Y. pestis isolates. The resulting panel of mutations allowed clustering of the strains and tracing of the most likely evolutionary trajectory of the plague strains. The sequences also allowed the identification of new putative SNPs that differentiate the 2009 isolates from previously sequenced plague strains and from each other. In addition, new insertion points for the abundant insertion sequences (IS of Y. pestis are present that allow additional discrimination of strains; several of these new insertions potentially inactivate genes implicated in virulence. These sequences enable whole-genome phylogenetic analysis and allow the unbiased comparison of closely related isolates of a genetically monomorphic pathogen.

  1. Molecular characterization of Duck Plague virus isolated from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mostakin Ahamed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Duck plague (DP is the most feared duck disease in the world. For isolation, identification, molecular detection and characterization of DP virus (DPV, a total of 94 samples were collected from commercial farms (n=6 and households (n=13 from Rajshahi (n=37, Netrokona (n=35 and Mymensingh (n=22 districts of Bangladesh. The samples were processed and inoculated into 11-13 days old embryonated duck eggs for virus propagation. Virus was identified using agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIT and passive hemagglutination (PHA test, and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting DNA polymerase and gC genes, followed by sequencing. Pathogenicity tests were performed using duck embryos, ducklings and ducks. Among the 94 samples, 17 isolates were confirmed as DPV by PCR amplification of partial DNA polymerase (446-bp and gC genes (78-bp, respectively. One of the isolates (Anatid herpes 1 BAU DMH was sequenced and found to be closely related with a Chinese variant of DPV (GenBank: JQ647509.1. Thus, we assume that both Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates of DPV may have a common ancestor. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 296-303

  2. Are local plague endemicity and ecological characteristics of vectors and reservoirs related? A case study in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig LEIRS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of plague endemicity in Tanzania is characterized by continuous re-appearance of the disease in some locations, while in other neighbouring villages the disease has never or seldom been observed. To understand the reasons for this pattern, we studied small mammals and fleas species composition, diversity and relative abundances in two plague-endemic and two plague-free locations. We asked (a whether fleas more abundant in plague-endemic locations differ in their characteristic abundance and the degree of their host specificity from fleas most abundant in plague-free locations and (b whether hosts more abundant in plague-endemic locations differ in the diversity of their flea assemblages from hosts most abundant in plague-free locations. We characterized (a host species by species richness and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its flea assemblages and (b each flea species by its mean abundance and size, and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its host spectrum and compared their relative abundances between locations. No significant difference between plague-endemic and plague-free locations in either host density or any variable related to flea abundance or diversity was found. However, there was marginally significant effect of taxonomic distinctness of a flea assemblage harboured by a host on its probability to be more abundant in either plague-endemic or plague-free locations. Furthermore, hosts more abundant in plague-endemic locations tended to harbour closely-related fleas. Finally, while opportunistic and specialist fleas were equally distributed in both sets of locations, fleas exploiting distantly-related hosts were found mainly in plague-free locations during the rainy season. We suggest that the observed patterns might arise due to seasonal and spatial differences in local microclimatic conditions and landscape connectivity[Current Zoology 55(3:199–211, 2009].

  3. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E; Cobble, Kacy R; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William; Shuey, Megan M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M

    2013-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  4. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  5. Duration of plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Romain, Krista; Tripp, Daniel W; Salkeld, Daniel J; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. We document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. We demonstrate that Y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs.

  6. Are local plague endemicity and ecological characteristics of vectors and reservoirs related? A case study in north-east Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne LAUDISOIT; Simon NEERINCKX; Rhodes H.MAKUNDI; Herwig LEIRS; Boris R.KRASNOV

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of plague endemicity in Tanzania is characterized by continuous re-appearance of the disease in some locations, while in other neighbouring villages the disease has never or seldom been observed. To understand the reasons for this pattern, we studied small mammal and flea species composition, diversity and relative abundances in two plague-endemic and two plague-free locations. We asked (a) whether fleas more abundant in plague-endemic locations differ in their characteristic abundance and the degree of their host specificity from fleas more abundant in plague-free locations and (b) whether hosts most abundant in plagne-endemic locations differ in the diversity of their flea assemblages from hosts most abundant in plague-free locations. We characterized (a) each host species by species richness and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its flea assemblages and (b) each flea species by its mean abundance and size, and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its host spectrum and compared their relative abundances between locations. No significant difference between plague-endemic and plague-free locations in either host density or any variable related to flea abundance or diversity was found. However, there was marginally significant effect of taxonomic distinctness of a flea assemblage harboured by a host on its probability to be more abundant in either plague-endemic or plague-free locations. Furthermore, hosts more abundant in plague-endemic locations tended to harbeur closely-related fleas. Finally, while opportunistic and specialist fleas were equally distributed in both sets of locations, fleas exploiting distantly-related hosts were found mainly in plague-free locations during the rainy season. We suggest that the observed patterns might arise due to seasonal and spatial differences in local microclimatic conditions and landscape connectivity.

  7. A historical vignette (15). "Be proud of yourself: you have a history!" The nose and the plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainmont, J

    2009-01-01

    The nose and the plague. Although the plague does not cause any specific nasal pathology, the miasma theory and the repulsive smell of the disease were factors that contributed to a strong emphasis on the nose. To stop the spread of the disease, it was thought necessary to saturate the nose with protective scents (hence the nose of the plague doctors) (Figure 1), or simply to hold one's nose. Moreover, the nose was long considered to be an outlet for mucus from the encephalon, and so induced nose bleeding and sneezing were advised when the plague seemed to be attacking the brain.

  8. Predictors for abundance of host flea and floor flea in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague, Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xiang Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 1990 to 2006, fifty-five natural villages experienced at least one plague epidemic in Lianghe County, Yunnan Province, China. This study is aimed to document flea abundance and identify predictors in households of villages with endemic commensal rodent plague in Lianghe County. METHODS: Trappings were used to collect fleas and interviews were conducted to gather demography, environmental factors, and other relevant information. Multivariate hurdle negative binomial model was applied to identify predictors for flea abundance. RESULTS: A total of 344 fleas were collected on 101 small mammals (94 Rattus flavipectus and 7 Suncus murinus. R. flavipectus had higher flea prevalence and abundance than S. murinus, but the flea intensities did not differ significantly. A total of 315 floor fleas were captured in 104 households. Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were the predominant flea species on the host and the floor flea, respectively. The presence of small mammal faeces and R. flavipectus increased host flea prevalence odds 2.9- and 10-fold, respectively. Keeping a dog in the house increased floor flea prevalence odds 2-fold. Keeping cattle increased floor flea intensity by 153%. Villages with over 80% of houses raising chickens had increased prevalence odds and intensity of floor flea about 2.9- and 11.6-fold, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of floor flea in brick and wood houses were decreased by 60% and 90%, respectively. Flea prevalences of host and floor flea in the households that were adjacent to other houses were increased 7.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively. Houses with a paddy nearby decreased host flea intensity by 53%, while houses with an outside toilet increased host flea intensity by 125%. CONCLUSION: Rodent control alone may not be sufficient to control plague risk in these areas. In order to have successful results, plague control programs should pay attention to ecological and hygiene factors

  9. Oropsylla hirsuta (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) can support plague epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) by early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Aryn P; Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-06-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, often leads to rapid decimation of black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Flea-borne transmission of Y. pestis has been thought to occur primarily via blocked fleas, and therefore studies of vector efficiency have focused on the period when blockage is expected to occur (> or =5 days post-infection [p.i.]). Oropsylla hirsuta, a prairie dog flea, rarely blocks and transmission is inefficient > or =5 days p.i.; thus, this flea has been considered incapable of explaining rapid dissemination of Y. pestis among prairie dogs. By infecting wild-caught fleas with Y. pestis and exposing naïve mice to groups of fleas at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h p.i., we examined the early-phase (1-4 days p.i.) efficiency of O. hirsuta to transmit Y. pestis to hosts and showed that O. hirsuta is a considerably more efficient vector at this largely overlooked stage (5.19% of fleas transmit Y. pestis at 24 h p.i.) than at later stages. Using a model of vectorial capacity, we suggest that this level of transmission can support plague at an enzootic level in a population when flea loads are within the average observed for black-tailed prairie dogs in nature. Shared burrows and sociality of prairie dogs could lead to accumulation of fleas when host population is reduced as a result of the disease, enabling epizootic spread of plague among prairie dogs.

  10. Sylvatic plague reduces genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kristie M; Britten, Hugh B; Restani, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Small, isolated populations are vulnerable to loss of genetic diversity through in-breeding and genetic drift. Sylvatic plague due to infection by the bacterium Yersinia pestis caused an epizootic in the early 1990s resullting in declines and extirpations of many black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in north-central Montana, USA. Plague-induced population bottlenecks may contribute to significant reductions in genetic variability. In contrast, gene flow maintains genetic variability within colonies. We investigated the impacts of the plague epizootic and distance to nearest colony on levels of genetic variability in six prairie dog colonies sampled between June 1999 and July 2001 using 24 variable randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Number of effective alleles per locus (n(e)) and gene diversity (h) were significantly decreased in the three colonies affected by plague that were recovering from the resulting bottlenecks compared with the three colonies that did not experience plague. Genetic variability was not significantly affected by geographic distance between colonies. The majority of variance in gene fieqnencies was found within prairie clog colonies. Conservation of genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs will require the preservation of both large and small colony complexes and the gene flow amonog them.

  11. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  12. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.

  13. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélaïde Miarinjara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines. Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur. Only one insecticide (dieldrin was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  14. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar. PMID:26844772

  15. Gene flow in a Yersinia pestis vector, Oropsylla hirsuta, during a plague epizootic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Jones , Leigh R. Washburn & Hugh B. Britten

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Appreciating how Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, spreads amongblack-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus colonies (BTPD, is vital to wildlife conservation programsin North American grasslands. A little-studied aspect of the system is the role of Y. pestis vectors, i.e. fleas,play in the spreading of plague in natural settings. We investigated the genetic structure and variability of acommon prairie dog flea (Oropsylla hirsuta in BTPD colonies in order to examine dispersal patterns. Giventhat this research took place during a widespread plague epizootic, there was the added advantage of gaininginformation on the dynamics of sylvatic plague.Methods & Results: Oropsylla hirsuta were collected from BTPD burrows in nine colonies from May 2005 toJuly 2005, and eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to generate genotypic data from them.Gene flow estimates revealed low genetic differentiation among fleas sampled from different colonies. NestedPCR plague assays confirmed the presence of Y. pestis with the average Y. pestis prevalence across all ninecolonies at 12%. No significant correlations were found between the genetic variability and gene flow of O.hirsuta and Y. pestis prevalence on a per-colony basis.Conclusion: Oropsylla hirsuta dispersal among BTPD colonies was high, potentially explaining the rapidspread of Y. pestis in our study area in 2005 and 2006.

  16. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  17. Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Iams, Keith P.; Dawe, S.; Smith, S.R.; Williamson, J.L.; Heisey, D.M.; Osorio, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (RCN) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis. In order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional RCN-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrV (V) gene, including full-length (Vfull) and a truncated form (V307). Mouse challenge studies with Y. pestis strain CO92 showed that vaccination with a combination of RCN-F1 and the truncated V construct (RCN-V307) provided the greatest improvement (P = 0.01) in protection against plague over vaccination with RCN-F1 alone. This effect was mediated primarily by anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies and both contributed independently to increased survival of vaccinated mice.

  18. Electron and scanning probe microscopy study of S-layers of plague microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Djatlov, Ivan A.; Antonova, Oksana A.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-01-01

    Microscopy investigations of S-layers of plague microbes have been carried out. A protein forming S-layer was isolated, purified and its biochemical properties were studied. Images of plague cells with and without S-layer and images of isolated S-layer protein arrays on solid supports were obtained by transmission electron microscopy. An isolated protein forming the layer is self-assembled into crystalline structure with hexagonal pores are of regular size about 4 - 8 nm, which was observed by transmission electron micrographs. The STM images of plague microbes with S-layer and without one and the STM and AFM images of isolated S-layer protein arrays on mica surface were obtained.

  19. The plague of Thebes, a historical epidemic in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Androutsos, George; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Sophocles, one of the most noted playwrights of the ancient world, wrote the tragedy Oedipus Rex in the first half of the decade 430-420 bc. A lethal plague is described in this drama. We adopted a critical approach to Oedipus Rex in analyzing the literary description of the disease, unraveling its clinical features, and defining a possible underlying cause. Our goals were to clarify whether the plague described in Oedipus Rex reflects an actual historical event; to compare it with the plague of Athens, which was described by Thucydides as occurring around the same time Sophocles wrote; and to propose a likely causative pathogen. A critical reading of Oedipus Rex and a comparison with Thucydides' history, as well as a systematic review of historical data, strongly suggests that this epidemic was an actual event, possibly caused by Brucella abortus.

  20. The Plague of Thebes, a Historical Epidemic in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Konstantinos P.; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Androutsos, George; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Sophocles, one of the most noted playwrights of the ancient world, wrote the tragedy Oedipus Rex in the first half of the decade 430–420 bc. A lethal plague is described in this drama. We adopted a critical approach to Oedipus Rex in analyzing the literary description of the disease, unraveling its clinical features, and defining a possible underlying cause. Our goals were to clarify whether the plague described in Oedipus Rex reflects an actual historical event; to compare it with the plague of Athens, which was described by Thucydides as occurring around the same time Sophocles wrote; and to propose a likely causative pathogen. A critical reading of Oedipus Rex and a comparison with Thucydides’ history, as well as a systematic review of historical data, strongly suggests that this epidemic was an actual event, possibly caused by Brucella abortus. PMID:22261081

  1. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  2. Demographic and spatio-temporal variation in human plague at a persistent focus in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Makundi, R H; Machang'u, R S

    2006-01-01

    Human plague in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania has been a public health problem since the first outbreak in 1980. The wildlife reservoir is unknown and eradication measures that have proved effective elsewhere in Tanzania appear to fail in this region. We use census data from 2002...... and hospital records kept since 1986 to describe the temporal, spatial and demographic variation in human plague. A seasonal peak in cases occurs from December to February with the numbers of cases during this peak varying between 0 and 1150. Variation in incidence, calculated for each village as the mean...... number of cases per thousand inhabitants per year, indicates that human plague is concentrated around a group of three neighbouring, relatively isolated, high-altitude villages; Nywelo, Madala and Gologolo. However, there was no evidence that these villages were acting as a source of infection...

  3. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  4. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  5. 1954-2006年青海省三江源地区鼠疫及流行病学分析%A retrospective analysis of plague in Three-River Source Region of Qinghai from 1954 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克梅; 李超; 汪元忠; 罗军; 祁芝珍; 杨宁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze plague epidemic tendency in the Three-River Region of Qinghai.Methods Using retrospective study,the Three-River Region during 1954-2006 year pestis epidemic focus were investigated and analyzed.Result Pestis prevailed mainly in Yushu,Chindu,Qumalai,Nangqian,Zhiduo and the Geermu.Tanghla Township.It was first found that the nature plague focus of miefitus existed in Chengduo County.There are 1 5 kinds of 12 branches in 8 trees infected plague animals were founded,336 Yersinia pestis were separated from the driven objects.Among them there were 291 Himalayas marmot body,account for 86.60%of the total,13 of Tibet sheep,accounts for 3.87%.10 of Qinghai field-mouse,accounts for 2.98%,Also there were 114 Yersinia pestis which were separated from each kind of vector insect in vivo.And,46 pestis strains came from the axe shape of flea in vivo account for 40.35%(46/114),38 pestis strains separated from Xie mountain flea,account for 33.33% (38/114).During 1960-2006 years there were 85 human plague cases were founded,238 occurred,134 died,the case fatality rate wero 56.30%(134/238),the popular seasons were started from May to November,the peak season happened in Aug and Sep.After Oct mainly due to Tibet sheep pestis which will cause as the origin of infection.The majority of sickness was pulmonary plague,account for 49.58%(117/238),whereas the first round case caused by the gland bubonic plague,account for 77.12%(91/118).Conclusions There are two pestis strains natural epidemic focus places in Three-River Source Region of Qinghai including the Himalayas marmot pestis strain and the Qinghai field-mouse pestis strain.The case of human pestis strain causes by the marmot strain,the fiehl-mouse mold mushroom spawn causes human pestis strain has not yet discovered,Three-River Source Region of Qinghai is a pestis strain key popular area in Qinghai Province.%目的 分析三江源地区鼠疫流行动态,为鼠疫预防控制提供依据.方法

  6. 圣经中的鼠疫及纪年%Plague and Its Time in Bible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学博

    2015-01-01

    圣经记载了最早一次鼠疫流行,西方学者为此长期争论不休,主要集中在临床症状的译名、宿主动物黑鼠是否存在等,而发生鼠疫流行的年代则语焉不详。现据文献研究及考古发掘证据,试图阐释“非利士人鼠疫”的可信性,提出相对准确的纪年约为公元前1050年,并且涉及了旧约时代中东鼠疫自然疫源地及鼠疫流行史研究与鼠疫实验科学研究关系问题。%The first plague epidemic was recorded in the Bible. Western scholars debated about it for a long time, focusing mainly in the translation of clinical symptoms, the presence of host animal rattus, and so on. However, the time of plague epidemic was vague. According to the evidence of literature research and archaeological excavations, the article attempted to explain the credibility of 'Philistine plague', and proposed that the relatively accurate time of plague epidemic is 1050 BC. At the same time, the article involved in the Old Testament times' natural foci of plague in the Near East, and the relation of study of the history of the plague epidemic and experimental scientific research.

  7. Use of rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-07-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations 10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  8. Use of Rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations 10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  9. Transverse--Harris--lines in a skeletal population from the 1711 Danish plague site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Bennike, Pia; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence and distribution of transverse lines in skeletal remains from the Copenhagen site, a plague cemetery dated 1711 AD. A relatively low frequency for evidence of line formation was observed in the individuals comprising the total sample and no transverse lines were...... present in the subadult category. This paper addresses the pattern of transverse line occurrence and cohort-specific distribution in a plague sample in light of the multiple factors influencing line formation and resorption and discusses the significance of transverse lines as measures of non...

  10. Spatial analysis and identification of high risk plague regions in Pakistan based on associated rodent species distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Madiha; Aleem, Maha; Javed, Sundus; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul S; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akbar Shah; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestitis, is an infectious bacterial disease that has a high fatality rate if untreated. Rodents are plague reservoirs and play an important role in disease spread. Plague cases have been reported extensively since the second pandemic from the 14th century in countries sharing borders with Pakistan, such as China and India, as well as nearby countries including Russia and central Asia. Despite being centrally located in a plague-infested geographical zone, there has been no plague incidence reported from Pakistan. This study aims to pinpoint some of the potentially important aspects of the disease, which have to be considered when assessing potential risk associated with a plague outbreak in Pakistan. In this context, the occurrence and distribution of plague-associated rodent reservoirs in different regions of Pakistan in relation to those found in the neighboring countries were mapped. In addition, the climatic factors that may also influence disease spread by affecting the growth of the bacteria are also discussed. The combined epidemiological and ecological surveillance studies suggest a prevalence of several potential rodent carriers in certain districts with the possibility of a plague outbreak in Pakistan.

  11. Spatial distribution patterns of plague hosts : point pattern analysis of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Laudisoit, Anne; Hughes, Nelika K; Addink, Elisabeth A; de Jong, Steven M; Heesterbeek, Hans A P; Reijniers, Jonas; Eagle, Sally; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Begon, Mike

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The spatial structure of a population can strongly influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, yet rarely is the underlying structure quantified. A case in point is plague, an infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague dynamics within the Central Asian desert

  12. 西方小说中的瘟疫题材%Plague Theme in Western Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范蕊; 仵从巨

    2014-01-01

    Plague has an intimate relationship with humans:it not only affects the social process but also has a pro-found impact on people's cultural and spiritual state .The plague is an important theme of literature and many world masterpieces take plague as their background .The plague in the Middle Ages accelerated the Renaissance and the Reformation.Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron is famous for taking plague as the background .It highlights the value of the Renaissance and the inevitability of Reformation .The 18th-century Enlightenment literature described the world with objective and rational manners .British writer Daniel Defoe's novel A Journal of the Plague Year stressed this tendency .French writer Giono's novel The Horseman on the Roof and the Colombian writer Marquez's Love in the Time of Cholera put plague and love together , the love story dazzling with the plague .In the novel The Plague written by Albert Camus , the plague has a broader symbolism and different choices when people face plague is the expression of existential philosophy .%瘟疫与人类关系密切,不仅影响社会进程还影响人们的文化和精神状态。瘟疫是文学中的重要题材,不少世界名著都以瘟疫为背景,或者直接表现瘟疫。中世纪的瘟疫促进了文艺复兴和宗教改革的出现,意大利作家薄伽丘的《十日谈》就是以瘟疫为背景的名著,突出了文艺复兴时期的价值倾向和宗教改革的必然。18世纪启蒙主义文学以客观理性的态度表现世界,英国作家狄福的《大疫年纪事》则突出表达了这一倾向。法国作家吉奥诺的《屋顶上的骑兵》和哥伦比亚作家马尔克斯的《霍乱时期的爱情》则将瘟疫与爱情同置,爱情故事在瘟疫的映衬下显得光彩夺目。法国存在主义作家加缪的《鼠疫》中,瘟疫具有更广泛的象征意义,面对瘟疫的不同选择突出表达了存在主义的哲学观。

  13. Contrasted patterns of selection on MHC-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the Malagasy plague reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Tollenaere

    Full Text Available Plague (Yersinia pestis infection is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. The black rat (Rattus rattus is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of Madagascar. Black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of Madagascar are susceptible. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC in plague resistance. We therefore used the MHC region as a candidate for detecting signatures of plague-mediated selection in Malagasy black rats, by comparing population genetic structures for five MHC-linked microsatellites and neutral markers in two sampling designs. We first compared four pairs of populations, each pair including one population from the plague focus and one from the disease-free zone. Plague-mediated selection was expected to result in greater genetic differentiation between the two zones than expected under neutrality and this was observed for one MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Img2. For this marker as well as for four other MHC-linked loci, a geographic pattern of genetic structure was found at local scale within the plague focus. This pattern would be expected if plague selection pressures were spatially variable. Finally, another MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Rat21 showed evidences of balancing selection, but it seems more likely that this selection would be related to unknown pathogens more widely distributed in Madagascar than plague.

  14. Contrasted patterns of selection on MHC-linked microsatellites in natural populations of the Malagasy plague reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, Charlotte; Ivanova, Svilena; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Loiseau, Anne; Rahalison, Lila; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Brouat, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a highly virulent rodent disease that persists in many natural ecosystems. The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main host involved in the plague focus of the central highlands of Madagascar. Black rat populations from this area are highly resistant to plague, whereas those from areas in which the disease is absent (low altitude zones of Madagascar) are susceptible. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in plague resistance. We therefore used the MHC region as a candidate for detecting signatures of plague-mediated selection in Malagasy black rats, by comparing population genetic structures for five MHC-linked microsatellites and neutral markers in two sampling designs. We first compared four pairs of populations, each pair including one population from the plague focus and one from the disease-free zone. Plague-mediated selection was expected to result in greater genetic differentiation between the two zones than expected under neutrality and this was observed for one MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Img2). For this marker as well as for four other MHC-linked loci, a geographic pattern of genetic structure was found at local scale within the plague focus. This pattern would be expected if plague selection pressures were spatially variable. Finally, another MHC-class I-linked locus (D20Rat21) showed evidences of balancing selection, but it seems more likely that this selection would be related to unknown pathogens more widely distributed in Madagascar than plague.

  15. Temporal Progression of Pneumonic Plague in Blood of Nonhuman Primate: A Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available Early identification of impending illness during widespread exposure to a pathogenic agent offers a potential means to initiate treatment during a timeframe when it would be most likely to be effective and has the potential to identify novel therapeutic strategies. The latter could be critical, especially as antibiotic resistance is becoming widespread. In order to examine pre-symptomatic illness, African green monkeys were challenged intranasally with aerosolized Yersinia pestis strain CO92 and blood samples were collected in short intervals from 45 m till 42 h post-exposure. Presenting one of the first genomic investigations of a NHP model challenged by pneumonic plague, whole genome analysis was annotated in silico and validated by qPCR assay. Transcriptomic profiles of blood showed early perturbation with the number of differentially expressed genes increasing until 24 h. By then, Y. pestis had paralyzed the host defense, as suggested by the functional analyses. Early activation of the apoptotic networks possibly facilitated the pathogen to overwhelm the defense mechanisms, despite the activation of the pro-inflammatory mechanism, toll-like receptors and microtubules at the port-of-entry. The overexpressed transcripts encoding an early pro-inflammatory response particularly manifested in active lymphocytes and ubiquitin networks were a potential deviation from the rodent models, which needs further verification. In summary, the present study recognized a pattern of Y. pestis pathogenesis potentially more applicable to the human system. Independent validation using the complementary omics approach with comprehensive evaluation of the organs, such as lungs which showed early bacterial infection, is essential.

  16. [Antoine Deidier, his experimental approach to the contagious nature of plague in Marseille in 1720].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutour, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Born in 1670 Deidier became a medical doctor at the age of 21. The son-in-law, of Vieussens, he took care of the inhabitants of Marseilles during the plague of 1720. A contagionist and an experimenter, he was considered as a strange scientist by his colleagues. It is time now to rehabilitate his memory.

  17. Protecting Black-Footed Ferrets and Prairie Dogs Against Sylvatic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at other federal agencies and the University of Wisconsin, are developing and testing vaccines that can be used to protect black-footed ferrets and prairie dogs against plague. The black-footed ferret is commonly regarded as the most endangered mammal in North America, and sylvatic plague is a major impediment to its recovery. The three prairie dog species (Gunnison's, black-tailed, and white-tailed prairie dogs), upon which the ferret depends for food and whose burrows they use for shelter, have been drastically reduced from historical levels, resulting in the near extinction of the ferret. All three species are considered 'at risk' and have been petitioned for listing as 'threatened' or 'endangered' by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Additionally, the Utah prairie dog is listed as threatened and the Mexican prairie dog is considered endangered in Mexico. Like the black-footed ferret, all five prairie dog species are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Controlling plague outbreaks in prairie dogs and ferrets is a vital concern for ongoing recovery programs and conservation efforts for both species.

  18. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  19. Monitoring the plague of oriental migratory locust using multi-temporal Landsat TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenbo; Ni, Shaoxiang; Zha, Yong; Shi, Xuezheng

    2006-03-01

    Locust plague is a kind of the world-wide biological calamity to agriculture. In China's history, more than 90% of locust plagues were caused by the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). At the present time, it is difficult for monitoring and forecasting systems in this country to provide real time information of locust plague outbreak in large area. In order to adopt timely measures for prevention and control of locust outbreak, it is necessary to apply advanced remote sensing technology for monitoring and forecasting locust outbreak This paper introduces a case study on monitoring oriental migratory locust plague with remote sensing technology in 3 pilot sites, namely, Huangzao, Yangguangzhuang, and Tengnan, which were the 3 major locust damaged areas in Huanghua City, Hebei Province, China during the period of large scale oriental migratory locust breakout in 2002. In this study, locust damage intensity, areas with various damage intensities and their distribution in pilot sites are determined by means of comparison between Landsat ETM+ image of locust damaged vegetation on 31st May, 2002 and TM image of healthy vegetation before damage on 23rd May, 2002. Then, information of various locust distribution density in pilot sites is extracted by establishing the Locust Density Index (LDI).

  20. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-10-28

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.  Created: 10/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/30/2013.

  1. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-08

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ Historical Review, Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A.  Created: 5/8/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/15/2013.

  2. Ovid’s Aeginetan plague and the metamorphosis of the Georgics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the ancient literary tradition upon the Georgics is as broad as it is profound , but in Virgil’s highly allusive didactic poem, the description of the Noric cattle plague at the end of Georgics 3 holds a unique position. As R.F. THOMAS comments, "nowhere else does Virgil draw so dee

  3. REINTRODUCTION OF NOBLE CRAYFISH ASTACUS ASTACUS AFTER CRAYFISH PLAGUE IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAUGBØL T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glomma and Halden watercourses in Norway were hit by crayfish plague in 1987 and 1989. Reintroduction of the noble crayfish started in 1989 in the Glomma and in 1995 in the Halden watercourse. Norway has especially good conditions for reintroduction of the native crayfish after crayfish plague, as there is no alien plague-carrying crayfish species in the country. In the Glomma watercourse, approx. 15 000 adult crayfish and 10 000 juveniles have been stocked while in the Halden watercourse the figures are 19 000 adults and 26 500 juveniles. All stocking sites were previously regarded as very good crayfish localities. Four years after stocking, natural recruitment was recorded at all adult crayfish stocking sites in the Glomma watercourse and at most sites in the Halden watercourse. Current crayfish density is, however, much lower than pre-plague densities even at the sites where population development has been in progress for more than 10 years. Extensive post-stocking movements were recorded among adult crayfish. Some sites seemed more suitable for settling, resulting in a great variation in CPUE between the different test-fishing sites. Juveniles seem more appropriate as stocking material if the goal is to re-establish a population in a particular area, due to their stationary behaviour, which seems to remain as they grow larger.

  4. The Vague Plague -The continual innovation and spread of BPR and IT in Enterprise Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1998-01-01

    The empirical point of departure of this article is the erosion of enterprise boundaries, which create new conditions for enterprise actors, i.e. they are to an increasing extent forced to operate in networks. They are confronted with a number of unstable and developing change drivers. The focus ...... as a "plague" like SAP R/3, are actually reshaped by the enterprises....

  5. Remote sensing for landscape epidemiology : spatial analysis of plague hosts in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, L.I.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of hosts is a crucial aspect for the understanding of infectious disease dynamics. In Kazakhstan, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the main host for plague (Yersinia pestis infection) and poses a public health threat, yet their spatial distribution is unknown. Great ge

  6. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, D.J.; Matchett, M.R.; Toombs, T.P.; Cully, J.F.; Johnson, T.L.; Sidle, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a key component of the disturbance regime in semi-arid grasslands of central North America. Many studies have compared community and ecosystem characteristics on prairie dog colonies to grasslands without prairie dogs, but little is known about landscape-scale patterns of disturbance that prairie dog colony complexes may impose on grasslands over long time periods. We examined spatiotemporal dynamics in two prairie dog colony complexes in southeastern Colorado (Comanche) and northcentral Montana (Phillips County) that have been strongly influenced by plague, and compared them to a complex unaffected by plague in northwestern Nebraska (Oglala). Both plague-affected complexes exhibited substantial spatiotemporal variability in the area occupied during a decade, in contrast to the stability of colonies in the Oglala complex. However, the plague-affected complexes differed in spatial patterns of colony movement. Colonies in the Comanche complex in shortgrass steppe shifted locations over a decade. Only 10% of the area occupied in 1995 was still occupied by prairie dogs in 2006. In 2005 and 2006 respectively, 74 and 83% of the total area of the Comanche complex occurred in locations that were not occupied in 1995, and only 1% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. In contrast, prairie dogs in the Phillips County complex in mixed-grass prairie and sagebrush steppe primarily recolonized previously occupied areas after plague-induced colony declines. In Phillips County, 62% of the area occupied in 1993 was also occupied by prairie dogs in 2004, and 12% of the complex was occupied continuously over a decade. Our results indicate that plague accelerates spatiotemporal movement of prairie dog colonies, and have significant implications for landscape-scale effects of prairie dog disturbance on grassland composition and productivity. These findings highlight the need to combine landscape-scale measures of

  8. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: a role in foci persistence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after

  9. Exposure of small rodents to plague during epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-07-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies.

  10. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Harbeck

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th and 20(th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th-17(th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th-8(th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  11. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  12. Specialists in the South of the Five Ridges LUO Zhi-yuan Exactly Using Differentiation of Syndrome According to Triple-Jiao to Treat Bubonic Plague%岭南医家罗芝园活用三焦辨证辨治鼠疫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永宸; 赖文

    2007-01-01

    岭南医家罗芝园认为鼠疫起病二三日内为上焦证,六日以前为中焦证,至七日则入下焦;鼠疫上焦证最为复杂,上焦证亦有重症、危症和至危症.总结出鼠疫中焦六症,即"大热大渴,舌黑起刺,腹胀腹痛,大便结而谵语,热结旁流,体厥脉厥"和中焦四症,即"痛、胀、结、流";存津液是辨治鼠疫下焦证的关键.

  13. Specialists in the South of the Five Ridges Exactly Using Wang Qingren' Decoction of Detoxification and Promoting Blood Flow to Treat Bubonic Plague%岭南医家活用王清任解毒活血汤治疗鼠疫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永宸; 赖文

    2006-01-01

    岭南医家认为鼠疫的病因病机是热毒迫血成瘀,治疗上以解血毒、清血热、活血瘀为主,方用王清任的解毒活血汤加减.桃仁、红花等活血化瘀药是此方的君药;使用清热护心之犀角、羚羊角、藏红花,使毒不攻心,尤为关键.此方须大剂量急迫多服方能取效,其贵在据症加减.并发现了部分治疗鼠疫有特效的犀角、羚羊角、藏红花等贵重药材的替代品.

  14. Advances on study of plague indicator animals in the plague nature foci in China%鼠疫自然疫源地鼠疫指示动物研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治宇; 张志霞; 刘海翔; 杨建明; 王海峰; 杨顺林; 史献明; 杜国义

    2016-01-01

    鼠疫是一种以啮齿类动物为主要宿主的自然疫源性疾病。目前发现可自然感染鼠疫耶尔森菌(鼠疫菌)的动物有223种。鼠疫指示动物是指在自然界中可自然感染鼠疫菌,对其具有低敏感性、高抗性的动物,该类动物在鼠疫菌的保存和传播中有重要作用。通过对高抗动物的调查和研究,为早期发现和追踪疫情提供科学依据。%Plague is an enzootic infectious disease. The rodent animals are primary reservoir hosts of plague. There are 223 kinds of animal which have been found to be infected with plague in nature. Plague⁃tolerant animals which can be naturally infected with plague without symptoms serve as plague⁃indicators. These animals also play a very important role in the spread of the plague. The research of plague⁃indicating animals was reviewed in this paper which provides scientific basis for plague prevention and control in China.

  15. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.

  16. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined.

  17. The effects of plague on the distribution of property: Ivrea, Northern Italy 1630.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, Guido

    2010-03-01

    The demographic effects of the epidemics of plague in Early Modern Europe and their economic consequences illuminate the evolution of property structures and of wealth distribution during and after a mortality crisis. An analysis of the high-quality data available for the Italian city of Ivrea at the time of the 1630 plague shows the exceptional resilience of property structures. Like the social structures of the period, property structures were able to recover quickly, informed as they were by the lessons learnt by trial and error by the patrician families of the late Middle Ages, whose patrimonies had been badly damaged by the Black Death. In a period of recurrent catastrophes that struck European populations during the Old Demographic Regime, apparently 'inegalitarian' institutions seem to have had long-term 'egalitarian' effects.

  18. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9% samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7% samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. CONCLUSIONS: These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  19. A survey of North American migratory waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christopher J.; Docherty, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of migratory waterfowl for duck plague (DP) virus was conducted in the Mississippi and Central flyways during 1982 and in the Atlantic and Pacific flyways during 1983. Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 3,169 migratory waterfowl in these four flyways, principally mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.), black ducks (Anas rubripes Brewster), and pintails (Anas acuta L). In addition 1,033 birds were sampled from areas of recurrent DP outbreaks among nonmigratory and captive waterfowl, and 590 from Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge, the site of the only known major DP outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Duck plague virus was not found in any of the samples. Results support the hypothesis that DP is not established in North American migratory waterfowl as an enzootic disease.

  20. Early host cell targets of Yersinia pestis during primary pneumonic plague.

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    Roger D Pechous

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Yersinia pestis causes primary pneumonic plague, a highly lethal syndrome with mortality rates approaching 100%. Pneumonic plague progression is biphasic, with an initial pre-inflammatory phase facilitating bacterial growth in the absence of host inflammation, followed by a pro-inflammatory phase marked by extensive neutrophil influx, an inflammatory cytokine storm, and severe tissue destruction. Using a FRET-based probe to quantitate injection of effector proteins by the Y. pestis type III secretion system, we show that these bacteria target alveolar macrophages early during infection of mice, followed by a switch in host cell preference to neutrophils. We also demonstrate that neutrophil influx is unable to limit bacterial growth in the lung and is ultimately responsible for the severe inflammation during the lethal pro-inflammatory phase.

  1. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China

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    Pengfei Ge

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  2. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  3. [The black rat (Rattus rattus) and the plague in ancient and medieval western Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoin-Rouzeau, F

    1999-12-01

    The first time plague affected Western Europe was in the early Middle Ages: rom 541 to 767, there were no fewer than 15 outbreaks in southern parts of the continent. Plague then disappeared from Europe for some seven centuries but came back with a vengeance in 1347, this time by way of the Mediterranean, and ravaged the entire continent for five years, resulting in a serious demographic depression. From then on until 1722 (and 1771 in Moscow), the disease remained endemic to Europe, periodically undermining its economy. These epidemics were major determinants of medieval history, but their study has not been completed to this day. It was not until the 1970s that archeo-zoologists finally discovered that the black rat had indeed been present in Europe since Roman times. Further extensive research revealed that the rat population had gradually grown from a fairly restricted one in the early Middle Ages to a significant one in the 11th and 13th centuries. The rodents spread along the major highways explaining the very different geographical impact of the various plague epidemics of the early and late medieval periods. However, the mystery of the exact mechanisms by which plague spread has still not been entirely elucidated, since the Asian rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, whose role as vector was demonstrated by P. L. Simond, could not have survived in the temperate European climate. Thus, the question of the European vector is still left hanging: was it a human or a rat flea? Was the rat a propagator or simply an initiator? This article considers these unresolved questions by re-examining P. L. Simond's very precise observations.

  4. SAP R/3 An IT-plague or the answer to the Tailors dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The IT-market of ERP-systems have significantly changed over the last 10 years. At least in Denmark manufacturing enterprises used to close "partner like" collaboration with their IT-supplier, now face mass produced packaged software. This challenges the skills of technology managers, can they co...... with the IT-plague, do they suffer from the "power of default",i.e. the use of standard settings of parameters?- or can they tailor anything to anybody?...

  5. Immuno-PCR--a new tool for paleomicrobiology: the plague paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Malou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cause of past plague pandemics was controversial but several research teams used PCR techniques and dental pulp as the primary material to reveal that they were caused by Yersinia pestis. However, the degradation of DNA limits the ability to detect ancient infections. METHODS: We used for the first time immuno-PCR to detect Yersinia pestis antigens; it can detect protein concentrations 70 times lower than the standard ELISA. After determining the cut-off value, we tested 34 teeth that were obtained from mass graves of plague, and compared previous PCR results with ELISA and immuno-PCR results. RESULTS: The immuno-PCR technique was the most sensitive (14 out of 34 followed by the PCR technique (10 out of 34 and ELISA (3 out of 34. The combination of these three methods identified 18 out of 34 (53% teeth as presumably being from people with the plague. CONCLUSION: Immuno-PCR is specific (no false-positive samples were found and more sensitive than the currently used method to detect antigens of ancient infections in dental pulp. The combination of three methods, ELISA, PCR and immuno-PCR, increased the capacity to identify ancient pathogens in dental pulp.

  6. Immuno-PCR - A New Tool for Paleomicrobiology: The Plague Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappez, Claude; Signoli, Michel; Le Forestier, Cyrille; Castex, Dominique; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background The cause of past plague pandemics was controversial but several research teams used PCR techniques and dental pulp as the primary material to reveal that they were caused by Yersinia pestis. However, the degradation of DNA limits the ability to detect ancient infections. Methods We used for the first time immuno-PCR to detect Yersinia pestis antigens; it can detect protein concentrations 70 times lower than the standard ELISA. After determining the cut-off value, we tested 34 teeth that were obtained from mass graves of plague, and compared previous PCR results with ELISA and immuno-PCR results. Results The immuno-PCR technique was the most sensitive (14 out of 34) followed by the PCR technique (10 out of 34) and ELISA (3 out of 34). The combination of these three methods identified 18 out of 34 (53%) teeth as presumably being from people with the plague. Conclusion Immuno-PCR is specific (no false-positive samples were found) and more sensitive than the currently used method to detect antigens of ancient infections in dental pulp. The combination of three methods, ELISA, PCR and immuno-PCR, increased the capacity to identify ancient pathogens in dental pulp. PMID:22347507

  7. Multiple mechanisms of transmission of the Caribbean coral disease white plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, E.; Brandt, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    White plague is one of the most devastating coral diseases in the Caribbean, and yet important aspects of its epidemiology, including how the disease transmits, remain unknown. This study tested potential mechanisms and rates of transmission of white plague in a laboratory setting. Transmission mechanisms including the transport of water, contact with macroalgae, and predation via corallivorous worms and snails were tested on the host species Orbicella annularis. Two of the tested mechanisms were shown to transmit disease: water transport and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. Between these transmission mechanisms, transport of water between a diseased coral and a healthy coral resulted in disease incidence significantly more frequently in exposed healthy corals. Transmission via water transport also occurred more quickly and was associated with higher rates of tissue loss (up to 3.5 cm d-1) than with the corallivorous snail treatment. In addition, water that was in contact with diseased corals but was filtered with a 0.22-μm filter prior to being introduced to apparently healthy corals also resulted in the transmission of disease signs, but at a much lower rate than when water was not filtered. This study has provided important information on the transmission potential of Caribbean white plague disease and highlights the need for a greater understanding of how these processes operate in the natural environment.

  8. Unreliability and the Animal Narrator in Richard Adams’s The Plague Dogs

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    Anja Höing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard Adams’s talking animal story The Plague Dogs (1978, with its deeply genre-atypical mode of narration, offers a multiplicity of avenues to explore the literary animal as animal. The story draws much of its power from the psychological complexity and related unreliability of both canine narrators, two research lab escapees gone feral. Both the terrier Snitter and the black mongrel Rowf are mentally ill and experience a highly subjective, part-fantastic world. In episodes of zero focalization, a sarcastic voice comments on the plot from the off, aggressively attacking a thoroughly anthropocentric superstructure the protagonists themselves are oblivious of, and presenting all that is normally constructed as “rational” in the implied reader’s world as a carnivalesque farce. Combining these equally unreliable narratives, The Plague Dogs creates a unique mixture of what Phelan (2007 calls “estranging” and “bonding” unreliability and brings to light the devastating consequences of anthropocentrism. The Plague Dogs not only defamiliarizes a genre usually committed to conventional means of storytelling, but the dominant Western conception of the status of animals in the world, showing that once we start to read the animal as animal, this sets into motion an avalanche of other concepts in need of re-reading, among them the very ones making up the fundamental pillars of Western societies’ anthropocentric self-conception.

  9. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A; Russell, Robin E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2014-04-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  10. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites.

  11. A rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Hudak, Robert; Mondesire, Roy; Baeten, Laurie A.; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2014-01-01

    Plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. The most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to Yersinia pestis F1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (Canis latrans). Current serologic tests for Y. pestis, hemagglutination (HA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are expensive and labor intensive. To address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow device for the detection of specific antibodies to Y. pestis F1 and V antigens. Our test detected anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies in serum and Nobuto filter paper samples from coyotes, and in serum samples from prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). Comparison of cassette results for anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies with results of ELISA or HA tests showed correlations ranging from 0.68 to 0.98. This device provides an affordable, user-friendly tool that may be useful in plague surveillance programs and as a research tool.

  12. Controlling Ebola: what we can learn from China's 1911 battle against the pneumonic plague in Manchuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The pneumonic plague, which spread across Northeast China during the winter of 1910 and spring of 1911, caused numerous deaths and brought about severe social turmoil. After compulsory quarantine and other epidemic prevention measures were enforced by Dr Wu Lien-teh, the epidemic was brought to an end within 4 months. This article reviews the ways in which the plague was dealt with from a historical perspective, based on factors such as clinical manifestations, duration of illness, case fatality rate, degree of transmissibility, poverty, inadequate healthcare infrastructure, and the region's recent strife-filled history. Similarities were sought between the pneumonic plague in Northeast China in the twentieth century and the Ebola virus outbreak that is currently ravaging Africa, and an effort made to summarize the ways in which specific measures were applied successfully to fight the earlier epidemic. Our efforts highlight valuable experiences that are of potential benefit in helping to fight the current rampant Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  13. Impact of the Pla protease substrate α2-antiplasmin on the progression of primary pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Justin L; Schroeder, Jay A; Zimbler, Daniel L; Bellows, Lauren E; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-12-01

    Many pathogens usurp the host hemostatic system during infection to promote pathogenesis. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, expresses the plasminogen activator protease Pla, which has been shown in vitro to target and cleave multiple proteins within the fibrinolytic pathway, including the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (A2AP). It is not known, however, if Pla inactivates A2AP in vivo; the role of A2AP during respiratory Y. pestis infection is not known either. Here, we show that Y. pestis does not appreciably cleave A2AP in a Pla-dependent manner in the lungs during experimental pneumonic plague. Furthermore, following intranasal infection with Y. pestis, A2AP-deficient mice exhibit no difference in survival time, bacterial burden in the lungs, or dissemination from wild-type mice. Instead, we found that in the absence of Pla, A2AP contributes to the control of the pulmonary inflammatory response during infection by reducing neutrophil recruitment and cytokine production, resulting in altered immunopathology of the lungs compared to A2AP-deficient mice. Thus, our data demonstrate that A2AP is not significantly affected by the Pla protease during pneumonic plague, and although A2AP participates in immune modulation in the lungs, it has limited impact on the course or ultimate outcome of the infection.

  14. First evidence of crayfish plague agent in populations of the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis

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    Keller N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-indigenous species and associated diseases can cause declines in indigenous flora and fauna and threaten local biodiversity. The crayfish plague pathogen (Aphanomyces astaci, carried and transmitted by latent infected North American crayfish, can lead to high mortalities in indigenous European crayfish populations. Although the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870  forma virginalis is common in the aquarium trade and has established wild populations in Europe, its carrier status is still unknown. This study investigated one captive and three established wild-living marbled crayfish populations for an infection with the crayfish plague pathogen applying real-time PCR. We demonstrate that captive, as well as two wild marbled crayfish populations were infected by A. astaci. Although infection status in laboratory kept specimens reached high levels, marbled crayfish showed no obviously plague-related mortality. Furthermore, sequence analysis revealed that captive crayfish carried the A. astaci genotype Pc, which has earlier been isolated from the North American red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii. The results indicate that due to its positive carrier status marbled crayfish poses a greater threat to local biodiversity in Europe than considered until now.

  15. Age at vaccination may influence response to sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) have been considered at greater risk from Yersinia pestis (plague) infection in the montane portion of their range compared to populations at lower elevations, possibly due to factors related to flea transmission of the bacteria or greater host susceptibility. To test the latter hypothesis and determine whether vaccination against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) improved survival, we captured prairie dogs from a C. g. gunnisoni or “montane” population and a C. g. zuniensis or “prairie” population for vaccine efficacy and challenge studies. No differences (P = 0.63) were found in plague susceptibility in non-vaccinated animals between these two populations; however, vaccinates from the prairie population survived plague challenge at significantly higher rates (P dogs, and that SPV could be a useful plague management tool for this species, particularly if targeted at younger cohorts.

  16. Plague circulation and population genetics of the reservoir Rattus rattus: the influence of topographic relief on the distribution of the disease within the Madagascan focus.

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    Carine Brouat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Landscape may affect the distribution of infectious diseases by influencing the population density and dispersal of hosts and vectors. Plague (Yersinia pestis infection is a highly virulent, re-emerging disease, the ecology of which has been scarcely studied in Africa. Human seroprevalence data for the major plague focus of Madagascar suggest that plague spreads heterogeneously across the landscape as a function of the relief. Plague is primarily a disease of rodents. We therefore investigated the relationship between disease distribution and the population genetic structure of the black rat, Rattus rattus, the main reservoir of plague in Madagascar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a comparative study of plague seroprevalence and genetic structure (15 microsatellite markers in rat populations from four geographic areas differing in topology, each covering about 150-200 km(2 within the Madagascan plague focus. The seroprevalence levels in the rat populations mimicked those previously reported for humans. As expected, rat populations clearly displayed a more marked genetic structure with increasing relief. However, the relationship between seroprevalence data and genetic structure differs between areas, suggesting that plague distribution is not related everywhere to the effective dispersal of rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genetic diversity estimates suggested that plague epizootics had only a weak impact on rat population sizes. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague dissemination cannot be accounted for solely by the effective dispersal of the reservoir. Human social activities may also be involved in spreading the disease in rat and human populations.

  17. The plagues of Egypt: what killed the animals and the firstborn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, H M

    1993-05-17

    The Book of Exodus, various translations, chapters 7 to 12--The plagues: 1. The river Nile turned the colour of blood, the water stank and the fish died 2. Hordes of frogs left the river, then they died and their bodies stank 3. Swarms of gnats attacked the people and their animals 4. Swarms of flies then did the same 5. An epidemic disease killed many farm animals 6. Boils and skin sores broke out on the people and their animals 7. A violent hail storm ruined the crops 8. A swarm of locusts ate what was left of them 9. Darkness blanketed the country for three days 10. The eldest child in each family died suddenly, and so did the first born animals. THE PERIOD: Uncertain, but deduced to be about 1470 BC. THE PEOPLE: The Egyptians, a population of about 2.5 million, about one million living in the Nile delta at an average density of about 90 people per km2 of cultivated land, and the Israelites, working as slave-labourers and quartered in the land of Goshen, a relatively small area probably near the margin of the north-east part of the Nile delta. THE PROTAGONISTS: Thutmosis III, Pharoah of Egypt, and Moses, leader of the Israelites. THE PLACE: The encounters between Thutmosis and Moses occurred just before each of the plagues, in or close to the Pharoah's palace. Given Moses' location, this must have been the palace at Memphis, the old capital, near the southern apex or beginning of the delta, not the one at Thebes, 600 km further to the south along the river. The Israelites' perception of the geographical extent of the plagues was therefore limited to what happened in the delta. The statements that plagues 1, 2, 3 and 8 affected "all the land of Egypt" should be interpreted as: all of the Nile delta including the land of Goshen. The other plagues affected parts neighbouring on, but not including, the land of Goshen.

  18. Current status and prospects of research on new plague vaccines%新型鼠疫疫苗研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊

    2011-01-01

    As current available attenuated plague vaccine for human has some disadvantages in terms of product consistency, inoculating convenience, adverse reactions and protection against pneumonic plague,new plague vaccine research is promoted. In this review, potential candidate antigens for plague vaccines and immiunity against plague, as well as current status, obstacles and prospects of new plague vaccine research are discussed.%现行人用鼠疫活疫苗在产品的一致性、易操作性、不良反应以及对肺鼠疫的预防等方面均存在不足,这就促进了新型鼠疫疫苗的研究.此文从鼠疫疫苗潜在候选抗原、抗鼠疫免疫及新型鼠疫疫苗研究现状、障碍和展望等方面进行综述.

  19. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  20. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  1. PRECIPITATION, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND PARASITISM OF PRAIRIE DOGS BY FLEAS THAT TRANSMIT PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David; Hoogland, John

    2017-03-30

    Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are hematophagous ectoparasites that can reduce the fitness of vertebrate hosts. Laboratory populations of fleas decline under dry conditions, implying that populations of fleas will also decline when precipitation is scarce under natural conditions. If precipitation and hence vegetative production are reduced, however, then herbivorous hosts might suffer declines in body condition and have weakened defenses against fleas, so that fleas will increase in abundance. We tested these competing hypotheses using information from 23 yr of research on 3 species of colonial prairie dogs in western USA: Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni, 1989-1994), Utah prairie dogs (C. parvidens, 1996-2005), and white-tailed prairie dogs (C. leucurus, 2006-2012). For all 3 species, flea-counts per individual varied inversely with the number of days in the prior growing season with >10 mm of precipitation, an index of the number of precipitation events that might have caused a substantial, prolonged increase in soil moisture and vegetative production. Flea-counts per Utah prairie dog also varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the prior growing season. Further, flea-counts per Gunnison's and white-tailed prairie dog varied inversely with cumulative precipitation of the just-completed January and February. These results complement research on black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus) and might have important ramifications for plague, a bacterial disease, transmitted by fleas, that devastates populations of prairie dogs. In particular, our results might help to explain why, at some colonies, epizootics of plague, which can kill >95% of prairie dogs, are more likely to occur during or shortly after periods of reduced precipitation. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of droughts in the grasslands of western North America. If so, then climate change might affect the occurrence of plague epizootics among prairie dogs and other

  2. Backcalculation of the disease-age specific frequency of sec-ondary transmission of primary pneumonic plague

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to assess the frequency of secondary transmissions of primary pneumonic plague relative to the onset of fever.A simple backcalculation method was employed to estimate the frequency of sec-ondary transmissions relative to disease-age.A likelihood-based procedure was taken using observed distribu-tions of the serial interval (n = 177)and incubation period (n = 126).Furthermore,an extended model was developed to account for the survival probability of cases.The simple backcalculation suggested that 31. 0% (95% confidence intervals (CI):11.6,50.4)and 28.0 % (95% CI:10.2,45.8)of the total number of secondary transmissions had occurred at second and third days of the disease,respectively,and more than four-fifths of the secondary transmission occurred before the end of third day of disease.The survivorship-ad-justed frequency of secondary transmissions was obtained,demonstrating that the infectiousness in later stages of illness was not insignificant and indicates that the obtained frequencies were likely biased on underlying fac-tors including isolation measures.In conclusion,the simple exercise suggests a need to implement countermeas-ures during pre-clinical stage or immediately after onset.Further information is needed to elucidate the finer details of the disease-age specific infectiousness.

  3. Early modern "citation index"? Medical authorities in academic treatises on plague (1480-1725).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, K

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index). For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc.) are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern) are linked together, and "generic authorities" are explained and discussed.

  4. [Plague in Algeria: about five strains of Yersinia pestis isolated during the outbreak of June 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounici, M; Lazri, M; Rahal, K

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we isolated and identified five strains of Yersinia pestis during an epidemic occurred in west of Algeria in June 2003. The bacteriological identification was confirmed by bacteriophage susceptibility. All these strains belonged to the biovar Orientalis (they did not ferment glycerol but did reduce nitrate to nitrite) which caused the current pandemic. The in vitro activities of antimicrobial agents used to treat plague and recommended for prophylaxis, showed that they are active against all strains. The comparison of these strains by plasmid profile analyse demonstrated that all isolates had three plasmids: 110, 70 and 9.5 kb, which are present in Y. pestis strains.

  5. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  6. Use of Insecticide Delivery Tubes for Controlling Rodent-Associated Fleas in a Plague Endemic Region of West Nile, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegler, Karen A; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph Tendo; Clark, Rebecca J; Delorey, Mark J; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2014-11-01

    Plague is a primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis that is often fatal in humans. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda where affordable means for the prevention of human plague are currently lacking. Traditional hut construction and food storage practices hinder rodent exclusion efforts, and emphasize the need for an inexpensive but effective host-targeted approach for controlling fleas within the domestic environment. Here we demonstrate the ability of an insecticide delivery tube that is made from inexpensive locally available materials to reduce fleas on domestic rodents. Unbaited tubes were treated with either an insecticide alone (fipronil) or in conjunction with an insect growth regulator [(S)-methoprene], and placed along natural rodent runways within participant huts. Performance was similar for both treatments throughout the course of the study, and showed significant reductions in the proportion of infested rodents relative to controls for at least 100 d posttreatment.

  7. Black plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1997-01-01

    Many African-Americans are reluctant to participate in clinical trials of any type, citing the Federal government's unethical syphilis experiments in the Tuskegee Study. African-Americans are also more predisposed to choose alternative treatments over mainstream therapies. These attitudes contribute to the rise in infection rates in this population that now accounts for 41 percent of all reported cases. It is essential that African-Americans participate in HIV research at every level.

  8. The Venetian lazarettos of Candia and the Great Plague (1592 - 1595).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Thalassinou, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Tsakris, Athanasios; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2014-03-01

    The present study highlights the history of lazarettos in Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete, Greece), which was the most important Venetian possession in the Mediterranean at the time, while at the same time it recounts the terrible plague which went down in history as the Great Plague of Candia (1592-1595). The study will also attempt to give a satisfactory answer to the epidemiological questions raised by the worst epidemic that Crete had experienced since the era of the Black Death in the 14th century. The city was about to lose more than a half of its population (51.3%), although it was saved from complete annihilation by the composure, courage and inventiveness of its Venetian commander, Filippo Pasqualigo, whose report to the Venetian Senate makes an invaluable source of information regarding the events of this dramatic period. Candia would also witness the emergence of typical human reactions in cases of epidemics and mass deaths, such as running away along with the feeling of self-preservation, dissolute life and ephemeral pleasures, as well as lawlessness and criminality. The lazaretto proved inefficient in the face of a disaster of such scale, whereas the epidemic functioned as a "crash-test" for the Venetian health system. Eventually, in an era when the microbial nature of the disease was unknown, it seems that it was practically impossible to handle emergency situations of large-scale epidemics successfully, despite strict laws and well-organized precautionary health systems.

  9. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-09-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  10. Perinatal exposure to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene have an increa...

  11. Plague control in Kangbao county in 2001 -2010%2001-2010年康保县鼠疫防治情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁智波; 刘凤春; 吕少军; 闫东; 王治宇; 高文林; 王晓泓; 宋明; 杨建民; 是艾

    2012-01-01

    分析2001 -2010年康保县鼠疫监测资料及鼠疫防治情况,提出了预防控制对策.动物间鼠疫疫情活跃,坚持以鼠疫常规监测,宣传教育,灭鼠灭蚤,区域联防为主的综合防治是预防控制鼠疫的主要措施.%To analyze the plague controlling data and epidemiological characteristics in Kangbao county from 2001 to 2010,and provide the strategy for plague prevention and control. The plague among the animal is active, in order to control and prevent the plague ,the main continuous general measures such as plague monitoring, rat and flea eradication, educational difusion and provincial joint defense must be insisted on.

  12. THE MYTHE NOVEL PLAGUE OF ALBERT CAMUS, ITS INSPIRATION SOURCES AND ITS EVOCATIVE SYMBOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat BOYACIOĞLU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In different periods, some writers made new comments on the antique classics mhytes by readapting them in accordance with the their period. In the XVIIth the french classic playwriters such as Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine took up again the antique myths treated by the antique writers. These playwriters readapted the antique myths in their works according to the conception of their period. In the XXth the french writers such as Jean Giraudoux, André Gide, Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus interpreted again the antique mythes in their works by making evocations to the events occured in their epoch. Treating and displaying the antique mythes in the theater works is a well known fact, but it is an uncommon fact in the novels. The russian novelist Dostoïevsky, the czeche Franz Kafka, the american novelists Herman Melville and William Faulkner interpreted again some mythes under different aspects in their novels. This style of myth roman caused that the american critic Stock asked the following question: Is it possible to reconcile the symbolism and the naturalism, what is the principal and formal problem? The myth roman gives answer to the question : Do the realism and naturalism giving importance the exterior appearance of the matter and things and the symbolism giving importance to the the invisible aspect of the matter and things come together in the same plane? The novel of Albert Camus, The Plague (La Peste containing both realist –naturalist and symbolist elements constitutes an typical exemple of this myth roman. In this novel, Camus relates how the epidemic disease pestilence not occured in reality according to the historical documents, but fabricated fictively by the writer, besieges the algerian city Oran and causes a chaotic situation to the inhabitants as the enemy army did, in a given date, this is to say, in1940’s and a given space. This pestilence event as epidemic disease evokes symbolically the occupation of France by the

  13. Angels with Nanotech Wings: Magic, Medicine and Technology in Aronofksky's The Fountain, Gibson's The Neuromancer and Slonczewski's Brain Plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Darren Aronofsky's feature film The Fountain (2006), William Gibson's celebrated novel The Neuromancer (1984)and Joan Slonczewski'ls best-seller Brain Plague (2000), all have in common a preoccupation with the neuroscientific secrets of the brain. But more than this, all these works that explore the

  14. Possible vector dissemination by swift foxes following a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Brady K; Butler, Matthew J; Pence, Danny B; Alexander, James L; Nissen, Janet B; Ballard, Warren B; Nicholson, Kerry L

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea Pulex irritans. Black-tailed prairie dogs examined from the study area harbored only Pulex simulans and Oropsylla hirsuta. Although P. irritans was most common, P. simulans and O. hirsuta were collected from six swift foxes and a single coyote (Canis latrans) following the plague epizootic. Thus, both of these canids could act as transport hosts (at least temporarily) of prairie dog fleas following the loss of their normal hosts during a plague die-off. All six adult swift foxes tested positive for antibodies to Y. pestis. All 107 fleas from swift foxes tested negative for Y. pestis by mouse inoculation. Although swift foxes could potentially carry Y. pestis to un-infected prairie dog colonies, we believe they play only a minor role in plague epidemiology, considering that they harbored just a few uninfected prairie dog fleas (P. simulans and O. hirsuta).

  15. Vaccination as a potential means to prevent plague in black-footed ferrets:progress and continuing challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Nol, P.; Marinari, P.E.; Kreeger, J.S.; Smith, S.R.; Andrews, G.P.; Friedlander, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to further assess the feasibility of vaccinating black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). On days 0 and 28, 17 postreproductive ferrets were immunized by subcutaneous injection with a recombinant fusion protein containing F1 and V antigens from Y. pestis. Another 17 animals

  16. Consumption of baits containing raccoon pox-based plague vaccines protects black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Pussini, Nicola; Smith, Susan R; Williamson, Judy; Powell, Bradford; Osorio, Jorge E

    2010-01-01

    Baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expressing plague antigens (fraction 1 [F1] and a truncated form of the V protein-V307) were offered for voluntary consumption several times over the course of several months to a group of 16 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). For comparison, another group of prairie dogs (n = 12) was injected subcutaneously (SC) (prime and boost) with 40 microg of F1-V fusion protein absorbed to alum, a vaccine-adjuvant combination demonstrated to elicit immunity to plague in mice and other mammals. Control animals received baits containing RCN without the inserted antigen (n = 8) or injected diluent (n = 7), and as there was no difference in their survival rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis, all of them were combined into one group in the final analysis. Mean antibody titers to Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigen increased (p plague vaccines provides significant protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous flea bites.

  17. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  18. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. History of the Ming Dynasty Plague Disaster%明代瘟疫灾害史论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱云飞

    2011-01-01

    在中国古代历史上,明代是我国瘟疫危害比较严重的一个时期,其间发生的瘟疫次数及危害在古代时期仅次于清朝,这一时期的瘟疫灾害在时间和地理分布上呈现一定的规律性,当时的人们在同瘟疫斗争的过程中也摸索很多有益的经验,尽其所能地减轻瘟疫造成的危害.%In ancient history, the Ming Dynasty was against a more serious epidemic in our country for a period, during which the frequency and hazards plague occurred in ancient times after the Qing Dynasty, the plague of disasters during this period of time and geographical distribution showed some regularity. People at that time in the course of the struggle with the plague also explored a lot of useful experience,did everything possible to reduce the harm caused by the plague.

  20. Comprehensive evaluation method and plague control and prevention%综合评价方法与鼠疫防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏荣杰; 王祖郧

    2014-01-01

    现代综合评价方法在医学实践中得到了广泛应用并取得了理想的效果,但在鼠疫防治领域,综合评价方法的使用尚不多见。挖掘鼠疫防治资源信息、选用适宜的综合评价方法对鼠疫防治工作进行综合评价,将有助于提高鼠疫防治工作效率,能够为进一步改进鼠疫防治工作模式、选用科学的防治策略和措施提供可靠依据。%Methods of modern comprehensive evaluation are seldom used in the field of plague control and prevention, which are used in the medicine widely and the ideal results was obtained. It will be useful to improve the plague con-trol and prevention then to provide the reliable reference for the modification of plague control and prevention by com-prehensive evaluating with the suitable method and plague information.

  1. Temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus: isolation and genetic characterization. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, J.W.; McGeoch, D.; Barry, R.D.

    1979-01-30

    Forty-nine temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus (FPV) strain Rostock and four ts mutants of FPV-strain Dobson were isolated by utilizing two methods of plaque screening, after either spontaneous or chemically induced mutagenesis. Twenty-nine of the FPV-Rostock mutants were further characterized by genetic recombination studies and were found to fall into six high frequency recombination groups. The genome segment carrying the ts mutation in each group was identified by analyzing the gene composition of ts/sup +/ recombinants generated from crosses between representatives of each group and ts mutants of FPV-Dobson. It was concluded that the six groups correspond to mutations in six different genome segments, namely, those coding for the P/sub 1/, P/sub 2/, P/sub 3/, HA, NP, and NS proteins.

  2. The use of polyvinyl alcohol glutaraldehyde as solid-phase in ELISA for plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureci Maria Araujo

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Discs of polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were synthesized under acid catalysis (H2SO4. Then, the antigen F1 purified from Yersinia pestis was covalently linked to this modified polymer. Afterwards, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was established for the diagnosis of plague in rabbit and human. The best conditions for the method were achieved by using 1.3 ¼g of F1 prepared in 0.067 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 1 M NaCl (PBS; anti-IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 6,000 times and as a blocking agent 3% w/v skim milk in PBS. The titration of positive rabbit serum according to this procedure detected antibody concentrations up to 1:12,800 times. The present method, the conventional ELISA and passive haemagglutination assay are compared.

  3. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atad, I.; Zvuloni, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.

    2012-09-01

    Coral disease is a major factor in the global decline of coral reefs. At present, there are no known procedures for preventing or treating infectious diseases of corals. Immunization is not possible because corals have a restricted adaptive immune system and antibiotics are neither ecologically safe nor practical in an open system. Thus, we tested phage therapy as an alternative therapeutic method for treating diseased corals. Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Only one out of 19 (5 %) of the healthy corals became infected when placed near phage-treated diseased corals, whereas 11 out of 18 (61 %) healthy corals were infected in the no-phage control. This is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea. We posit that phage therapy of certain coral diseases is achievable in situ.

  4. INVESTIGATING A MURDER THE CASE OF THE JUSTINIANIC PLAGUE IN SCYTHIA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Mitrofan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study beforehand applies a logical scheme of analysis over a possible presence of the Justinianic plague in the province of Scythia Minor. Following a logic borrowed from the criminalistics, we tried to apply this scheme in order to see if the theory of presence of the epidemic is viable in the given region. Although we have not come with decisive pieces of evidence, a great deal of research is still necessary in order to confirm or infirm this theory. We therefore aim to open a discussion, considering the problem plausible, for the disease had the means and opportunity to affect the province. As previously stated this study is merely a plan of study that shall be developed in a forthcoming work.

  5. [Control and eradication strategies for classic fowl plague in Germany and the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ortrud; Harder, Timm C

    2006-01-01

    The huge potential economic impact of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) substantiates specific and rigorous legal regulations worldwide. According to the O.I.E. Terrestrial Animal Health Code fowl plague is a notifiable disease. International trading activities concerning poultry and poultry products originating from countries with active HPAI are rigorously restricted. In EU member states directive 92/40/EEC subsumes measures against fowl plague and has been transferred into German legislation by the "Geflügelpest-Verordnung". These acts specify that vaccination against HPAI is principally prohibited. The aim of all sanctions is the extinction of disease and the eradication of the causative agent. However, HPAI viruses, exclusively belonging to subtypes H5 and H7, can re-emerge de novo from progenitor viruses of low pathogenicity which are perpetuated in the wild bird population. An outbreak of HPAI requires prompt action by a stamping out strategy. Fast and accurate diagnosis, a strict stand-still and the culling of affected flocks are at the basis of success. In areas with a high density of poultry holdings preemptive culling and creation of buffer zones, devoid of susceptible poultry, may be neccessary. In these cases emergency vaccinations can be considered as a supportive measure in order to limit mass culling. Vaccinations on merely prophylactic grounds, not being connected to acute outbreaks, should be avoided beware of selective pressures on the virus leading to antigenic drift and escape of vaccine-induced immunity. Instead, high standard biosecurity measures, particularly limiting direct and indirect contacts with wild birds, should be maintained.

  6. Circumventing Y. pestis Virulence by Early Recruitment of Neutrophils to the Lungs during Pneumonic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Vagima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is a fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis that is associated with a delayed immune response in the lungs. Because neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of infection, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for their delayed homing to the lung. During the first 24 hr after pulmonary infection with a fully virulent Y. pestis strain, no significant changes were observed in the lungs in the levels of neutrophils infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules, or the expression of the major neutrophil chemoattractants keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. In contrast, early induction of chemokines, rapid neutrophil infiltration and a reduced bacterial burden were observed in the lungs of mice infected with an avirulent Y. pestis strain. In vitro infection of lung-derived cell-lines with a YopJ mutant revealed the involvement of YopJ in the inhibition of chemoattractants expression. However, the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs of mice infected with the mutant was still delayed and associated with rapid bacterial propagation and mortality. Interestingly, whereas KC, MIP-2 and G-CSF mRNA levels in the lungs were up-regulated early after infection with the mutant, their protein levels remained constant, suggesting that Y. pestis may employ additional mechanisms to suppress early chemoattractants induction in the lung. It therefore seems that prevention of the early influx of neutrophils to the lungs is of major importance for Y. pestis virulence. Indeed, pulmonary instillation of KC and MIP-2 to G-CSF-treated mice infected with Y. pestis led to rapid homing of neutrophils to the lung followed by a reduction in bacterial counts at 24 hr post-infection and improved survival rates. These observations shed new light on the virulence mechanisms of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague, and have implications for the

  7. Beyond an AFLP genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in Rattus rattus from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaere, C; Jacquet, S; Ivanova, S; Loiseau, A; Duplantier, J-M; Streiff, R; Brouat, C

    2013-01-01

    Genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. This study follows on from an AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar. We successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with a plague resistance phenotype. Searching these sequences in the genome of the closely related species Rattus norvegicus assigned them to 14 genomic regions, revealing a random distribution of outliers in the genome (no clustering). We compared these results with those of an in silico AFLP study of the R. norvegicus genome, which showed that outlier sequences could not have been inferred by this method in R. rattus (only four of the 15 sequences were predicted). However, in silico analysis allowed the prediction of AFLP markers distribution and the estimation of homoplasy rates, confirming its potential utility for designing AFLP studies in nonmodel species. The 14 genomic regions surrounding AFLP outliers (less than 300 kb from the marker) contained 75 genes encoding proteins of known function, including nine involved in immune function and pathogen defence. We identified the two interleukin 1 genes (Il1a and Il1b) that share homology with an antigen of Y. pestis, as the best candidates for genes subject to plague-mediated natural selection. At least six other genes known to be involved in proinflammatory pathways may also be affected by plague-mediated selection.

  8. 阿拉善黄鼠疫源地鼠疫疫情动态分析%The epidemic process and dynamic analysis of plague in the natural plague focus of Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 王升文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic status of the natural plague focus of Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus, and to provide the basis for formulating the strategies of plague prevention and control. Methods According to the surveillance data of rodent, flea, Y. Pestis from 1999 to 2008, relationship between the constituent elements and the epidemic status quo in the plague foci of Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus was analyzed. Results There was no outbreaks of human plague epidemic in the Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus natural plague focus from 1999 to 2008. The number of host positive serums was 34, the maximum titer attain to 1: 2 560, the Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus density was 1. 50, the infected flea rate of body flea was 62.99% , the body flea index was 1. 96, the holes flea index was 0. 33 , the nest flea index was 5.1. Conclusions Animals plague had occurred in the part of plague focus of Alashan Citellus mongolicus umbratus from 1999 to 2004. From 2004 until now, the epidemic tendency of animals plague was inactively state, but Citellus mongolicus umbratus density and its flea index is much higher than the standards of plague control, it should be still attached great importance.%目的 探讨分析阿拉善黄鼠疫源地鼠疫流行现状,为今后制定防控对策提供依据.方法 通过归纳1999~ 2008年宿主、媒介、病原等监测数据,分析疫源地构成因素之间的相互关系与现状.结果 1999~2008年阿拉善黄鼠疫源地未发生人间鼠疫疫情;检出动物阳性血清34份,最高滴度1∶2560;阿拉善黄鼠密度1.50只/hm2,体蚤染蚤率为62.99%,体蚤指数为1.96,洞干蚤指数为0.33,巢蚤指数5.1.结论 1999~ 2004年阿拉善黄鼠鼠疫疫源地局部有动物鼠疫流行.从2004年截止目前,鼠疫动物流行病处于静息状态,但黄鼠密度和其蚤指数远高于鼠疫控制标准,仍然要高度重视鼠疫防控工作.

  9. Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, L I; Addink, E A; Heesterbeek, J A P; Dubyanskiy, V M; Davis, S A; Laudisoit, A; M Begon; Burdelov, L A; Atshabar, B B; de Jong, S M

    2013-08-01

    data set which can be used as input for epidemiological plague models. This is an important step in understanding the dynamics of plague.

  10. The natural history and incidence of Yersinia pestis and prospects for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, E D; Oyston, P C F

    2012-07-01

    Plague is an ancient, serious, infectious disease which is still endemic in regions of the modern world and is a potential biothreat agent. This paper discusses the natural history of the bacterium and its evolution into a flea-vectored bacterium able to transmit bubonic plague. It reviews the incidence of plague in the modern world and charts the history of vaccines which have been used to protect against the flea-vectored disease, which erupts as bubonic plague. Current approaches to vaccine development to protect against pneumonic, as well as bubonic, plague are also reviewed. The considerable challenges in achieving a vaccine which is licensed for human use and which will comprehensively protect against this serious human pathogen are assessed.

  11. Blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Borchert, Jeff N; Black, William C; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Sean M; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the West Nile region, an established plague focus in northwest Uganda. To determine if C. felis might serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in the West Nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host C. felis that had fed on humans and the proportion that had fed on potentially infectious rodents or shrews. Our findings indicate that cat fleas in human habitations in the West Nile region feed primarily on domesticated species. We conclude that C. felis is unlikely to serve as a Y. pestis bridging vector in this region.

  12. [Macro- and microevolution as related to the problem of origin and global expansion of the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V; Suntsova, N I

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of macro- and microevolutionary processes is considered with reference to the ecological scenario of the origin of the plague pathogen and its subsequent natural and anthropogenic global expansion. The macroevolutionary transformation of the ancestral pseudotuberculosis microbe clone into the initial plague microbe Yersinia pestis tarbagani occurred in Central Asia at the end of the Late Pleistocene by a "vertical" Darwinian way in an inadaptive heterothermal continual intermediate environment--the Mongolian marmot Marmota sibirica-flea Oropsylla silantiewi system--via a sequence of unstable and currently extinct intermediate forms. Its natural geographic expansion on the "oil spot" principle in the postglacial time led to the microevolutionary formation of 20-30 hostal subspecies circulating in populations of the background species of burrowing rodents and pikas in arid areas of Eurasia. The intercontinental spread of the "marmot" and "rat" pathogen subspecies in the past few centuries has been exclusively anthropogenic, with the involvement of synanthropic (ship) rats.

  13. Nursing Care Given to the Plague Infected Patients in the Hospital General of Madrid (Spain in the 17th Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús García Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the work developed by the nurses of the Hospital general of Madrid (Spain in the treatment of the plague, and the training they received for their welfare tasks in the 17th century. Since the end of the 16th century, nurses knew and implemented a set of techniques and medicines to alleviate the terrible disease of the plague and, despite the scarce knowledge about the disease existing at the time, they sought to prevent the contagion with hygienic and dietary measures, and physical isolation. This study shows through which actions and in which conditions nurses worked to deal with such a terrible disease. All this helps to get a full knowledge of the development of the work done by nurses in the last five centuries and, therefore, to determine the evolution and shaping of the nursing profession in our country.

  14. Do pathogens reduce genetic diversity of their hosts? Variable effects of sylvatic plague in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Loren C; Collinge, Sharon K; Martin, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Introduced diseases can cause dramatic declines in-and even the loss of-natural populations. Extirpations may be followed by low recolonization rates, leading to inbreeding and a loss of genetic variation, with consequences on population viability. Conversely, extirpations may create vacant habitat patches that individuals from multiple source populations can colonize, potentially leading to an influx of variation. We tested these alternative hypotheses by sampling 15 colonies in a prairie dog metapopulation during 7 years that encompassed an outbreak of sylvatic plague, providing the opportunity to monitor genetic diversity before, during and after the outbreak. Analysis of nine microsatellite loci revealed that within the metapopulation, there was no change in diversity. However, within extirpated colonies, patterns varied: In half of the colonies, allelic richness after recovery was less than the preplague conditions, and in the other half, richness was greater than the preplague conditions. Finally, analysis of variation within individuals revealed that prairie dogs present in recolonized colonies had higher heterozygosity than those present before plague. We confirmed plague survivorship in six founders; these individuals had significantly higher heterozygosity than expected by chance. Collectively, our results suggest that high immigration rates can maintain genetic variation at a regional scale despite simultaneous extirpations in spatially proximate populations. Thus, virulent diseases may increase genetic diversity of host populations by creating vacant habitats that allow an influx of genetic diversity. Furthermore, even highly virulent diseases may not eliminate individuals randomly; rather, they may selectively remove the most inbred individuals.

  15. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of rodent blood meals confirms host sharing by flea vectors of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Heather A; Stapp, Paul; Cohen, Amybeth

    2010-12-01

    Elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the North American Great Plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, we determined that fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) associated with prairie dogs feed upon northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster), a rodent that has been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of plague in prairie-dog colonies. Our results definitively show that grasshopper mice not only share fleas with prairie dogs during plague epizootics, but also provide them with blood meals, offering a mechanism by which the pathogen, Yersinia pestis, may be transmitted between host species and maintained between epizootics. The lack of identifiable host DNA in a significant fraction of engorged Oropsylla hirsuta collected from animals (47%) and prairie-dog burrows (100%) suggests a rapid rate of digestion and feeding that may facilitate disease transmission during epizootics but also complicate efforts to detect feeding on alternative hosts. Combined with other analytical approaches, e.g., stable isotope analysis, molecular genetic techniques can provide novel insights into host-parasite feeding relationships and improve our understanding of the role of alternative hosts in the transmission and maintenance of disease.

  16. Droughts may increase susceptibility of prairie dogs to fleas: Incongruity with hypothesized mechanisms of plague cycles in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Long, Dustin H.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Plague is a reemerging, rodent-associated zoonosis caused by the flea-borne bacterium Yersinia pestis. As a vector-borne disease, rates of plague transmission may increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas are highly susceptible to desiccation under hot-dry conditions; we posited that their densities decline during droughts. We evaluated this hypothesis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, June–August 2010–2012. Precipitation was relatively plentiful during 2010 and 2012 but scarce during 2011, the driest spring–summer on record for the northeastern grasslands of New Mexico. Unexpectedly, fleas were 200% more abundant in 2011 than in 2010 and 2012. Prairie dogs were in 27% better condition during 2010 and 2012, and they devoted 287% more time to grooming in 2012 than in 2011. During 2012, prairie dogs provided with supplemental food and water were in 23% better condition and carried 40% fewer fleas. Collectively, these results suggest that during dry years, prairie dogs are limited by food and water, and they exhibit weakened defenses against fleas. Long-term data are needed to evaluate the generality of whether droughts increase flea densities and how changes in flea abundance during sequences of dry and wet years might affect plague cycles in mammalian hosts.

  17. 宋代两浙路蝗灾及政府应对措施%Locust Plagues and Countermeasures in the Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金城

    2016-01-01

    蝗灾是我国农业历史上的三大自然灾害之一,因其危害巨大而受到历代统治者的关注。宋代蝗灾频发,宋廷对蝗灾十分重视。文章考察了宋代两浙路蝗灾概况,从蝗灾灾情、特点及政府应对措施等方面对宋代蝗灾进行阐述,并对宋廷治蝗措施的利弊进行评价。%The plagues of locusts are one of the three natural disasters in the agricultural history of our country, whose huge harm was observed by the past rulers. As there were frequent plagues of locusts in the Song dynasty, the royal court attached great importance to them. This paper studies the general situation of the Liangzhe area locust plagues, elaborates on the plagues from their character-istics and the imperial court’ s measures to deal with the plagues in the Song dynasty, and finally evaluates the pros and cons of the measures against the plagues taken by the royal court.

  18. Current status and prospects of research on new plague vaccines%新型鼠疫疫苗研究现状及展望(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦磊

    2011-01-01

    As current available attenuated plague vaccine for human has some disadvantages in terms of product consistency,inoculating convenience,adverse reactions and protection against pneumonic plague,new plague vaccine research is promoted.In this review,potential candidate antigens for plague vaccines and immiunity against plague,as well as current status,obstacles and prospocts of new plague vaccine research are discussed.%现行人用鼠疫活疫苗在产品的一致性、易操作性、不良反应以及对肺鼠疫的预防等方面均存在不足,这就促进了新型鼠疫疫苗的研究.此文从鼠疫疫苗潜在候选抗原、抗鼠疫免疫及新型鼠疫疫苗研究现状、障碍和展望等方面进行综述.

  19. Critical Factors for Parameterisation of Disease Diagnosis Modelling for Anthrax, Plague and Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has put in significant investments to set up the National Biosurveillance Integration Centre (NBIC) to...DSTO-GD-0699 6. References 1. Jenkins WO Jr. Biosurveillance : Preliminary observations on Department of Homeland Security’s Biosurveillance ...their impact. US Congressional Research Service (CRS) 2004; RL31669:1-15. 4. Kman NE, Bachmann DJ. . Biosurveillance : a review and update. Adv Prev Med

  20. Embryonic diapause in the Australian plague locust relative to parental experience of cumulative photophase decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward D; Woodman, James D

    2014-11-01

    The Australian plague locust Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker) exhibits facultative embryonic diapause during autumn. To approximate natural photoperiod changes during late summer and autumn, locust nymphs were reared under different total declines in laboratory photophase (-0.5, -0.75, -1.0, -1.25, -1.5, -1.75, -2 h each lowered in 15 min steps) in a 24 h photoperiod to quantify any effect on the subsequent production of diapause eggs. Induction of diapause eggs was significantly affected by accumulated photoperiod decline experienced by the parental generation throughout all development stages from mid-instar nymph to fledgling adult. The incidence of embryonic diapause ranged from nil at -0.5 h to 86.6% diapause at -2 h. Continued declines in photoperiod for post-teneral locusts (transitioned from -1h until fledging to -1.75 h) produced a further increase in the proportion of diapause eggs. The results were unaffected by time spent at any given photoperiod, despite a previously indicated maximal inductive photoperiod of 13.5h being used as the mid-point of all treatments. Implications for the seasonal timing processes of photoperiodism in C. terminifera, which has a high migratory capacity and a latitudinal cline in the timing of diapause egg production across a broad geographic range, are discussed.

  1. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  2. Managing prairie dogs by managing plague: a vaccine for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terry B.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Gober, Pete; Van Pelt, Bill E.; Miller, Michael W.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Bergman, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The Black-footed Ferret Recovery Implementation Team Executive Committee is conducting a project to develop,and (hopefully) eventually implement, a plague vaccination program for prairie dogs. The project is a component of the WesternAssociation of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Grasslands Conservation Initiative. An effective, field-worthy vaccine against plaguecould be the biggest breakthrough in recovery efforts for the black-footed ferret since the 1981 rediscovery of wild ferrets nearMeeteetse, Wyoming. If proven efficacious, the vaccine could help agencies and stakeholder cooperators maintain specificpopulations of prairie dogs at robust levels, thus enhancing range-wide conservation of those species, as well recovery of the ferret,while enabling control of other prairie dog populations to resolve site-specific agricultural and human health concerns. The resultsof laboratory and field-testing in the early stages of developing this vaccine are preliminary but mostly encouraging. A plan forbroad-scale application is being developed for possible use when testing has been completed and (if warranted) the vaccine isregistered for governmental use. An overview of all aspects of the project is discussed.

  3. Profiles in medical courage: Joseph Goldberger, the sharecropper’s plague, science and prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “You must accept the truth from whatever source it comes”. -MaimonidesThe Sharecropper’s PlagueIn the early half of the twentieth century a mysterious disease, “the sharecropper’s plague”, reached epidemic proportions in the Southern US (1. Each state decided whether it would recognize and publicly admit the existence of what was then considered an embarrassment. The total number of new annual cases was estimated as about 75,000 in 1915 and about 100,000 throughout the 1920s (2. The disease had a 40% mortality rate, and many survivors with dementia were confined to mental institutions (3. Patients initially presented with symmetrically reddened skin, similar to that produced by a sunburn or poison oak. Later, the dermatitis turned rough and scaly in one or more locations, such as the hands, the tops of the feet, or the ankles, or in a butterfly-shaped distribution across the nose. Disturbances of the digestive tract and the …

  4. Cloning of Thymidine Kinase Gene of Duck Plague Virus Using Degenerate PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xian-jie; WANG Jun-wei

    2005-01-01

    The DNA of duck plague virus (DPV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene was cloned and sequenced from a vaccine virus in the study. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers for the consensus site of herpesvirus UL24, TK, and glycoprotein H(gH) gene were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA product with 3 741-base-pairs (bp) in size. DNA sequence analysis revealed a 1 077-base-pairs (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 358 amino acid polypeptide homologous to herpesvirus TK proteins. The predicted TK protein shared 31.2, 41.3, 35.7, 37.4, and 28.4% identity with herpes simplex virus typel, equine herpesvirus type 4, Marek's disease virus 2, herpesvirus turkey, and infectious laryngotracheitis virus, respectively. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of other herpesvirus TK proteins showed that these proteins were not conserved on the whole, otherwise the portion of the TK proteins corresponding to the nucleotide binding domain and the nucleoside binding site were highly conserved among herpesvirus. Comparison with the amino acid sequences of the conserved nucleotide and nucleoside binding domains of other eleven herpesvirus TK proteins to the predicted DPV peptide confirmed its identity as the DPV TK protein.

  5. Cloning and Sequence of Glycoprotein H Gene of Duck Plague Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xian-jie; WANG Jun-wei; MA Bo

    2006-01-01

    The glycoprotein H (gH) gene homologue of duck plague virus (DPV) was cloned by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. It was located immediately downstream from the thymidine kinase gene (TK). In addition,the 3'-end of the gene homologue to herpesvirus UL21 was located downstream from the gH gene. DPV gH gene open reading frame (ORF) was 2 505 bp in length and its primary translation product was a polypeptide of 834 amino acids long.It possessed several characteristics of membrane glycoproteins, including an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence,an external domain containing eight putative N-linked glycosylation sites, a C-terminal transmembrane domain, and a charged cytoplasmic tail. Comparison with other herpesvirus revealed identities of 20.2, 25.1, 23.0, 23.0, 26.5 and 26.0% with the gH counterparts of the human herpesvirus virus 1 (HSV1), equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV4), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), pseudorabies virus (PRV), gallid herpesvirus 2 (GHV2) and gallid herpesvirus 3 (GHV3), respectively.

  6. 四川省鼠疫防治30年回顾%Review of Plague Control and Prevention in Sichuan Province, 1981 -2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪立茂; 吴朝学; 吴建林; 祝小平; 陈开华; 谢飞; 李光清; 罗志丹巴; 段勇军; 李帆; 祁腾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide strategy for plague prevention and control based on the analysis of plague prevention and control in Sichuan province during 1981 -2010. Methods The data of the plague surveillance in Sichuan province during 1981 - 2010 were collected,, arranged and analyzed. Experimental method was accordance with the " diagnostic criteria for plague". Results Totally 42 429 bacteriological materials were tested, 183 strains of yersinia pestis were isolated In indirect tests of blood, 29 980 suspected plague serum smples were tested, in which 251 were positive. Radioimmunoassay precipitation test showed that 79 in 7 611 samples were positive. Reverse suspected plague detection showed that 31 in 833 were positive. Seven species of infected animals and 3 infected medium were found. The Microtus fuscus and the Marmota himalayana plague bacteria were found. And plague occurred in 5 towns and 2 counties. Conclusion The existence of natural foci of plague in Sichuan was confirmed, and Microtus fuscus plague foci and natural foci of the himalayana marmota were found.%目的 分析四川省1981-2010年鼠疫防治的研究结果,为四川鼠疫防控工作提供对策与依据.方法 统计、整理、分析四川省1981-2010年鼠疫相关工作资料,实验方法按照“鼠疫诊断标准”进行.结果 通过调查,细菌学检测材料42 429份、分离鼠疫菌183株,鼠疫间接血疑试验血清29 980份、阳性251份,鼠疫放射免疫沉淀试验标本7 611份、阳性79份,鼠疫反向血疑试验检测标本833份、阳性31份,发现染疫动物7种,染疫媒介3种,发现青海田鼠型鼠疫菌和喜马拉雅旱獭型鼠疫菌,鼠疫发生在2县5个乡镇.结论 证实了四川鼠疫自然疫源地的存在,发现了青海田鼠疫源地和喜马拉雅旱獭鼠疫自然疫源地.

  7. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, Terry E; Rocke, Tonie E; Hurley, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  8. A live attenuated strain of Yersinia pestis KIM as a vaccine against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Six, David; Kuang, Xiaoying; Roland, Kenneth L; Raetz, Christian R H; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a potential weapon of bioterrorism. Y. pestis evades the innate immune system by synthesizing tetra-acylated lipid A with poor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulating activity at 37°C, whereas hexa-acylated lipid A, a potent TLR4 agonist, is made at lower temperatures. Synthesis of Escherichia coli LpxL, which transfers the secondary laurate chain to the 2'-position of lipid A, in Y. pestis results in production of hexa-acylated lipid A at 37°C, leading to significant attenuation of virulence. Previously, we described a Y. pestis vaccine strain in which crp expression is under the control of the arabinose-regulated araC P(BAD) promoter, resulting in a 4-5 log reduction in virulence. To reduce the virulence of the crp promoter mutant further, we introduced E. coli lpxL into the Y. pestis chromosome. The χ10030(pCD1Ap) (ΔlpxP32::P(lpxL)lpxL ΔP(crp21)::TT araC P(BAD)crp) construct likewise produced hexa-acylated lipid A at 37°C and was significantly more attenuated than strains harboring each individual mutation. The LD(50) of the mutant in mice, when administered subcutaneously or intranasally was >10(7)-times and >10(4)-times greater than wild type, respectively. Mice immunized subcutaneously with a single dose of the mutant were completely protected against a subcutaneous challenge of 3.6×10(7) wild-type Y. pestis and significantly protected (80% survival) against a pulmonary challenge of 1.2×10(4) live cells. Intranasal immunization also provided significant protection against challenges by both routes. This mutant is an immunogenic, highly attenuated live Y. pestis construct that merits further development as a vaccine candidate.

  9. Discovery of a leptospirosis cluster amidst a pneumonic plague outbreak in a miners' camp in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Eric; Mueller, Melissa J; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2014-02-07

    Conditions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide an ideal environment for leptospirosis and plague, both of which can cause severe pulmonary manifestations. In December 2004, an outbreak of lethal pneumonia occurred in a local mining camp, affecting 130 persons and killing 57 of them. Clinical signs, fast disease spread, and initial laboratory investigations suggested pneumonic plague. While leptospirosis had not recently been described in the region, it was considered as a differential diagnosis. Anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A confirmed case of leptospirosis was defined as having consistent clinical signs and any one of the following: seroconversion or four-fold increase in MAT titre for paired serum samples, or a MAT titre ≥ 1:400 for acute-phase serum samples. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients or convalescents tested for leptospirosis were seropositive. Two cases showed a confirmed infection for both plague and leptospirosis. While evidence supports the plague nature of this outbreak, the results suggest that some of the suspected plague cases might be due to leptospirosis. In any case, this diagnosis will have to be evoked in the future if a similar outbreak occurs in this region of Africa.

  10. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  11. Rapid and sensitive detection of Yersinia pestis using amplification of plague diagnostic bacteriophages monitored by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V Sergueev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, has caused many millions of human deaths and still poses a serious threat to global public health. Timely and reliable detection of such a dangerous pathogen is of critical importance. Lysis by specific bacteriophages remains an essential method of Y. pestis detection and plague diagnostics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this work was to develop an alternative to conventional phage lysis tests--a rapid and highly sensitive method of indirect detection of live Y. pestis cells based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR monitoring of amplification of reporter Y. pestis-specific bacteriophages. Plague diagnostic phages phiA1122 and L-413C were shown to be highly effective diagnostic tools for the detection and identification of Y. pestis by using qPCR with primers specific for phage DNA. The template DNA extraction step that usually precedes qPCR was omitted. phiA1122-specific qPCR enabled the detection of an initial bacterial concentration of 10(3 CFU/ml (equivalent to as few as one Y. pestis cell per 1-microl sample in four hours. L-413C-mediated detection of Y. pestis was less sensitive (up to 100 bacteria per sample but more specific, and thus we propose parallel qPCR for the two phages as a rapid and reliable method of Y. pestis identification. Importantly, phiA1122 propagated in simulated clinical blood specimens containing EDTA and its titer rise was detected by both a standard plating test and qPCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we developed a novel assay for detection and identification of Y. pestis using amplification of specific phages monitored by qPCR. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and allows the detection of only live bacteria.

  12. Flea-Associated Bacterial Communities across an Environmental Transect in a Plague-Endemic Region of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Thomas Jones

    Full Text Available The vast majority of human plague cases currently occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary route of transmission of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is via flea bites. Non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria may interact with Y. pestis within fleas and it is important to understand what factors govern flea-associated bacterial assemblages. Six species of fleas were collected from nine rodent species from ten Ugandan villages between October 2010 and March 2011. A total of 660,345 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences were used to characterize bacterial communities of 332 individual fleas. The DNA sequences were binned into 421 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs based on 97% sequence similarity. We used beta diversity metrics to assess the effects of flea species, flea sex, rodent host species, site (i.e. village, collection date, elevation, mean annual precipitation, average monthly precipitation, and average monthly temperature on bacterial community structure. Flea species had the greatest effect on bacterial community structure with each flea species harboring unique bacterial lineages. The site (i.e. village, rodent host, flea sex, elevation, precipitation, and temperature also significantly affected bacterial community composition. Some bacterial lineages were widespread among flea species (e.g. Bartonella spp. and Wolbachia spp., but each flea species also harbored unique bacterial lineages. Some of these lineages are not closely related to known bacterial diversity and likely represent newly discovered lineages of insect symbionts. Our finding that flea species has the greatest effect on bacterial community composition may help future investigations between Yersinia pestis and non-pathogenic flea-associated bacteria. Characterizing bacterial communities of fleas during a plague epizootic event in the future would be helpful.

  13. The Fate of a Healing Goddess: Ocular Pathologies, the Antonine Plague, and the Ancient Roman Cult of Bona Dea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ambasciano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to offer a diachronic and dynamic contextualisation of the ancient Roman cult of Bona Dea, connecting its cognitive underpinnings with its healing dimension. Special attention is devoted to the ocular concerns attested in the epigraphic inventory. The decline of the presence of Bona Dea on the religious scene, attested by the 3rd century CE, is considered to be the multi-causal result of the long-lasting, ocular side-effects of smallpox in the aftermath of the so-called Antonine Plague, which interacted with the correlated and prolonged lack of positive reinforcement concerning symptom relief and cognitive feedback.

  14. Eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci in China Ⅰ.Eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci%中国鼠疫自然疫源地分型研究Ⅰ.生态地理景观特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方喜业; 许磊; 刘起勇; 张荣祖

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究中国鼠疫自然疫源地鼠疫生态地理景观特征.方法 根据中国鼠疫疫情资料和对中国鼠疫自然疫源地生态地理景观的考察,制定鼠疫生态地理景观区划标准,建立反映鼠疫生态地理景观特征的方法.结果 中国鼠疫自然疫源地鼠疫生态地理景观有12型、19亚型.结论 为中国鼠疫自然疫源地分型研究提供了科学依据.%Objective To study the eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci,in China.Methods According to the surveillance records on plague epidemics and the eco-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci based on the county level,the criterion for classifying the ecological geographic zone of Chinese natural plague foci was established.Results 12 types and 19 subtypes of eco-geographic landscapes on Chinese natural plague foci were identified.Conclusion Scientific basis for Chinese natural plague foci classification was provided.

  15. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Galanaud

    Full Text Available This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon.Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447 indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality.High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400-1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb.Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of urban medieval epidemics. Our results fit

  16. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of

  17. Present susceptibility status of rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), vector of plague against organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids 1. The Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamal, Biswas; Ravi Kumar, R; Sohan, Lal; Balakrishnan, N; Veena, Mittal; Shiv, Lal

    2008-03-01

    The susceptibility status of Xenopsylla cheopis, the efficient vector of human plague in India was assessed in erstwhile plague endemic areas of Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu following standard WHO techniques. The studies revealed the development of resistance in rat fleas to DDT--4.0%, Malathion--5.0%, Deltamethrin--0.05% and tolerance to Permethrin--0.75% in all the four blocks of Nilgiris hill district. Development of resistance may be due to the extensive use of insecticides in tea plantations and agricultural sectors where the domestic/peri-domestic rodents find their natural habitats and intermingle with each other.

  18. A Discussion on Tendency of Pathogens of Plague being Apt to Enter into Yangming%温疫之邪易趋阳明论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文军

    2011-01-01

    Through scanning views of doctors studying the theory of plague, To put forword the view that pathogens of plague are apt to enter into Yangming. And some reasons and analysis are particularized. Further more,several instances that the view are used at clinical practise leading to good effect are illustrated.%文章在纵览温疫各家所论的基础上提出温疫之邪易趋阳明的观点,并对其从4个方面做进一步论述,进而列举了其在临床实践应用中的良好效果.

  19. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (Michigan); (NIH); (Michigan-Med)

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  20. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis, strain 91001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Almaas, E

    2009-01-13

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, the aetiological agent of bubonic plague, is one the deadliest pathogens known to man. Despite its historical reputation, plague is a modern disease which annually afflicts thousands of people. Public safety considerations greatly limit clinical experimentation on this organism and thus development of theoretical tools to analyze the capabilities of this pathogen is of utmost importance. Here, we report the first genome-scale metabolic model of Yersinia pestis biovar Mediaevalis based both on its recently annotated genome, and physiological and biochemical data from literature. Our model demonstrates excellent agreement with Y. pestis known metabolic needs and capabilities. Since Y. pestis is a meiotrophic organism, we have developed CryptFind, a systematic approach to identify all candidate cryptic genes responsible for known and theoretical meiotrophic phenomena. In addition to uncovering every known cryptic gene for Y. pestis, our analysis of the rhamnose fermentation pathway suggests that betB is the responsible cryptic gene. Despite all of our medical advances, we still do not have a vaccine for bubonic plague. Recent discoveries of antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis coupled with the threat of plague being used as a bioterrorism weapon compel us to develop new tools for studying the physiology of this deadly pathogen. Using our theoretical model, we can study the cell's phenotypic behavior under different circumstances and identify metabolic weaknesses which may be harnessed for the development of therapeutics. Additionally, the automatic identification of cryptic genes expands the usage of genomic data for pharmaceutical purposes.

  1. The perfect burrow, but for what? Identifying local habitat conditions promoting the presence of the host and vector species in the Kazakh plague system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levick, Bethany; Laudisoit, Anne; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Addink, Elisabeth; Ageyev, Vladimir; Yeszhanov, Aidyn; Sapozhnikov, Valerij; Belayev, Alexander; Davydova, Tania; Eagle, Sally; Begon, Mike; Johnson, Christopher James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The wildlife plague system in the Pre-Balkhash desert of Kazakhstan has been a subject of study for many years. Much progress has been made in generating a method of predicting outbreaks of the disease (infection by the gram negative bacterium Yersinia pestis) but existing methods are

  2. Bibliometrics and visualized analysis of plague research literature%国内外鼠疫研究文献计量可视化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章欣; 盛立; 刁天喜

    2016-01-01

    Objective By analyzing domestic and foreign papers on plague research with bibliometrics and visualized methods, we explored the current situation research trends and cutting-edge dynamics in order to provide information sup-port for plague research as well as strategies for countering bioterrorism.Methods Based on data sources from SCI and CNKI databases, bibliometrics and visualized methods were adopted,including Pajek,VOSviewer, Bibexcel and Citespace, so as to show the major cutting-edge areas of plague research.Results Comprehensive research analysis showed that the USA is leading in plague research, with some strong related institutions.There is still a gap between China and international community for research.Academy of Military Medical Sciences and other institutions are our main plague research efforts. Conclusion We should strengthen plague research, improve our overall level of plague research to provide the necessary support for effective response to natural epidemics and potential bioterrorism incidents.%目的:通过对国内外鼠疫研究进行文献计量及可视化分析,探索该领域的发展情况、研究趋势及动态前沿,以期为我国的鼠疫相关研究提供信息支持并为应对生物恐怖提供策略思路。方法运用文献计量和可视化分析方法,以SCI和CNKI数据库为数据来源,综合应用Pajek、VOSviewer、Bibexcel、Citespace软件,展示全球鼠疫研究主要领域和前沿。结果鼠疫文献计量可视化分析显示,美国在鼠疫研究领域处于领先地位,相关机构研究实力较强。我国与国际水平还有一定差距,军事医学科学院、中国科学院等机构为我国鼠疫主要研究力量。结论我国应加强鼠疫研究,提高整体实力水平,为有效应对自然疫情以及可能暴发的生物恐怖事件提供保障。

  3. Population differences in host immune factors may influence survival of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys Gunnisoni) during plague outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Cordova, Jennifer; Colman, Rebecca E.; Keim, Paul; Rocke, Tonie E.; Leid, Jeff G.; Van Pelt, William E.; Wagner, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 yr, epizootics of plague (Yersinia pestis) in northern Arizona have reduced populations of the Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni), with the exception of a large population found in the Aubrey Valley (AV). To examine potential mechanisms accounting for their survival, we collected prairie dog serum samples in 2005–2006 from AV and a neighboring population near Seligman (SE), Arizona. We quantified gene expression at 58 diverse immune proteins using a multiplexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay panel. We found a subset of proteins important in coagulation and inflammation (tissue factor [TF], calbindin [Cal], and thrombopoietin [TPO]) and T-cell responses (CD40L and CD40) that were present in AV at levels two to eight times greater than SE. These results suggest that AV and SE animals might differ in their ability to mount an immune response.

  4. [A study on the taxonomy of soil amoebas from Caspian plague foci based on an analysis of ribosomal operon sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel', E I; Anisimova, L V; Novichkova, L A; Vidiaeva, N A; Guseva, N P; Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V

    2015-01-01

    The results of a study on the taxonomy and quantitative abundance of free-living amoebas in soil samples from the Russian plague foci of the northwestern Caspian steppe, the Caspian sand, and the Volga-Ural steppe are presented. Amoebas of the Willaertia and Hartmanella genera, as well as representatives of myxomycetes, were isolated from samples. From these, amoebas of the Acanthamoeba genus predominated and could be as abundantas 300000 cells per 1 g of soil. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene region showed that Acanthamoeba from the Volga-Ural steppe focus belonged to the A. castellanii species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that amoebas from two other Caspian foci belonged to the species of Acanthamoeba spp.

  5. [German-Hungarian medical relationships during the Enlightenment; including an 18th century work on inoculation against plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheisz, E

    2001-09-01

    The influence of German science and medicine on the development of Hungarian medicine in the age of Enlightenment has been extraordinary strong. Many Hungarian medical students stayed in German medical faculties. The medical interrelationships between Germany and Hungary in the 18th century are discussed in an overview according to the following dimensions: education of protestant Hungarian medical students at German >Aufklaerungs-Universitaeten<, practical and theoretical resonance, membership of scientific societies, personal contacts and correspondence. Outstanding personalities of this area were Daniel Fischer, István Weszprémi, Abraham Vater. Special attention is given to a new idea: inoculation against plague was first described by A. Vater in his work Blattern-Beltzen (1721). Thirty years later I. Weszprémi published his original conception - independently from Vater - in the Tentamen de inoculanda peste (1755).

  6. Monitoring of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes population during a crayfish plague outbreak followed by rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collas M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass mortality was detected in the downstream section of one of the most extensive French populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, on June 26, 2013. This population occupied a 12 km stretch of the La Lucelle brook, with an estimated size of around 150 000 individuals. The presence of the crayfish plague pathogen was quickly diagnosed as the cause of the mortality, and monitoring was carried out to follow the spread of the disease from 15 July 2013 for one year. Results showed that after a fast spread between 15 and 25 July 2013 (upstream progression of mortality for about 4 km, the mortality front was limited to a stretch of a few hundred meters from August until December 2013. During winter, mortality was always observed, confirming that disease remained active. In April 2014, the mortality front was halted by a large dam in the brook (2 m high, 0.56 km from brook source. Two months later, 30 live crayfish were observed above the dam. On the 30 August 2014, no crayfish were found above the dam. Infected individuals analysed for microsatellite markers confirmed the Pacifastacus leniusculus strain of Aphanomyces astaci at the origin of this outbreak. Before the crayfish plague spread upstream of the large dam, a sample of 576 individuals was collected from upstream of the dam and translocated to another stream in the same French department. In July 2014, observations by night confirmed the presence of translocated white-clawed crayfish in the receiving brook.

  7. Better modelling practice : an ontological perpsective on multidisciplinary, model-based problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models are more and more used to support to solve multidisciplinary, real world problems of increasing complexity. They are often plagued by obstacles such as miscommunication between modellers with different disciplinary backgrounds leading to a non-transparent modelling process. Other

  8. 人为因素与哈尔滨第三次鼠疫大流行%Human factors caused the third plague epidemic in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金东英; 李志平

    2011-01-01

    The third plague epidemic in Harbin broke out in 1946 and ended in 1954. Different from the first two plague epidemics (imported), the third prevalence was both imported and idiopathic infectious disease which was caused by human factors. Japanese troops set forbidden zones to build a biological weapon center, which destroyed the natural environment and offered a good growth condition for Citellus Undulatus. In 1945, on the eve of surrender, the Japanese blew up the Unit 731 germ factory located in a bungalow district, which caused diffusion of infected plague fleas. Mice of the district were infected and a man - made plague focus was created. During the prevalence of the third plague, prevention departments at all levels took a series of actions and with people' s efforts, the plague was effectively controlled.%哈尔滨第三次鼠疫流行始发于1946年,终止于1954年.与前两次由外来传入不同,第三次鼠疫流行是当地原发与外地传人兼有.其中,当地原发是由人为因素造成的.日军在哈尔滨市平房区建立细菌武器研制中心后,强占土地,设立禁区,致使自然环境发生变化,为黄鼠种群数量的稳定创造了条件.1945年,日军投降前夕,为掩盖其罪行,将设在哈尔滨平房区的"731部队"细菌工厂炸毁,致使大批染疫鼠蚤扩散,传染了平房及其周围地区的鼠类,最终导致人为鼠疫疫源地的形成.哈尔滨市第三次鼠疫流行期间,各级防疫部门采取了一系列措施,在广大人民群众多年的努力下,人间鼠疫和鼠间鼠疫得到有效控制,但哈尔滨市鼠疫疫源地并未根除.

  9. [New nutrient medium for the cultivation and isolation of the plague microbe ChDS-37 as an element of the mobilization reserve of specialized antiepidemic teams of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Kaminskiĭ, D I; Lomov, Yu M; Telesmanich, N P; Rozhkov, K K; Alutin, I M; Pukhov, Yu M; Prometnoĭ, V I; Fetsaĭlova, O P; Bulakhova, O G; Firsova, I A; Smolikova, L M; Bozhko, N V; Ivanova, V S; Burlakova, O S; Verkina, L M; Trukhachev, A L; Akulova, M V

    2011-04-01

    A new nutrient medium has been designed to culture and isolate the plague microbe ChDS-37 on the basis of the pancreatic digest of baker's yeast. The results of laboratory tests of the designed medium, by using 10 plague microbe strains and those of approval during the tactical and special training of a specialized antiepidemic team (SAET), suggest that the medium has some advantage over reference media and creates prerequisites for being incorporated into the mobilization reserve of a SAET.

  10. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Miller, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  11. “Pitiful times” – plague in Cracow in 1707–1710. A Contribution to the research into the collapse of the royal city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Karpacz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XVIIIth century has been recorded in history of the city of Cracow as a time of war and famine. “Pitiful times” – such term was used in the chronicle of the Norbertine Sisters Convent. This cataclysms was followed by the last one and the most dangerous of them – an epidemic. The plague was a deathblow to the city on the verge of falling into ruin. One of the most important goals of the article is pointing the connections between physical, economical or spiritual state of the municipal community and enormous proportions as well as consequences of the plague. Considerations are started from describing the situation in Cracow and nearest vicinity the day before cataclysm. Subsequently Authoress characterized preventive measures, basing on municipal bills and regulations. The main part of the article presents the drama of the ordinary cracovians. To throw light on the depth of demographical, cultural and spiritual crisis in the city, the view of situation is completed by statistics based on ecclesiastical sources – records and acts of the chapters of The Dominican Order. Authoress refers also to the texts publicized in Cracow at the begging of the XVIIIth century – from medical treatises to panegyric written by Marcin Ksawery Szumliński to venerate the authorities of the city fighting against the plague.

  12. Monitoreo of the feromonas traps in the control of the plague Lasioderma serricorne (F. in the Managerial Unit of Base Alfredo López Brito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rosa Rodríguez Valero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inigualable quality, the Cuban tobacco is one of the cultivations that bigger quantity of foreign currencies contributes to the country, but it is attacked by different plagues, in the different stages for those that it passes until its commercialization in leaves or as elaborated product. In the warehouses the most destructive plague is the Lasioderma serricorne (F. and to combat it in the Managerial Unit of Base Alfredo López Brito of Cabaiguán, the fosfamina, toxic product with high price is used in foreign currencies, the same one is applied with a bimonthly frequency, that is to say, every 60 days, for which the present work had as objective to lengthen the date of application of the fosfamina by means of the use of the feromonas traps to achieve a saving to the Unit and to improve the environmental conditions in the same one. The obtained results allowed to diminish the quantity of necessary fosfamina significantly to control the plague, the Unit saved during 4 months in those that it was carried out this work. $869.40 in national currency and $343.55 in CUC a positive impact also took place about the health of the workers and the one intones.

  13. Vaccination with F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.; Marinari, Paul E.; Kreeger, J.; Enama, J.T.; Powell, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. Eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with F1-V protein by SC injection at approximately 60 days-of-age. A booster vaccination was administered 3 mo later via SC injection. Four additional ferret kits received placebos. The animals were challenged 6 wk after the boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days after exposure. To determine the duration of antibody postvaccination, 18 additional black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated and boosted with F1-V by SC injection at 60 and 120 days-of-age. High titers to both F1 and V (mean reciprocal titers of 18,552 and 99,862, respectively) were found in all vaccinates up to 2 yr postvaccination, whereas seven control animals remained antibody negative throughout the same time period. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  14. 青藏铁路沿线做好鼠疫防控工作几点建议%Recommendations for plague prevention and control work along the Qinghai-Tibet railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凌峰; 杨君; 曹德康; 张延岭; 彭碧波

    2016-01-01

    At present, strict control measures and extensive public promotion for plague control have been taken in China. However, with the continuing prevalence of plague epizootics, the threat of plague epidemic in our country will persist. The Tibetan Plateau is an important focus of plague. Public health agencies in natural plague foci should take prevention and control strategies according to the local characteristics and the actual situation, so as to eliminate the plague threat posed for health officers and soldiers in epidemic areas.%我国为控制鼠疫危害开展了广泛的宣传教育工作并采取了严格的监控措施。但由于动物鼠疫的持续流行,鼠疫对人类的危害仍将长期存在。驻青藏铁路沿线鼠疫疫源地部队应加强重视,采取符合当地特点和实际情况的防控策略,消除鼠疫危害,保障官兵健康。

  15. Recognition and characterization of migratory movements of Australian plague locusts, Chortoicetes terminifera, with an insect monitoring radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, V. Alistair; Wang, Haikou

    2013-01-01

    Two special purpose insect-detecting radar units have operated in inland eastern Australia, in the region where nocturnal migratory movements of Australian plague locusts Chortoicetes terminifera occur, for over 10 years. The fully automatic radars detect individual insects as they fly directly overhead and "interrogate" them to obtain information about their characters (size, shape, and wing beating) and trajectory (speed, direction, and orientation). The character data allow locusts to be distinguished from most other migrant species. A locust index, calculated from the total count of locust-like targets for a night, provides a simple indication of migration intensity. For nights of heavy migration, the variation of numbers, directions, and speeds with both height and time can be examined. Emigration and immigration events can be distinguished, as can "transmigration," the passage overhead of populations originating elsewhere. Movement distances can be inferred, and broad source and (more tentatively) destination regions are identified. Movements were typically over distances of up to 400 km. Interpretation of radar observations requires judgment, and the present two units provide only partial coverage of the locust infestation area, but their capacity to detect major population movements promptly, and to provide information between necessarily infrequent surveys, has proved valuable.

  16. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  17. Genetic variation at the MHC DRB1 locus is similar across Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colonies regardless of plague history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, Kacy R; Califf, Katy J; Stone, Nathan E; Shuey, Megan M; Birdsell, Dawn N; Colman, Rebecca E; Schupp, James M; Aziz, Maliha; Van Andel, Roger; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M; Busch, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Yersinia pestis was introduced to North America around 1900 and leads to nearly 100% mortality in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies during epizootic events, which suggests this pathogen may exert a strong selective force. We characterized genetic diversity at an MHC class II locus (DRB1) in Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) and quantified population genetic structure at the DRB1 versus 12 microsatellite loci in three large Arizona colonies. Two colonies, Seligman (SE) and Espee Ranch (ES), have experienced multiple plague-related die-offs in recent years, whereas plague has never been documented at Aubrey Valley (AV). We found fairly low allelic diversity at the DRB1 locus, with one allele (DRB1*01) at high frequency (0.67-0.87) in all colonies. Two other DRB1 alleles appear to be trans-species polymorphisms shared with the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), indicating that these alleles have been maintained across evolutionary time frames. Estimates of genetic differentiation were generally lower at the MHC locus (F ST = 0.033) than at microsatellite markers (F ST = 0.098). The reduced differentiation at DRB1 may indicate that selection has been important for shaping variation at MHC loci, regardless of the presence or absence of plague in recent decades. However, genetic drift has probably also influenced the DRB1 locus because its level of differentiation was not different from that of microsatellites in an F ST outlier analysis. We then compared specific MHC alleles to plague survivorship in 60 C. gunnisoni that had been experimentally infected with Y. pestis. We found that survival was greater in individuals that carried at least one copy of the most common allele (DRB1*01) compared to those that did not (60% vs. 20%). Although the sample sizes of these two groups were unbalanced, this result suggests the possibility that this MHC class II locus, or a nearby linked gene, could play a role in plague survival.

  18. Genetic variation at the MHC DRB1 locus is similar across Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colonies regardless of plague history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobble, Kacy R.; Califf, Katy J.; Stone, Nathan E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Colman, Rebecca E.; Schupp, James M.; Aziz, Maliha; Van Andel, Roger; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.; Busch, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis was introduced to North America around 1900 and leads to nearly 100% mortality in prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies during epizootic events, which suggests this pathogen may exert a strong selective force. We characterized genetic diversity at an MHC class II locus (DRB1) in Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) and quantified population genetic structure at the DRB1versus 12 microsatellite loci in three large Arizona colonies. Two colonies, Seligman (SE) and Espee Ranch (ES), have experienced multiple plague-related die-offs in recent years, whereas plague has never been documented at Aubrey Valley (AV). We found fairly low allelic diversity at the DRB1 locus, with one allele (DRB1*01) at high frequency (0.67–0.87) in all colonies. Two otherDRB1 alleles appear to be trans-species polymorphisms shared with the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus), indicating that these alleles have been maintained across evolutionary time frames. Estimates of genetic differentiation were generally lower at the MHC locus (FST = 0.033) than at microsatellite markers (FST = 0.098). The reduced differentiation at DRB1 may indicate that selection has been important for shaping variation at MHC loci, regardless of the presence or absence of plague in recent decades. However, genetic drift has probably also influenced theDRB1 locus because its level of differentiation was not different from that of microsatellites in anFST outlier analysis. We then compared specific MHC alleles to plague survivorship in 60C. gunnisoni that had been experimentally infected with Y. pestis. We found that survival was greater in individuals that carried at least one copy of the most common allele (DRB1*01) compared to those that did not (60% vs. 20%). Although the sample sizes of these two groups were unbalanced, this result suggests the possibility that this MHC class II locus, or a nearby linked gene, could play a role in plague survival.

  19. Testing for thresholds in a semiarid grassland: The influence of prairie dogs and plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and transition models for semiarid grasslands in the Great Plains of North America suggest that the presence of herbivorous black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on a site (1) creates a vegetation state characterized by increased dominance of annual forbs and unpalatable bunchgrasse...

  20. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, C.

    2014-01-29

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. 2013 The Authors Molecular Ecology John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  2. Exploration on the fulminating plague in Bianjing in 1232 and the climatic factors%1232年汴京大疫与气候因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟重行

    2008-01-01

    The plague occurred in Bianjing in 1232 was a serious event in the history of Chinese epidemic.It lasted for over 50 days,with a death toll of over 900,000.It is speculated that this is a mass epidemic of pneumonic plague and the pathogen was carried by the Mongolian Army when attacking Bianjing.At that time,the plague spread in Mongolian Army camp and finally involved the suburbs of Bianjing.After the army withdrawal,when Bianjing residents and soldiers went out of the city to collect foods and were unfortunately infected,and thus this dangerous infectious disease was transmitted into the city from the suburbs.Soon,the plague broke out and became epidemic in Bianjing during the 27-day period of 5 May~1 June,because of the cold snap rushed upon Bianjing on 1 June,the unusual weather was the motive for the mass epidemic of the plague.By then,it was popularly recognized as"exogenous cold damage".At present,facing the global climatologic changes,it is of great practical significance to explore the rich materials of plague and the climatic records accumulated in Chinese medicine.%1232年汴京大疫是中国疫病史上的严重事件,在50多天中,死亡90余万人.推断这场瘟疫为肺鼠疫大流行,病原菌由围攻汴京的蒙古军队携带.由于鼠疫在军营流行,汴京郊野因此受到疫菌污染.解围之后,鼠疫杆菌被出城采集给养的军民不慎染归,并逐渐在人群中传播.疫菌从汴京郊外侵染城内的这个过程,大致发生在该年5月5日-6月1日的27天间.此后,肺鼠疫在汴京爆发流行,又与突发小概率天气事件有关.6月1日遭遇罕见强冷空气袭击,为触发肺鼠疫大流行的动力因子.故当时对于病因的认识,普遍皆以"伤寒"所致.而当今面临全球气候变化,极端天气气候事件频繁发生,重视中医学和中国历史文献大量有关疫病气象记录的发掘研究,具有现实意义的理论与应用价值.

  3. Stationary configurations of the Standard Model Higgs potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacobellis, Giuseppe; Masina, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    the stability of the SM electroweak minimum and ii) the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point. We examine in detail and reappraise the experimental and theoretical uncertainties which plague their determination, finding that i) the stability of the SM is compatible with the present data...... at the 1.5σ level and ii) despite the large theoretical error plaguing the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point, the application of such a configuration to models of primordial inflation displays a 3σ tension with the recent bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of cosmological...

  4. Illustrations from the Wellcome Library William Winstanley's pestilential poesies in "The Christians refuge: or heavenly antidotes against the plague in this time of generall contagion to which is added the charitable physician (1665)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    During the Great Plague of London (1665), William Winstanley veered from his better known roles as arbiter of success and failure in his works of biography or as a comic author under the pseudonym Poor Robin, and instead engaged with his reading audience as a plague writer in the rare book The Christians Refuge: Or Heavenly Antidotes Against the Plague in this Time of Generall Contagion to Which is Added the Charitable Physician (1665). From its extensive paratexts, including a table of mortality statistics and woodcut of king death, to its temporal and providential interpretation of the disease between the covers of a single text, The Christians Refuge is a compendium of contemporary understanding of plague. This article addresses The Christians Refuge as an expression of London's print marketplace in a moment of transformation precipitated by the epidemic. The author considers the paratextual elements in The Christians Refuge that engage with the presiding norms in plague writing and publishing in 1665 and also explores how Winstanley's authorship is expressed in the work. Winstanley has long been seen as a biographer or as a humour writer; attributing The Christians Refuge extends and challenges previous perceptions of his work.

  5. Illustrations from the Wellcome Library William Winstanley’s Pestilential Poesies in The Christians Refuge: Or Heavenly Antidotes Against the Plague in this Time of Generall Contagion to Which is Added the Charitable Physician (1665)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLER, KATHLEEN

    2011-01-01

    During the Great Plague of London (1665), William Winstanley veered from his better known roles as arbiter of success and failure in his works of biography or as a comic author under the pseudonym Poor Robin, and instead engaged with his reading audience as a plague writer in the rare book The Christians Refuge: Or Heavenly Antidotes Against the Plague in this Time of Generall Contagion to Which is Added the Charitable Physician (1665). From its extensive paratexts, including a table of mortality statistics and woodcut of king death, to its temporal and providential interpretation of the disease between the covers of a single text, The Christians Refuge is a compendium of contemporary understanding of plague. This article addresses The Christians Refuge as an expression of London’s print marketplace in a moment of transformation precipitated by the epidemic. The author considers the paratextual elements in The Christians Refuge that engage with the presiding norms in plague writing and publishing in 1665 and also explores how Winstanley’s authorship is expressed in the work. Winstanley has long been seen as a biographer or as a humour writer; attributing The Christians Refuge extends and challenges previous perceptions of his work. PMID:21461312

  6. On Plague Theory the Money-raising to Eliminate Pathogenic and Its Application Principles%论《温疫论》祛邪大法及其应用原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱民

    2011-01-01

    WU You-ke's book Plague Theory is discusses the plague monographs. The etiology of plague many innovative knowledge analysis of plague dialectical treats a considerable rich clinical experience and unique insights to plague, eliminate pathogenic Xiafa money-raising especially the application of attack is handy, and put forward the application principles many attack, to current and matters needing attention of infectious, infectious diseases have very good treats differentiation of clinical significance.%吴又可的是一部论述温疫的专著,对温疫的病因病机分析有许多创新性的认识,对温疫的辨证施治也有相当丰富的临床经验和独特见解,对温疫祛邪大法尤其是攻下法的应用更是得心应手,提出了很多攻邪的应用原则和注意事项,对当今各种传染性、感染性疾病的辨证施治有很好的临床指导意义.

  7. Genome sequence of the deep-rooted Yersinia pestis strain Angola reveals new insights into the evolution and pangenome of the plague bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Mark; Worsham, Patricia L; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Riley, David R; Sebastian, Yinong; Mou, Sherry; Achtman, Mark; Lindler, Luther E; Ravel, Jacques

    2010-03-01

    To gain insights into the origin and genome evolution of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, we have sequenced the deep-rooted strain Angola, a virulent Pestoides isolate. Its ancient nature makes this atypical isolate of particular importance in understanding the evolution of plague pathogenicity. Its chromosome features a unique genetic make-up intermediate between modern Y. pestis isolates and its evolutionary ancestor, Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our genotypic and phenotypic analyses led us to conclude that Angola belongs to one of the most ancient Y. pestis lineages thus far sequenced. The mobilome carries the first reported chimeric plasmid combining the two species-specific virulence plasmids. Genomic findings were validated in virulence assays demonstrating that its pathogenic potential is distinct from modern Y. pestis isolates. Human infection with this particular isolate would not be diagnosed by the standard clinical tests, as Angola lacks the plasmid-borne capsule, and a possible emergence of this genotype raises major public health concerns. To assess the genomic plasticity in Y. pestis, we investigated the global gene reservoir and estimated the pangenome at 4,844 unique protein-coding genes. As shown by the genomic analysis of this evolutionary key isolate, we found that the genomic plasticity within Y. pestis clearly was not as limited as previously thought, which is strengthened by the detection of the largest number of isolate-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) currently reported in the species. This study identified numerous novel genetic signatures, some of which seem to be intimately associated with plague virulence. These markers are valuable in the development of a robust typing system critical for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies.

  8. Comparing bacterial community composition between healthy and white plague-like disease states in Orbicella annularis using PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Zawada, David G.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Coral disease is a global problem. Diseases are typically named or described based on macroscopic changes, but broad signs of coral distress such as tissue loss or discoloration are unlikely to be specific to a particular pathogen. For example, there appear to be multiple diseases that manifest the rapid tissue loss that characterizes ‘white plague.’ PhyloChip™ G3 microarrays were used to compare the bacterial community composition of both healthy and white plague-like diseased corals. Samples of lobed star coral (Orbicella annularis, formerly of the genus Montastraea [1]) were collected from two geographically distinct areas, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park, to determine if there were biogeographic differences between the diseases. In fact, all diseased samples clustered together, however there was no consistent link to Aurantimonas coralicida, which has been described as the causative agent of white plague type II. The microarrays revealed a large amount of bacterial heterogeneity within the healthy corals and less diversity in the diseased corals. Gram-positive bacterial groups (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes) comprised a greater proportion of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to healthy samples. Diseased samples were enriched in OTUs from the families Corynebacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Streptococcaceae. Much previous coral disease work has used clone libraries, which seem to be methodologically biased toward recovery of Gram-negative bacterial sequences and may therefore have missed the importance of Gram-positive groups. The PhyloChip™ data presented here provide a broader characterization of the bacterial community changes that occur within Orbicella annularis during the shift from a healthy to diseased state.

  9. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencher, Jordan S; Smith, Susan R; Powell, Tim D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2004-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  10. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencher, J.S.; Smith, S.R.; Powell, T.D.; Stinchcomb, D.T.; Osorio, J.E.; Rocke, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  11. Tendência secular da peste no Estado do Ceará, Brasil Secular plague trend in Ceará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ivoneida Aragão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Após a sua introdução no Ceará, Brasil, em 1900, a peste focalizou-se em sete complexos ecológicos: Chapada do Araripe e Serras da Ibiapaba, do Baturité, do Machado, das Matas, da Pedra Branca e de Uruburetama. As atividades de vigilância nesses focos no período de 1935/2004 foram desenvolvidas sucessivamente pelo Departamento Nacional de Saúde, Serviço Nacional de Peste, Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública, Fundação Nacional de Saúde e finalmente pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. A análise dos dados levantados sobre a ocorrência de casos humanos nesses 70 anos permite identificar diferentes padrões de circulação da enfermidade na população humana, caracterizados pela alternância de momentos de elevadas incidências e de silêncio, possibilitando estabelecer uma periodização cronológica com características epidemiológicas próprias. Conclui-se desses resultados que a peste ainda deve ser considerada uma ameaça potencial, o que justifica revitalizar as ações de vigilância epidemiológica, o que só ocorrerá com o fortalecimento de todas as instâncias do Sistema Único de Saúde.After its introduction into the State of Ceará, Brazil, in 1900, the plague was established in seven ecological complexes: Chapada do Araripe and the Ibiapaba, Baturité, Machado, Matas, Pedra Branca, and Uruburetama mountains. These natural foci were monitored successively from 1935 to 2004 by the National Health Department, National Plague Service, National Department of Rural Endemics, Superintendency of Public Health Campaigns, National Health Foundation, and finally by the National Health Surveillance Secretariat. Data analysis on human cases during these 70 years allowing identifying different plague circulation patterns in the human population, alternating high incidence with silent periods and characterizing a chronological periodicity with unique epidemiological

  12. Models of Goldstone gauginos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Galloway, Jamison; McCullough, Matthew; Weiner, Neal

    2016-04-01

    Models with Dirac gauginos are appealing scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. They have smaller radiative corrections to scalar soft masses, a suppression of certain supersymmetry (SUSY) production processes at the LHC, and ameliorated flavor constraints. Unfortunately, they are generically plagued by tachyons charged under the Standard Model, and attempts to eliminate such states typically spoil the positive features. The recently proposed "Goldstone gaugino" mechanism provides a simple realization of Dirac gauginos that is automatically free of dangerous tachyonic states. We provide details on this mechanism and explore models for its origin. In particular, we find SUSY QCD models that realize this idea simply and discuss scenarios for unification.

  13. [Observations on the 1348 plague epidemic. Measures taken to combat its tragic effects and avoid epidemic recrudescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2003-03-01

    When the "Black Death" swept through Europe from southern France in 1348, in the short space of two years the Europeans were hit by one of the most serious epidemics ever recorded in human history. Yersinia pestis reached Europe by sea, its contamination propagated by the Genoese ships coming from the Crimean port of Jaffa. For the first time the world experienced microbiological unification: East and West were equally involved in the tragedy that spread, and no town remained unscathed during the various epidemic waves which succeeded one another in the following three centuries. The authors of this article describe how and why the epidemic spread, as well as the factors that led to the swift, and often fatal, involment of millions of Europeans. The second part of the article deals with the measures taken by the healthcare authorities of European towns and countries in order to halt the proliferation of the disease. According to the data and observations by authoritative authors, selected among the many who studied the disease that from the 14th century spread like a scourge throughout the known world at the time, the epidemic could have been even more serious, in terms of mortality and morbidity, without the disciplinary and provisional health measures taken. The experience gained in Italy and all over Europe at the time proved useful not only to better manage the epidemics which cyclically broke out, but also to efficiently combat the cholera epidemics of the 19th century. With the 14th century plague epidemic, the Europeans and their political and administrative representatives may well have realized for the very first time that contamination could be combatted by adopting a set of rational, scientific norms - although in practice such rules were mostly inspired by misguided scientific theories. Humankind was no longer alone. A new society was emerging, one that was not going to passively accept the more or less mysterious ways of a superior being of fate. The

  14. LcrV delivered via type III secretion system of live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enhances immunogenicity against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Henderson, Jeremy C; Sam, Shandiin; Olinzock, Joseph; Trent, M Stephen; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with arabinose-dependent regulated and delayed shutoff of crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp) and replacement of the msbB gene with the Escherichia coli msbB gene to attenuate it. Then, we inserted the asd mutation into this construction to form χ10057 [Δasd-206 ΔmsbB868::P(msbB) msbB(EC) ΔP(crp21)::TT araC P(BAD) crp] for use with a balanced-lethal Asd-positive (Asd(+)) plasmid to facilitate antigen synthesis. A hybrid protein composed of YopE (amino acids [aa]1 to 138) fused with full-length LcrV (YopE(Nt138)-LcrV) was synthesized in χ10057 harboring an Asd(+) plasmid (pYA5199, yopE(Nt138)-lcrV) and could be secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies indicated that mice orally immunized with χ10057(pYA5199) developed titers of IgG response to whole-cell lysates of Y. pestis (YpL) and subunit LcrV similar to those seen with χ10057(pYA3332) (χ10057 plus an empty plasmid). However, only immunization of mice with χ10057(pYA5199) resulted in a significant secretory IgA response to LcrV. χ10057(pYA5199) induced a higher level of protection (80% survival) against intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ~240 median lethal doses (LD50) (2.4 × 10(4) CFU) of Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) than χ10057(pYA3332) (40% survival). Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with χ10057(pYA5199) produced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) after restimulation with LcrV and YpL antigens. Our results suggest that it is possible to use an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain delivering the LcrV antigen via the T3SS as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague.

  15. 用于鼠疫疫苗纯菌检查的噬菌体裂解法的建立%Establishment of phage bacteriolytic method for detection of purity of plague vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东; 李恪梅; 王国治

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish phage bacteriolytic method for detection of purity of plague vaccines,and compare the phage bacteriolytic method with the available direct inoculation method.Methods Ten strains of non-Yersinia pestis were lysed with plague phage to evaluate specificity of plague phage.The quantified Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli were respectively added into plague vaccines to prepare simulated contaminated plague vaccines.The phage bacteriolytic method was used to detect purity of plague vaccines.The detection results between phage bacteriolytic method and available direct inoculation method were compared.Results The plague phage could lyse Yersinia pestis specifically.No cross-reactions were observed between the plague phage and other strains of non-Yersinia pestis.The detection limits of phage bacteriolytic method for Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli in simulated contaminated plague vaccines were both 1 CFU/dose vaccine (50 μl).The detection limits of the available direct inoculation method for Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli in simulated contaminated plague vaccines were 50 and 5 CFU/dose vaccine (50 μl),respectively.Conclusion The phage bacteriolytic method for detection of purity of plague vaccines has better sensitivity and specificity and can be used for quality control of plague vaccines.%目的 建立用于鼠疫疫苗纯菌检查的噬菌体裂解法,并与现行的直接接种纯菌检查方法进行比较.方法 使用鼠疫噬菌体裂解在细菌分类学上与鼠疫杆菌相近的细菌及常见的污染细菌,确定鼠疫噬菌体对鼠疫杆菌裂解的特异性.分别将小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌和大肠杆菌定量掺入鼠疫疫苗来制备模拟污染鼠疫疫苗,采用噬菌体裂解纯菌检查方法检测模拟污染鼠疫疫苗,并将检测结果与现行的直接接种纯菌检查方法的检测结果进行比较.结果 鼠疫噬菌体能特异性地裂解鼠疫杆菌,对在细菌分类

  16. A Plague of Bailouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOH; SU; HSING

    2011-01-01

    The EU starts to worry about a possible domino effect from bailouts dragging down the entire euro zone While there has l o n g b e e n anticipation of Portugal’s need for an economic bailout,the country’s formal request on April 6 still dealt a sobering blow to the current crisis in the EU.Portuguese

  17. 明代山西蝗虫灾情统计与时空分布%Statistics and Distribution of Locust Plagues during the Ming Dynasty in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓晨; 牛俊杰

    2016-01-01

    从历史地理学的角度,对明代277年的山西蝗灾进行数据统计分析。结果表明:从时间上看,明代山西蝗灾每4~5年发生一次;在季节上,主要集中在夏秋两季,其中秋季危害最重,具有明显季节差异;在月份上,主要集中在阴历6月;从地域上看,泽州和平阳府蝗灾分布具有普遍性,同时也是蝗灾发生最为频繁的地区,大同府和汾州府蝗灾分布较集中,辽州和汾州府发生蝗灾次数最少,明代山西蝗灾主要沿河分布,主要集中在晋南区,具有明显的地域差异。%The data of locust plagues during 277 years of the Ming Dynasty in Shanxi province are analyzed from the perspective of historical geography. The results show:locust plague stroke every 4-5 years;summer and autumn are the main seasons of plague, especially autumn or June of Chinese calendar. In spatial distribution, Zezhou and Piangyang were commonly and most frequently stricken areas;the plague in Datong and Fenzhou were concentrated;Liaozhou and Fenzhou had least plagues. Locust plagues in Ming Dynasty were along the rivers, mainly in the south of Shanxi province, showing obvious spatial distribution.

  18. Assessment and validation of a suite of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR reference genes for analyses of density-dependent behavioural plasticity in the Australian plague locust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondin Laurence

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is among the most promising species to unravel the suites of genes underling the density-dependent shift from shy and cryptic solitarious behaviour to the highly active and aggregating gregarious behaviour that is characteristic of locusts. This is because it lacks many of the major phenotypic changes in colour and morphology that accompany phase change in other locust species. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the most sensitive method available for determining changes in gene expression. However, to accurately monitor the expression of target genes, it is essential to select an appropriate normalization strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Here we identify eight potential reference genes and examine their expression stability at different rearing density treatments in neural tissue of the Australian plague locust. Results Taking advantage of the new orthologous DNA sequences available in locusts, we developed primers for genes encoding 18SrRNA, ribosomal protein L32 (RpL32, armadillo (Arm, actin 5C (Actin, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a and annexin IX (AnnIX. The relative transcription levels of these eight genes were then analyzed in three treatment groups differing in rearing density (isolated, short- and long-term crowded, each made up of five pools of four neural tissue samples from 5th instar nymphs. SDHa and GAPDH, which are both involved in metabolic pathways, were identified as the least stable in expression levels, challenging their usefulness in normalization. Based on calculations performed with the geNorm and NormFinder programs, the best combination of two genes for normalization of gene expression data following crowding in the Australian plague locust was EF1a and Arm. We applied their use to studying a target gene

  19. Exploring Other Genomes: Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the importance of genomes other than the human genome project and provides information on the identified bacterial genomes Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Leprosy, Cholera, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Bubonic Plague, and plant pathogens. Considers the computer's use in genome studies. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  20. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  1. Preliminary validation of real-time PCR assays for the identification of Yersinia pestis (Authors' personal document)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaso, H.; Jacobs, D.; Eickhoff, M.; Scholz, H.C.; Dahouk, S.al; Kattar, M.M.; Reischl, U.; Plicka, H.; Strand Olsen, J.; Nikkari, S.; Matero, P.; Beuret, C.; Ciammaruconi, A.; Lista, F.; Gala, J.-L.; Broll, H.; Appel, B.; Sellek Cano, R.E.; Ybarra de Villavicencio, M.d.C.; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Indra, A.; Petersen, R.; Neubauer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) is a zoonotic bacterium mainly circulating among rodents and their fleas. Transmission to humans can cause bubonic, pneumonic or septicemic plague with a high case-fatality rate. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic tools are crucial. The objective of this

  2. 2001-2011年青海省人间鼠疫流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis of the human plague from 2001 to 2011 in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔百忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze human plague from 2001 to 2011 in Qinghai Province and to provide a scientific basis for formulating prevention and control measures.Methods Using the descriptive epidemiological methods,epidemiological field survey data and medical records of each case of human plague were collected from 2001 to 2011 in Qinghai Province.Human plague was judged in accordance with the "Plague Diagnostic Criteria" (WS 279-2008).Results From 2001 to 2011,human plague was reported 14 times,with incidence of 38 cases,17 dead and death rate was 44.74% in Qinghai Province.Epidemic areas mainly distributed in the 12 townships of 9 counties.Prevalent season was from May to October,September and October accounted for 57.89% (22/38).There were cases of Tibetan herders and Han farmers,accounting for 76.32% (29/38) and 23.68% (9/38),respectively;onset age from 5 to 67 years,mainly around the age of 20-45 [68.42% (26/38)].The most prevalent clinical types were pneumonic and septicemic plague and initial case was caused by actively contact with infected plague animals.Conclusions Qinghai human plague is mainly caused by approaching the plague infected animals,human plague in Qinghai Province is on the rise,the risk of long-distance transmission of the plague is significantly increased.%目的 分析总结2001-2011年青海省人间鼠疫疫情,为鼠疫防治措施提供科学依据.方法 收集2001-2011年青海省人间鼠疫流行病学现场调查资料及人间鼠疫疫情中各个病例的病历资料,运用流行病学方法进行分析.人感染鼠疫病例按照《鼠疫诊断标准》(WS 279-2008)进行判定.结果 2001-2011年,青海省共发生人间鼠疫14起,发病38人,死亡17人,病死率为44.74%.病例发病地点分布于9个县12个乡;发病时间在5-10月,其中以9月和10月最多,为22例,占57.89% (22/38);病例中有藏族牧民和汉族农民,占76.32% (29/38)和23.68%(9/38);发病年龄在5~67岁,以20~45

  3. Analysis of the Minle County 50 Years of Human Plague Epidemic Situation%民乐县50年来人间鼠疫疫情态势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武廷军; 赵致营

    2014-01-01

    目的了解和掌握民乐县近50年来人间鼠疫疫情动态及流行因素,为制定防控对策提供科学依据。方法对1960~2010年以来民乐县人间鼠疫流行资料进行统计分析。结果50年内民乐县共发生有据可查的人间鼠疫疫情10起16例,死亡14例,死亡率为87.5%。主要传染源是旱獭和鼠疫患者,主要流行季节在夏秋季。结论民乐县发生人间鼠疫主要是猎捕剥食旱獭所致,捕獭是发生人间鼠疫的最直接、最危险的因素。加强宣传教育,严禁捕獭是预防控制人间鼠疫发生的重要措施。%Objective To understand and grasp the Minle County in the past 50 years of human plague epidemic and epidemic factors, to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control. Methods 1960~2010 Minle County of human plague prevalence data for statistical analysis. Results 50 years of Minle County wel documented human plague outbreak occurred in 10 of 16 cases, 14 cases died, the mortality rate was 87.5%. The main source of infection is the marmot and plague patients, mainly popular season in summer and autumn. Conclusion The Minle county human plague is mainly caused by hunting skinning marmots, trapping ot er is the most direct, the most dangerous factors of human plague. To strengthen publicity and education, prohibited fishing ot er is prevention and control measures of human plague occurred.

  4. 1990-2009年青海省鼠疫流行病学分析%Epidemiologic characteristics of natural foci of plague in Qinghai province from 1999 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英; 王虎

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic characteristics of natural foci of plague in Qinghai province in the past twenty years and to provide references for prevention and control of the disease. Methods Excel software was used to analyze the database of human plague cases and the surveillance and survey data of natural foci of plague in Qinghai province from 1999 to 2009. Results Animal plague occurred in Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Plateau and central and southern Plateau year after year, which became key areas of animal plague in Qinghai province. There were many human plague cases every year except 1999, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2008 from 1990 to 2009. Cumulative incidence of human plague was 27 cases, with incidence of 73 cases, 29 cases of death, and death rate 39.73%. Epidemic areas mainly distributed in the 4 states of Yushu, Hainan, Hercynian, Haibei.Prevalent season was from May to October. The most prevalent was pneumonic type among clinical types [60.27%(44/73)]. Conclusions Animal plague has occurred actively in key areas of Qinghai province in recent years,and an outbreak of human plague in some areas is found. Monitoring and early warning should be strengthened in the key areas, and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be implemented to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the plague.%目的 分析青海省鼠疫流行特征,探讨鼠疫流行态势,为制订预防控制对策提供依据.方法应用Excel软件分析1990-2009年青海省地方病预防控制所人间鼠疫病例数据库、鼠疫监测和鼠疫自然疫源地调查资料.结果青海柴达木盆地、青南高原及中南部高原动物间疫情连年发生,是动物鼠疫流行重点区域.人间鼠疫除1999、2000、2002、2007、2008年没有发生外,其他年份均有鼠疫病例发生.累计发生人间鼠疫27起,发病73例,死亡29例,死亡率39.73%.发病地区主要分布在玉树、海南、海西、海北4个州.流行季节高峰期在7-10

  5. Plague surveillance in Brazil: 1983 - 1992 Vigilância sorológica da peste no Brasil no período de 1983 a 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague caused by Yersinia pestis, has persisted in Brazil in several natural foci spread throughout rural areas in the States of Ceara, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. Nationwide surveillance of plague in Brazil based on serological testing started in 1983. We now present an update report of the examinations carried out in our laboratory from 1983 to 1992. The passive hemagglutination test for antibodies against fraction 1A antigen of Y. pestis and the passive hemagglutination inhibition control were employed for testing a total of 220,769 sera. Samples analyzed included 2,856 sera from clinically diagnosed plague cases or suspects, 49,848 sera from rodents of 24 species and 2 species of small wild carnivores (marsupials, 122,890 sera from dogs, and 45,175 sera from cats. Specific antibodies were found in 92 (3.22% human sera; 143 (0.29% sera from rodents of 8 species and from the two species of marsupials, 1,105 (0.90% sera from dogs and 290 (0.64% sera from cats. The presence of significant levels of specific anti-F1A antibodies among rodents and wild or domestic carnivores (dogs and cats indicates that all the Brazilian plague foci remain active in spite of the absence of human cases in some of them.A peste, infecção pela Yersinia pestis, se mantém no Brasil, em vários focos naturais, disseminados na área rural, dos Estados do Ceará, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro. Desde 1983, o teste de hemaglutinação passiva para anticorpos contra a fração antigênica "F1A" de Y. pestis, vem sendo empregado ininterruptamente na vigilância da peste nos focos brasileiros. A especificidade do PHA é controlada pelo teste de inibição da aglutinação. No período de 1983 à 1992 foram examinadas 220.769 amostras de soro, sendo 2.856 de origem humana, 49.848 de roedores pertencentes à 24 espécies e de 2 espécies de

  6. The Pioneer of Cholera Vaccine and Plague Vaccine-Haffkine%霍乱疫苗鼠疫疫苗研制的先驱哈夫金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨微

    2010-01-01

    沃尔德马·莫迪凯·哈夫金(1860-1930),犹太细菌学家,生于乌克兰敖德萨.1884年获得敖德萨大学科学博士学位,1889年进入巴黎巴斯德研究所工作.曾先后致力于研制霍乱疫苗与鼠疫疫苗,经自身试验后,在英属印度推行大规模的人群试验,证明相对安全有效并推广使用,挽救了众多生命.1902年,因马考魏事件,哈夫金被误判承担污染鼠疫疫苗之责,在1907年得到澄清,被誉称为"犹太人的琴纳".%Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine(1860-1930), a Jewish bacteriologist , was born in Odessa, Ukraine. He got the doctor's degree of science of Odessa University in 1884 and entered the Pasteur Institute in 1889. Then he successively committed himself to developing cholera vaccine and plague vaccine. After testing them to himself, he set up extensive field trials in British India to prove the safety and efficacy. Further inoculation saved many lives. Later he was accused for the contamination of plague vaccine in Mulkowal Disaster in 1902, and finally exonerated in 1907. Haffkine was hailed as "Jewish Jenner"

  7. YopP-expressing variant of Y. pestis activates a potent innate immune response affording cross-protection against yersiniosis and tularemia [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available Plague, initiated by Yersinia pestis infection, is a rapidly progressing disease with a high mortality rate if not quickly treated. The existence of antibiotic-resistant Y. pestis strains emphasizes the need for the development of novel countermeasures against plague. We previously reported the generation of a recombinant Y. pestis strain (Kim53ΔJ+P that over-expresses Y. enterocolitica YopP. When this strain was administered subcutaneously to mice, it elicited a fast and effective protective immune response in models of bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic plague. In the present study, we further characterized the immune response induced by the Kim53ΔJ+P recombinant strain. Using a panel of mouse strains defective in specific immune functions, we observed the induction of a prompt protective innate immune response that was interferon-γ dependent. Moreover, inoculation of mice with Y. pestis Kim53ΔJ+P elicited a rapid protective response against secondary infection by other bacterial pathogens, including the enteropathogen Y. enterocolitica and the respiratory pathogen Francisella tularensis. Thus, the development of new therapies to enhance the innate immune response may provide an initial critical delay in disease progression following the exposure to highly virulent bacterial pathogens, extending the time window for successful treatment.

  8. Predictors for abundance of Rattus tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci%云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地室内黄胸鼠丰盛度预测因子的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹家祥; 钟佑宏; 杜春红; 董兴齐; 杨淑惠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the predictors on the abundance of Rattus (R.) tanezumi in households of commensal rodent plague foci.Methods Thirty natural villages that experienced previous plague cases in Lianghe county,Yunnan province,were selected followed by random selection of 20 households in each village through computer technique.Live traps were set in households to capture small mammals which were then identified to species in the field according to their morphological features.Data on potential factors for abundance of R.tanezumi were collected through questionnaires and field observation and were coded and computerized using EpiData software and further analyzed by hurdle regression model under R software.Results A total of 166 rodents (133 R.tanezumi and 33 Suucus murinus) were captured.Results from final multilevel hurdle regression model showed that the likelihood of R.tanezumi captures increased by 1.67-to 2.76-fold in households belonged to Dai ethnic families that stored foodstuff in metal pails,often raising dogs,and having adjacent houses.The number of R.tanezumi captures increased by 2.18-fold in the villages where over 80% of the households would raise chickens.In the villages with communal latrine,the likelihood and the number of R.tanezumi capture increased 1.93-fold and 2.38-fold,respectively.While the likelihood of R.tanezumi captures would reduce by 45%-61% in those households where there were cats and cattle being raised and maize grown in the village.The number of R.tanezumi captures would reduce by 63% in the households where there were outside toilets.Conclusion The abundance of R.tanczumi seemed to be closely related to the ecological environment factors.Programs on plague control and prevention should relate to ecological factors that influencing the abundance of R.tanezumi.%目的 研究家鼠鼠疫疫源地影响室内黄胸鼠丰盛度的因子.方法 在云南省梁河县选择30个鼠疫历史疫源村,每个村随机抽取20户

  9. Plague surveillance and control in Longlin county Guangxi from 2000 to 2009%2000-2009年广西隆林县鼠疫监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树武; 梁江明; 曾竣; 韦锦平; 陈达宗; 倪尔江; 廖生华; 黄利荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the outcome of surveillance results on plague and to provide the evidences for the policy making in Longlin county Guangxi. Methods The epidemic data and the surveillance results of plague were analyzed and assessed with epidemiology methods in Longlin county Guangxi from 2000 to 2009, and the density of rodents, the rodents infected with flea, flea index and other indicators were calculated. Regional composition of the rats and fleas were analyzed. Results A totally of 4829 rats were captured and 4737 fleas were collected in the past 10 years, Rattus Flavipestus(81.92%,3956/4829) and Xenopsylla Cheopis (79.04%,3744/4737) were dominant species. The annual average density of rodents, the rodents infected with flea, index of flea were 3.30%(4829/146 206), 27.99%(1351/4827) and 0.98(4737/4827), respectively. A totally of 4792 rats were examined and 10 strains Yersinia Pestis were isolated. Indirect hemorrhagic assessed(IHA) was used to test the F1 antibody against plague in the blood serum of the rats and indicator animals, and 3 positive rats and 24 positive animals were found, respectively. Twenty seven natural villages in 3 towns had been involved in the plague. Conclusions The plague foci exists in Longlin county of Guangxi province. The plague foci in the areas have the same feature with the plague foci of Rattus Flavipectus. There is a potential risk for plague in this region, we should improve the quality of surveillance, increase indicator animals of the plague, and try to apply new surveillance method.%目的 研究近10年来广西隆林县鼠疫监测结果,为制订鼠疫防治对策提供依据.方法 收集2000-2009年广西隆林县鼠疫监测结果及鼠疫疫情资料,运用分析流行病学方法进行分析,计算鼠密度、鼠体染蚤率、蚤指数等指标,分析区域内鼠及蚤的构成.结果 2000-2009年,共捕鼠4829只,隶属2目3科11种,年平均鼠密度为3.30%(4829/146 206),以黄胸鼠为优势鼠种(81

  10. Estimation of stochastic frontier models with fixed-effects through Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emvalomatis, G.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of nonlinear fixed-effects models is plagued by the incidental parameters problem. This paper proposes a procedure for choosing appropriate densities for integrating the incidental parameters from the likelihood function in a general context. The densities are based on priors that are upd

  11. 攀枝花市鼠疫自然疫源地调查%Investigation on natural plague foci in Panzhihua city, Sichuan, 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖华; 陈鑫莹; 沈来红; 唐刚; 黄进; 封正娟; 张金太; 刘红旗; 李帆; 段兴德; 赵文红; 洪梅; 刘伦光; 汪立茂; 祁腾; 金忠强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the possibility of the existence of plague in Panzhihua city, and provide the basis for the prevention and control of plague in the future. Methods The cage/clip capture method was used to catch animals and collected fleas off the animals were identified. Yersinia pestis in specimens was isolated and identified. The indirect hemagglutination test and colloidal gold test were used to detect Y. pestis F1 antigen/antibody as indication of plague in animals. Results Captured 192 rodents belonged to 3 orders, 3 families, 10 species, capture rate was 4.14%, Mus musculus was the predominant species, accounting for 48.96%; five kinds of animals, 25 individuals,harbored fleas(5 families, 5 genera, and 6 species), flea infestation rate was 13.02% and flea index was 0.37. Xenopsylla cheopis was the predominant species(98.46%)indoors, but Monopsyllus anisus outdoors 83.33%(5/6). In total 283 indicator animal serum samples, 28 from dogs, 2 from cats and 1 from pig, were collected and 31 tested positive, the positive rate was 10.95%. Retrospective study showed meager possibility of plague outbreak. The most(96.77%)indicating animals(seropositive) were locally raised, and 83.87% was captive. Conclusion The enzootic transmission and risk of outbreak do exist in Panzhihua city when one considers the geographical landscape, host animals and vector insects, as well as the similarities to the neighboring Yunnan Yulong plague loci, doubled with seropositive in host animals.%目的:调查攀枝花市鼠疫自然疫源地情况,为鼠疫防控工作提供依据。方法2014年3-12月采用笼(夹)捕法捕获小兽,对捕获动物及蚤类进行鉴定,检材分离鼠疫耶尔森菌(鼠疫菌);利用间接血凝试验和胶体金试验检测鼠疫F1抗原及抗体;采集犬、猫、猪等指示动物血清检测鼠疫F1抗体。结果共捕获小兽192只,隶属3目3科10种,捕获率为4.14%,以小家鼠为优势种,占48.96%(94/192

  12. 2015年北京市鼠疫监测结果分析%Analysis of Surveillance of Plague of Beijing in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 黎新宇; 窦相峰; 关增智; 李秋生; 王小梅; 李爽; 陈艳伟; 田丽丽; 李旭; 王全意

    2016-01-01

    目的:描述北京市鼠疫人间病例早期预警监测结果和本地可染疫动物种群及鼠疫耶尔森氏菌感染状况。方法在全市各级各类医疗机构开展鼠疫人间病例筛查,在门头沟区、延庆区、怀柔区、密云区和顺义区5个区设立监测点,使用夹夜法捕捉小型兽类,使用间接血凝试验测定鼠疫耶尔森氏菌F1抗体。结果2015年全年未发现鼠疫急热待查和疑似病例,鼠间疫情监测共捕获99只啮齿类动物,鼠密度为2.83%,共包含了4种类型:大林姬鼠、北社鼠、岩松鼠和褐家鼠。77份鼠血清中未检出鼠疫F1抗体。结论北京市存在已确定的鼠疫可染疫动物社鼠和大林姬鼠,且为优势种群,但目前血清学监测结果未发现鼠疫菌感染。%Objective To describe early surveillance of human plague and to investigate the species composition of small mammals and the infection of Yersini pestis in natural environment of Beijing. Methods The case of human plague surveillance was conducted in all of the hospitals of Beijing. The small mammals were captured in the surveillance sites located in Mentougou, Yanqing, Huairou, Miyun and Shunyi districts. The species were identified and the density was calculated according to the trap-at-night method. The blood samples were colleted from the heart and the anti-Yersini pestis F1 antibody was detected by serological method. Results The human suspect acute-fever to be determined and probable plague were not found in early surveillance. The small mammals’ density was 2.83/100. The 99 captured mammals could be identified as four kinds of species which were Apodemus peninsulae, Niviventer confucianus, Sciurotamias davidianus and Rattus norvegicus. The serological F1 antibodies were all negative in 77 blood samples of captured small mammals. Conclusion There are Apodemus peninsulae and Niviventer confucianus that could infected by Yersini pestis and with highest density. However

  13. Histopatologia da infecção por Yersinia pestis em roedores de focos de peste do Nordeste brasileiro Histopathology of Yersinia pestis infection in rodents from plague foci of Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho mostra a histopatologia da infecção pela Yersinia pestis, entre as diferentes espécies de roedores silvestres e comensais (cricetídeos, equimídeos, murídeos e cavídeos que ocorrem na zona endêmica de peste do Nordeste do Brasil. Estes roedores foram encontrados naturalmente infectados nos campos ou inoculados experimentalmente no laboratório (vias percutânea, subcutânea ou picada de pulgas com cepas locais e/ou estrangeiras de Yersiniapestis. Quase todos os animais, exceto alguns dos cavídeos, desenvolveram a forma bubosepticêmica da peste. Entre as lesões encontradas, a necrose coagulativa multifocal do fígado, a pneumonite intersticial aguda difusa e a atrofia linfoide do baço, podem, por sua constância, ser consideradas como os principais indicadores histológicos da infecção pestosa, embora estas lesões não sejam exclusivas da peste. A diversidade e a intensidade das lesões entre os Zygodontomys lasiurus pixuna, podem explicar a mortalidade elevada desta espécie e a disseminação da peste nos focos naturais do Nordeste brasileiro. Cricetídeos e murídeos mostraram alterações histopatológicas qualitativamente semelhantes. A resistência dos cavídeos à infecção pestosa foi evidenciada pela sobrevida desses roedores à fase aguda da infecção e pelo desenvolvimento de uma reação histiocitária interna, delimitando as áreas abscedadas. è possível que estas lesões crônicas abriguem bacilos virulentos, que permitirão a reinfecção periódica das pulgas e conseqüente reativação do processo epizoótico.In this paper, the histopathological aspects of plague infection in different species of wild and domestic rodents (cricetidae, echymidae, muridae and cavidae are described. All of them had been trapped in endemic plague areas and harboured natural infection, while others were laboratory infected by different routes (percutaneous, subcutaneous rout, fleas bite. Several national and

  14. Estudo do roedor Akodon arviculoides, Wagner, 1842 (Cricetidae: importância nos focos pestosos no Brasil The rodent Akodon arviculoides, Wagner, 1842 (Cricetidae: importance in plague focus of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Rodrigues de Almeida

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência do roedor Akodon arviculoides (Wagner, 1842 no foco pestoso do Agreste pernambucano, sua capacidade de sobrevivência, reprodução e o desenvolvimento no cativeiro, a susceptibilidade à infecção pela Yersinia pestis e a importãncia desse roedor nos focos pestosos do Brasil.The occurrence of the rodent Akodon arviculoides Wagner, 1842 in the plague focus of the "Agreste" region of the State of Pernambuco and a report on its ability for survival, reproduction and development in captivity, its susceptibility to Yersinia pestis infection and the role of this rodent species in Brazilian plague foci are reported.

  15. Serum epidemiological investigation of F1 antibody of population having healed from plague in Yunnan Province%云南省腺鼠疫康复人群血清F1抗体流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽琼; 苏鹏; 宋志忠

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解云南省腺鼠疫康复人群血清F1抗体的水平分布和影响因素,为鼠疫防治提供理论依 据.方法 采用病例对照研究.以云南省1986-2005年的鼠疫监测资料为依据,设计调查表,确定调查地点和人群.采集云南省23个县的腺鼠疫康复人群血清248份作为病例组,采集7个县的有EV活菌疫苗接种史的健康人群血清295份作为人工免疫组,采集1个非疫区县的健康人群血清235份作为阴性对照组.用间接血凝试验进行检测.阳性判定标准为血清滴度≥1:20.结果 ①疫区F1抗体阳性率[22.10%(120/543)]与非疫区[0(0/235)]比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2=44.80,P0.05).④89名F1抗体阳性的腺鼠疫康复者发病时的血清滴度和康复后的滴度比较,差异无统计学意义(t=1.23,P>0.05).结论 ①云南省家鼠鼠疫疫源地人群鼠疫F1抗体阳性检出地均分布在疫区内,其地理分布与疫区分布相吻合.②自然感染鼠疫后.约有1/3的腺鼠疫康复人群能形成长期免疫,仍有2/3的人有再次感染的可能性,所形成的自然获得性免疫,其保护率和保护效果要好于接种EV活菌疫苗形成的人工获得性免疫.③人群感染鼠疫恢复后,F1抗体阳性检出率不受年龄、性别、民族、职业的影响.对于经过一定时间仍能检出F1抗体的部分腺鼠疫康复人群而言,时间的消长并不影响抗体滴度的变化,甚至能长期维持较高水平.%Objective To provide theoretical and scientific evidences for plague control,through understanding the F1 antibody level distribution and affected factor of population having healed from plague from plague natural focus of Rat.flavipectus in Yunnan Province.Methods The places and population investigated were chosen according to plague surveillant data in Yunnan Province from 1986 to 2005,using caso-control study and quesfionary. All samples were detected by indirect hemagghtination(IHA),including 248 serum samples from

  16. Plague in Modern Tianjin and Medical Relief of Charitable Organizations%近代天津的瘟疫流行与慈善机构的医疗救济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任云兰

    2012-01-01

      近代天津是一个瘟疫多发的城市,尤其是在水旱灾害频发的年份。瘟疫流行期间,天津市各慈善团体均致力于疫病的防治、控制和治疗。他们的善举有效地控制了疫情,拯救了许多人的生命,尤其是士绅倡导的“防疫”理念为近代公共卫生体制的确立提供了市民基础。%  Modern Tianjin was a city where plague occurred frequently, especially in time of flood and drought. When plague occurred, the charitable organizations in the city were devoted to controlling the plague and relieving the patients. Their charities were very successful. The sense of anti-epidemic disease advocated by the local gentry provided the foundation for the establishment of modern system of public health.

  17. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the "workhorse" of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  18. Transfer and spread of fleas and relating effects on plague epidemic in west China%中国西部蚤类的转移和扩散及其对鼠疫流行的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎唯; 梁继红

    2010-01-01

    Flea,known as a vector of plague,is an ectozoa of warm-blood animals.The transfer or exchange of flea among the hosts has played an important role in the natural plasuc epidemic.Furthermore,the transfer or exchange of flea between the primary and potential hosts not only has effects on natural plague epidemic,but also plays a supplementary and consolidating mh in nature location and preservation of plague.To prevent the plague epidemic,we should keep away from the sick or dead animals,such as some herbivores (sheep,red deer,roe,rabbit,etc.)and predators(fox,ferretai,tigerferret,lynx,etc.).In the event of an epidemic,we should focus on the location,eliminate rodents and fleas to avoid further spread of plague by infected fleas.%蚤类是温血动物的体外寄生虫,又是鼠疫的特异性媒介.蚤类在宿主动物种群内的转移或交换,是保存鼠疫自然疫源性动物疾病流行的一个重要环节.主要宿主或多宿主疫源地与次要宿主和偶然宿主之间蚤类的转移或交换,不仅对动物间鼠疫的流行起到推波助澜的作用,而且对鼠疫自然疫源地的性质和鼠疫菌的长期保存亦起到补充和巩固的作用.为防制人间鼠疫的发生,除不接触病、死疫源动物外,尤应禁止剥食自毙草食动物(羊、马鹿、狍、兔等)及食肉动物(狐、艾鼬、虎鼬、猞猁等).一旦发生人间鼠疫,应就地扑灭.在处理疫区(点)时,必须同时灭鼠灭蚤,以防止疫蚤的转移和扩散,达到控制疫源蔓延,进而避免发生人间鼠疫的目的 .

  19. Investigation on potential plague focus in region of Kai County in three gorges reservoir area%三峡库区开县鼠疫疫源地调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛德强; 李洪; 陈小兵

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find out if there is plague focus and the main plague hosts and vectors in the region of Kai County in three gorges reservoir area, and to identify the distributive region and the features of plague foci. METHODS Rodents were captured by cages and identified into species. Flea was counted and antibody of plague F1 was detected by IHA. RESULTS 193 rodents, including 161 rattus and 32 insectivora were caught, which were belonged to 6 species, 3 genera, and 1 families. Total density of rodents was 3.56%, the density of R. Flavipectus was 2.63%. 107 fleas were caught and the rate of rodents with fleas was 18.65% , the total flea index was 0.565. The rate of Rilavipectus with fleas was 18.88% and the flea index of R. Flavipectus was 0.566. There were 3 species of fleas belonged to 3 genera of 3 families, among them Leptopsylla segnis were 96.33%, and were the dominant fleas species, among them Xenopsylla cheopis was 2.75%. No Fl antibody of plague was detected in 193 rodents and 20 dogs. 3 000 papers to sick fleas were placed and 6 fleas were captured. CONCLUSION No plague is found in the region of Kai County in three gorges reservoir area, but there is potential risk for plague because of the widely exiting rodentia animal and flea.%目的 了解三峡库区开县是否存在鼠疫疫源地及主要宿主动物和媒介蚤类的种群构成及数量分布情况.方法 采用笼夜法捕鼠,对捕获鼠类及检获蚤类进行鉴定;计算鼠带蚤率和蚤指数;用鼠疫IHA法检测鼠疫F1抗体.结果 共捕获鼠形动物193只,总鼠密度为3.56%,黄胸鼠总密度为2.63%.啮齿目动物161只,分1科3属6种;食虫目动物32只,为1科1属1种.检获蚤107匹,鼠染蚤率为18.65%,总蚤指数为0.565,其中黄胸鼠染蚤率为18.88%,蚤指数为0.566.鼠体表蚤经鉴定分3科3属3种,缓慢细蚤(96.33%)占绝对优势,主要来自黄胸鼠,印鼠客蚤占2.75%.采集193份鼠血清和20份犬血清检测鼠疫F1抗

  20. Environmental drivers of Yersinia pestis - a holistic perspective on Medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentgen, U.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated some evidence for a link between climate variability and plague (Yersinia pestis) dynamics in Central Asia and during most of the 20th century. An intensification of plague outbreaks via population peaks in its host-species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) and its fleas (Xenopsylla spp) has been found to occur during periods of warmer spring and wetter summer climate. This is important, as human epidemics of plague ultimately originate in its wildlife reservoirs. Given the fact that Medieval Europe was strongly devastated by the Black Death - the second pandemic after the Justinian plague ~540AD, and that the worldwide highest quality and quantity of climate proxy data exist for Europe, we here present, for the first time, a holistic approach to enhance understanding of the mid-14th century Black Death. This is of primary importance not only for medical/epidemiological research, but also for other scientific communities, because the Black Death disease had a sustainable impact on the socio-economic development, culture, art, and religion of Medieval Europe. Palaeoclimatic records of annually resolved European temperature and drought variability are compiled, a high-resolution time-series of anthropogenic deforestation is utilized, documentary archives of socio-economic relevance are considered, and the animal-born plague bacterium is placed in the ecological web. Considering the European/North Atlantic sector and the last millennium, periods of high solar radiation and reduced volcanic activity shift the North Atlantic Oscillation into a generally positive mode, yielding towards warmer temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. We now argue that increased internal circulation resulted in an overall wetter and warmer climate ~1350AD, which most likely was able to promote the prevalence of existing and widespread Yersinia pestis bacillus. Resulting outbreaks of bubonic plague could have been also supported by the

  1. Prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci in populations of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in France: evaluating the threat to native crayfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Filipová

    Full Text Available Aphanomyces astaci, the crayfish plague pathogen, first appeared in Europe in the mid-19(th century and is still responsible for mass mortalities of native European crayfish. The spread of this parasite across the continent is especially facilitated by invasive North American crayfish species that serve as its reservoir. In France, multiple cases of native crayfish mortalities have been suggested to be connected with the presence of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, which is highly abundant in the country. It shares similar habitats as the native white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes and, when infected, the signal crayfish might therefore easily transmit the pathogen to the native species. We investigated the prevalence of A. astaci in French signal crayfish populations to evaluate the danger they represent to local populations of native crayfish. Over 500 individuals of Pacifastacus leniusculus from 45 French populations were analysed, plus several additional individuals of other non-indigenous crayfish species Orconectes limosus, O. immunis and Procambarus clarkii. Altogether, 20% of analysed signal crayfish tested positive for Aphanomyces astaci, and the pathogen was detected in more than half of the studied populations. Local prevalence varied significantly, ranging from 0% up to 80%, but wide confidence intervals suggest that the number of populations infected by A. astaci may be even higher than our results show. Analysis of several individuals of other introduced species revealed infections among two of these, O. immunis and P. clarkii. Our results confirm that the widespread signal crayfish serves as a key reservoir of Aphanomyces astaci in France and therefore represents a serious danger to native crayfish species, especially the white-clawed crayfish. The prevalence in other non-indigenous crayfish should also be investigated as they likely contribute to pathogen transmission in the country.

  2. Effects of Immunity in Astragalan Adjuvan on Swine Plague Vaccine on Piglets%黄芪多糖佐剂对猪瘟疫苗免疫效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德尚; 郭爱珍

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effects of swine plague antibody which was induced by swine plague vaccine in astragalan adjuvant on piglets. 40 piglets were randomly divided into 4 groups (n= 10), those groups were respectively normal sodium (NS)group, swine plague vaccine (SPV) group, astragalan injection (AGI) group and astragalan injection-swine plague vaccine (AGI-SPV) group. They were respectively injected drugs into musculi colli on the 20th day and 85th of piglets were born after were taken suction blood (5 mL) for detection from precaval vein, such as the NS 3 mL was injected for 3 d, SPV 1 mL for 1 d and NS 3 mL for 2 d, AGI 10 mg/kg for 3 d, AGI 10 mg/kg for 3 d with the SPV 1 mL for 1 d,and then they were accordingly taken suction blood on the 35th and 100th day for detecting the IgG, IgM, IgA, y-Globulin (γ-G) and swine plague antibody (SP-Ab) and so on. Those γ-G, IgG, IgM and IgA of the AGI group and AGI-SPV group are significantly higher than the NS group and the SPV group (P<0.05); the blocking rate of swine plague antibody of SPV group and the AGI-SPV group are significantly higher than themselves on the 35th and 20th day, as well the AGI-SPV group is higher than the SPV group, too.The AGI can be used for immunologic adjuvant for improving immunity of piglets on swine plague vaccine, the mechanism of action might be concerned with raising the immunoglobulin and facilitating the swine plague antibody-formaing.%本试验旨在探讨以黄芪多糖(astragalan,AG)为佐剂对仔猪猪瘟疫苗诱导猪瘟抗体的影响.将20日龄仔猪40头随机分成4组(n=10),即生理盐水(normal sodium,NS)组、猪瘟疫苗(swine plague vaccine,SPV)组、黄芪多糖注射液(astragalan injection,AGI)组以及黄芪多糖注射液和猪瘟疫苗(astragalan injection and swine plague vaccine,AGI-SPV)组.各组于前腔静脉采血5 mL(用于检测)后,分别于仔猪出生第20、85天连续3 d颈部肌肉注射NS 3 mL×3 d,SPV 1 mt×1 d+NS 3mL×2 d,AGI 10 mg/kg×3 d

  3. 2007年宁夏西吉县鼠疫自然疫源地调查%Survey of natural foci of plague in Xiji county, Ningxia in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏卫程; 乔富贵; 朱良俊; 王兴虎; 李忠社

    2010-01-01

    Objective To learn the plague's host animals and parasitic flea composition, and to investigate the natural foci of plague in Xiji county in order to provide basic information for plague prevention and control. Methods The Citellus alaschanicus density, nocturnal rodents, the body flea, the burrow track flea, the nest flea were investigated in 8 townships (town) of Xiji county from June 11 2007 to July 25 2007. Specimens of small mammalian, fleas were collected for bacteriological and serological testing. Results The average density of the main host Citellus alaschanicus was 0.85 per hectare. The nocturnal mouse capture rate was 0.80%(24/2987).The survey found 16 species of small mammals that belonging to 3 orders, 9 families and 16 species with Citellus alaschanicus the dominant species. The Citellus alaschanicus had 2.84 fleas per body. Four families and 16 species of fleas were identified in the areas. The Citellus alaschanicus and Citellophilus Tesquorum Mongolicus were the dominant species. Plague bacteriology and serology tests were negative. Conclusions The study shows that the area is suitable for the formation of natural foci of Citellus alaschanicus plague. Surveillance is an important measure for prevention and control of the plague.%目的 了解西吉县鼠疫宿主动物及其寄生蚤的种类构成,调查西吉县鼠疫疫源情况,为预防控制鼠疫流行提供科学依据.方法 2007年6月11日至7月25日,对西吉县8个乡(镇)进行了黄鼠密度、夜行鼠、体蚤、洞干蚤、窝巢蚤调查,同时采集标本进行细菌学和血清学检验.结果主要宿主阿拉善黄鼠平均密度为0.85只/hm2,夜行鼠捕获率为0.80%(24/2987),调查发现小型兽类16种,隶属3目9科16种,以黄鼠为优势种.鼠体蚤指数为2.84,发现蚤类4科16种,以方形黄鼠蚤蒙古亚种为优势种.鼠疫细菌学、血清学检验均为阴性.结论该调查地区具备形成阿拉善黄鼠鼠疫自然疫源地的条件,开展鼠疫监

  4. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  5. 明清时期陕北疫灾及其社会应对述论%On the Plagues and the Relevant Disaster Relief in Northern Shaanxi in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟变芳

    2012-01-01

    明清时期,受自然、社会等因素的影响,陕北地区鼠疫、霍乱、天花等疫灾频发。这些疫灾大多爆发于春、夏、秋季节,且在空间分布上表现出鲜明的地域性特征。面对频发多变的各种疫灾,明清朝野采取了蠲免赋税等一系列应对措施。但宥于时代,尤其是陕北地区相对落后的社会经济以及有限的救灾能力,各种疫灾仍给陕北地区造成了很大危害,甚而加剧了社会矛盾,成为引发陕北农民起义的重要因素之一。%Due to its natural and social factors during Ming and Qing dynasties,plagues broke out frequently in northern Shaanxi,such as pestilence,cholera,smallpox and so forth,which mainly erupted in Spring,Autumn and Winter,but there were evident differences among areas.Faced with the complicated plagues,the governments of the Ming and Qing took a series of measures to provide disaster relief,such as tax-exempt,as well as the local governments and the local people.However,limited by the actuality of that age,especially the relatively backward society and economy and the limited ability of relief,plagues still caused great damage to the folks of the northern Shaanxi,and also intensified the social contradictions and become one of the most important factors which initiated peasant rebellions of northern Shaanxi.

  6. Why Did the Plagues devastate? ——A Case Study of Medical-environmental History%瘟疫何以肆虐?——一项医疗环境史的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化成; 沈琦

    2012-01-01

    The Topic of "Why did the Plagues devastate" is related with environmental history and medical-social history, but neither research field can covered such topic completely. Therefore, we propose the concept of "medical- environmental history" and conduct an environmental analysis around the plague itself, taking the Black Death as a case study. The settlement environment of Medieval times provided the conditions for the exist of the infectious source, as well as the close coexistence of rats, fleas and people. Such phenomenon facilitated the rapid spread of the plagues. The convenient transport created the conditions for the acceleration of the plagues’ inter-settlement and trans-regional spread. The backward medical prevention and treatment could not stop the ravages of the plagues and even went to the wrong way in light of the unreasonable efforts. The disease’s occurrence, spread and response to the different environments of the different regions, would lead to the varying degrees of the devastation.%"瘟疫何以肆虐"的问题,既与环境史相关,亦与医疗社会史不可分,但并不能用其中任何一者涵盖之;由此,我们提出"医疗环境史"的概念,以黑死病为个案,围绕瘟疫本身进行环境分析。在14世纪英国的聚落环境中,传染源普遍存在,鼠、蚤、人紧密共存,便于瘟疫的传播;交通运输的便利,利于瘟疫的跨聚落和跨地区流传;落后的医疗防治水平不能阻止瘟疫的肆虐,甚至会因不合理的举措而适得其反。上述病发、流传和应对环境还存在地区性的差异,从而导致瘟疫肆虐程度之不同。

  7. Viability of Arctan Model of f(R) Gravity for Late-time Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Koushik; Patel, Avani

    2016-01-01

    $f(R)$ modifications of Einstein's gravity is an interesting possibility to explain the late time acceleration of the Universe. In this work we explore the cosmological viability of one such $f(R)$ modification proposed in (Kruglov:2013). We show that the model violates fifth-force constraints. The model is also plagued with the issue of curvature singularity in a spherically collapsing object, where the effective scalar field reaches to the point of diverging scalar curvature.

  8. 动脉粥样硬化斑块逆转的研究进展%Advanced research progress on atherosclerosis plague regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗; 孙桂波; 罗云; 孙晓波

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death all over the world.Although now many drugs have been widely used for the treatment of the disease , there are still many patients who cannot be cured , especially those with advanced atherosclerosis plague.So the research on the regression of atherosclerosis , es-pecially rapid regression is in need .The research on reverse of atherosclerosis has some breakthrough in recent twenty years , especially in the area of the rapid reversal of advanced plaques , and some new mechanisms have been confirmed , including mac-rophage migration , polarity of macrophages and the relationship between the macrophages and the change of blood lipid , which offers hope for finding more effective drugs in future .%动脉粥样硬化是常见的心血管疾病,是全世界最主要的致死原因之一。尽管现在许多治疗该疾病的药物已被广泛应用,但是仍然有许多病人不能被治愈,尤其是那些晚期的病人,所以研究动脉粥样硬化的逆转,尤其是快速逆转是非常有必要的。近二十年来关于动脉粥样硬化逆转的研究获得了一些突破性的进展,尤其是在晚期斑块的快速逆转方面,找到了一些新的机制,包括巨噬细胞的迁移、巨噬细胞的极性转化以及血脂变化与巨噬细胞之间的关系等。这些新的机制为我们找到更加有效的治疗药物带来了新的希望。

  9. OBESITY : A MODERN DAY PLAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    YADAV, YATENDRA KUMAR

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is the presence of excess body fat. Unfortunately obesity is taken as a mere cosmetic problem and not a medical one. Today obesity is being ‘dealt’ with more by the self-proclaimed fitness experts running the rapidly mushrooming fitness centres rather than by medical professionals. But rather than merely a cosmetic problem, obesity should be viewed as a disease because there are multiple biologic hazards at surprisingly low levels of excess fat With the rapid pace of industrialisation...

  10. Imaging in plague. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Rodriguez, A.A.; Turnbull, G.L.; Reeves, T.A.

    1987-09-01

    An 8-year-old boy presented with elevated temperature, malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, mesenteric adenitis, and septic shock. Cultures of biopsied abdominal lymph nodes as well as the blood grew Yersinia pestes. The boy's condition improved after two weeks of chloramphenicol and cefotaxime (Claforan). Two days after stopping intravenous antibiotic therapy, the patient again became febrile and complained of abdominal pain. Abdominal imaging with /sup III/In labeled leukocytes did not show any abnormalities, however, /sup 67/Ge-citrate scintigraphy demonstrated an abnormal focus of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake within a confluence of necrosed lymph nodes with the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. In addition, abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake was seen within the left hip region. Correlative imaging with computed tomography is also presented.

  11. Technical problems plague new planes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti lennuameti kontrolli käigus selgus, et airBalticu uute Bombardier Q400 NextGen lennukite uksed ei sulge piisavalt hästi, et tagada õiget õhurõhku kabiinis. Lennukite omanik on Nordic Aviation Capital

  12. Locust Plague in Huaihe Basin in Anhui Province in the Qing Dynasty and Its Social Response --A Study Based on the Local Chronicles%清代安徽淮河流域蝗灾及其社会应对--基于地方志的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩红

    2015-01-01

    蝗灾是农业社会仅次于水旱灾害之后的又一大灾害,“凶饥之因有三:曰水,曰旱,曰蝗。地有高卑,雨泽有偏被。水旱为灾,尚多幸免之处;惟旱极而蝗,数千里间草木皆尽,或牛马毛,幡帜皆尽,其害尤惨,过于水旱”[1]。淮河流域地处中国南北气候分界线上,南北气候的差异造成这一带旱涝异常,因此,了解这一地区的蝗灾,对于理清蝗灾与旱灾的联系,以及还原清代这一地区的蝗灾及治蝗具有重要意义。%Locust plague is just next to flood and drought disasters in the agricultural society. “There are three reasons for the terrible famine, the flood, the drought and the locust plague. The fields are rough, when it rains it would get flooded. When it gets flooded or dry, some of the filed can escape from the famine. However, when the locust plague comes, all the trees and grass would get eaten out. Its harm is more terrible than the flood and the drought. Huaihe river basin is located on the divide line of the north and south China climate. The difference between north and south climate causes drought and flood in this area. Therefore, acquaintance with the locust plague in this area is of great significance to clarify the locust plague links with the drought, and reduce locust plague in this area.

  13. Epidemics Don’t Cause Wars, But They Can End ’Em

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Disease in Europe, and bubonic plague in India have caused disruptions in tourism and trade. Developing nations are being required to devote increasing...under consideration. HEPATITIS C Hepatitis C is a viral infection from the same family as Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, and West...retinal injury by the virus occurs in 1-10% of cases. A vaccine for use in cattle is under study. DENGUE FEVER Dengue Fever is caused by four

  14. Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize tha...

  15. Peste neumónica primaria con transmisión intrahospitalaria en La Libertad, Perú 2010 Primary pneumonic plague with nosocomial transmission in La Libertad, Peru 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Donaires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La peste neumónica es una forma clínica de peste, de baja frecuencia y alta letalidad, transmitida por la inhalación directa de Yersinia pestis proveniente de un animal o de persona a persona. Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos de un brote de peste neumónica primaria humana en el norte de Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los casos confirmados de peste neumónica primaria presentados en un brote ocurrido en la región de La Libertad, en el mes de julio de 2010, asimismo, se efectuó la búsqueda e investigación de contactos. Resultados. Se identificó el caso índice y tres casos adicionales, de estos últimos, dos fueron infecciones intrahospitalarias relacionadas con el caso índice. La presentación clínica inicial se caracterizó por fiebre de inicio súbito, escalofríos, mialgias y dolor torácico y evolución en menos de 24 horas a hipotensión arterial y cianosis. El inicio del tratamiento específico varió de 2 a 12 días, observándose que los casos con inicio precoz de tratamiento tuvieron un mejor resultado clínico. La letalidad fue de 50% (2/4. Conclusión. Se evidenció la transmisión intrahospitalaria de peste neumónica en el Perú con manifestaciones graves y alta letalidad.Pneumonic plague is one of the clinical forms of plague, of low frequency and high mortality, transmitted by direct inhalation of Yersinia pestis coming from an animal or from person to person. Objective. To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cases of primary pneumonic plague in an outbreak in the north of Peru. Materials and methods. The clinical records of the confirmed cases of primary pneumonic plague presenting in an outbreak occurring in La Libertad, in July 2010, were reviewed, also the search and contact investigation was performed. Results. The index case was identified, as well as three additional cases, out of these, two were

  16. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  17. Analysis of potential risk factor of plague in Wanzhou section of the There Gorges Reservoir area%2001-2009年三峡水库万州段鼠疫潜在危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 万时学; 毛德强; 冉贞卫; 丁建武; 李丹; 刘纯华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To find out the potential risk factor of plague in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of plague. Methods Rodents were captured by rat traps/cages at night and identified into species in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area from 2001 to 2009. Flea was counted and serum antibodies against plague F1 of rats, cats and dogs were detected by indirect hemagglutination (IHA). Plague surveillances were performed in human beings and rats. Results The rodents captured belonged to 9 species, 2 families, 2 orders and 1 classes. The average indoor rodent density was 1.16% (961/82 558), and was 1.12% (1345/119 671) outdoors. Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species,accounting for 50.37%. The proportion of R. Flavipectus was 3.80% in 2004, 4.50% in 2008 and 10.12% in 2009,showing an increasing trend year by year. There were three kinds of mice infected fleas in Wanzhou, which including Xenopsylla cheopis, Leptopsylla segnis and Ctenocephalides felis. The average rate of flea infected mice was 1.18%(82/6959) and the total flea index was 0.036. No F1 antibody against plague was detected in 6959 dogs and 160 cats serum samples. Conclusions No plague is found in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area. But R.Flavipectus, Xenopsylla cheopis and Leptopsylla segnis are dominant species in Wanzhou section, and the proportion of which shows an increasing trends year by year. There is a potential risk of plague outbreaks in Wanzhou section of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.%目的 分析三峡水库万州段鼠疫潜在危险因素,为全区鼠疫防治及预警工作提供科学依据.方法 2001-2009年,在三峡水库万州段的9个镇(乡),采用夹夜法和笼夜法捕鼠,对捕获鼠类及检获蚤类进行鉴定,计算鼠带蚤率和蚤指数;用鼠疫间接血凝试验(IHA)法检测鼠、猫、犬血清鼠疫F1抗体,开展人间及鼠间鼠疫疫情监测.

  18. Neural-network approach to modeling liquid crystals in complex confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Silva, T.; Teixeira, P.I.C.; Anquetil-Deck, C.; Cleaver, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Finding the structure of a confined liquid crystal is a difficult task since both the density and order parameter profiles are non-uniform. Starting from a microscopic model and density-functional theory, one has to either (i) solve a non-linear, integral Euler-Lagrange equation, or (ii) perform a direct multi-dimensional free energy minimisation. The traditional implementations of both\\ud approaches are computationally expensive and plagued with convergence problems. Here, as an alternative,...

  19. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae, to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%: only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down and KD90 (90% Knock-Down times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.

  20. 2009-2011年北京市怀柔区动物鼠疫疫情调查与分析%An investigation and analysis of animal plague in Huairou District of Beijing City between 2009 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 周纪臣; 刘洋; 王保东; 闫雪

    2014-01-01

    目的 调查北京市怀柔区啮齿动物及其寄生蚤种群组成及数量动态,开展动物鼠疫血清学监测.方法 2009-2011年,在怀柔区8个乡镇的不同生境中进行啮齿动物密度调查,采集啮齿动物血清进行鼠疫间接血凝试验,对寄生蚤进行分类鉴定.结果 共捕获啮齿类动物8种709只,鼠密度为2.52%(83/3 300),社鼠、大林姬鼠为优势鼠种,分别占捕鼠总数的46.4% (329/709)、18.1%(128/709);采集啮齿动物血清563份,鼠疫血清F1抗体检测均为阴性;检蚤200匹,染蚤率29.63%(48/162),蚤指数1.23,屈褶副角蚤、多刺细蚤为优势蚤种,分别为30、27匹.结论 目前尚无动物鼠疫流行的迹象,但仍存在着适宜啮齿类动物生存的环境条件.%Objective To investigate the species composition and quantitative dynamic state of rodent and parasitic flea in Huairou District of Beijing City,and to carry out serologic monitoring of animal plague.Methods Rodent density was investigated at different habitats in eight villages and towns between 2009 and 2011.Serum samples from captured rodents were detected by indirect hemagglutination test,and genotypes of collected parasitic fleas were identified.Results A total of 709 rodents which belong to eight different kinds were captured with a rodent density of 2.52% (83/3 300),and Rattus niviventer and Apodemus peninsulae were dominant species,acounted for 46.4% (329/709) and 18.1%(128/709),respctively.Five hundred and sixty-three serum samples of rodents were tested by plague indirect hemagglutination,and all of them were plague antibody negative.Two hundred fleas were checked with a flea infected rate of 29.63% (48/162),and a flea index of 1.23; Paraceras crispus and Leptopsylla pavlovskii were dominant flea species,a total of 30 and 27,respectively.Conclusion Some environment conditions are suitable for rodents survival,even though there is no sign of animal plague epidemic.

  1. 瘟疫、谣言与社会恐慌--以湖南为例的研究%PLAGUE,RUM ORS AND SOCIAL PANIC Taking Hunan as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏程; 王洪铭

    2014-01-01

    Before 1949, the plague of Hunan province was frequent, which seriously harm ed people's lives and health. The enorm ous social panic often originated from a large num ber of infected people or death tolls, even the"whole fam ilies was on the verge of extinction"in a short tim e. When the plague struck, all people get into the m ood of terrified worry. At this very m om ent, on the one hand the governm ent should tim ely take various effective m easures given proper m edical assistance, active control and prevention;on the other hand it m ust strengthen the propaganda and popularization of knowledge of epidem ic disease prevention and control, nip it in the bud, guide public opinion correctly and try to relieve the doubts from the public's m inds and restore calm . Otherwise, if let the rum or relay an erroneous m essage blindly and m agnify infinitely, it would bring catastrophic consequences.%建国前湖南瘟疫频仍,严重危害民众的生命健康。大量人口的染疫与死亡,甚至短时期内“整家整户皆绝”,往往造成巨大的社会恐慌。在瘟疫发生、人心惶惑之际,政府一方面要及时采取各种有效措施施医送药、积极防治;另一方面必须加强疫病防治知识的宣传普及,防微杜渐,正确引导社会舆论,尽释群疑,安定人心。否则任由谣言以讹传讹,无限放大,将会带来灾难性的后果。

  2. Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia...... and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of...... genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics....

  3. On hyperbolicity violations in cosmological models with vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological models with vector fields received much attention in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are plagued with severe instabilities or other problems. In particular, it was noted by G. Esposito-Farese, C. Pitrou and J.-Ph. Uzan in arXiv:0912.0481 that the models with a non-linear function of the Maxwellian kinetic term do always imply violations of hyperbolicity somewhere in the phase space. In this work we make this statement more precise in several respects and show that those violations may not be present around spatially homogeneous configurations of the vector field.

  4. 广西隆林县鼠疫宿主动物及媒介蚤的调查%Investigation of plague hosts and vectors in Longlin county, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树武; 梁江明; 曾竣; 韦锦平; 陈达宗; 倪尔江; 廖生华; 黄利荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查广西壮族自治区降林县鼠疫自然疫源地鼠、蚤的组成与分布状况,并对鼠疫菌进行检测,为制定鼠疫防制对策提供依据.方法 采用笼捕法捕获鼠并采集鼠体蚤,计算鼠体染蚤率和蚤指数;用粘蚤纸法捕获室内游离蚤,计算地面游离蚤指数;应用病原学和血清学检测鼠体等动物的鼠疫感染状况.结果 该疫源地的啮齿动物共有2目3科11种,以黄胸鼠为优势鼠种;蚤类有6种,以印鼠客蚤为优势蚤种;平均鼠密度、平均鼠体染蚤率、平均蚤指数和印鼠客蚤指数分别为3.24%、27.09%、0.95和0.74,地面游离蚤指数为0.046;共培养鼠5398只,分离出10株鼠疫菌,用间接血凝试验检出2份阳性鼠血清和24份指示动物血清.结论 隆林县存在黄胸鼠鼠疫自然疫源地,每年的4、10月是最适灭鼠期,2-10月是鼠疫临测的重点期.%Objective To determine the population composition of rodents and fleas and investigate plague in the natural foci in Longlin county, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region for formulation of prevention and control strategies.Methods The flea-carrying rate and flea index of rodents were calculated based on the number of fleas collected from caged rodents.The free flea index was calculated according to the number of indoor fleas captured on sticky paper.The mammals were then subject to etiological and serological tests to determine the infection rate.Results Rodents of eleven species (3 families with 2 orders) and fleas (6 species) predominantly Rattus tanezumi and Xenopsylla cheopis were found in the foci.The average rodent density, fleacarrying rate, flea index and index of X.cheopis were 3.24%, 27.09%, 0.95 and 0.74, respectively.The indoor free flea index was 0.046.Among 5398 cultured rodent specimens, 10 strains of Yersinia pestis were isolated; two positive sera and 24 indicative sera were detected via indirect hemorrhagic assay (IHA).Conclusion The optimum period for rodent

  5. Systematic identification of 31 Yersinia Pestis strains and survey of plague foci in Guangxi%广西31株鼠疫耶尔森氏菌鉴定及鼠疫疫源地性质的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树武; 林新勤; 梁江明; 秦石英; 黄德蕙

    2013-01-01

    目的 对31株鼠疫耶尔森菌进行系统的鉴定,探讨广西鼠疫自然疫源地的结构及性质,为今后防治措施的制定提供依据. 方法 采用鼠疫细菌学常规方法和分子生物学手段确定其生物学表型特征及基因组特征. 结果 31株菌株均具备鼠疫菌的典型形态特征,能被鼠疫噬菌体完全裂解,主要生化特性为阿胶糖(+)、鼠李糖(-)、麦芽糖(+)、甘油(+)、脱氮(+),毒力因子(Pgm)呈阳性、弱阳性和阴性的比例为6:5:4;对Lawton和Glu呈半依赖,对Phe依赖;对22种常用的抗生素敏感,有4种抗生素耐药;含有相对分子量为4MD、6MD、45MD、65MD和111MD五种质粒. 结论 广西鼠疫菌属E群滇闽居民区型,推测广西的鼠疫流行可能是滇黔桂三省区交界地区相同鼠疫自然疫源地的内源性复燃.%Objective To identify 31 Yersinia Pestis strains and survey the plague foci in Guangxi. Methods Traditional and molecular assays were applied to decipher the biological phenotypic and genomic characteristics of 31 Yersinia Pestis strains. Results The 31 Yersinia Pestis strains possessed typical morphological and microscopic features of Y. Pestis,and they could be lysed by the diagnostic phage of Y. Peslis. The main biochemical properties were positive for arabinose(+),rhamnose(-),glucosylglucose(+), glycerine(+)and denitrification(+),the ratios of positive:weak positive: negative (Pgm+,Pgm ± and Pgm-)were 6:5:4,the nutritional needs were characterized by lawtom and glutamic acid semi-dependence,Phenylalanine dependence,the strains were sensitive to 22 commonly used antibiotics and resistant to 4 antibiotics. And the strains contained five plasmids with the molecular size of 4MD,6MD,45MD,65MD and 111MD. Conclusions The Y. Pestis in Guangxi belongs to Group E of the type of Yunnan and Fujian residential area. Thus it is suggested that epidemic of plague in Guangxi might be the endogenous recrudescence in the same natural plague foci of the

  6. Analysis of Elimination Effect of Enzyme-Combined Mouthwash on Dental Plague%复合酶漱口液消减牙菌斑的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    龋齿的发生与牙齿表面附着的牙菌斑和细菌的作用密切相关,文中旨在通过复合酶液降解葡聚糖和淀粉类物质来消除牙菌斑的存在基础,考察去除牙菌斑的效果.实验通过测定20名志愿者使用含不同浓度的复合酶漱口液、不含酶漱口液(无酶对照组)及市售精油类漱口液前后的Tureskey改良的Q-H菌斑指数的改变情况,考察β-葡聚糖酶和α-淀粉酶复合酶漱口液降解牙菌斑的效果.统计学结果显示含酶量大于0.5 mg/L时,牙菌斑降低率显著优于无酶对照组;且含酶量大于5.0 mg/L时,牙菌斑降低率优于某市售精油类漱口液.结果表明含酶漱口液对抑制牙菌斑的作用效果明显.文中研究为龋齿的日常防治提供了理论依据.%Dental caries is closely related to dental plaque , a biofilm in which bacteria attach to the teeth surface . This paper deals with the feasibility of eliminating dental plague by using a kind of mouthwash in which combined enzymes are used to degrade glucan and starch .In the investigation , the Tureskey modified Q-H indexes of 20 vo-lunteers were measured to compare the elimination effect of the enzyme-combined mouthwash , the mouthwash with-out enzymes and the commercially available mouthwash with essential oil .Statistical results indicate that , when the enzyme content is higher than 0.5 mg/L, the mouthwash containing β-glucanase and α-amylase is more effec-tive than the one without enzymes; and that, when the enzyme content is higher than 5.0 mg/L, the enzyme-com-bined mouthwash presents a dental plague elimination rate higher than that of the commercially available mouth -wash .It is thus concluded that the mouthwash with combined enzymes is effective in eliminating dental plague . This research lays a theoretical foundation for developing products for the daily prevention of dental caries .

  7. The serious plague in Kaifeng in the third year of Chunhua of the Northern Song dynasty and the government's response%淳化三年开封大疫与北宋政府的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩毅

    2008-01-01

    北宋淳化三年(992)五月,首都开封由于持续干旱和"大热",引发疫病流行,造成京城地区大量民众死亡,从而引起北宋政府的高度重视.开封疫病的病因是由天气高温而引起,属中医温病学中暑温的范畴.北宋政府先后发布了三道诏令对开封疫病加以应对:一是颁布医学方书;二是派医、赐钱、赐药,令太医署负责治疗,派遣内庭人员入内侍省中黄门一人督察;三是遣使决狱.这些措施的施行,不仅使开封疫病得到有效的救治,而且也对宋代传染病防治体系产生了重要的影响.%In the May of the third year of Chunhua(992) of the Northern Song dynasty,because of a long persistent drought and scorching hot day,the plague occurred and prevailed in Kaifeng,the capital of Northern Song,with a massive death toll,drawing much attention from the government.The cause of plague was related to high temperature,summer-heat warmth in TCM.In response to this,the government issued three imperial edicts:firstly,promulgating the formularies;secondly,sending some doctors to cure patient,as well as giving money and medicines.At the same time,the Imperial Medical Academy to preside over treatment and assigned an inner eunuch to be responsible for intendance;the third was sending the emissary to clear up the prison.This policies of the third year of Chunhua brought important effects to the system of prevention and rescue of epidemic disease in Song dynasty,exerting significant influences on the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in the Song dynasty.

  8. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  9. Resistance to Innate Immunity Contributes to Colonization of the Insect Gut by Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun C Earl

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, is typically a zoonotic vector-borne disease of wild rodents. Bacterial biofilm formation in the proventriculus of the flea contributes to chronic infection of fleas and facilitates efficient disease transmission. However prior to biofilm formation, ingested bacteria must survive within the flea midgut, and yet little is known about vector-pathogen interactions that are required for flea gut colonization. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model system to gain insight into Y. pestis colonization of the insect vector. We show that Y. pestis establishes a stable infection in the anterior midgut of fly larvae, and we used this model system to study the roles of genes involved in biofilm production and/or resistance to gut immunity stressors. We find that PhoP and GmhA both contribute to colonization and resistance to antimicrobial peptides in flies, and furthermore, the data suggest biofilm formation may afford protection against antimicrobial peptides. Production of reactive oxygen species in the fly gut, as in fleas, also serves to limit bacterial infection, and OxyR mediates Y. pestis survival in both insect models. Overall, our data establish the fruit fly as an informative model to elucidate the relationship between Y. pestis and its flea vector.

  10. Fan fiction metadata creation and utilization within fan fiction archives: Three primary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Fay Johnson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to searchability and ease of access have plagued fan fiction since its inception. This paper discusses the predominate forms of fan-mediated indexing and descriptive metadata, commonly referred to as folksonomy or tagging, and compares the benefits and disadvantages of each model. These models fall into three broad categories: free tagging, controlled vocabulary, and hybrid folksonomy. Each model has distinct advantages and shortcomings related to findability, results filtering, and creative empowerment. Examples for each are provided. Possible ramifications to fan fiction from improved metadata and access are also discussed.

  11. A relativistic toy model for Unruh black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, P.

    2014-08-01

    We consider the wave propagation in terms of acoustic geometry in a quantum relativistic system. This reduces, in the hydrodynamic limit, to the equations which govern the motion of a relativistic Fermi-degenerate gas in one space dimension. The derivation of an acoustic metric for one-dimensional (1D) systems is in general plagued with the impossibility of defining a conformal factor. Here we show that, although the system is intrinsically one-dimensional, the Unruh procedure continues to work because of the particular structure symmetry of the model. By analyzing the dispersion relation, attention is also paid to the quantum effects on the wave propagation.

  12. “Viimne reliikvia” ja “Kolme katku vahel”: ruumist eesti ajalookirjanduse ekraniseeringutes / The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues: On Space in Film Adaptations of Estonian Historical Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Näripea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub kahele ajalooromaani ekraniseeringule Nõukogude Eesti filmikunstis: „Viimne reliikvia“ (1969, rež Grigori Kromanov, Tallinnfilm, mis põhineb Eduard Bornhöhe romaanil „Vürst Gabriel ehk Pirita kloostri viimsed päevad“ (1893, ning „Kolme katku vahel“ (1970, rež Virve Aruoja, Eesti Telefilm, mille seosed oma kirjandusliku allikaga (Jaan Krossi samanimelise romaaniga on oluliselt keerulisemad. Ekraniseeringuid käsitletakse ruumirepresentatsioonide perspektiivist, uurides, missuguseid strateegiaid kasutati filmiruumide loomisel, kuidas suhestuti kirjandusliku (lähtematerjaliga ning millised ajaloonarratiivi ja rahvusliku identiteedi vahekorrad neis kangastuvad. SU M M A R Y This article examines two Soviet Estonian screen adaptations of historical novels: The Last Relic (Viimne reliikvia, Tallinnfilm, 1969, directed by Grigori Kromanov, based on Eduard Bornhöhe’s novel Prince Gabriel or The Last Days of Pirita Monastery (1893, which became a box-office hit throughout the Soviet Union and even beyond; and Between Three Plagues (Kolme katku vahel, Eesti Telefilm, 1970, directed by Virve Aruoja which reached much more limited TV-audiences; the connections between this film and its literary „source“ (a novel of the same name by Jaan Kross are much more complicated. These screen adaptations are considered from the perspective of spatial representations. I examine which strategies and devices the scriptwriters, directors and production designers drew upon when constructing these cinematic spaces and how they related to their literary hypotexts. As generally for adaptations of historical novels to other media, both The Last Relic and Between Three Plagues speak (perhaps even primarily about their time of production, about the present rather than the past. In this regard, it is important to recall the role of Tallinn’s Old Town as a locus of resistance in Soviet Estonian culture. Arguably

  13. Construction of a GeogDetector-based model system to indicate the potential occurrence of grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia steppe habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Zhang, N; Gexigeduren; He, B; Liu, C-Y; Li, Y; Zhang, H-Y; Chen, X-Y; Lin, H

    2015-06-01

    Grasshopper plagues have seriously disturbed grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, China. The accurate prediction of grasshopper infestations and control of grasshopper plagues have become urgent needs. We sampled 234, 342, 335, and 369 plots in Xianghuangqi County of Xilingol League in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, and measured the density of the most dominant grasshopper species, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, and the latitude, longitude, and associated relatively stable habitat factors at each plot. We used Excel-GeogDetector software to explore the effects of individual habitat factors and the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density. We estimated the membership of each grasshopper density rank and determined the weights of each habitat category. These results were used to construct a model system evaluating grasshopper habitat suitability. The results showed that our evaluation system was reliable and the fuzzy evaluation scores of grasshopper habitat suitability were good indicators of potential occurrence of grasshoppers. The effects of the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density were greater than the effects of any individual factors. O. d. asiaticus was most likely to be found at elevations of 1300-1400 m, flat terrain or slopes of 4-6°, typical chestnut soil with 70-80% sand content in the top 5 cm of soil, and medium-coverage grassland. The species preferred temperate bunchgrass steppe dominated by Stipa krylovii and Cleistogenes squarrosa. These findings may be used to improve models to predict grasshopper occurrence and to develop management guidelines to control grasshopper plagues by changing habitats.

  14. The Physical Internet and Business Model Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Poulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Building on the analogy of data packets within the Digital Internet, the Physical Internet is a concept that dramatically transforms how physical objects are designed, manufactured, and distributed. This approach is open, efficient, and sustainable beyond traditional proprietary logistical solutions, which are often plagued by inefficiencies. The Physical Internet redefines supply chain configurations, business models, and value-creation patterns. Firms are bound to be less dependent on operational scale and scope trade-offs because they will be in a position to offer novel hybrid products and services that would otherwise destroy value. Finally, logistical chains become flexible and reconfigurable in real time, thus becoming better in tune with firm strategic choices. This article focuses on the potential impact of the Physical Internet on business model innovation, both from the perspectives of Physical-Internet enabled and enabling business models.

  15. Geographical distribution of host animals of plague in residential areas in Yunnan Province%2007-2012年云南省居民区鼠疫宿主动物调查及其地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霖; 刘正祥; 杜春红; 洪梅; 吴爱国; 宋志忠; 高子厚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical distribution of plague host animals in residential areas and the association between plague and its distribution pattern in Yunnan Province.Methods A systematic investigation on fauna and community ecology of rodents was carried out in residential areas of 17 counties(cities) of Yunnan Province,southwestern China with different longitude,latitude and elevation from May 2007 to November 2012.The characteristics of the spatial distribution of flea communities along environmental gradients were analyzed using community structure indexes.Results A total of 390 small mammals were trapped in seventeen counties (cities),and the mammals were classified into 11 species and 7 genus in 4 families.Among all small host mammals,Rattus tanezumi,Rattus nitidus and Rattus norvegicus were dominant species of host animals in residential areas,accounting for 33.85% (132/390),20.77% (81/390) and 16.92% (66/390),respectively.The horizontal distribution of rodents showed that Rattus tanezumi was the widest species in residential areas,which was found at the longitude 98°-105°,followed by Rattus norvegicus,Rattus yunnanensis and Mus musculus.The vertical and latitudinal distributions of rodents were similar in residential areas.Rattus tanezumi was also the widest distributed species,which was observed at the latitude 21°-< 28°N and at the altitude 500-< 3 500 m; the constituent of Rattus tanezumi showed similar trends of leaning peak curves,first gradually increasing and then decreasing with the increase of latitude and elevation; Rattus tanezumi gradually changed into Rattus nitidus and Apodemus chevrieri,et al.The richness spatial distribution patterns of host animals showed similar trends of leaning peak curves which gradually increased and then decreased with increasing of longitude and latitude; the highest richness was observed at the longitude 98°-< 101°E and at the latitude 23°-< 28°N.While,the richness spatial d

  16. 2050: Ending the odyssey of the great white plague. Part of a series on Pediatric Pharmacology, guest edited by Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Emilio Clementi, and Massimo Molteni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2011-09-01

    The United Nation's Millennium Development Goal of tuberculosis (TB) elimination by 2050 may be a realizable goal by concerting efforts of the numerous stakeholders involved in the development of novel antituberculous therapeutics. Improving pre-clinical models by the research community is one aspect of the drug development pipeline that will continue to require refinement. Better in vitro and animal models are needed to expand the chemical scaffolds of anti-TB agents. These constructs must be designed and utilized in a manner that is also pertinent to the pediatric population by addressing varying age-based drug metabolism rates. Novel technologies that utilize nanomedicine and genomic research may as well have a significant impact on future therapeutics; however, their development must acknowledge the key populations whose underlying disease pathology continues to drive the pandemic - both adults and children with latent TB, HIV/AIDS and diabetes. Challenging the long-standing orthodoxy of applying equivalent TB treatments for standard first line regimens among the adult and pediatric populations must also continue to be a major focus in future drug development strategies. Studies that include pediatric populations will require a greater variety of medication formulations, biomarkers that do not rely on sputum production and diagnostic technologies that are efficacious in paucibacillary disease. Significant programmatic barriers currently exist in key aspects of the described drug development pipeline, but strategic approaches can overcome these roadblocks - including the complex regulatory requirements involving the inclusion of children in drug trials. All such endeavors will require not only more focused research initiatives, but greater institutional support from the pharmaceutical industry, non-governmental organizations and national health sectors.

  17. 东北亚洲飞蝗发生区生态环境特征研究——以吉林省为例%The Ecological-Environment Characters of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus Plague Area in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 苗会; 付志欣; 韩叶; 王贵强; 任炳忠

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between locust occurrence and landforms of topography, climate, vegetation, soil pH value, soil salinity and soil organic matter of the locust plague area are analyzed in this paper. The results indicate that the locust plague area is low-lying reed wetlands which is nearby the inland lake;The vegetation coverage which is below 55% is good for Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus to survive and the results show that the soil which the adults choose to spawn is alkalescent,and salinity is below 0.5% . The soil conditions also help to the survival of Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus. The temperature and precipitation have important influence on the locust plague happened.%对东北地区亚洲飞蝗发生地的地形、水文、气候、植被、土壤等生态环境因子进行了调查研究.结果表明:亚洲飞蝗发生区地势平坦低洼,海拔为100~200 m;亚洲飞蝗发生区一般为内陆湖或河流周边的芦苇丛生地带,适宜的栖息场所植被覆盖度<55%;发生地的土壤呈碱性,土壤含盐量均<0.5%,土壤性质有利于蝗虫产卵和蝗卵的存活与孵化;蝗卵孵化期和产卵期的气温和降水条件对亚洲飞蝗的大发生具有重要影响.

  18. 基于“三年化疫”理论探讨痢疾发病与气候变化的关联性%Based on the theory of ‘transformation of plague in three years' to explore the correlation between incidence of dysentery and climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠第; 张轩; 贺娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:依据“三年化疫”理论研究北京市痢疾发病与3年前气候变化的关联性.方法:提取北京市1970年-2004年35年的痢疾高发年份,分析其3年前的气候变化特点,依据“三年化疫”理论对“异常气候一痢疾发病”进行吻合度评价.结果:痢疾的高发与3年前的异常气候变化有关,尤其是年干为戊、癸、辛的年份.结论:痢疾发病与3年前的气候变化具有相关性, “三年化疫”理论对于痢疾发病的预测具有一定指导意义.%Objective: Based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years', to investigate the relationship between the incidence of dysentery and climate changes three years ago. Methods: By extraction of 35 years of dysentery high-risk years in Beijing from 1970 to 2004, and analysis its climate change characteristics three years ago, to evaluate 'the relationship of abnormal climate and dysentery disease' based on the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years'. Results: The high incidence of dysentery was related to the abnormal climate changes three years ago, especially in the Niangan years of wu, gui, xin. Conclusion: The incidence of dysentery was related to the climate changes three years ago, the theory of 'transformation of plague in three years' could predict the dysentery disease.

  19. Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter......Artiklen fremhæver den visuelle rotation - billeder, tegninger, modeller, værker - som det privilligerede medium i kommunikationen af ideer imellem skabende arkitekter...

  20. Seasonal prevalence of white plague like disease on the endemic Brazilian reef coral Mussismilia braziliensis Prevalencia estacional de la enfermedad de la plaga blanca en el coral endémico de Brasil Mussismilia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Francini-Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reef coral Mussismilia braziliensis Verril, 1968 is endemic to the eastern Brazilian coast, representing a major reef-building species in the region. This coral is threatened by extinction due to the recent proliferation of a white-plague like (WPL disease. Despite its severe impacts, the environmental factors leading to outbreaks of WPL disease are still poorly understood. This study describes the seasonal prevalence of WPL disease on M. braziliensis in the Abrolhos Bank, on the southern coast of Bahia Brazil. In situ estimates showed that WPL disease was about 4.5 times more prevalent in summer (January 2007, mean sea surface temperature 27.4°C than in winter (July 2007, 25.0°C. This result suggests that the prevalence of WPL disease in M. braziliensis is temperature-dependent, supporting the hypothesis that warmer oceans are facilitating the proliferation of coral diseases worldwide.El coral Mussismilia braziliensis Verril, 1968 es endémico de la costa este de Brasil y representa una de las principales especies constructoras de arrecifes coralinos en dicha region. Este coral se encuentra bajo la amenaza de extincion debido la reciente propagacion de la enfermedad llamada la plaga blanca (PB. Pese los fuertes impactos, los factores ambientales responsables por epidemias de la PB aún son poco conocidos. En este estudio se describe la prevalencia estacional de la PB en M. braziliensis en el Banco de Abrolhos, ubicado en la costa sur de Bahia, Brasil. Estimaciones in situ comprueban que la prevalencia de esta molestia ha sido cerca de 4,5 veces mayor en verano (enero de 2007, temperatura media del agua superficial del mar 27,4°C, que en invierno (julio de 2007; 25,0°C. Este resultado sugiere que la prevalencia de la enfermedad PB en M. braziliensis es dependiente de la temperatura, reforzando la hipótesis de que los océanos mas cálidos estén facilitando la propagacion de enfermedades coralígenas en todo el mundo.

  1. The temporal dynamics of the fourteenth-century Black Death: new evidence from English ecclesiastical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James W; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Dewitte-Aviña, Sharon N

    2003-08-01

    Recent research has questioned whether the European Black Death of 1347-1351 could possibly have been caused by the bubonic plague bacillus Yersinia pestis, as has been assumed for over a century. Central to the arguments both for and against involvement of Y. pestis has been a comparison of the temporal dynamics observed in confirmed outbreaks of bubonic plague in early-20th-century India, versus those reconstructed for the Black Death from English church records--specifically, from lists of institutions (appointments) to vacated benefices contained in surviving bishops' registers. This comparison is, however, based on a statistical error arising from the fact that most of the bishops' registers give only the dates of institution and not the dates of death. Failure to correct for a distributed (as opposed to constant) lag time from death to institution has made it look as if the Black Death passed slowly through specific localities. This error is compounded by a failure to disaggregate the information from the bishops' registers to a geographical level that is genuinely comparable to the modern data. A sample of 235 deaths from the bishop's register of Coventry and Lichfield, the only English register to list both date of death and date of institution, shows that the Black Death swept through local areas much more rapidly than has previously been thought. This finding is consistent with those of earlier studies showing that the Black Death spread too rapidly between locales to have been a zoonosis such as bubonic plague. A further analysis of the determinants of the lag between death and institution, designed to provide a basis for reexamining other bishops' registers that do not provide information on date of death, shows that the distribution of lags could vary significantly by time and space even during a single epidemic outbreak.

  2. A Numerical Modelling Study on the Potential Role of Tsunamis in the Biblical Exodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Abril

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the narrative of the Biblical Exodus has been subject of heated debate for decades. Recent archaeological studies seem to provide new insight of the exodus path, and although with a still controversial chronology, the effects of the Minoan Santorini eruption have been proposed as a likely explanation of the biblical plagues. Particularly, it has been suggested that flooding by the associated tsunamis could explain the first plague and the sea parting. Recent modelling studies have shown that Santorini’s tsunami effects were negligible in the eastern Nile Delta, but the released tectonic stress could have triggered local tsunamigenic sources in sequence. This paper is aimed to a quantitative assessment of the potential role of tsunamis in the biblical parting of the sea. Several “best case” scenarios are tested through the application of a numerical model for tsunami propagation that has been previously validated. The former paleogeographic conditions of the eastern Nile Delta have been implemented based upon recent geological studies; and several feasible local sources for tsunamis are proposed. Tsunamis triggered by submarine landslides of 10–30 km3 could have severely impacted the northern Sinai and southern Levantine coasts but with weak effects in the eastern Nile Delta coastline. The lack of noticeable flooding in this area under the most favorable conditions for tsunamis, along with the time sequence of water elevations, make difficult to accept them as a plausible and literally explanation of the first plague and of the drowning of the Egyptian army in the surroundings of the former Shi-Hor Lagoon.

  3. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations.

  4. Transparency issues still plague business in Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti Kaubanduskoja teatel ei ole investorid rahul korruptsiooni ja läbipaistvusega Läti ärikeskkonnas. Läti valitsuselt oodatakse tõhusamaid samme majandus- ja investeerimistingimuste parandamiseks

  5. Preventing desert locust plagues: optimizing management interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van A.; Cressman, K.; Magor, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Solitarious desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), inhabit the central, arid, and semi-arid parts of the species¿ invasion area in Africa, the Middle East, and South-West Asia. Their annual migration circuit takes them downwind to breed sequentially where winter, sp

  6. The healing philosopher: John Locke's medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bradford William

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a heretofore unexplored facet of John Locke's philosophy. Locke was a medical doctor and he also wrote about medical issues that are controversial today. Despite this, Locke's medical ethics has yet to be studied. An analysis of Locke's education and his teachers and colleagues in the medical profession, of the 17th century Hippocratic Oath, and of the reaction to the last recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague in London, shines some light on the subject of Locke's medical ethics. The study of Locke's medical ethics confirms that he was a deontologist who opposed all suicide and abortion through much of pregnancy.

  7. Structural Characterisation of the Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthases, FabF and FabH, of Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Nanson; Himiari, Zainab; Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic plague, remains a major public health threat, with outbreaks of disease occurring in China, Madagascar, and Peru in the last five years. The existence of multidrug resistant Y. pestis and the potential of this bacterium as a bioterrorism agent illustrates the need for new antimicrobials. The β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases, FabB, FabF, and FabH, catalyse the elongation of fatty acids as part of the type II f...

  8. Fighting disease and epidemics: Ricardo Jorge and the internationalization of Portuguese science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria Antónia Pires

    2013-06-01

    Ricardo Jorge was one of the principal doctors responsible for the sanitary transition in Portugal. He created and enforced the most important policies for disease control, both endemic and epidemic, which scourged the western world between the mid nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. His professional training and academic and scientific performances reveal Ricardo Jorge's value in Portuguese science and his efforts for its internationalization. His capacities were confirmed by the emergency of the sanitary situations with which he was confronted and by the authorities' confidence in him, by putting him in charge of the bubonic plague elimination process.

  9. 2010年陕西省定边县鼠疫自然疫源地东方田鼠生态学调查%Ecology survey of Microtus fortis in natural foci of plague in Dingbian town Shaanxi province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范锁平; 李兴庆; 李伟华; 安翠红; 康仙虎; 霍丽霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the constitution,density changes and carrier rate about Yersinia pestis of rodents in plague foci,and to provide the scientific evidence for plague prevention.Methods According to the program of national monitoring plague,two survey procedures,namely quadrat of single-ha for 24 h and 5 m mouse jam,were used to monitor the host animals; culture and identification of Yersinia pestis in liver or spleen of the experimental animals was carried out by using self-made medium in the north of Beiyuanzi village in Dingbian town Shaanxi province.Results One hundred twelve rodents were captured using the first procedures and the rodent average density was 8.62 ind./hm2 and six species of rodents were found namely Meriones unguiculatus ( 100 individuals),Microtusfortis(5 individuals),Ochotona daurica(3 individuals),Meriones meridianus (2 individuals),Mus musculus Linnaeus (1 individual) and Cricetulus barabensis (1 individual).One hundred seventy-three field mouses were captured using the second procedures including Mus musculus Linnaeus (136 individuals),Cricetulus barabensis (36 individuals),and Microtus fortis ( 1 individual ).Among them,Microtus fortis was found in the salt marshes in the southern edge of Ordos Plateau steppe in plague area of Dingbian county.Yersinia pestis was not identified in all animals.Conclusions Microtus fortis is found in natural foci of plague in Shaanxi province for the first time,and a new geographic region was found.Its epidemiological significance needs further study.%目的 了解鼠疫疫源地鼠种构成、鼠密度变化情况及带菌率,为鼠疫的防治提供依据.方法 2010年10、11月,按照《全国鼠疫监测方案》要求,在定边县定边镇北园子村北部,采用一日弓形夹法和5m夹线法进行宿主动物监测,并对宿主肝、脾进行鼠疫菌培养鉴定.结果 一日弓形夹法捕鼠112只,平均鼠密度为8.62只/hm2,其中长爪沙鼠100只,东方田鼠5只,达乌尔鼠兔3

  10. O controle de pragas urbanas na qualidade do alimento sob a visão da legislação federal Urban plague control in food quality according to brazilian federal legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares Matias

    2007-08-01

    Ordinance Law 209 that establishes the Brazilian Code of Foods. The Brazilian Governmental Decree 1428 of 26 November, 1993 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS innovates the relationship of the contributory factors for food contamination presenting in the guidelines the establishment of good manufacturing practices and services rendered in the area of foods, the de-infestation that includes the sanitization plan used by an establishment. A new vision of the decisive factors of food contamination has been created, which is the control of mice and insects. This procedure integrates all the legal documents that were produced by the MS and Brazilian Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA concerning the control of food. Even the publication of the Brazilian Governmental Decree 275/2002-MS, the control of urban plagues could be done by trained teams of establishments that carried out: production / industrialization, division, storage and transporting of industrialized food, handling, preparation, storage, distribution, transport, sale display and the delivery of food prepared for consumption, such as restaurants, buffets, sweet shops, industrial kitchens, institutional kitchens, delicatessens, snack bars, bakeries, pastry shops, restaurants, among others. Regarding its publication, the chemical control is only carried out by the PCO in accordance with the Brazilian Governmental Decree 18/2000-MS. However, this does not mean the legal responsibility of food companies has been taken away that should include in the SOP (Standardized Operational Procedure the control of pests, whether it be physical and/or chemical.

  11. Cloning and molecular characterization of UL47 gene of duck plague virus%鸭瘟病毒UL47基因克隆及其分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丹丹; 徐志文; 王小玉; 陈孝跃; 程安春; 汪铭书; 沈爱梅; 朱德康; 贾仁勇; 罗启慧; 崔恒敏; 王印

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing a recombinant plasmid selected from DPV CHv strain genomic library constructed in our lab,and we got the UL47 gene by using Blast and ORF Finder on NCBI. DPV UL47 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into pMD18-T vector,and strongly confirmed by PCR amplification, restriction digestion and oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Then the DPV UL47 was analyzed by bioinformatics tools of ProtScale, SignalP3.0, Scansite,TMpred, Prosite,DNAStar and EMBOSS online programs. The results showed that the DPV UL47 gene was composed of 2 367 nucleotides,and encoding a polypeptide of 788 amino acid residues. Moreover, the nucleic acid and amino acid sequence of DPV UL47 had higher homology with its homologous protein of alphaherpesvirus than those of others. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the DPV clusters with some avian herpesviruses such as GaHV-2,GaHV-3,MeHV-1 and MDV-2 in a monophyletic clade are closer than those of other alphaherpesvirus members and as a result it has a close evolutionary relationship with alphaherpesviruses. Besides, condon preference analysis demonstrated that the alternative codons for the same amino acid in UL47 had distinctly different frequency and comparison of the codon usage in the UL47 gene of different organisms revealed that there were 30 codons showing distinct usage differences between DEV and Escherichia coli, equivalently 24 between DEV-to-yeast and DEV-to-human. Therefore, the eukaryotic expression system may be more suitable for the expression of the DEV UL47 gene.%通过测定本实验室构建的鸭瘟病毒(Duck plague virus,DPV)DNA基因文库中重组质粒的DNA序列,结合NCBI的ORF Finder和Blast工具分析得到了该病毒UL47基因的ORF.采用PCR扩增出了UL47基因并将其克隆到pMD18-T载体上,经PCR和酶切鉴定以及进一步的核酸斑点杂交试验证实该基因即为DPV UL47基因.利用生物信息学软件ProtScale、SignalP3.0、Scansite、TMpred、Prosite、DNAStar

  12. Instability in interacting dark sector: An appropriate Holographic Ricci dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Ramon; Videla, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the consequences of phantom crossing considering the perturbative dynamics in models with interaction in their dark sector. By mean of a general study of gauge-invariant variables in comoving gauge, we relate the sources of instabilities in the structure formation process with the phantom crossing. In order to illustrate these relations and its consequences in more detail, we consider a specific case of an holographic dark energy interacting with dark matter. We find that in spite of the model is in excellent agreement with observational data at background level, however it is plagued of instabilities in its perturbative dynamics. We reconstruct the model in order to avoid these undesirable instabilities, and we show that this implies a modification of the concordance model at background. Also we find drastic changes on the parameters space in our model when instabilities are avoided.

  13. Addressing the Cosmic Coincidence Problem in f(T) Gravity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Prabir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(T) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(T) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f(T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that there exists a perfect solution for the coincidence problem in the background of the second model while the first model remains utterly plagued by the phenomenon. This not only shows the cosmological viability but also the superiority of the second model over its counterpart.

  14. Investigating the ?Trojan Horse? Mechanism of Yersinia pestis Virulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Fitch, J P

    2005-02-08

    Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, is a Gram-negative, highly communicable, enteric bacterium that has been responsible for three historic plague pandemics. Currently, several thousand cases of plague are reported worldwide annually, and Y. pestis remains a considerable threat from a biodefense perspective. Y. pestis infection can manifest in three forms: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Of these three forms, pneumonic plague has the highest fatality rate ({approx}100% if left untreated), the shortest intervention time ({approx}24 hours), and is highly contagious. Currently, there are no rapid, widely available vaccines for plague and though plague may be treated with antibiotics, the emergence of both naturally occurring and potentially engineered antibiotic resistant strains makes the search for more effective therapies and vaccines for plague of pressing concern. The virulence mechanism of this deadly bacterium involves induction of a Type III secretion system, a syringe-like apparatus that facilitates the injection of virulence factors, termed Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops), into the host cell. These virulence factors inhibit phagocytosis and cytokine secretion, and trigger apoptosis of the host cell. Y. pestis virulence factors and the Type III secretion system are induced thermally, when the bacterium enters the mammalian host from the flea vector, and through host cell contact (or conditions of low Ca{sup 2+} in vitro). Apart from the temperature increase from 26 C to 37 C and host cell contact (or low Ca{sup 2+} conditions), other molecular mechanisms that influence virulence induction in Y. pestis are largely uncharacterized. This project focused on characterizing two novel mechanisms that regulate virulence factor induction in Y. pestis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding and quorum sensing, using a real-time reporter system to monitor induction of virulence. Incorporating a better understanding of the mechanisms of virulence

  15. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Christopher N; Yu, Jing; Horswill, Alexander R; Parsek, Matthew R; Minion, F Chris

    2013-01-01

    The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N LaRock

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  17. Applying the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Model to Explore Reviewer Ratings of Conference Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kelly D; Peabody, Michael R; Mensah, Richard K

    For academic conferences, when proposals are submit they are often judged using a rating scale on identified criterion by reviewers who have a shared interest and expertise in the area under consideration. Given the multiple and varied reviewers, an analysis of psychometric properties like rater severity and consistency are important. However, many of the problems that plague the conference proposal selection process are the same issues that plague survey research: rater bias/severity, misuse of rating scale, and the use of raw scores as measures. We propose the use of the many-facet Rasch measurement model (MFRM) to combat these shortcomings and improve the quality of the conference proposal selection process. A set of American Educational Research Association (AERA) Special Interest Group (SIG) proposals is used as an example. The results identify proposals that were accepted based on calculating the mean of summed raw scores, but when MFRM is applied to adjust for judge severity the rank order of the proposals is substantially altered.

  18. Did an epidemic of tularemia in Ancient Egypt affect the course of world history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro I

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the spreading, and the identity of a virulent epidemic, similar to bubonic plague or typhus, which hit Ancient Egypt in the middle of the Bronze Age, are hereby presented. Documented in medical papyri as well as archaeological findings, and re-echoed in biblical texts, a plague entered Egypt's main harbor, Avaris, around 1715 BC. As a result, the country was severely weakened at a time when it was already facing serious sociopolitical issues: crumbling central government, immigration, foreign influence, and the rise in power of the army and of warlords. The Hebrews, one of the ethnic groups within the Avaris area, appeared immune amidst the devastation of the plague. This immunity was key to identify the etiological agent of the epidemic: Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium passed by ticks, and that causes tularemia. The disease manifests itself as either an ulceroglandular or a typhoid syndrome, accounting for its similarity with bubonic plague and typhus. Cellular immunity provides the main defense against F. tularensis, and is achieved through continuous contact with avirulent strains of the bacterium. Urban dwellers of Avaris, who had a limited contact to animals, would have been defenseless against the virulent strains, unlike the Hebrews, who lived off sheep and other animals. Attempting to consolidate Egypt's central government in the aftermath of the tularemia epidemic, led among others to the internment of the Hebrews in labor camps. The repressive measures against the Hebrews left traces in the subsequent archaeological layer (stratum F) at Avaris. As a corollary, the enslavement would set the stage for the exodus of the Hebrew community from Egypt at a later time.

  19. Dissemination of a highly virulent pathogen: tracking the early events that define infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of events that occurs immediately after pathogen entrance into the body is largely speculative. Key aspects of these events are pathogen dissemination and pathogen interactions with the immune response as the invader moves into deeper tissues. We sought to define major events that occur early during infection of a highly virulent pathogen. To this end, we tracked early dissemination of Yersinia pestis, a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes bubonic plague in mammals. Specifically, we addressed two fundamental questions: (1 do the bacteria encounter barriers in disseminating to draining lymph nodes (LN, and (2 what mechanism does this nonmotile bacterium use to reach the LN compartment, as the prevailing model predicts trafficking in association with host cells. Infection was followed through microscopy imaging in addition to assessing bacterial population dynamics during dissemination from the skin. We found and characterized an unexpected bottleneck that severely restricts bacterial dissemination to LNs. The bacteria that do not pass through this bottleneck are confined to the skin, where large numbers of neutrophils arrive and efficiently control bacterial proliferation. Notably, bottleneck formation is route dependent, as it is abrogated after subcutaneous inoculation. Using a combination of approaches, including microscopy imaging, we tested the prevailing model of bacterial dissemination from the skin into LNs and found no evidence of involvement of migrating phagocytes in dissemination. Thus, early stages of infection are defined by a bottleneck that restricts bacterial dissemination and by neutrophil-dependent control of bacterial proliferation in the skin. Furthermore, and as opposed to current models, our data indicate an intracellular stage is not required by Y. pestis to disseminate from the skin to draining LNs. Because our findings address events that occur during early encounters of pathogen with the immune response

  20. Production of black holes and their angular momentum distribution in models with split fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, D C; Stojkovic, D; Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2006-01-01

    In models with TeV-scale gravity it is expected that mini black holes will be produced in near-future accelerators. On the other hand, TeV-scale gravity is plagued with many problems like fast proton decay, unacceptably large neutron-antineutron oscillations, flavor changing neutral currents, large mixing between leptons, etc. Most of these problems can be solved if different fermions are localized at different points in the extra dimensions. We study the cross-section for the production of black holes and their angular momentum distribution in these models with "split" fermions. We find that, for a fixed value of the fundamental mass scale, the total production cross section is reduced compared with models where all the fermions are localized at the same point in the extra dimensions. Fermion splitting also implies that the bulk component of the black hole angular momentum must be taken into account in studies of the black hole decay via Hawking radiation.

  1. Novel genetic tools for diaminopimelic acid selection in virulence studies of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bland

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of bacterial virulence are enhanced by expression of recombinant DNA during infection to allow complementation of mutants and expression of reporter proteins in vivo. For highly pathogenic bacteria, such as Yersinia pestis, these studies are currently limited because deliberate introduction of antibiotic resistance is restricted to those few which are not human treatment options. In this work, we report the development of alternatives to antibiotics as tools for host-pathogen research during Yersinia pestis infections focusing on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP pathway, a requirement for cell wall synthesis in eubacteria. We generated a mutation in the dapA-nlpB(dapX operon of Yersinia pestis KIM D27 and CO92 which eliminated the expression of both genes. The resulting strains were auxotrophic for diaminopimelic acid and this phenotype was complemented in trans by expressing dapA in single and multi-copy. In vivo, we found that plasmids derived from the p15a replicon were cured without selection, while selection for DAP enhanced stability without detectable loss of any of the three resident virulence plasmids. The dapAX mutation rendered Y. pestis avirulent in mouse models of bubonic and septicemic plague which could be complemented when dapAX was inserted in single or multi-copy, restoring development of disease that was indistinguishable from the wild type parent strain. We further identified a high level, constitutive promoter in Y. pestis that could be used to drive expression of fluorescent reporters in dapAX strains that had minimal impact to virulence in mouse models while enabling sensitive detection of bacteria during infection. Thus, diaminopimelic acid selection for single or multi-copy genetic systems in Yersinia pestis offers an improved alternative to antibiotics for in vivo studies that causes minimal disruption to virulence.

  2. 0.1%西吡氯铵含漱液对牙外伤纤维夹板固定术后菌斑形成的抑制作用%The effect of mouth rinse containing0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride in the inhibition of dental plague formation in fiber splinting teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴辰; 龚怡; 杨圣辉; 黄薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察0.1%西吡氯铵含漱液对牙外伤纤维夹板固定术后菌斑形成的抑制作用.方法 牙外伤患者40例随机分为2组,应用双盲法分别给予患者0.1%西吡氯铵含漱液漱口(试验组)或0.12%氯己定含漱液漱口(对照组).每天5次,分别在晨起、睡前、三顿饭后各漱口1次,每次含15 mL,持续漱口60 s,漱口后1h内禁饮食,7d为一疗程.就诊当天(1 d)、4d和8d,按照Quigley-Hein指数(Turesky改良)测定菌斑指数.结果 中期检查试验组和对照组菌斑指数组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);终点检查试验组和对照组菌斑指数组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 0.1%西吡氯铵含漱液可抑制牙外伤纤维夹板固定术后菌斑的形成,有利于牙周损伤的愈合.%Objective To observe the effects of mouth rinse containing 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride in the inhibition of dental plague formation in patients with fiber splinting teeth. Methods 40 cases of injured teeth were enrolled and divided into two groups. Random and double bland method was applied to administer0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride (tested group) or 0. 12% chlorhexidine (control group) to the patients. The mouth rinses were used by the patients for 7 days and 5 times each day (after getting up and each meal, and before going to bed) , each time 15 mL mouth rinse was used for 1 minute. Plague Index (PI, Quigley - Hein Index modified by Turesky) was measured before treatment, on day 4 and 8 respectively. Results The distribution ol age,sex and smoking in the tested 20 cases was not significantly different from that of the 20 controls (P > 0. 05). On day 4, there was no statistic difference in the decrease of PI between the two groups (P > 0.05). On day 8 , there was no statistic difference in the decrease of PI between the two groups (P >0, 05) . Conclusion 0. 1% cetylpyridinium chloride is effective in the inhibition of dental plague formation in patients

  3. The Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model: A Novel Human Model for Scar Research and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T; Liu, Jing; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings. As a better alternative, we have developed the Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model-a novel human clinical model that permits analysis of up to 20 cutaneous scars in a single subject and allows for not only visual scar comparison, but also histologic and molecular analyses of factors involved in scarring and wound healing. We have utilized this model in 5 early phase clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of a variety of scar therapeutics without any complications to date. The model not only is applicable to scar therapeutics, but also can be utilized for other applications, such as the testing of implantable biomaterials, injectable products, therapies such as lasers, or even for in vivo study of wound healing processes in humans.

  4. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of duck plague virus%鸭瘟病毒环介导等温扩增(LAMP)快速检测方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤; 刁有祥; 鞠小军

    2013-01-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive method for detecting duck plague virus(DPV),a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established using three pairs of specific primers. The assay was optimized to amplify DPV DNA by incubation at 63℃ for lh. The results visualized directly or under the UV light with added SYBR Green I dye. The diagnostic method was sensitive and specific, the amplification results of duck hepatitis virus, H9N2 avian influenza virus,duck paramyxovirus and duck avian metapneumovirus were negative, and its lowest detection limit was 0. 245 μg/L,which was 10-fold higher than the conventional PCR. The positive rate of forty duck samples suspected duck plague was 30%. Therefore the LAMP assay developed in this study provided a rapid and practical method for DPV detection.%为建立一种简便、快速、灵敏、特异的鸭瘟病毒(DPV)检测方法,本研究根据GenBank中登录的DPV基因组序列,设计3对特异性的环介导等温扩增(LAMP)引物,经优化反应体系,建立了LAMP快速检测方法.结果表明,LAMP方法能够在63℃恒温下,1h内实现目的核酸的大量扩增.结果判定时只需要在扩增产物中加入SYBRGreen Ⅰ染料,就可以直接在可见光或紫外光下观察颜色变化.该方法敏感性可达0.245 μg/L,比普通PCR灵敏性高10倍;对鸭病毒性肝炎病毒、H9N2亚型禽流感病毒、鸭副黏病毒、鸭源偏肺病毒等的核酸无交叉反应;利用建立的LAMP检测方法对40份临床样品的阳性检出率为30%.该方法简便快捷,省时省力,是一种适用于基层实验室快速、准确检测DPV的方法.

  5. No compelling cosmological models come out of magnetic universes which are based in nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Quiros, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the cosmic dynamics of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes -- flat spatial sections -- which are driven by nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) Lagrangians. We pay special attention to the check of the sign of the square sound speed since, whenever the latter quantity is negative, the corresponding cosmological model is classically unstable against small perturbations of the background energy density. Besides, based on causality arguments, one has to require that the mentioned small perturbations of the background should propagate at most at the local speed of light. We also look for the occurrence of curvature singularities. Our results indicate that several cosmological models which are based in known NLED Lagrangians, either are plagued by curvature singularities of the sudden and/or big rip type, or are violently unstable against small perturbations of the cosmological background -- due to negative sign of the square sound speed -- or both. In addition, causality issues associated with su...

  6. $B\\to K^*\\ell^+\\ell^-$ in the Standard Model: Elaborations and Interpretations

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Paul, Ayan; Silvestrini, Luca; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Disentangling New Physics effects from the Standard Model requires a good understanding of all pieces that stem from the latter, especially the uncertainties that might plague the theoretical estimations within the Standard Model. In the light of recent measurements made in the decay of $B\\to K^*\\ell^+\\ell^-$, and accompanying possibilities of New Physics effects, we re-examine the hadronic uncertainties that come about in this exclusive $b \\to s$ transition. We show that it is not trivial to distinguish New Physics effects from these hadronic uncertainties and we attempt to quantify the latter in its magnitude and kinematic shape from the recent LHCb measurements of the angular observables in this decay mode. We also update our fit with the more recent calculations of the form factors combined with the ones computed with Lattice QCD.

  7. ARIMA Model Estimated by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Consumer Price Index Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjie; Zhao, Weigang

    This paper presents an ARIMA model which uses particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) for model estimation. Because the traditional estimation method is complex and may obtain very bad results, PSO which can be implemented with ease and has a powerful optimizing performance is employed to optimize the coefficients of ARIMA. In recent years, inflation and deflation plague the world moreover the consumer price index (CPI) which is a measure of the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households is usually observed as an important indicator of the level of inflation, so the forecast of CPI has been focused on by both scientific community and relevant authorities. Furthermore, taking the forecast of CPI as a case, we illustrate the improvement of accuracy and efficiency of the new method and the result shows it is predominant in forecasting.

  8. Dynamics of genome rearrangement in bacterial populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Darling

    Full Text Available Genome structure variation has profound impacts on phenotype in organisms ranging from microbes to humans, yet little is known about how natural selection acts on genome arrangement. Pathogenic bacteria such as Yersinia pestis, which causes bubonic and pneumonic plague, often exhibit a high degree of genomic rearrangement. The recent availability of several Yersinia genomes offers an unprecedented opportunity to study the evolution of genome structure and arrangement. We introduce a set of statistical methods to study patterns of rearrangement in circular chromosomes and apply them to the Yersinia. We constructed a multiple alignment of eight Yersinia genomes using Mauve software to identify 78 conserved segments that are internally free from genome rearrangement. Based on the alignment, we applied Bayesian statistical methods to infer the phylogenetic inversion history of Yersinia. The sampling of genome arrangement reconstructions contains seven parsimonious tree topologies, each having different histories of 79 inversions. Topologies with a greater number of inversions also exist, but were sampled less frequently. The inversion phylogenies agree with results suggested by SNP patterns. We then analyzed reconstructed inversion histories to identify patterns of rearrangement. We confirm an over-representation of "symmetric inversions"-inversions with endpoints that are equally distant from the origin of chromosomal replication. Ancestral genome arrangements demonstrate moderate preference for replichore balance in Yersinia. We found that all inversions are shorter than expected under a neutral model, whereas inversions acting within a single replichore are much shorter than expected. We also found evidence for a canonical configuration of the origin and terminus of replication. Finally, breakpoint reuse analysis reveals that inversions with endpoints proximal to the origin of DNA replication are nearly three times more frequent. Our findings

  9. Differential control of Yersinia pestis biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector by two c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Sun

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE, encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730 control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis.

  10. 关于731部队鼠疫报告书的初步解读——基于美国解密日本细菌战档案的调查%Preliminary Interpretation on the Report of Plague by Unit 731 : Based on the Investigation of U.S. Declassified Files of Japanese Biological Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦君

    2013-01-01

    “The Report of Q” is saved in the U.S.Library of Congress,which is the report on autopsy of people plague infected in the Changchun and Nongan areas by Unit 731 in 1943.The main contents,research types and research methods of “the Report of Q” are analyzed on the basis of the anatomical data recorded in “the Report of Q”,and the information about the infection path and degree of the organs such as heart,lung and tonsil,which further reveals the historical facts of Unit 731 actually doing the research on bacterial infection in the name of the “Epidemic Prevention”.%“Q报告”保存在美国国会图书馆,是731部队于1943年对长春和农安地区鼠疫感染者进行解剖的报告书.依据“Q报告”所记录的解剖数据,心脏、肺、扁桃体等器官感染路径和感染程度等信息,梳理分析了“Q报告”的主要内容、研究类型和研究方法,进一步揭露了731部队以“防疫”为名实际进行细菌感染研究的历史事实.

  11. Epidemic Modelling by Ripple-Spreading Network and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qin Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. This paper, inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon, proposes a novel ripple-spreading network model for the study of infectious disease transmission. The new epidemic model naturally has good potential for capturing many spatial and temporal features observed in the outbreak of plagues. In particular, using a stochastic ripple-spreading process simulates the effect of random contacts and movements of individuals on the probability of infection well, which is usually a challenging issue in epidemic modeling. Some ripple-spreading related parameters such as threshold and amplifying factor of nodes are ideal to describe the importance of individuals’ physical fitness and immunity. The new model is rich in parameters to incorporate many real factors such as public health service and policies, and it is highly flexible to modifications. A genetic algorithm is used to tune the parameters of the model by referring to historic data of an epidemic. The well-tuned model can then be used for analyzing and forecasting purposes. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulation results.

  12. Znu is the predominant zinc importer in Yersinia pestis during in vitro growth but is not essential for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Daniel C; Bearden, Scott W; Mier, Ildefonso; Abney, Jennifer; Paulley, James T; Fetherston, Jacqueline D; Salazar, Juan C; Radolf, Justin D; Perry, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about Zn homeostasis in Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus. The Znu ABC transporter is essential for zinc (Zn) uptake and virulence in a number of bacterial pathogens. Bioinformatics analysis identified ZnuABC as the only apparent high-affinity Zn uptake system in Y. pestis. Mutation of znuACB caused a growth defect in Chelex-100-treated PMH2 growth medium, which was alleviated by supplementation with submicromolar concentrations of Zn. Use of transcriptional reporters confirmed that Zur mediated Zn-dependent repression and that it can repress gene expression in response to Zn even in the absence of Znu. Virulence testing in mouse models of bubonic and pneumonic plague found only a modest increase in survival in low-dose infections by the znuACB mutant. Previous studies of cluster 9 (C9) transporters suggested that Yfe, a well-characterized C9 importer for manganese (Mn) and iron in Y. pestis, might function as a second, high-affinity Zn uptake system. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that YfeA, the solute-binding protein component of Yfe, binds Mn and Zn with comparably high affinities (dissociation constants of 17.8 ± 4.4 nM and 6.6 ± 1.2 nM, respectively), although the complete Yfe transporter could not compensate for the loss of Znu in in vitro growth studies. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Yfe interfered with the znu mutant's ability to grow in low concentrations of Zn, while excess Zn interfered with the ability of Yfe to import iron at low concentrations; these results suggest that YfeA can bind Zn in the bacterial cell but that Yfe is incompetent for transport of the metal. In addition to Yfe, we have now eliminated MntH, FetMP, Efe, Feo, a substrate-binding protein, and a putative nickel transporter as the unidentified, secondary Zn transporter in Y. pestis. Unlike other bacterial pathogens, Y. pestis does not require Znu for high-level infectivity and virulence; instead, it appears to possess a novel class of transporter

  13. Surface Vacuum Energy in Cutoff Models: Pressure Anomaly and Distributional Gravitational Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ricardo; Mera, Fernando D

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum-energy calculations with ideal reflecting boundaries are plagued by boundary divergences, which presumably correspond to real (but finite) physical effects occurring near the boundary. Our working hypothesis is that the stress tensor for idealized boundary conditions with some finite cutoff should be a reasonable ad hoc model for the true situation. The theory will have a sensible renormalized limit when the cutoff is taken away; this requires making sense of the Einstein equation with a distributional source. Calculations with the standard ultraviolet cutoff reveal an inconsistency between energy and pressure similar to the one that arises in noncovariant regularizations of cosmological vacuum energy. The problem disappears, however, if the cutoff is a spatial point separation in a "neutral" direction parallel to the boundary. Here we demonstrate these claims in detail, first for a single flat reflecting wall intersected by a test boundary, then more rigorously for a region of finite cross section sur...

  14. NASA and USGS invest in invasive species modeling to evaluate habitat for Africanized Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Invasive non-native species, such as plants, animals, and pathogens, have long been an interest to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA. Invasive species cause harm to our economy (around $120 B/year), the environment (e.g., replacing native biodiversity, forest pathogens negatively affecting carbon storage), and human health (e.g., plague, West Nile virus). Five years ago, the USGS and NASA formed a partnership to improve ecological forecasting capabilities for the early detection and containment of the highest priority invasive species. Scientists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Fort Collins Science Center developed a longterm strategy to integrate remote sensing capabilities, high-performance computing capabilities and new spatial modeling techniques to advance the science of ecological invasions [Schnase et al., 2002].

  15. Constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo approach for non-yrast states within the shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnard, J. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Juillet, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France)

    2016-04-15

    The present paper intends to present an extension of the constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo approach allowing to reconstruct non-yrast states in order to reach the complete spectroscopy of nuclei within the interacting shell model. As in the yrast case studied in a previous work, the formalism involves a variational symmetry-restored wave function assuming two central roles. First, it guides the underlying Brownian motion to improve the efficiency of the sampling. Second, it constrains the stochastic paths according to the phaseless approximation to control sign or phase problems that usually plague fermionic QMC simulations. Proof-of-principle results in the sd valence space are reported. They prove the ability of the scheme to offer remarkably accurate binding energies for both even- and odd-mass nuclei irrespective of the considered interaction. (orig.)

  16. Plane answers to complex questions the theory of linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    This book was written to rigorously illustrate the practical application of the projective approach to linear models. To some, this may seem contradictory. I contend that it is possible to be both rigorous and illustrative and that it is possible to use the projective approach in practical applications. Therefore, unlike many other books on linear models, the use of projections and sub­ spaces does not stop after the general theory. They are used wherever I could figure out how to do it. Solving normal equations and using calculus (outside of maximum likelihood theory) are anathema to me. This is because I do not believe that they contribute to the understanding of linear models. I have similar feelings about the use of side conditions. Such topics are mentioned when appropriate and thenceforward avoided like the plague. On the other side of the coin, I just as strenuously reject teaching linear models with a coordinate free approach. Although Joe Eaton assures me that the issues in complicated problems freq...

  17. Discussion of shanghanlun Chapter Han at Critical Disease Plague,Medical Star was Born Informed Opinion——Shanghan Zabing Lun Birth%伤寒评论话:第1章 汉祚岌岌病疫疠,医星冉冉诞宏论——《伤寒杂病论》的诞生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华龙

    2012-01-01

    目的:用普通人也能读懂的白话文阐述《伤寒论》成书的历史文化背景、学术渊源风貌、版本流传情况.方法:从东汉末年的社会、自然条件和张仲景家族兴衰及其个人习医、诊治经历等方面入手,参阅《汉书》及《伤寒论序》,以通俗的语言概述《伤寒论》的诞生过程.结果:《黄帝内经》《难经》《汤液经》《易经》等先哲们的理论成果、特殊的时代背景和疫疠流行等严峻现实、张仲景丰厚的临证经验及高尚的道德观念促成了《伤寒论》的诞生.结论:《伤寒论》是一部集理、法、方、药、护为一体的中医学经典著作,对中医理论发展和临证诊治有着重要指导作用.%Objective:Ordinary people can understand the historical and cultural background academic style vernacular the book of version of the spread of treatise on Febrile Diseases. Methods; From the late Eastern Han Dynasty society, natural condition and the Zhang Zhongjing family prosperity and individual to study medicine, diagnosis and treatment experience of aspects, refer to the "Han" and "Treatise on order" ,with Popular Language Overview "Treatise on the" birth process. Results;Huangdineijing Nanjing,tangyijing, yi-jing philosophers theories,special time background and plague epidemic and grim reality,Zhang Zhongjing rich clinical experience and high moral values contributed to the birth of treatise on Febrile. Conclusion-.Treatise on Febrile is a collection of science, law, medicine, nursing,as one of the traditional Chinese Medicine Classics,on the development of TCM theory and clinical treatment has an important role in guiding.

  18. Plasmid composition and virulence-associated factors of Yersinia pestis isolates from a plague outbreak at the Paraíba State, Brazil Composição plasmidial e fatores associados à virulência em cepas de Yersinia pestis de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Cintra Leal

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia pestis isolates were collected during a plague outbreak at the Paraiba State in 1986. The Y. pestis isolates were investigated for the presence of virulence-associated factors and plasmid content. All strains analysed were proficient in the expression of the VW and fraction 1 antigens, pigment adsorption and pesticin-fibronolysin-coagulase production. A similar plasmid profile composed by four plasmid with molecular weight of 60, 44, 14.9, and 6.4 Megadaltons (MD was found in all strains. DNA cleavage with EcoRI restriction enzyme further demonstrated the uniform plasmid content of the Y. pestis isolates. Seven additional Y. pestis strains, previously isolated in the same region but in an endemic state, showed the same plasmid fingerprint. The lack of any detectable difference between epidemic and endemic isolates as well as the value of plasmid fingerprints in epidemiology of Y. pestis is discussed.Cepas patogênicas de Yersinia pestis foram coletadas durante um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba em 1986. Os isolados de Y. pestis foram analisados quanto a presença de fatores associados à virulência e conteúdo plasmidial. Todas as linhagens analisadas foram proficientes na expressão dos antígenos VW e fração 1, além de possuírem capacidade de adsorção de pigmentos e produção de pesticina-fibrinolisina-coagulase. Um perfil plasmidial semelhante composto por quatro plasmídeos com peso molecular de 60, 44, 14.9, e 6.4 MD foi encontrado em todas as linhagens. A clivagem do DNA plasmidial com a enzima de restrição EcoRI demonstrou o conteúdo plasmidial uniforme dos isolados de Y. pestis. Sete outras linhagens de Y. pestis, isoladas previamente no mesmo local mas em condição endêmica, mostraram o mesmo perfil plasmidial. A falta de diferenças entre os isolados epidêmicos e endêmicos assim como o uso do perfil plasmidial na epidemiologic de Y. pestis e discutida.

  19. Remote sensing and geographic information systems in the spatial temporal dynamics modeling of infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Peng

    2006-01-01

    Similar to species immigration or exotic species invasion, infectious disease transmission is strengthened due to the globalization of human activities. Using schistosomiasis as an example, we propose a conceptual model simulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of infectious diseases. We base the model on the knowledge of the interrelationship among the source, media, and the hosts of the disease. With the endemics data of schistosomiasis in Xichang, China, we demonstrate that the conceptual model is feasible; we introduce how remote sensing and geographic information systems techniques can be used in support of spatio-temporal modeling; we compare the different effects caused to the entire population when selecting different groups of people for schistosomiasis control. Our work illustrates the importance of such a modeling tool in supporting spatial decisions. Our modeling method can be directly applied to such infectious diseases as the plague, lyme disease, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The application of remote sensing and geographic information systems can shed light on the modeling of other infectious disease and invasive species studies.

  20. Harbinger of plague: a bad case of gay bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarce, M

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, a group of physicians in private proctologic practice in New York City coined the illness "Gay Bowel Syndrome" in reference to a constellation of gay male anorectal disorders. Through analysis of biomedical discourse and popular media, it is apparent that Gay Bowel Syndrome is an essentialized category of difference that is neither gay-specific, confined to the bowel, nor a syndrome. The use and diagnosis of Gay Bowel Syndrome must be abandoned before it further lends itself to the formation of social policies and governing practices that seek to force gay male bodies into positions of social, cultural, and political subordination.

  1. Proposal Pitfalls Plaguing Researchers: Can Technical Communicators Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The facts bear out that the odds are against most scientific researchers and scholars--especially those just starting out--in their attempts to win funding for their research projects through their grant proposals. In this article, the author takes a close look at some of the proposal-related problems and pitfalls that have historically challenged…

  2. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  3. Selective isolation of Yersinia pestis from plague-infected fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovich, Derek S.; Colman, Rebecca E.; Price, Erin P.; Chung, Wai Kwan; Lee, Judy; Schupp, James M.; Alexander, James; Keim, Paul; Wagner., David M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated Yersinia CIN agar for the isolation of Yersinia pestis from infected fleas. CIN media is effective for the differentiation of Y. pestis from flea commensal flora and is sufficiently inhibitory to other bacteria that typically outcompete Y. pestis after 48 hours of growth using less selective media. PMID:20385178

  4. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    this is an effective means of inducing serum antibody against the antigen (i.e., tetanus and diphtheria toxoid). Recently, a great deal of attention...and bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were examined for the presence of anti-F1–V, anti-F1 or anti- V antibodies by ELISA . Briefly, ELISA plates were...anti-V antibodies by en- zyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) on plates that were coated with 0.1 g per well of recombinant F1-V, F1, or V in 100

  5. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Leibovitz, L.; Herman, C.M.; Walker, J.W.

    1968-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  6. Sampling plagues; vital aspect in rice comprehensive protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food production must be carried out using and maximizing the knowledge and the available technologies, however, one of the main limiting factors of agricultural production and crop quality are the pests and the diseases that attack the cultures from which plants start to grow until their harvest, and even in storage. The periodic sampling in the field generate information regarding the presence of pests, their population density, culture conditions, climatic variables and the presence and activity of natural enemies. Sampling methods vary according to the crop and phenological stage, as well as pests to be sampled. Within the basic components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM is sampling or monitoring of pests, whose main objective is: "To determine when and what action should be made". The determination of the population of pests is a need for phytosanitary control program of any crop. Mechanical Compliance of phytosanitary measures at specified periods according to the needs always leads to wasteful spending, in work, instruments and environmental pollution.

  7. The Last Plague in the Baltic Region 1709-1713

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Karl-Erik

    Bogen er en detaljeret undersøgelse af den store pestepidemi, der hærgede Østersøområdet i årene 1709-1713. Der er lagt særlig vægt på pesten i Helsingør, hvorfra der er bevaret et enestående godt kildemateriale. Af hovedresultater kan nævnes, at der overalt var en overdødelighed af voksne kvinde...

  8. A History of Urban Planning and Infectious Diseases: Colonial Senegal in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liora Bigon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the spatial implications of the French sanitary policies in early colonial urban Senegal. It focuses on the French politics of residential segregation following the outbreak of the bubonic plague in Dakar in 1914, and their precedents in Saint Louis. These policies can be conceived as most dramatic, resulting in a displacement of a considerable portion of the indigenous population, who did not want or could not afford to build à l’européen, to the margins of the colonial city. Aspects of residential segregation are analysed here through the perspective of cultural history and history of colonial planning and architecture, in contrast to the existing literature on this topic. The latter dilates on the statutory policies of the colonial authorities facing the 1914 plague in Dakar, the plague's sociopolitical implications, and the colonial politics of public health there. In the light of relevant historiography, and a variety of secondary and primary sources, this paper exposes the contradictions that were inherent in the French colonial regime in West Africa. These contradictions were wisely used by the African agency, so that such a seemingly urgent segregationist project was actually never accomplished.

  9. Las sombras de la política sanitaria durante el peronismo: Los brotes epidémicos en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramacciotti, Karina Inés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the social and political consequences brought on by the emergence of bubonic plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis in the city of Buenos Aires during the Peronist decade. The different strategies used to limit the political impact of these diseases changed the direction of public health policy and modified the governmental agendas.

    Este artículo revisará las consecuencias sociales y políticas que trajo el surgimiento de la peste bubónica, la viruela y la poliomielitis en la ciudad de Buenos Aires durante la década peronista. Las diferentes estrategias utilizadas para limitar el impacto político de estas enfermedades generaron cambios de rumbos en la política sanitaria y modificaciones en las agendas gubernamentales.

  10. The knight as patient of the squire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Abram

    2005-01-01

    Many types of non-professional, non-credentialed relationships are seen by laypersons as analogous to those occuring in psychotherapy. This paper takes a leap backwards several centuries and describes two examples of one such type of interaction as portrayed in artistic masterpieces. In Miguel de Cervantes' novel, "Don Quixote," an elderly, depressed man pursues a restitutive and grandiose delusion of being a heroic knight errant. In Ingmar Bergman's film, "The Seventh Seal," a disillusioned knight returns from the Crusades to face the lethal bubonic plague, and he uses obsessional means in an attempt to outwit death. Both men are accompanied by squires who try, with varying degrees of success, to help their masters relinquish their infantile needs for omniscience and omnipotence, accept their human limitations, and deal more appropriately with their surrounding realities. The powerful and inspiring insights of both works have much to teach contemporary therapists whose patients wear more metaphorical suits of armor.

  11. Public health challenges and emerging diseases: the case of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luiz Jacintho da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases in 100 years of public health in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With an advanced and organized public health system, São Paulo responded to the emergence of infectious diseases by creating research institutions and control programs. The late 19th century witnessed the first modern research institution in microbiology, in response to the bubonic plague. A changing economy led to constant changes in ecosystems. The late 20th century presents a wide array of both emerging and rapidly changing infectious diseases. The present situation calls for creative solutions. Ecosystem analysis and more agile epidemiological surveillance are seen as the best alternatives.

  12. 鸭瘟强毒株和疫苗株对雏鸭IFN-γ基因表达的影响%Dynamics of IFN-γ mRNA Expression in Ducks Induced by Duck Plague Virus and Attenuated Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秀兰; 杨发龙; 李阳友; 马小明; 岳华

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨不同毒力的鸭瘟病毒(DPV)感染对雏鸭INF-γ mRNA表达水平的影响,为DPV的感染与免疫机制提供理论依据.应用实时荧光定量PCR技术,对接种了鸭瘟强毒株和疫苗株的雏鸭肝脏及外周血淋巴细胞(PBL)中IFN-γmRNA的表达水平及鸭瘟病毒(DPV)的荷载量进行动态定量监测.结果表明:①感染鸭瘟强毒后,IFN-γ mRNA在肝脏中的表达没有明显规律,PBL中IFN-γ mRNA表达水平很高,在此期间(1~12 h),病毒DNA量很少.IFN-γ mRNA表达量在6h后大幅下降,直到144 h都非常低,而病毒的载量逐渐增大,至144 h时达到峰值.②接种弱毒疫苗后,肝脏中IFN-γ mRNA表达水平较高且稳定,至12 h达到顶峰,约比对照高出8倍.PBL中IFN-γ mRNA表达量较低且不稳定.弱毒DNA荷载量稳定上升,但载量约比强毒低两个数量级.病毒DNA在PBL检测不到.IFN-γ在抵抗鸭瘟强毒中发挥了重要作用;IFN-γ在肝脏中高水平的表达可能是鸭瘟疫苗的免疫机制之一.%To understand the mechanisms of DPV infection and immunity,the IFN-γ mRNA expression was investigated after infection with virulent and attenuated duck plague virus. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ in liver and PBL were evaluated dynamically after inoculation with virulent and attenuated DPV respectively by real-time PCR. The virus loads were also assessed. Results:①After infection by virulent DPV, IFN-γ mRNA levels in liver didn't show regulatory changes while high level of IFN-γ mRNA levels in PBL and few virus DNA could be detected in the early stage of infection (1-12 h). IFN-γ mRNA expression decreased dramatically after 6 h post infection and persisted in a very low level until death (144 h). Virus load increased gradually and reached peak at 144 h. ②After vaccination with attenuated DPV strain, there were persist and high levels of IFN-γ mRNA expression in liver, reached peak at 12 h (8 times higher than control). While the level-in PBL was

  13. A new approach for modelling variability in residential construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is plagued by long cycle times caused by variability in the supply chain. Variations or undesirable situations are the result of factors such as non-standard practices, work site accidents, inclement weather conditions and faults in design. This paper uses a new approach for modelling variability in construction by linking relative variability indicators to processes. Mass homebuilding sector was chosen as the scope of the analysis because data is readily available. Numerous simulation experiments were designed by varying size of capacity buffers in front of trade contractors, availability of trade contractors, and level of variability in homebuilding processes. The measurements were shown to lead to an accurate determination of relationships between these factors and production parameters. The variability indicator was found to dramatically affect the tangible performance measures such as home completion rates. This study provides for future analysis of the production homebuilding sector, which may lead to improvements in performance and a faster product delivery to homebuyers. 

  14. A new approach for modelling variability in residential construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is plagued by long cycle times caused by variability in the supply chain. Variations or undesirable situations are the result of factors such as non-standard practices, work site accidents, inclement weather conditions and faults in design. This paper uses a new approach for modelling variability in construction by linking relative variability indicators to processes. Mass homebuilding sector was chosen as the scope of the analysis because data is readily available. Numerous simulation experiments were designed by varying size of capacity buffers in front of trade contractors, availability of trade contractors, and level of variability in homebuilding processes. The measurements were shown to lead to an accurate determination of relationships between these factors and production parameters. The variability indicator was found to dramatically affect the tangible performance measures such as home completion rates. This study provides for future analysis of the production homebuilding sector, which may lead to improvements in performance and a faster product delivery to homebuyers.

  15. Investigating multiple solutions in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allanach, B.C. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); George, Damien P. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nachman, Benjamin [SLAC, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Recent work has shown that the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) can possess several distinct solutions for certain values of its parameters. The extra solutions were not previously found by public supersymmetric spectrum generators because fixed point iteration (the algorithm used by the generators) is unstable in the neighbourhood of these solutions. The existence of the additional solutions calls into question the robustness of exclusion limits derived from collider experiments and cosmological observations upon the CMSSM, because limits were only placed on one of the solutions. Here, we map the CMSSM by exploring its multi-dimensional parameter space using the shooting method, which is not subject to the stability issues which can plague fixed point iteration. We are able to find multiple solutions where in all previous literature only one was found. The multiple solutions are of two distinct classes. One class, close to the border of bad electroweak symmetry breaking, is disfavoured by LEP2 searches for neutralinos and charginos. The other class has sparticles that are heavy enough to evade the LEP2 bounds. Chargino masses may differ by up to around 10% between the different solutions, whereas other sparticle masses differ at the sub-percent level. The prediction for the dark matter relic density can vary by a hundred percent or more between the different solutions, so analyses employing the dark matter constraint are incomplete without their inclusion.

  16. Extended NJL Model for light and heavy mesons without $q-\\overline{q}$ thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, D; Reinhardt, H

    1996-01-01

    We consider the NJL model as an effective quark theory to describe the interaction which is responsible for the quark flavor dynamics at intermediate energies. In addition to the usual ultraviolet cut-off which is necessary since the model is non-renormalizable, we also introduce an infrared cut-off which drops off the unknown confinement part of the quark interaction, which is believed to be less important for the flavor dynamics. The infrared cut-off eliminates all q-qbar thresholds, which plague the application of the usual NJL model beyond low-energy pion physics. We apply this two-cut-off prescription to the extended NJL model with chiral and heavy quark symmetries proposed recently by us. We find a satisfactoring description even of the heavy mesons with spin/parity J/P = (0+, 1+). Furthermore, the shape-parameters of the Isgur-Wise function are studied as a function of the residual heavy meson mass.

  17. About the Properties of a Modified Generalized Beverton-Holt Equation in Ecology Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De La Sen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of a generalized modified version of the well-known Beverton-Holt equation in ecology. The proposed model describes the population evolution of some species in a certain habitat driven by six parametrical sequences, namely, the intrinsic growth rate (associated with the reproduction capability, the degree of sympathy of the species with the habitat (described by a so-called environment carrying capacity, a penalty term to deal with overpopulation levels, the harvesting (fishing or hunting regulatory quota, or related to use of pesticides when fighting damaging plagues, and the independent consumption which basically quantifies predation. The independent consumption is considered as a part of a more general additive disturbance which also potentially includes another extra additive disturbance term which might be attributed to net migration from or to the habitat or modeling measuring errors. Both potential contributions are included for generalization purposes in the proposed modified generalized Beverton-Holt equation. The properties of stability and boundedness of the solution sequences, equilibrium points of the stationary model, and the existence of oscillatory solution sequences are investigated. A numerical example for a population of aphids is investigated with the theoretical tools developed in the paper.

  18. Incidência de pragas e doenças em agroecossistemas de café orgânico de agricultores familiares em Poço Fundo-MG Incidence of plagues and diseases in agroecossystems of organic coffee of familiar farmers in Poço Fundo-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Martins

    2004-12-01

    2002, de 2.010 Kg ha-1.Having as an aim the determination of insect plagues, Leucoptera coffeella (GUÉRIN-MENÉVILLE, 1842 and Hypothenemus hampei (FERRARI, 1867 and diseases incidence Hemileia vastatrix (BERK e BROOME, 1869 and Cercospora coffeicola (BERK e CURTIS, 1880 during the period from January of 2001 to December of 2002, three agroecosystems with production of organic coffee conducted by familiar farmers of the city of Poço Fundo-MG were selected. The agroecosystem I possesses 2.200 plants of the cultivar 'Red Catuai' spaced 2,5 x 1,3 m (0,72 ha. The agroecosystem II has 2.000 plants ('Red Catuai' spaced 2,8 x 1,0 m (0,56 ha. The agroecosystem III possesses 1.100 feet ('Yellow Icatu' spaced 3,0 x 0,9 m (0,36 ha. The determination of the incidence of L. coffeella, C. coffeicola and H. vastatrix was accomplished starting from monthly surveys. The determination of the infection for C. coffeicola in fruits was accomplished in the months of April, May and June of 2001 and 2002. The survey of the infestation by H. hampei was accomplished from January to June/July of each year. It was determined that the infestation by L. coffeella has reached over 20% in the upper third (mainly during the dry period. The infestation by H. hampei has reached the damage level only in the agroecosystem I on 2001 and agroecosystem III on 2002. The infection by H. vastatrix in the agroecosystem III did not reach the damage level due to the tolerance of the cultivar ('Yellow Icatu' to the infection by this fungus, however, the agroecosystem I and II ('Red Catuai' the infection in the field exceeded 10% (dry period. The infection by C. coffeicola in leaves and fruits reached high levels (dry period. The productivity of the agroecosystem I was 510 Kg ha-1 on 2001 and 2.340 Kg ha-1 on 2002, in the agroecosystem II, it was 420 Kg ha-1 on 2001 and 1.290 Kg ha-1 on 2002, and in the agroecosystem III, it was practically zero on 2001 and 2.010 Kg ha-1 on 2002.

  19. The figure of the doctor and the science of medicine through Boccaccio's "Decameron".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouridou, Maria

    2014-03-01

    In the person of Boccaccio the humanism of Florence found its major representative. In 1358 he completed his great work, The Decameron, begun some ten years earlier. Considered the prelude to the new spirit that was to be manifested by the Renaissance, it was written in the spirit of a human-centred era. In the tales of The Decameron, based on events occurring during the plague at Florence of 1348, Boccaccio provides a detailed outline of how medical events were viewed at a time of transition from the Middle Ages to the new age of change. The Decameron opens with a description of the Bubonic Plague (Black Death). Boccaccio knows that it started in the East, and attributes it either to the influence of heavenly bodies or to God's anger over the wicked deeds of men. But the symptoms of the plague are not like those in the East, where he has heard that a sudden gush of blood from the nose is a sure sign of impending death. Instead, there are swellings, the buboes, in the groin and under the armpit, growing to the size of a small apple or an egg, then large purple or black spots on other parts of the body, and death soon afterwards. This leads to the story of a group of seven young women and three young men who fled from plague-ridden Florence to a villa outside the city walls. To pass the time, they organized themselves so that each person at night has to amuse the others by telling a story. The stories, told over ten days, contain dramatic and or humorous, elements, and many refer in one way or another to the way illness was conceived and managed in those times.

  20. Deriving a model for influenza epidemics from historical data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia

    2011-09-01

    In this report we describe how we create a model for influenza epidemics from historical data collected from both civilian and military societies. We derive the model when the population of the society is unknown but the size of the epidemic is known. Our interest lies in estimating a time-dependent infection rate to within a multiplicative constant. The model form fitted is chosen for its similarity to published models for HIV and plague, enabling application of Bayesian techniques to discriminate among infectious agents during an emerging epidemic. We have developed models for the progression of influenza in human populations. The model is framed as a integral, and predicts the number of people who exhibit symptoms and seek care over a given time-period. The start and end of the time period form the limits of integration. The disease progression model, in turn, contains parameterized models for the incubation period and a time-dependent infection rate. The incubation period model is obtained from literature, and the parameters of the infection rate are fitted from historical data including both military and civilian populations. The calibrated infection rate models display a marked difference in which the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic differed from the influenza seasons in the US between 2001-2008 and the progression of H1N1 in Catalunya, Spain. The data for the 1918 pandemic was obtained from military populations, while the rest are country-wide or province-wide data from the twenty-first century. We see that the initial growth of infection in all cases were about the same; however, military populations were able to control the epidemic much faster i.e., the decay of the infection-rate curve is much higher. It is not clear whether this was because of the much higher level of organization present in a military society or the seriousness with which the 1918 pandemic was addressed. Each outbreak to which the influenza model was fitted yields a separate set of