WorldWideScience

Sample records for bubble model compared

  1. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could a...

  2. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  3. Observation and theoretic analysis of gas-bubble formation and growth in water-model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui-zhi; SHU Da; SUN Bao-de; WANG Jun; LU Yan-ling

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of bubbles is observed with high-speed digital camera in water-model. It is found that each bubble has three processes: bubble formation, bubble coalescence and bubble division. Bubble shape is spherical firstly, then elliptical and spherical crown after coalescence, and spherical again after division. These phenomena are explained theoretically. And the bubble size is defined newly. The so-defined bubble size is measured through digital camera and LECO graphical analyzer. And the measured results are compared with those in literatures.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF BUBBLE MODEL FOR CAVITATING FLOW SIMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAMURA Y.; MATSUMOTO Y.

    2009-01-01

    In the present research,a bubble dynamics based model for cavitating flow simulations is extended to higher void fraction region for wider range of applications.The present bubble model is based on the so-called Rayleigh-Plesset equation that calculates a temporal bubble radius with the surrounding liquid pressure and is considered to be valid in an area below a certain void fraction.The solution algorithm is modified so that the Rayleigh-Plesset equation is no more solved once the bubble radius(or void fraction)reaches at a certain value till the liquid pressure recovers above the vapor pressure in order to overcome this problem.This procedure is expected to stabilize the numerical calculation.The results of simple two-dimensional flow field are presented compared with the existing bubble model.

  5. The parton bubble model compared to central Au Au collisions (0% to 5%) at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Longacre, R S

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier paper we developed a Parton Bubble Model (PBM) for RHIC, high-energy heavy-ion collisions. PBM was based on a substructure of a ring of localized bubbles (gluonic hot spots) which initially contain 3-4 partons composed of almost entirely gluons. The bubbles emitted correlated particles at kinetic freezeout, leading to a lumpy fireball surface. For a selection of charged particles (0.8 GeV/c $<$ $p_t$ $<$ 4.0 GeV/c), the PBM reasonably quantitatively (within a few percent) explained high precision RHIC experimental correlation analyses in a manner which was consistent with the small observed HBT source size in this transverse momentum range. We demonstrated that surface emission from a distributed set of surface sources (as in the PBM) was necessary to obtain this consistency. In this paper we give a review of the above comparison to central Au Au collisions. The bubble formation can be associated with gluonic objects predicted by a Glasma Flux Tube Model (GFTM) that formed longitudinal flu...

  6. Stochastic modelling for financial bubbles and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw upon the close relationship between statistical physics and mathematical finance to develop a suite of models for financial bubbles and crashes. By modifying previous approaches, we are able to derive novel analytical formulae for evaluation problems and for the expected timing of future change points. In particular, we help to explain why previous approaches have systematically overstated the timing of changes in market regime. The list of potential empirical applications is deep and wide ranging, and includes contemporary housing bubbles, the Eurozone crisis and the Crash of 2008.

  7. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  8. Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann with Enhanced Bubble Model

    CERN Document Server

    Anderl, Daniela; Rauh, Cornelia; Rüde, Ulrich; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an enhancement to the free surface lattice Boltzmann method (FSLBM) for the simulation of bubbly flows including rupture and breakup of bubbles. The FSLBM uses a volume of fluid approach to reduce the problem of a liquid-gas two-phase flow to a single-phase free surface simulation. In bubbly flows compression effects leading to an increase or decrease of pressure in the suspended bubbles cannot be neglected. Therefore, the free surface simulation is augmented by a bubble model that supplies the missing information by tracking the topological changes of the free surface in the flow. The new model presented here is capable of handling the effects of bubble breakup and coalesce without causing a significant computational overhead. Thus, the enhanced bubble model extends the applicability of the FSLBM to a new range of practically relevant problems, like bubble formation and development in chemical reactors or foaming processes.

  9. Modeling of surface cleaning by cavitation bubble dynamics and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Georges L; Kapahi, Anil; Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung

    2016-03-01

    Surface cleaning using cavitation bubble dynamics is investigated numerically through modeling of bubble dynamics, dirt particle motion, and fluid material interaction. Three fluid dynamics models; a potential flow model, a viscous model, and a compressible model, are used to describe the flow field generated by the bubble all showing the strong effects bubble explosive growth and collapse have on a dirt particle and on a layer of material to remove. Bubble deformation and reentrant jet formation are seen to be responsible for generating concentrated pressures, shear, and lift forces on the dirt particle and high impulsive loads on a layer of material to remove. Bubble explosive growth is also an important mechanism for removal of dirt particles, since strong suction forces in addition to shear are generated around the explosively growing bubble and can exert strong forces lifting the particles from the surface to clean and sucking them toward the bubble. To model material failure and removal, a finite element structure code is used and enables simulation of full fluid-structure interaction and investigation of the effects of various parameters. High impulsive pressures are generated during bubble collapse due to the impact of the bubble reentrant jet on the material surface and the subsequent collapse of the resulting toroidal bubble. Pits and material removal develop on the material surface when the impulsive pressure is large enough to result in high equivalent stresses exceeding the material yield stress or its ultimate strain. Cleaning depends on parameters such as the relative size between the bubble at its maximum volume and the particle size, the bubble standoff distance from the particle and from the material wall, and the excitation pressure field driving the bubble dynamics. These effects are discussed in this contribution.

  10. Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevskott, Sverre

    1997-12-31

    Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Modelling for three dimensional coalescence of two bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, A. M.; Wang, Q. X.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the three dimensional (3D) interaction and coalescence of two bubbles subject to buoyancy and the dynamics of the subsequent joined bubble using the boundary integral method (BIM). An improved density potential method is implemented to control the mesh quality. It helps to avoid the numerical instabilities, which occur after coalescence. Numerical convergence tests are conducted in terms of mesh sizes and time steps. The 3D numerical model agrees well with an axisymmetric BIM model for axisymmetric cases as well as experimental results captured by high-speed camera. The bubble jetting, interaction, and coalescence of the two bubbles depend on the maximum bubble radii, the centre distance between two bubbles at inception, and the angle β between the centre line and the direction of buoyancy. We investigate coalescence of two bubbles for β = 0, π/4, and π/2, respectively, and at various centre distances at inception. Numerical results presented include the bubble and jet shapes, the velocity, and pressure fields surrounding the bubbles, as well as the time histories of bubble volumes, jet velocities, and positions of centroid of the bubble system.

  12. Force Balance Model for Bubble Rise, Impact, and Bounce from Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-06-23

    A force balance model for the rise and impact of air bubbles in a liquid against rigid horizontal surfaces that takes into account effects of buoyancy and hydrodynamic drag forces, bubble deformation, inertia of the fluid via an added mass force, and a film force between the bubble and the rigid surface is proposed. Numerical solution of the governing equations for the position and velocity of the center of mass of the bubbles is compared against experimental data taken with ultraclean water. The boundary condition at the air-water interface is taken to be stress free, which is consistent for bubbles in clean water systems. Features that are compared include bubble terminal velocity, bubbles accelerating from rest to terminal speed, and bubbles impacting and bouncing off different solid surfaces for bubbles that have already or are yet to attain terminal speed. Excellent agreement between theory and experiments indicates that the forces included in the model constitute the main physical ingredients to describe the bouncing phenomenon.

  13. A mechanistic model of separation bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Krechetnikov, R; Nagib, H M

    2007-01-01

    This work uncovers the low-dimensional nature the complex dynamics of actuated separated flows. Namely, motivated by the problem of model-based predictive control of separated flows, we identify the requirements on a model-based observer and the key variables and propose a prototype model in the case of thick airfoils as motivated by practical applications. The approach in this paper differs fundamentally from the logic behind known models, which are either linear or based on POD-truncations and are unable to reflect even the crucial bifurcation and hysteresis inherent in separation phenomena. This new look at the problem naturally leads to several important implications, such as, firstly, uncovering the physical mechanisms for hysteresis, secondly, predicting a finite amplitude instability of the bubble, and thirdly to new issues to be studied theoretically and tested experimentally. More importantly, by employing systematic reasoning, the low-dimensional nature of these complex phenomena at the coarse level...

  14. The AGN Jet Model of the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The nature and origin of the Fermi bubbles detected in the inner Galaxy remain elusive. In this paper, we briefly discuss some recent theoretical and observational developments, with a focus on the AGN jet model. Analogous to radio lobes observed in massive galaxies, the Fermi bubbles could be naturally produced by a pair of opposing jets emanating nearly along the Galaxy's rotation axis from the Galactic center. Our two-fluid hydrodynamic simulations reproduce quite well the bubble location and shape, and interface instabilities at the bubble surface could be effectively suppressed by shear viscosity. We briefly comment on some potential issues related to our model, which may lead to future progress.

  15. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a new prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by T...

  16. Discrete particle modeling of granular temperature distribution in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong He; Tianyu Wang; Niels Deen; Martin van Sint Annaland; Hans Kuipers; Dongsheng Wen

    2012-01-01

    The discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM) is applied in this work to study numerically the distributions of particle and bubble granular temperatures in a bubbling fluidized bed.The dimensions of the bed and other parameters are set to correspond to those of Müller et al.(2008).Various drag models and operational parameters are investigated to find their influence on particle and bubble granular temperatures.Various inlet superficial gas velocities are used in this work to obtain their effect on flow characteristics.It is found that the superficial gas velocity has the most important effect on granular temperatures including bubble granular temperature,particle translational granular temperature and particle rotational granular temperature.The drag force model affects more seriously the large scale variables such as the bubble granular temperature.Restitution coefficient influences all granular temperatures to some degree.Simulation results are compared with experimental results by Müller et al.(2008) showing reasonable agreement.

  17. Modeling of bubble detachment in reduced gravity under the influence of electric fields and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Cila [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Iacona, Estelle [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ecole Centrale, Laboratoire EM2C, Paris UPR 288 (France)

    2004-10-01

    A simple model for predicting bubble volume and shape at detachment in reduced gravity under the influence of electric fields is described in the paper. The model is based on relatively simple thermodynamic arguments and relies on and combines several models described in the literature. It accounts for the level of gravity and the magnitude of the electric field. For certain conditions of bubble development the properties of the bubble source are also considered. Computations were carried out for a uniform unperturbed electric field for a range of model parameters, and the significance of model assumptions and simplifications is discussed for the particular method of bubble formation. Experiments were conducted in terrestrial conditions and reduced gravity (during parabolic flights in NASA's KC-135 aircraft) by injecting air bubbles through an orifice into the electrically insulating working fluid, PF5052. Bubble shapes visualized experimentally were compared with model predictions. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement. The results suggest that the model can provide quick engineering estimates concerning bubble formation for a range of conditions (both for formation at an orifice and boiling) and such a model reduces the need for complex and expensive numerical simulations for certain applications. (orig.)

  18. Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2015-08-01

    We revisit classical nucleation theory (CNT) for the homogeneous bubble nucleation rate and improve the classical formula using a correct prefactor in the nucleation rate. Most of the previous theoretical studies have used the constant prefactor determined by the bubble growth due to the evaporation process from the bubble surface. However, the growth of bubbles is also regulated by the thermal conduction, the viscosity, and the inertia of liquid motion. These effects can decrease the prefactor significantly, especially when the liquid pressure is much smaller than the equilibrium one. The deviation in the nucleation rate between the improved formula and the CNT can be as large as several orders of magnitude. Our improved, accurate prefactor and recent advances in molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments for argon bubble nucleation enable us to precisely constrain the free energy barrier for bubble nucleation. Assuming the correction to the CNT free energy is of the functional form suggested by Tolman, the precise evaluations of the free energy barriers suggest the Tolman length is ≃0.3 σ independently of the temperature for argon bubble nucleation, where σ is the unit length of the Lennard-Jones potential. With this Tolman correction and our prefactor one gets accurate bubble nucleation rate predictions in the parameter range probed by current experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Bubbles in inkjet printheads : analytical and numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Roger Josef Maria

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of nozzle failure of an inkjet printhead due to entrainment of air bubbles was studies using analytical and numerical models. The studied inkjet printheads consist of many channels in which an acoustic field is generated to eject a droplet. When an air bubble is entrained, it disrupts

  20. Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J

    2014-09-01

    Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.

  1. Investigation of Bubble-Slag Layer Behaviors with Hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian Modeling and Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan

    2016-08-01

    In ladle metallurgy, bubble-liquid interaction leads to complex phase structures. Gas bubble behavior, as well as the induced slag layer behavior, plays a significant role in the refining process and the steel quality. In the present work, a mathematical model using the large eddy simulation (LES) is developed to investigate the bubble transport and slag layer behavior in a water model of an argon-stirred ladle. The Eulerian volume of fluid model is adopted to track the liquid steel-slag-air free surfaces while the Lagrangian discrete phase model is used for tracking and handling the dynamics of discrete bubbles. The bubble coalescence is considered using O'Rourke's algorithm to solve the bubble diameter redistribution and bubbles are removed after leaving the air-liquid interface. The turbulent liquid flow that is induced by bubble-liquid interaction is solved by LES. The slag layer fluactuation, slag droplet entrainment and spout eye open-close phenomenon are well revealed. The bubble diameter distribution and the spout eye size are compared with the experiment. The results show that the hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian-LES model provides a valid modeling framework to predict the unsteady gas bubble-slag layer coupled behaviors.

  2. Modeling the dynamics of single-bubble sonoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, Lucas L; Thomé, Roberto C A; Nogueira, A L M A; Paschoal, Ricardo C; Rodrigues, Hilario

    2014-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL) is the phenomenon in which acoustic energy is (partially) transformed into light. It may occur by means of many or just one bubble of gas inside a liquid medium, giving rise to the terms multi-bubble- and single-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL and SBSL). In the last years some models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but there is still no complete theory for the light emission mechanism (especially in the case of SBSL). In this work, we will not address this more complicated particular issue, but only present a simple model describing the dynamical behaviour of the sonoluminescent bubble, in the SBSL case. Using simple numerical techniques within the software Matlab, we discuss solutions considering various possibilities for some of the parameters involved: liquid compressibility, superficial tension, viscosity, and type of gas. The model may be used as an introductory study of sonoluminescence in physics courses at undergraduate or graduate levels, as well as a quite clarifyi...

  3. Time-Dependent Stochastic Acceleration Model for the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Kento; Terasawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We study stochastic acceleration models for the Fermi bubbles. Turbulence is excited just behind the shock front via Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor or Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, and plasma particles are continuously accelerated by the interaction with the turbulence. The turbulence gradually decays as it goes away from the shock fronts. Adopting a phenomenological model for the stochastic acceleration, we explicitly solve the temporal evolution of the particle energy distribution in the turbulence. Our results show that the spatial distribution of high-energy particles is different from those for a steady solution. We also show that the contribution of electrons escaped from the acceleration regions significantly softens the photon spectrum. The photon spectrum and surface brightness profile are reproduced by our models. If the escape efficiency is very high, the radio flux from the escaped low-energy electrons can be comparable to that of the WMAP haze. We also demonstrate hadronic models with the s...

  4. Modeling of isothermal bubbly flow with interfacial area transport equation and bubble number density approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Salih [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Erguen, Sule [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: se@nuke.hacettepe.edu.tr; Barik, Muhammet; Kocar, Cemil; Soekmen, Cemal Niyazi [Hacettepe University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, isothermal turbulent bubbly flow is mechanistically modeled. For the modeling, Fluent version 6.3.26 is used as the computational fluid dynamics solver. First, the mechanistic models that simulate the interphase momentum transfer between the gas (bubbles) and liquid (continuous) phases are investigated, and proper models for the known flow conditions are selected. Second, an interfacial area transport equation (IATE) solution is added to Fluent's solution scheme in order to model the interphase momentum transfer mechanisms. In addition to solving IATE, bubble number density (BND) approach is also added to Fluent and this approach is also used in the simulations. Different source/sink models derived for the IATE and BND models are also investigated. The simulations of experiments based on the available data in literature are performed by using IATE and BND models in two and three-dimensions. The results show that the simulations performed by using IATE and BND models agree with each other and with the experimental data. The simulations performed in three-dimensions give better agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Bubble video experiments in the marine waters off Panarea Island (Italy): real-world data for modelling CO2 bubble dissolution and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, Stan; De Vittor, Cinzia; McGinnis, Dan; Bigi, Sabina; Comici, Cinzia; Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ruggiero, Livio

    2014-05-01

    , and dissolved gases. An in-house developed GasPro sensor was also mounted on the structure to monitor pCO2 over the entire 2.5 hour duration of the experiment. The obtained data were used as input into the Discrete Bubble Model (DBM) (e.g., McGinnis et al., 2011, doi:10.1029/2010JC006557). The DBM uses mass balance to predict the gas flux across the bubble surface, whereby gas flux direction depends on internal bubble gas concentration and ambient concentration, and considering the Henry's coefficient and partial pressure of the gas. The model uses bubble-size dependent relationships for the mass transfer rate and the bubble rise velocity. Important model input parameters include: bubble size; depth; ambient dissolved gas concentrations, temperature and salinity; and initial bubble gas concentrations. Measured and modelled results are compared, showing good general agreement. Based on the concentrations measured at the lowest level, the modelled and measured bubble concentrations match very closely. Bubble size values do not match as well if this initial concentration is used, however they improve as a value closer to 100% CO2 is applied. This preliminary study has shown promising results and highlight areas where experimental design and data quality should be improved in the next phase of the study.

  6. Modelling of single bubble-dynamics and thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.; Gavaises, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the solution effects of different Rayleigh-Plesset models (R-P) for simulating the growth/collapse dynamics and thermal behaviour of homogeneous gas bubbles. The flow inputs used for the discrete cavitation bubble calculations are obtained from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (RANS), performed in high-pressure nozzle holes. Parametric 1-D results are presented for the classical thermal R-P equation [1] as well as for refined models which incorporated compressibility corrections and thermal effects [2, 3]. The thermal bubble model is coupled with the energy equation, which provides the temperature of the bubble as a function of conduction/convection and radiation heat-transfer mechanisms. For approximating gas pressure variations a high-order virial equation of state (EOS) was used, based on Helmholtz free energy principle [4]. The coded thermal R-P model was validated against experimental measurements [5] and model predictions [6] reported in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL).

  7. Algebraic model for bubble tracking in horizontal gas-liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Felipe G.C. de; Tisserant, Hendy R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais; Mazza, Ricardo A.; Rosa, Eugenio S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    The current work extends the concept of unit-cell applied in gas-liquid slug flow models to predict the evolution of the gas and liquid flow properties along a horizontal pipe. The motivation of this model is its simplicity, easiness of application and low computational cost. It is a useful tool of reference data generation in order to check the consistency of numerical slug tracking models. The potential of the model is accessed by comparing the gas bubbles and liquid slug sizes, the translational bubble velocity and the pressure drop against experimental data. (author)

  8. Using a dynamic point-source percolation model to simulate bubble growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Zeigler, David A.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    Accurate modeling of nucleation, growth and clustering of helium bubbles within metal tritide alloys is of high scientific and technological importance. Of interest is the ability to predict both the distribution of these bubbles and the manner in which these bubbles interact at a critical concentration of helium-to-metal atoms to produce an accelerated release of helium gas. One technique that has been used in the past to model these materials, and again revisited in this research, is percolation theory. Previous efforts have used classical percolation theory to qualitatively and quantitatively model the behavior of interstitial helium atoms in a metal tritide lattice; however, higher fidelity models are needed to predict the distribution of helium bubbles and include features that capture the underlying physical mechanisms present in these materials. In this work, we enhance classical percolation theory by developing the dynamic point-source percolation model. This model alters the traditionally binary character of site occupation probabilities by enabling them to vary depending on proximity to existing occupied sites, i.e. nucleated bubbles. This revised model produces characteristics for one and two dimensional systems that are extremely comparable with measurements from three dimensional physical samples. Future directions for continued development of the dynamic model are also outlined.

  9. An Euler-Lagrange method considering bubble radial dynamics for modeling sonochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Rashid; Brenner, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady numerical computations are performed to investigate the flow field, wave propagation and the structure of bubbles in sonochemical reactors. The turbulent flow field is simulated using a two-equation Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The distribution of the acoustic pressure is solved based on the Helmholtz equation using a finite volume method (FVM). The radial dynamics of a single bubble are considered by applying the Keller-Miksis equation to consider the compressibility of the liquid to the first order of acoustical Mach number. To investigate the structure of bubbles, a one-way coupling Euler-Lagrange approach is used to simulate the bulk medium and the bubbles as the dispersed phase. Drag, gravity, buoyancy, added mass, volume change and first Bjerknes forces are considered and their orders of magnitude are compared. To verify the implemented numerical algorithms, results for one- and two-dimensional simplified test cases are compared with analytical solutions. The results show good agreement with experimental results for the relationship between the acoustic pressure amplitude and the volume fraction of the bubbles. The two-dimensional axi-symmetric results are in good agreement with experimentally observed structure of bubbles close to sonotrode.

  10. Dynamic behavior of gas bubble in single bubble sonoluminescence - vibrator model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Menglu; CHENG Qian; GE Caoyan

    2002-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is a process of energy transformation from soundto light. Therefore the motion equations of near spherical vibration of a gas bubble in anincompressible and viscous liquid can be deduced by Lagrangian Equation with dissipationfunction when the bubble is considered as a vibrator surrounded by liquid. The analyticalsolutions in the bubble expanding, collapsing and rebounding stages can be obtained by solvingthese motion equations when some approximations are adopted. And the dynamic behaviorsof the bubble in these three stages are discussed.

  11. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.

    2015-06-01

    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  12. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  13. Modeling the initial contact line dynamics of dewetting bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Laurent, Matthieu; Bird, James

    2016-11-01

    When a rising bubble comes to rest beneath a solid horizontal surface, the resulting liquid film dewets to minimize the total free energy of the three phase system. For partially wetting surfaces, the presence of the contact angle yields dynamics which are assumed to be governed by viscous effects. In contrast, the early-time dynamics for drops spreading on partially wetting surfaces are dominated by inertial effects. Motivated by the discrepancy between these two systems, we conduct experiments on dewetting bubbles and find that the short-time dynamics fail to obey purely viscous or inertial scalings. We draw from previously proposed dewetting and spreading models to develop a new model that can rationalize the anomalous scalings that we observe. Our results suggest that the speed that a bubble adheres to a partially wetting surface is set by an interplay of capillary waves and contact line motion. We acknowledge support from ONR, Saint-Gobain, and NSF GRFP.

  14. A Mass Transfer Model Based on Individual Bubbles and an Unsteady State Film Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 王铁峰; 王金福

    2004-01-01

    A gas-liquid mass transfer model based on an unsteady state film mechanism applied to a single bubble is presented. The mathematical model was solved using Laplace transform to obtain an analytical solution of concentration profile in terms of the radial position r and time t. The dynamic mass transfer flux was deduced and the influence of the bubble size was also determined. A mathematical method for deducing the average mass transfer flux directly from the Laplace transformed concentration is presented. Its accuracy is verified by comparing the numerical results with those from the indirect method. The influences of the model parameters, namely, the bubble size R, liquid film thickness δ, and the surface renewal constant s on the average mass transfer flux were investigated. The proposed model is useful for a better understanding of the mass transfer mechanism and an optimum design of gas-liquid contact equipment.

  15. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in neutron irradiated boron doped RAFM steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dethloff, Christian, E-mail: christian.dethloff@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gaganidze, Ermile [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Svetukhin, Vyacheslav V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy Str. 42, 432970 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are promising candidates for structural materials in future fusion technology. In addition to other irradiation defects, the transmuted helium is believed to strongly influence material hardening and embrittlement behavior. A phenomenological model based on kinetic rate equations is developed to describe homogeneous nucleation and growth of helium bubbles in neutron irradiated RAFM steels. The model is adapted to different {sup 10}B doped EUROFER97 based heats, which already had been studied in past irradiation experiments. Simulations yield bubble size distributions, whereby effects of helium generation rate, surface energy, helium sinks and helium density are investigated. Peak bubble diameters under different conditions are compared to preliminary microstructural results on irradiated specimens. Helium induced hardening was calculated by applying the Dispersed Barrier Hardening model to simulated cluster size distributions. Quantitative microstructural investigations of unirradiated and irradiated specimens will be used to support and verify the model.

  16. Comparison of a Full Second-Order Moment Model and an Algebraic Stress Two-Phase Turbulence Model for Simulating Bubble-Liquid Flows in a Bubble Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full second-order moment (FSM) model and an algebraic stress (ASM) two-phase turbulence modelare proposed and applied to predict turbulent bubble-liquid flows in a 2D rectangular bubble column. Predictiongives the bubble and liquid velocities, bubble volume fraction, bubble and liquid Reynolds stresses and bubble-liquidvelocity correlation. For predicted two-phase velocities and bubble volume fraction there is only slight differencebetween these two models, and the simulation results using both two models are in good agreement with the particleimage velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Although the predicted two-phase Reynolds stresses using the FSM are insomewhat better agreement with the PIV measurements than those predicted using the ASM, the Reynolds stressespredicted using both two models are in general agreement with the experiments. Therefore, it is suggested to usethe ASM two-phase turbulence model in engineering application for saving the computation time.

  17. 'Bubble chamber model' of fast atom bombardment induced processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Marina V; Shelkovsky, Vadim S; Boryak, Oleg A; Orlov, Vadim V

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning FAB mechanisms, referred to as a 'bubble chamber FAB model', is proposed. This model can provide an answer to the long-standing question as to how fragile biomolecules and weakly bound clusters can survive under high-energy particle impact on liquids. The basis of this model is a simple estimation of saturated vapour pressure over the surface of liquids, which shows that all liquids ever tested by fast atom bombardment (FAB) and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were in the superheated state under the experimental conditions applied. The result of the interaction of the energetic particles with superheated liquids is known to be qualitatively different from that with equilibrium liquids. It consists of initiation of local boiling, i.e., in formation of vapour bubbles along the track of the energetic particle. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in the framework of nuclear physics and provides the basis for construction of the well-known bubble chamber detectors. The possibility of occurrence of similar processes under FAB of superheated liquids substantiates a conceptual model of emission of secondary ions suggested by Vestal in 1983, which assumes formation of bubbles beneath the liquid surface, followed by their bursting accompanied by release of microdroplets and clusters as a necessary intermediate step for the creation of molecular ions. The main distinctive feature of the bubble chamber FAB model, proposed here, is that the bubbles are formed not in the space and time-restricted impact-excited zone, but in the nearby liquid as a 'normal' boiling event, which implies that the temperature both within the bubble and in the droplets emerging on its burst is practically the same as that of the bulk liquid sample. This concept can resolve the paradox of survival of intact biomolecules under FAB, since the part of the sample participating in the liquid-gas transition via the bubble mechanism has an ambient temperature

  18. A modelling and experimental study of the bubble trajectory in a non-Newtonian crystal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, N M S [Process Engineering and Light Metals (PELM) Centre, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, CQUniversity, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia); Khan, M M K; Rasul, M G, E-mail: m.rasul@cqu.edu.a [School of Engineering and Built Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, CQUniversity, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and computational study of air bubbles rising in a massecuite-equivalent non-Newtonian crystal suspension. The bubble trajectory inside the stagnant liquid of a 0.05% xanthan gum crystal suspension was investigated and modelled using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to gain an insight into the bubble flow characteristics. The CFD code FLUENT was used for numerical simulation, and the bubble trajectory calculations were performed through a volume of fluid (VOF) model. The influences of the Reynolds number (Re), the Weber number (We) and the bubble aspect ratio (E) on the bubble trajectory are discussed. The conditions for the bubbles' path oscillations are identified. The experimental results showed that the path instability for the crystal suspension was less rapid than in water. The trajectory analysis indicated that 5.76 mm diameter bubbles followed a zigzag motion in the crystal suspension. Conversely, the smaller bubbles (5.76 mm) followed a path of least horizontal movement and larger bubbles (21.21 mm) produced more spiral motion within the crystal suspension. Path instability occurred for bubbles of 15.63 and 21.21 mm diameter, and they induced both zigzag and spiral trajectories within the crystal suspension. At low Re and We, smaller bubbles (5.76 mm) produced a zigzag trajectory, whereas larger bubbles (15.63 and 21.21 mm) showed both zigzag and spiral trajectories at intermediate and moderately high Re and We in the crystal suspension. The simulation results illustrated that a repeating pattern of swirling vortices was created for smaller bubbles due to the unstable wake and unsteady flow of these bubbles. This is the cause of the smaller bubbles moving in a zigzag way. Larger bubbles showed two counter-rotating trailing vortices at the back of the bubble. These vortices induced a velocity component to the gas-liquid interface and caused a deformation. Hence, the larger bubbles produced a path

  19. Modeling Air Bubble Transport in Hydraulic Jump Flows using Population Balance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a numerical model aiming at coupling the MUltiple-SIze-Group (MUSIG with the semiempirical air entrainment model based on the Euler-Euler two-fluid framework to handle the bubble transport in hydraulic jump flows. The internal flow structure including the recirculation region, the shear layer region and the jet region was accurately predicted. The flow parameters such as the water velocity and void fraction distributions were examined and compared with the experimental data, validating the effectiveness of the numerical model. Prediction of the Sauter mean bubble diameter distributions by the population balance approach at different axial locations confirmed the dominance of breakage due to the high turbulent intensity in the shear layer region which led to the generation of small gas bubbles at high void fraction. Comparison between different cases indicates that high Froude number not only give rise to longer recirculation region and higher void fraction due to larger air entrainment rate, but also generate larger bubble number density and smaller bubble size because of the stronger turbulence intensity in the same axial position.

  20. A model of bubble growth leading to xylem conduit embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, T; Vesala, T; Nikinmaa, E

    2007-11-01

    The dynamics of a gas bubble inside a water conduit after a cavitation event was modeled. A distinction was made between a typical angiosperm conduit with a homogeneous pit membrane and a typical gymnosperm conduit with a torus-margo pit membrane structure. For conduits with torus-margo type pits pit membrane deflection was also modeled and pit aspiration, the displacement of the pit membrane to the low pressure side of the pit chamber, was found to be possible while the emboli was still small. Concurrent with pit aspiration, the high resistance to water flow out of the conduit through the cell walls or aspirated pits will make the embolism process slow. In case of no pit aspiration and always for conduits with homogeneous pit membranes, embolism growth is more rapid but still much slower than bubble growth in bulk water under similar water tension. The time needed for the embolism to fill a whole conduit was found to be dependent on pit and cell wall conductance, conduit radius, xylem water tension, pressure rise in adjacent conduits due to water freed from the embolising conduit, and the rigidity and structure of the pits in the case of margo-torus type pit membrane. The water pressure in the conduit hosting the bubble was found to occur almost immediately after bubble induction inside a conduit, creating a sudden tension release in the conduit, which can be detected by acoustic and ultra-acoustic monitoring of xylem cavitation.

  1. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  2. Modelling of the Bubble Size Distribution in an Aerated Stirred Tank: Theoretical and Numerical Comparison of Different Breakup Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálal Zbyněk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this study is the mathematical modelling of bubble size distributions in an aerated stirred tank using the population balance method. The air-water system consisted of a fully baffled vessel with a diameter of 0.29 m, which was equipped with a six-bladed Rushton turbine. The secondary phase was introduced through a ring sparger situated under the impeller. Calculations were performed with the CFD software CFX 14.5. The turbulent quantities were predicted using the standard k-ε turbulence model. Coalescence and breakup of bubbles were modelled using the MUSIG method with 24 bubble size groups. For the bubble size distribution modelling, the breakup model by Luo and Svendsen (1996 typically has been used in the past. However, this breakup model was thoroughly reviewed and its practical applicability was questioned. Therefore, three different breakup models by Martínez-Bazán et al. (1999a, b, Lehr et al. (2002 and Alopaeus et al. (2002 were implemented in the CFD solver and applied to the system. The resulting Sauter mean diameters and local bubble size distributions were compared with experimental data.

  3. Towards advanced aeration modelling: from blower to bubbles to bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Andreia; Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Gillot, Sylvie; Fayolle, Yannick; Bellandi, Giacomo; Amerlinck, Youri; Mortier, Séverine T F C; Gori, Riccardo; Neves, Ramiro; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    Aeration is an essential component of aerobic biological wastewater treatment and is the largest energy consumer at most water resource recovery facilities. Most modelling studies neglect the inherent complexity of the aeration systems used. Typically, the blowers, air piping, and diffusers are not modelled in detail, completely mixed reactors in a series are used to represent plug-flow reactors, and empirical correlations are used to describe the impact of operating conditions on bubble formation and transport, and oxygen transfer from the bubbles to the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms involved are very complex in nature and require significant research efforts. This contribution highlights why and where there is a need for more detail in the different aspects of the aeration system and compiles recent efforts to develop physical models of the entire aeration system (blower, valves, air piping and diffusers), as well as adding rigour to the oxygen transfer efficiency modelling (impact of viscosity, bubble size distribution, shear and hydrodynamics). As a result of these model extensions, more realistic predictions of dissolved oxygen profiles and energy consumption have been achieved. Finally, the current needs for further model development are highlighted.

  4. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  5. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...... is whether a bubble model with infinite variance can create the long swings, or persistence, which are observed in many macro variables. We say that a variable is persistent if its autoregressive coefficient ¿(n) of y(t) on y(t-1), is close to one. We show that the estimator of ¿(n) converges to ¿p...

  6. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited gas bubble dynamics in unstirred tissue with finite volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2002-02-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics for studying decompression sickness have been developed by considering the bubble to be immersed in an extravascular tissue with diffusion-limited gas exchange between the bubble and the surrounding unstirred tissue. In previous versions of this two-region model, the tissue volume must be theoretically infinite, which renders the model inapplicable to analysis of bubble growth in a finite-sized tissue. We herein present a new two-region model that is applicable to problems involving finite tissue volumes. By introducing radial deviations to gas tension in the diffusion region surrounding the bubble, the concentration gradient can be zero at a finite distance from the bubble, thus limiting the tissue volume that participates in bubble-tissue gas exchange. It is shown that these deviations account for the effects of heterogeneous perfusion on gas bubble dynamics, and are required for the tissue volume to be finite. The bubble growth results from a difference between the bubble gas pressure and an average gas tension in the surrounding diffusion region that explicitly depends on gas uptake and release by the bubble. For any given decompression, the diffusion region volume must stay above a certain minimum in order to sustain bubble growth.

  7. Numerical modeling of dimethyl ether (DME) bubble growth and breakup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; ZHANG YuSheng

    2009-01-01

    A numerical program is written to simulate the process of vapor bubble growth with spherical symmetry from the thermodynamic critical radius in an initially uniformly superheated liquid. The program is validated by the experimental data of superheated water. The calculated results agree with those of experiments well. The program takes into account the variations of properties with temperature precisely to simulate the DME bubble growth under flash boiling conditions. Considering the influences of pressure, surface tension and viscous stress, the linear stability analysis method is adopted to deduce the dispersion equation to represent the disturbance development during the bubble growth, and a new criterion for bubble breakup is established. The results show the bubble becomes more unstable with the increase of bubble Weber number and void fraction, and that with the increase of bubble growth rate or the decrease of initial radius ration of droplet to bubble, the breakup time of bubble becomes shorter.

  8. Model for the dynamics of two interacting axisymmetric spherical bubbles undergoing small shape oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Eru; Hay, Todd A.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between acoustically driven or laser-generated bubbles causes the bubble surfaces to deform. Dynamical equations describing the motion of two translating, nominally spherical bubbles undergoing small shape oscillations in a viscous liquid are derived using Lagrangian mechanics. Deformation of the bubble surfaces is taken into account by including quadrupole and octupole perturbations in the spherical-harmonic expansion of the boundary conditions on the bubbles. Quadratic terms in the quadrupole and octupole amplitudes are retained, and surface tension and shear viscosity are included in a consistent manner. A set of eight coupled second-order ordinary differential equations is obtained. Simulation results, obtained by numerical integration of the model equations, exhibit qualitative agreement with experimental observations by predicting the formation of liquid jets. Simulations also suggest that bubble-bubble interactions act to enhance surface mode instability. PMID:22088009

  9. Modeling high-energy gamma-rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splettstoesser, Megan

    2015-09-17

    In 2010, the Fermi Bubbles were discovered at the galactic center of the Milky Way. These giant gamma-ray structures, extending 55° in galactic latitude and 20°-30° in galactic longitude, were not predicted. We wish to develop a model for the gamma-ray emission of the Fermi Bubbles. To do so, we assume that second order Fermi acceleration requires charged particles and irregular magnetic fields- both of which are present in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy. By solving the steady-state case of the transport equation, I compute the proton spectrum due to second order Fermi acceleration. I compare the analytical solutions of the proton spectrum to a numerical solution. I find that the numerical solution to the transport equation converges to the analytical solution in all cases. The gamma-ray spectrum due to proton-proton interaction is compared to Fermi Bubble data (from Ackermann et al. 2014), and I find that second order Fermi acceleration is a good fit for the gamma-ray spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles at low energies with an injection source term of S = 1.5 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹. I find that a non-steady-state solution to the gamma-ray spectrum with an injection source term of S = 2 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹ matches the bubble data at high energies.

  10. Mathematical model of diffusion-limited evolution of multiple gas bubbles in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R Srini; Gerth, Wayne A; Powell, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Models of gas bubble dynamics employed in probabilistic analyses of decompression sickness incidence in man must be theoretically consistent and simple, if they are to yield useful results without requiring excessive computations. They are generally formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe diffusion-limited gas exchange between a gas bubble and the extravascular tissue surrounding it. In our previous model (Ann. Biomed. Eng. 30: 232-246, 2002), we showed that with appropriate representation of sink pressures to account for gas loss or gain due to heterogeneous blood perfusion in the unstirred diffusion region around the bubble, diffusion-limited bubble growth in a tissue of finite volume can be simulated without postulating a boundary layer across which gas flux is discontinuous. However, interactions between two or more bubbles caused by competition for available gas cannot be considered in this model, because the diffusion region has a fixed volume with zero gas flux at its outer boundary. The present work extends the previous model to accommodate interactions among multiple bubbles by allowing the diffusion region volume of each bubble to vary during bubble evolution. For given decompression and tissue volume, bubble growth is sustained only if the bubble number density is below a certain maximum.

  11. Study of acoustic bubble cluster dynamics using a lattice Boltzmann model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi Daemi; Mohammad Taeibi-Rahni; Hamidreza Massah

    2015-01-01

    Search for the development of a reliable mathematical model for understanding bubble dynamics behavior is an ongoing endeavor. A long list of complex phenomena underlies physics of this problem. In the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has emerged as a promising tool to address such complexities. In this regard, we have applied a 121-velocity multiphase lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) to an asymmetric cluster of bubbles in an acoustic field. A problem as a benchmark is studied to check the consistency and applicability of the model. The problem of interest is to study the deformation and coalescence phenomena in bubble cluster dynamics, and the screening effect on an acoustic multi-bubble medium. It has been observed that the LB model is able to simulate the combination of the three aforementioned phenomena for a bubble cluster as a whole and for every individual bubble in the cluster.

  12. A dual-scale turbulence model for gas-liquid bubbly flows☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Guan; Zhaoqi Li; Lijun Wang⁎; Xi Li; Youwei Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A dual-scale turbulence model is applied to simulate cocurrent upward gas–liquid bubbly flows and validated with available experimental data. In the model, liquid phase turbulence is split into shear-induced and bubble-induced turbulence. Single-phase standard k-εmodel is used to compute shear-induced turbulence and another transport equation is added to model bubble-induced turbulence. In the latter transport equation, energy loss due to interface drag is the production term, and the characteristic length of bubble-induced turbulence, simply the bubble diameter in this work, is introduced to model the dissipation term. The simulated results agree well with experimental data of the test cases and it is demonstrated that the proposed dual-scale turbulence model outperforms other models. Analysis of the predicted turbulence shows that the main part of turbulent kinetic en-ergy is the bubble-induced one while the shear-induced turbulent viscosity predominates within turbulent vis-cosity, especially at the pipe center. The underlying reason is the apparently different scales for the two kinds of turbulence production mechanisms:the shear-induced turbulence is on the scale of the whole pipe while the bubble-induced turbulence is on the scale of bubble diameter. Therefore, the model reflects the multi-scale phe-nomenon involved in gas–liquid bubbly flows.

  13. A first step towards a quantum mechanical description of surface energy and diffusivity in the bubble model of positronium annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Tapas, E-mail: tapas.mukherjee1@gmail.co [Physics Department, Bhairab Ganguly College, Kolkata-700056 (India); Dutta, Dhanadeep [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-07-15

    In the bubble model of positronium annihilation in liquids, the inward contractile force on the bubble surface is described through classical surface tension of the liquids. In the present calculation, we adopted a simple quantum mechanical approach to describe the bubble surface energy in terms of the motion of a representative quasi-free electron outside the bubble. The bubble parameters (radius, potential, etc.) for different liquids obtained using the prescribed model are consistent with the results obtained using classical surface tension.

  14. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas E.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Xu, Zhijie

    2016-10-01

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was developed. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn't cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  15. Formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattice in UMo metal fuels: Phase-field modeling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Senor, David J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-08

    Nano-gas bubble superlattices are often observed in irradiated UMo nuclear fuels. However, the for- mation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices is not well understood. A number of physical processes may affect the gas bubble nucleation and growth; hence, the morphology of gas bubble microstructures including size and spatial distributions. In this work, a phase-field model integrating a first-passage Monte Carlo method to investigate the formation mechanism of gas bubble superlattices was devel- oped. Six physical processes are taken into account in the model: 1) heterogeneous generation of gas atoms, vacancies, and interstitials informed from atomistic simulations; 2) one-dimensional (1-D) migration of interstitials; 3) irradiation-induced dissolution of gas atoms; 4) recombination between vacancies and interstitials; 5) elastic interaction; and 6) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles. We found that the elastic interaction doesn’t cause the gas bubble alignment, and fast 1-D migration of interstitials along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions in the body-centered cubic U matrix causes the gas bubble alignment along $\\langle$110$\\rangle$ directions. It implies that 1-D interstitial migration along [110] direction should be the primary mechanism of a fcc gas bubble superlattice which is observed in bcc UMo alloys. Simulations also show that fission rates, saturated gas concentration, and elastic interaction all affect the morphology of gas bubble microstructures.

  16. Development and validation of bubble breakup and coalescence constitutive models for the one-group interfacial area transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellacani, Filippo

    2012-12-04

    A local mechanistic model for bubble coalescence and breakup for the one-group interfacial area transport equation has been developed, in agreement and within the limits of the current understanding, based on an exhaustive survey of the theory and of the state of the art models for bubble dynamics simulation. The new model has been tested using the commercial 3D CFD code ANSYS CFX. Upward adiabatic turbulent air-water bubbly flow has been simulated and the results have been compared with the data obtained in the experimental facility PUMA. The range of the experimental data available spans between 0.5 to 2 m/s liquid velocity and 5 to 15 % volume fraction. For the implementation of the models, both the monodispersed and the interfacial area transport equation approaches have been used. The first one to perform a detailed analysis of the forces and models to reproduce the dynamic of the dispersed phase adequately and to be used in the next phases of the work. Also two different bubble induced turbulence models have been tested to consider the effect of the presence of the gas phase on the turbulence of the liquid phase. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the state of the art breakup and coalescence models have been used for simulation. The limitations of the actual theory have been shown and a new bubble interactions model has been developed. The simulations showed that a considerable improvement is achieved if compared to the state of the art closure models. Limits in the implementation derive from the actual understanding and formulation of the bubbly dynamics. A strong dependency on the interfacial non-drag force models and coefficients have been shown. More experimental and theory work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius.

  17. Modeling biogenic gas bubbles formation and migration in coarse sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.

    2011-12-01

    Shujun Ye Department of Hydrosciences, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn Brent E. Sleep Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 CANADA; sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca Methane gas generation in porous media was investigated in an anaerobic two-dimensional sand-filled cell. Inoculation of the lower portion of the cell with a methanogenic culture and addition of methanol to the bottom of the cell led to biomass growth and formation of a gas phase. The formation, migration, distribution and saturation of gases in the cell were visualized by the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Gas generated at the bottom of the cell in the biologically active zone moved upwards in discrete fingers, so that gas phase saturations (gas-filled fraction of void space) in the biologically active zone at the bottom of the cell did not exceed 40-50%, while gas accumulation at the top of the cell produced gas phase saturations as high as 80%. Macroscopic invasion percolation (MIP) at near pore scale[Glass, et al., 2001; Kueper and McWhorter, 1992]was used to model gas bubbles growth in porous media. The nonwetting phase migration pathway can be yielded directly by MIP. MIP was adopted to simulate the expansion, fragmentation, and mobilization of gas clusters in the cell. The production of gas, and gas phash saturations were simulated by a continuum model - compositional simulator (COMPSIM) [Sleep and Sykes, 1993]. So a combination of a continuum model and a MIP model was used to simulate the formation, fragmentation and migration of biogenic gas bubbles. Key words: biogenic gas; two dimensional; porous media; MIP; COMPSIM

  18. It takes three to tango: 2. Bubble dynamics in basaltic volcanoes and ramifications for modeling normal Strombolian activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, Jenny; Hager, Bradford H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Nave, Jean-Christophe

    2010-07-01

    This is the second paper of two that examine numerical simulations of buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In the first paper, we demonstrated that a combination of three numerical tools, an extended ghost fluid type method, the level set approach, and the extension velocity technique, accurately simulates complex interface dynamics in the presence of large viscosity contrasts. In this paper, we use this threefold numerical method to investigate bubble dynamics in the conduits of basaltic volcanos with a focus on normal Strombolian eruptions. Strombolian type activity, named after the famously episodic eruptions at Stromboli volcano, is characterized by temporally discrete fountains of incandescent clasts. The mildly explosive nature of normal Strombolian activity, as compared to more effusive variants of basaltic volcanism, is related to the presence of dissolved gas in the magma, yielding a complex two-phase flow problem. We present a detailed scaling analysis allowing identification of the pertinent regime for a given flow problem. The dynamic interactions between gas and magma can be classified into three nondimensional regimes on the basis of bubble sizes and magma viscosity. Resolving the fluid dynamics at the scale of individual bubbles is not equally important in all three regimes: As long as bubbles remain small enough to be spherical, their dynamic interactions are limited compared to the rich spectrum of coalescence and breakup processes observed for deformable bubbles, in particular, once inertia ceases to be negligible. One key finding in our simulations is that both large gas bubbles and large conduit-filling gas pockets ("slugs") are prone to dynamic instabilities that lead to their rapid breakup during buoyancy-driven ascent. We provide upper bound estimates for the maximum stable bubble size in a given magmatic system and discuss the ramifications of our results for two commonly used models of normal Strombolian type

  19. Modelling and critical analysis of bubbly flows of dilute nanofluids in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Tu, Jiyuan, E-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, PO Box 1021, Beijing 100086 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The classic two-fluid model needs improvement for nanofluid bubbly flows. • The nanoparticle self-assembly changes the interfacial behaviours of bubbles. • Key job is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms. - Abstract: The bubbly flows of air–nanofluid and air–water in a vertical tube were numerically simulated using the two-fluid model. Comparison of the numerical results against the experimental data of Park and Chang (2011) demonstrated that the classic two-fluid model, although agreed well with the air–water data, was not applicable to the air–nanofluid bubbly flow. It was suggested that in a bubbly flow system, the existence of interfaces allows the spontaneous formation of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly at the interfaces, which significantly changes the interfacial behaviours of the air bubbles and the roles of the interfacial forces. As the conservation equations of the classic two-fluid model are still applicable to nanofluids, the mechanisms underlying the modified interfacial behaviours need to be carefully taken into account when modelling air–nanofluid bubbly flows. Thus, one of the key tasks when modelling bubbly flows of air–nanofluid using the two-fluid model is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms according to the interfacial behaviour modifications induced by nanoparticles.

  20. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV

  1. Modeling and experimental analysis of acoustic cavitation bubbles for Burst Wave Lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Colonius, Tim; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam; Cunitz, Bryan; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A combined modeling and experimental study of acoustic cavitation bubbles that are initiated by focused ultrasound waves is reported. Focused ultrasound waves of frequency 335 kHz and peak negative pressure 8 MPa are generated in a water tank by a piezoelectric transducer to initiate cavitation. The resulting pressure field is obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and used to simulate single bubble oscillation. The characteristics of cavitation bubbles observed by high-speed photography qualitatively agree withs the simulation result. Finally, bubble clouds are captured using acoustic B-mode imaging that works in synchronization with high-speed photography. PMID:27087826

  2. The rate of gas-bubble growth in tissue under decompression. Mathematical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakov YuYa; Kopyltsov, A V

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model simulating the formation of gas bubbles in biological tissues under decompression is presented. It is written as a system of partial differential equations solved on a computer. For the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture, used for respiration in deep-water immersions, the effects of the physico-chemical properties of the gases, the magnitude of pressure differentials and the density of bubble-formation centres on the bubble size and rate of growth were studied. It is shown that in the case of drastic pressure differentials the formation of bubbles capable of producing microcirculatory disturbances is accomplished within a few seconds.

  3. An Axial Dispersion Model for Evaporating Bubble Column Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 李希

    2004-01-01

    Evaporating bubble column reactor (EBCR) is a kind of aerated reactor in which the reaction heat is removed by the evaporation of volatile reaction mixture. In this paper, a mathematical model that accounts for the gas-liquid exothermic reaction and axial dispersions of both gas and liquid phase is employed to study the performance of EBCR for the process of p-xylene(PX) oxidation. The computational results show that there are remarkable concentration and temperature gradients in EBCR for high ratio of height to diameter (H/DT). The temperature is lower at the bottom of column and higher at the top, due to rapid evaporation induced by the feed gas near the bottom. The concentration profiles in the gas phase are more nonuniform than those (except PX) in the liquid phase, which causes more solvent burning consumption at high H/DT ratio. For p-xylene oxidation, theo ptimal H/DT is around 5.

  4. Extended models of nonlinear waves in liquid with gas bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A

    2016-01-01

    In this work we generalize the models for nonlinear waves in a gas--liquid mixture taking into account an interphase heat transfer, a surface tension and a weak liquid compressibility simultaneously at the derivation of the equations for nonlinear waves. We also take into consideration high order terms with respect to the small parameter. Two new nonlinear differential equations are derived for long weakly nonlinear waves in a liquid with gas bubbles by the reductive perturbation method considering both high order terms with respect to the small parameter and the above mentioned physical properties. One of these equations is the perturbation of the Burgers equation and corresponds to main influence of dissipation on nonlinear waves propagation. The other equation is the perturbation of the Burgers--Korteweg--de Vries equation and corresponds to main influence of dispersion on nonlinear waves propagation.

  5. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  6. Single Bubble SonoLuminescence of Particles model

    CERN Document Server

    Maiga, Mahamadou Adama

    2012-01-01

    The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence is a phenomenon where the vapor bubble trapped in a liquid collapse by emitting of a light. It is very known that the temperature inside the bubble depends on the radius, during the collapse, the temperature can reach thousands of Kelvins and that the light would be emitted by radiation of the ionized gas inside the bubble. So, studies show that in certain cases neither an imploding shock nor a plasma has been observed and the temperature is not high enough to explain the spectrum observed. The Single Bubble SonoLuminescence remains a subject of study. For this study we consider the bubble as a box where the free particles (particularly electrons) stemming from the molecules dissociation, are are trapped and confined within the bubble. The confinement allows the particles to acquire some energy during the collapse which they lose in the form of light and also to be considered to bind to the bubble as an electron is bound to the nucleus in an atom. So, with regard to the bubb...

  7. Euler-Euler Modeling of Flow, Mass Transfer, and Chemical Reaction in a Bubble Column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Physical and chemical absorption of pure CO2 bubbles in water and an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution has been studied in a square cross-sectioned bubble column using the commercial software package CFX-4.4. The subgrid-scale turbulence model of Vreman [Phys. Fluids 2004, 16, 3670-3681] was

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bubbling in a Viscous Fluid for Validation of Waste Glass Melter Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Alexander William [Idaho National Laboratory; Guillen, Donna Post [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    At the Hanford site, radioactive waste stored in underground tanks is slated for vitrification for final disposal. A comprehensive knowledge of the glass batch melting process will be useful in optimizing the process, which could potentially reduce the cost and duration of this multi-billion dollar cleanup effort. We are developing a high-fidelity heat transfer model of a Joule-heated ceramic lined melter to improve the understanding of the complex, inter-related processes occurring with the melter. The glass conversion rates in the cold cap layer are dependent on promoting efficient heat transfer. In practice, heat transfer is augmented by inserting air bubblers into the molten glass. However, the computational simulations must be validated to provide confidence in the solutions. As part of a larger validation procedure, it is beneficial to split the physics of the melter into smaller systems to validate individually. The substitution of molten glass for a simulant liquid with similar density and viscosity at room temperature provides a way to study mixing through bubbling as an isolated effect without considering the heat transfer dynamics. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America using bubblers placed within a large acrylic tank that is similar in scale to a pilot glass waste melter. Comparisons are made for surface area of the rising air bubbles between experiments and CFD simulations for a variety of air flow rates and bubble injection depths. Also, computed bubble rise velocity is compared to a well-accepted expression for bubble terminal velocity.

  9. Modeling High-Energy Gamma-Rays from the Fermi Bubbles - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splettstoesser, Megan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    In 2010, the Fermi Bubbles were discovered at the galactic center of the Milky Way. These giant gamma-ray structures, extending 50 degrees in galactic latitude and 20-30 degrees in galactic longitude, were not predicted. We wish to develop a model for the gamma-ray emission of the Fermi Bubbles. To do so, we assume that second order Fermi acceleration is responsible for the high-energy emission of the bubbles. Second order Fermi acceleration requires charged particles and irregular magnetic fields—both of which are present in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy. I use the assumption of second order Fermi acceleration in the transport equation, which describes the diffusion of particles. By solving the steady-state case of the transport equation, I compute the proton spectrum due to Fermi second order acceleration and compare this analytical solution to a numerical solution provided by Dr. P. Mertsch. Analytical solutions to the transport equation are taken from Becker, Le, & Dermer and are used to further test the numerical solution. I find that the numerical solution converges to the analytical solution in all cases. Thus, we know the numerical solution accurately calculates the proton spectrum. The gamma-ray spectrum follows the proton spectrum, and will be computed in the future.

  10. Comparative analysis of the outdoor culture of Haematococcus pluvialis in tubular and bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M C García-Malea; Sánchez, E Del Río; López, J L Casas; Fernández, F G Acién; Sevilla, J M Fernández; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G; Grima, E Molina

    2006-05-29

    The present paper makes a comparative analysis of the outdoor culture of H. pluvialis in a tubular photobioreactor and a bubble column. Both reactors had the same volume and were operated in the same way, thus allowing the influence of the reactor design to be analyzed. Due to the large changes in cell morphology and biochemical composition of H. pluvialis during outdoor culture, a new, faster methodology has been developed for their evaluation. Characterisation of the cultures is carried out on a macroscopic scale using a colorimetric method that allows the simultaneous determination of biomass concentration, and the chlorophyll, carotenoid and astaxanthin content of the biomass. On the microscopic scale, a method was developed based on the computer analysis of digital microscopic images. This method allows the quantification of cell population, average cell size and population homogeneity. The accuracy of the methods was verified during the operation of outdoor photobioreactors on a pilot plant scale. Data from the reactors showed tubular reactors to be more suitable for the production of H. pluvialis biomass and/or astaxanthin, due to their higher light availability. In the tubular photobioreactor biomass concentrations of 7.0 g/L (d.wt.) were reached after 16 days, with an overall biomass productivity of 0.41 g/L day. In the bubble column photobioreactor, on the other hand, the maximum biomass concentration reached was 1.4 g/L, with an overall biomass productivity of 0.06 g/L day. The maximum daily biomass productivity, 0.55 g/L day, was reached in the tubular photobioreactor for an average irradiance inside the culture of 130 microE/m2s. In addition, the carotenoid content of biomass from tubular photobioreactor increased up to 2.0%d.wt., whereas that of the biomass from the bubble column remained roughly constant at values of 0.5%d.wt. It should be noted that in the tubular photobioreactor under conditions of nitrate saturation, there was an accumulation of

  11. Predictive model for the size of bubbles and droplets created in microfluidic T-junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Volkert; Kleijn, Chris R; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2010-10-07

    We present a closed-form expression that allows the reader to predict the size of bubbles and droplets created in T-junctions without fitting. Despite the wide use of microfluidic devices to create bubbles and droplets, a physically sound expression for the size of bubbles and droplets, key in many applications, did not yet exist. The theoretical foundation of our expression comprises three main ingredients: continuity, geometrics and recently gained understanding of the mechanism which leads to pinch-off. Our simple theoretical model explains why the size of bubbles and droplets strongly depends on the shape of a T-junction, and teaches how the shape can be tuned to obtain the desired size. We successfully validated our model experimentally by analyzing the formation of gas bubbles, as well as liquid droplets, in T-junctions with a wide variety of shapes under conditions typical to multiphase microfluidics.

  12. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Lei; Zhu, Chang-Ping; Yao, Cheng; Yin, Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274092 and 1140040119) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SBK2014043338).

  13. Time and Space Dependent Stochastic Acceleration Model for the Fermi Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, K; Terasawa, T

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT reveals two huge gamma-ray bubbles existing in the Galactic Center, called 'Fermi Bubbles'. The existence of two microwave bubbles at the same region are also reported by the observation by WMAP, dubbed 'WMAP haze'. In order to explain these components, It has been argued that the gamma-rays arise from Inverse-Compton scattering of relativistic electrons accelerated by plasma turbulence, and the microwaves are radiated by synchrotron radiation. But no previous research reproduces both the Fermi Bubbles and WMAP haze under typical magnetic fields in the galaxy. We assume that shocks present in the bubbles and the efficiency of the acceleration by plasma turbulence, 'stochastic acceleration', changes with the distance from the shock front. The distance from the shock front increases with time, accordingly the efficiency of the acceleration changes with time. We also consider the time development of the electrons escape from the turbulence by diffusive loss. Our model succeed to reproduce both the obse...

  14. Bubble spreading during the boiling crisis: modelling and experimenting in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayev, V.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Chatain, D.

    2006-09-01

    Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid carrier. We discuss the boiling crisis, a transition between two regimes of boiling: nucleate and film boiling. The boiling crisis results in a sharp decrease in the heat transfer rate, which can cause a major accident in industrial heat exchangers. In this communication, we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Under the action of the vapor recoil the gas bubbles begin to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes its spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. In the experiments both in the Mir space station and in the magnetic levitation facility, we directly observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble. Numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth show this vapor recoil effect too thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis.

  15. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  16. A phenomenological model of mass-exchange between the inside and outside of a cavitation bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO XianXian; CHEN WeiZhong; HUANG Wei; XU JunFeng; XU XingHua; LIU YaNan; LIANG Yue

    2009-01-01

    The mass-exchange between the inside and outside of a cavitation bubble is a complicated process with several kinds of exchange forms acting together, such as gas diffusion, gas-liquid phase transition, chemical reactions and so on. A phenomenological model of mass-exchange was proposed, in which the pressure difference is considered as the drive. Compared with the previous physical models, It has a simpler form and less computational cost. Combining it with Rayleigh-Pleseet equation, the equilib-rium radius is calculated when the mass-exchange achieves the dynamic balance. The result shows that the equilibrium radius has multiple values. The relationships between the equilibrium radius and the driving ultrasound (pressure amplitude and frequency) are evaluated. We also investigated how these relationships were affected by the model parameters. Finally, the bubble radius evolution in the sulfuric acid driven by different pressures was measured. The experimental result that the equilibrium radius changes with the pressure agrees with the numerical results well.

  17. Reduced Order Modeling of Bubble Cloud Dynamics in a Focused Ultrasound Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Colonius, Tim

    2016-11-01

    In order to characterize the cloud cavitation in burst wave lithotripsy, reduced order modeling of the dynamics of a spherical bubble cloud of a radius O (1) mm interacting with traveling ultrasound waves of an amplitude O(1) MPa in water is presented. Bubbles are treated as spherical, radially oscillating cavities dispersed in continuous liquid phase. The volume of Lagrangian point bubbles is mapped with a regularization kernel as void fraction onto three-dimensional Cartesian grids that define the Eulerian liquid phase. The flow field is solved using a WENO-based compressible flow solver. The initial size and number density of the bubbles are critical for their coherent dynamics in the cloud, yet three-dimensional simulations of clouds with various parameters are computationally demanding. For further reduced-order modeling, a new kernel is introduce into the model to regularize bubbles onto two-dimensional, axisymmetric grids. The evolution of the void fraction and the maximum pressure in the cloud simulated using the model agree with results of three-dimensional simulations, while the reduction in computational cost is a factor of O (100) . Finally, the model is applied to a parametric study of the coherent dynamics of bubbles.

  18. An equation of motion for bubble growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)

  19. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extragalactic radio lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lynn, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the propagation and expansion of a magnetic "bubble" plasma into a lower density, weakly-magnetized background plasma are presented. These simulations mimic the geometry and parameters of the Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) [A. G. Lynn, Y. Zhang, S. C. Hsu, H. Li, W. Liu, M. Gilmore, and C. Watts, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. {\\bf 52}, 53 (2007)], which is studying magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extra-galactic radio lobes. The simulations predict several key features of the bubble evolution. First, the direction of bubble expansion depends on the ratio of the bubble toroidal to poloidal magnetic field, with a higher ratio leading to expansion predominantly in the direction of propagation and a lower ratio leading to expansion predominantly normal to the direction of propagation. Second, an MHD shock and a trailing slow-mode compressible MHD wavefront are formed ahead of the bubble as it propagates into the background plasma. Third, the bub...

  20. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greene

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane (CH4 ebullition (bubbling from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominates annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.

  1. Measuring and modeling the bubble population produced by an underwater explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Fred D; Lee Culver, R

    2011-11-01

    Underwater explosions have been studied intensively in the United States since 1941 [e.g., R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1945), pp. 3-13]. Research to date has primarily focused on the initial shock and subsequent pressure waves caused by the oscillations of the "gas-globe" resulting from charge detonation. These phenomena have relatively short timescales (typically less than 2 s). However, after the gas-globe rises through the water column and breaks the surface, there remains behind a cloud of bubbles and perhaps debris from the explosion container which has been markedly less studied. A recent experiment measured the spatial and temporal acoustic response of the bubble cloud resulting from a 13.6 kg PBXN-111 charge detonated at 15.2 m (50 ft) depth. A directional projector was used to propagate linear frequency-modulated (5-65 kHz) and 40 kHz tonal pulses through the bubble cloud. Two hydrophone arrays were positioned so as to measure the energy lost in propagating through the bubble cloud. Three methods have been utilized to invert measurements and estimate the bubble population. The bubble population estimates have been used to develop a model for the bubble population resulting from an underwater explosion.

  2. Sound synchronization of bubble trains in a viscous fluid: experiment and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felipe Augusto Cardoso; Baptista, Murilo da Silva; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the dynamics of formation of air bubbles expelled from a nozzle immersed in a viscous fluid under the influence of sound waves. We have obtained bifurcation diagrams by measuring the time between successive bubbles, having the air flow (Q) as a parameter control for many values of the sound wave amplitude (A), the height (H) of the solution above the top of the nozzle, and three values of the sound frequency (fs). Our parameter spaces (Q,A) revealed a scenario for the onset of synchronization dominated by Arnold tongues (frequency locking) which gives place to chaotic phase synchronization for sufficiently large A. The experimental results were accurately reproduced by numerical simulations of a model combining a simple bubble growth model for the bubble train and a coupling term with the sound wave added to the equilibrium pressure.

  3. A hydrodynamical model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Marcowith, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models of the wind-blown bubble of massive stars usually account only for the wind of a single star. However, since massive stars are usually formed in clusters, it would be more realistic to follow the evolution of a bubble created by several stars. We make a 2D model of the circumstellar bubble created by two massive stars: a 40 solar mass star and a 25 solar mass star and follow its evolution. The stars have a separation of approx. 16 pc and surrounded by a cold medium with a density of 20 particles per cubic cm. We use the MPI-AMRVAC hydrodynamics code to solve the conservation equations of hydrodynamics on a 2D cylindrical grid using time-dependent models for the parameters of the wind of the two stars. At the end of the stellar evolution (4.5 and 7.0 million years for the 40 and 25 solar mass stars respectively) we simulate the supernova explosion of each star. Initially, each star creates its own bubble. However, as the bubbles expand they merge, creating a combined, a-spherical bubble. The c...

  4. Antigravitating bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, A T; Barnaveli, Andro; Gogberashvili, Merab

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational behavior of spherical domain walls (bubbles) arising during the phase transitions in the early Universe. In the thin-wall approximation we show the existence of the new solution of Einstein equations with negative gravitational mass of bubbles and the reversed direction of time flow on the shell. This walls exhibit gravitational repulsion just as the planar walls are assumed to do. The equilibrium radius and critical mass of such objects are found for realistic models.

  5. Micro-bubble Drag Reduction on a High Speed Vessel Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanuar; Gunawan; Sunaryo; A. Jamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Ship hull form of the underwater area strongly influences the resistance of the ship.The major factor in ship resistance is skin friction resistance.Bulbous bows,polymer paint,water repellent paint (highly water-repellent wall),air injection,and specific roughness have been used by researchers as an attempt to obtain the resistance reduction and operation efficiency of ships.Micro-bubble injection is a promising technique for lowering frictional resistance.The injected air bubbles are supposed to somehow modify the energy inside the turbulent boundary layer and thereby lower the skin friction.The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of injected micro bubbles on a navy fast patrol boat (FPB) 57 m type model with the following main dimensions:L=2 450 mm,B=400 mm,and T=190 mm.The influence of the location of micro bubble injection and bubble velocity was also investigated.The ship model was pulled by an electric motor whose speed could be varied and adjusted.The ship model resistance was precisely measured by a load cell transducer.Comparison of ship resistance with and without micro-bubble injection was shown on a graph as a function of the drag coefficient and Froude number.It was shown that micro bubble injection behind the mid-ship is the best location to achieve the most effective drag reduction,and the drag reduction caused by the micro-bubbles can reach 6%-9%.

  6. Numerical Modeling of the Photothermal Processing for Bubble Forming around Nanowire in a Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Chaari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate computation of the temperature is an important factor in determining the shape of a bubble around a nanowire immersed in a liquid. The study of the physical phenomenon consists in solving a photothermic coupled problem between light and nanowire. The numerical multiphysic model is used to study the variations of the temperature and the shape of the created bubble by illumination of the nanowire. The optimization process, including an adaptive remeshing scheme, is used to solve the problem through a finite element method. The study of the shape evolution of the bubble is made taking into account the physical and geometrical parameters of the nanowire. The relation between the sizes and shapes of the bubble and nanowire is deduced.

  7. The relation between pre-eruptive bubble size distribution, ash particle morphology, and their internal density: Implications to volcanic ash transport and dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Parameterization of volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models strongly depends on particle morphology and their internal properties. Shape of ash particles affects terminal fall velocities (TFV) and, mostly, dispersion. Internal density combined with particle size has a very strong impact on TFV and ultimately on the rate of ash cloud thinning and particle sedimentation on the ground. Unlike other parameters, internal particle density cannot be measured directly because of the micron scale sizes of fine ash particles, but we demonstrate that it varies greatly depending on the particle size. Small simple type ash particles (fragments of bubble walls, 5-20 micron size) do not contain whole large magmatic bubbles inside and their internal density is almost the same as that of volcanic glass matrix. On the other side, the larger compound type ash particles (>40 microns for silicic fine ashes) always contain some bubbles or the whole spectra of bubble size distribution (BSD), i.e. bubbles of all sizes, bringing their internal density down as compared to simple ash. So, density of the larger ash particles is a function of the void fraction inside them (magmatic bubbles) which, in turn, is controlled by BSD. Volcanic ash is a product of the fragmentation of magmatic foam formed by pre-eruptive bubble population and characterized by BSD. The latter can now be measured from bubble imprints on ash particle surfaces using stereo-scanning electron microscopy (SSEM) and BubbleMaker software developed at UNH, or using traditional high-resolution X-Ray tomography. In this work we present the mathematical and statistical formulation for this problem connecting internal ash density with particle size and BSD, and demonstrate how the TFV of the ash population is affected by variation of particle density.

  8. Implosion of an underwater spark-generated bubble and acoustic energy evaluation using the Rayleigh model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buogo, Silvano; Cannelli, Giovanni B

    2002-06-01

    The growth, collapse, and rebound of a vapor bubble generated by an underwater spark is studied by means of high-speed cinematography, simultaneously acquiring the emitted acoustic signature. Video recordings show that the growth and collapse phases are nearly symmetrical during the first two or three cycles, the bubble shape being approximately spherical. After 2-3 cycles the bubble behavior changes from a collapsing/rebounding regime with sound-emitting implosions to a pulsating regime with no implosions. The motion of the bubble wall during the first collapses was found to be consistent with the Rayleigh model of a cavity in an incompressible liquid, with the inclusion of a vapor pressure term at constant temperature within each bubble cycle. An estimate of the pressure inside the bubble is obtained measuring the collapse time and maximum radius, and the amount of energy converted into acoustical energy upon each implosion is deduced. The resulting value of acoustic efficiency was found to be in agreement with measurements based on the emitted acoustic pulse.

  9. Modeling of the shrinking process of a bubble induced by laser metal ablation in water and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabir-Moghaddam, Navid; Liu, Ze; Wu, Benxin

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablation of a solid target immersed in liquid (such as water) has many important applications such as laser synthesis of nanoparticles, laser micromachining in water, and laser shock peening. Laser ablation of a solid target in water involves complicated physical processes. One important process often involved is the generation and evolution of a bubble in water and attached to the target surface, which may have significant effects on the target and the ambient water, and hence may greatly affect the relevant practical applications. Some experimental studies were reported in the literature on bubble evolutions induced by laser ablation of a solid target in water. However, the reported previous relevant physics-based modeling work is not sufficient. A physics-based model may help improve the process fundamental understanding and generate valuable information to related applications. In this paper, physics-based modeling work has been performed on the shrinking process of a bubble induced by laser metal ablation in water, together with time-resolved shadowgraph imaging experiments to verify the model. The model-predicted bubble evolution agrees reasonably well with the experimental measurement shown in the paper. Under the studied conditions, it has been found that near the bubble collapse moment (i.e., the moment when the bubble shrinks to a minimum size): (1) the bubble shrinks very fast, and the peak fluid velocity magnitude occurs inside the bubble and can exceed ˜550 m/s; (2) the temperature inside the bubble increases very quickly and approaches ˜2000 K; and (3) the pressure inside the bubble becomes very high, and can reach a peak magnitude of ˜380 MPa at the collapse moment at the bubble center. During the shrinking process, a high-pressure region outside and near the bubble wall is generated near the collapse moment, but the temperature of the region outside the bubble mostly remains low.

  10. Bubble burst as jamming phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Recently research on bubble and its burst attract much interest of researchers in various field such as economics and physics. Economists have been regarding bubble as a disorder in prices. However, this research strategy has overlooked an importance of the volume of transactions. In this paper, we have proposed a bubble burst model by focusing the transactions incorporating a traffic model that represents spontaneous traffic jam. We find that the phenomenon of bubble burst shares many similar properties with traffic jam formation by comparing data taken from US housing market. Our result suggests that the transaction could be a driving force of bursting phenomenon.

  11. Surfzone Bubbles: Model Development, Testing and Extension to Sedimentary/Chemical/Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    inundation", Ocean Modelling, 43-44, 36-51. Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Ma, G., Holman , R. A. and Chickadel, C. C., 2012b, "Field testing model predictions...Shi, F., Kirby, J. T., Ma, G., Holman , R. A. and Chickadel, C. C., 2012b, "Field testing model predictions of foam coverage and bubble content

  12. Instability and breakup of cavitation bubbles within diesel drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Lü; Zhi Ning; Kai Yan; Juan Fu; Chunhua Sun

    2015-01-01

    A modified mathematical model is used to study the effects of various forces on the stability of cavitation bubbles within a diesel droplet. The principal finding of the work is that viscous forces of fluids stabilize the cavitation bubble, while inertial force destabilizes the cavitation bubble. The droplet viscosity plays a dominant role on the stability of cavitation bubbles compared with that of air and bubble. Bubble–droplet radius ratio is a key factor to control the bubble stability, especially in the high radius ratio range. Internal hydrodynamic and surface tension forces are found to stabilize the cavitation bubble, while bubble stability has little relationship with the external hydrodynamic force. Inertia makes bubble breakup easily, however, the breakup time is only slightly changed when bubble growth speed reaches a certain value (50 m·s−1). In contrast, viscous force makes bubble hard to break. With the increasing initial bubble–droplet radius ratio, the bubble growth rate increases, the bubble breakup radius decreases, and the bubble breakup time becomes shorter.

  13. Protein Models Comparator

    CERN Document Server

    Widera, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The process of comparison of computer generated protein structural models is an important element of protein structure prediction. It has many uses including model quality evaluation, selection of the final models from a large set of candidates or optimisation of parameters of energy functions used in template free modelling and refinement. Although many protein comparison methods are available online on numerous web servers, their ability to handle a large scale model comparison is often very limited. Most of the servers offer only a single pairwise structural comparison, and they usually do not provide a model-specific comparison with a fixed alignment between the models. To bridge the gap between the protein and model structure comparison we have developed the Protein Models Comparator (pm-cmp). To be able to deliver the scalability on demand and handle large comparison experiments the pm-cmp was implemented "in the cloud". Protein Models Comparator is a scalable web application for a fast distributed comp...

  14. A force balance model for the motion, impact, and bounce of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaseboer, Evert; Manica, Rogerio; Hendrix, Maurice H. W.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    A force balance model has been developed to predict the terminal velocity of a sub-millimetric bubble as its rises in water under buoyancy. The dynamics of repeated collisions and rebounds of the bubble against a horizontal solid surface is modeled quantitatively by including forces due to buoyancy, added mass, drag, and hydrodynamic lubrication—the last arises from the drainage of water trapped in the thin film between the solid surface and the surface of the deformable bubble. The result is a self-contained, parameter-free model that is capable of giving quantitative agreement with measured trajectories and observed collisions and rebounds against a solid surface as well as the spatio-temporal evolution of the thin film during collision as measured by interferometry.

  15. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, R.K.; Halvorsen, B.M. [Telemark University College, Kjolnes ring 56, P.O. Box 203, 3901 Porsgrunn (Norway); Pfeifer, C. [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Gussing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2). The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4). The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  16. Modeling of reaction kinetics in bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasification reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Thapa, C. Pfeifer, B. M. Halvorsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubbling fluidized beds are widely used as biomass gasification reactors as at the biomass gasification plant in Güssing, Austria. The reactor in the plant is a dual circulating bubbling fluidized bed gasification reactor. The plant produces 2MW electricity and 4.5MW heat from the gasification of biomass. Wood chips as biomass and olivine particles as hot bed materials are fluidized with high temperature steam in the reactor. As a result, biomass undergoes endothermic chemical reaction to produce a mixture of combustible gases in addition to some carbon-dioxide (CO2. The combustible gases are mainly hydrogen (H2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4. The gas is used to produce electricity and heat via utilization in a gas engine. Alternatively, the gas is further processed for gaseous or liquid fuels, but still on the process of development level. Composition and quality of the gas determine the efficiency of the reactor. A computational model has been developed for the study of reaction kinetics in the gasification rector. The simulation is performed using commercial software Barracuda virtual reactor, VR15. Eulerian-Lagrangian approach in coupling of gas-solid flow has been implemented. Fluid phase is treated with an Eulerian formulation. Discrete phase is treated with a Lagrangian formulation. Particle-particle and particle-wall interactions and inter-phase heat and mass transfer have been taken into account. Series of simulations have been performed to study model prediction of the gas composition. The composition is compared with data from the gasifier at the CHP plant in Güssing, Austria. The model prediction of the composition of gases has good agreements with the result of the operating plant.

  17. An Eulerian-based Bubble Dynamics Model for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Asish; Kinzel, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Cavitation dynamics of nuclei are largely governed by the Rayleigh-Plesset Equation (RPE). This research explores the implementation of a one-way coupling to the solution of the RPE to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in an Eulerian-framework. In this work, we used transport equations (i.e., advection) of the bubble radius and bubble growth rate, both of which are governed by advection mechanisms and coupling to the RPE through the CFD pressure field. The method is validated in the context of hypothetical pressure fields by prescribing a temporally varying pressure. Then, it is extended to one-way coupling with cavitation development in three different flow situations: (1) flow over a cylinder, (2) bubble formation during a bottle collapse event, and (3) cavitation in a tip vortex. In the context of these flows, the CFD simulations replicate an equivalent MATLAB-based solution to the RPE, thus validating the model. Additionally, an analytical formulation for appropriate upper and lower bounds for the bubble's physical properties is presented. These boundary values allow the CFD solver to run at larger time steps, therefore increasing the rate of convergence as well as maintaining solution accuracy. The results from this work suggest that Eulerian-based RPE cavitation models are practical and have the potential to simulate large numbers of bubbles that challenge Lagrangian methods.

  18. Modeling of ultrasound contrast agents bubble dynamics with modified surface tension coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG LuJie; TU Juan; CHEN WeiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The current work proposes a model describing the dynamics of coated microbubbles, which simplifies the traditional three-layer model to a two-layer one by introducing a visco-elastic interface with variable surface tension coefficients to connect the gas zone and the liquid zone. In the modified model, the traditional two interfaces boundary conditions are combined into one to simplify the description of the bubble. Moreover, the surface tension coefficient is defined as a function of bubble radius with lower and upper limits, which are related to the buckling and rupture mechanisms of the bubble. Further discussion is made regarding the effects resulting from the change of the surface tension coefficient on bubble dynamics. The dynamic responses of Optison and Sonozoid microbubbles, measured experimentally based on light scattering technology (adapted from previously published work), are simulated using both classic three-layer models (e.g. Church's model) and simplified model. The resuits show that our simplified model works as well as the Church's model.

  19. Modeling of turbulent bubbly flows; Modelisation des ecoulements turbulents a bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellakhal, Ghazi

    2005-03-15

    The two-phase flows involve interfacial interactions which modify significantly the structure of the mean and fluctuating flow fields. The design of the two-fluid models adapted to industrial flows requires the taking into account of the effect of these interactions in the closure relations adopted. The work developed in this thesis concerns the development of first order two-fluid models deduced by reduction of second order closures. The adopted reasoning, based on the principle of decomposition of the Reynolds stress tensor into two statistically independent contributions turbulent and pseudo-turbulent parts, allows to preserve the physical contents of the second order relations closure. Analysis of the turbulence structure in two basic flows: homogeneous bubbly flows uniform and with a constant shear allows to deduce a formulation of the two-phase turbulent viscosity involving the characteristic scales of bubbly turbulence, as well as an analytical description of modification of the homogeneous turbulence structure induced by the bubbles presence. The Eulerian two-fluid model was then generalized with the case of the inhomogeneous flows with low void fractions. The numerical results obtained by the application of this model integrated in the computer code MELODIF in the case of free sheared turbulent bubbly flow of wake showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and made it possible to analyze the modification of the characteristic scales of such flow by the interfacial interactions. The two-fluid first order model is generalized finally with the case of high void fractions bubbly flows where the hydrodynamic interactions between the bubbles are not negligible any more. (author)

  20. Modeling of Liquid Level and Bubble Behavior in Vacuum Chamber of RH Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hong LI; Yan-ping BAO; Rui WANG; Min WANG; Qing-xue HUANG; Yu-gui LI

    2016-01-01

    In the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH)refining process,liquid steel flow pattern in a ladle is controlled by the fluid flow behavior in the vacuum chamber.Potassium chloride solution and NaOH solution saturated with CO 2 were respectively used as a tracer to investigate the liquid and gas flow behaviors in the vacuum chamber.Principal compo-nent and comparative analysis were made to show the factors controlling mixing and circulation flow rate.The liquid level and bubble behavior in the vacuum chamber greatly affect fluid flow in RH process.Experiments were per-formed to investigate the effects of liquid steel level,gas flow rate,bubble residence time,and gas injection mode on mixing,decarburization,and void fraction.The results indicate that the mixing process can be divided into three re-gions:the flow rate-affected zone,the concentration gradient-affected zone,and their combination.The liquid steel level in the vacuum chamber of 300 mm is a critical point in the decarburization transition.For liquid level lower than 300 mm,liquid steel circulation controls decarburization,while for liquid level higher than 300 mm,bubble behavior is the main controlling factor.During the RH process,it is recommended to use the concentrated bubble injection mode for low gas flow rates and the uniform bubble injection mode for high gas flow rates.

  1. Computer modeling movement of biomass in the bioreactors with bubbling mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschev, L. A.; Suslov, D. Yu; Alifanova, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Recently in the Russian Federation there is an observation of the development of biogas technologies which are used in organic waste conversion of agricultural enterprises, consequently improving the ecological environment. To intensify the process and effective outstanding performance of the acquisition of biogas the application of systems of mixing of bubbling is used. In the case of bubbling mixing of biomass in the bioreactor two-phase portions consisting of biomass and bubbles of gas are formed. The bioreactor computer model with bubble pipeline has been made in a vertical spiral form forming a cone type turned upside down. With the help of computing program of OpenFVM-Flow, an evaluation experiment was conducted to determine the key technological parameters of process of bubbling mixing and to get a visual picture of biomass flows distribution in the bioreactor. For the experimental bioreactor the following equation of V=190 l, speed level, the biomass circulation, and the time of a single cycle of uax =0,029 m/s; QC =0,00087 m3/s, Δtbm .=159 s. In future, we plan to conduct a series of theoretical and experimental researches into the mixing frequency influence on the biogas acquisition process effectiveness.

  2. Bubble spreading during the boiling crisis: modelling and experimenting in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Y; Lecoutre, C; Chatain, D

    2016-01-01

    Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid carrier. We discuss the boiling crisis, a transition between two regimes of boiling: nucleate and film boiling. The boiling crisis results in a sharp decrease in the heat transfer rate, which can cause a major accident in industrial heat exchangers. In this communication, we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Under the action of the vapor recoil the gas bubbles begin to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes its spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. In the experiments both in the Mir spa...

  3. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yasuoka, K.

    2012-02-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  4. Effect of Water Vapour to Temperature Inside Sonoluminescing Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安宇; 谢崇国; 应崇福

    2003-01-01

    Using the model based on the homo-pressure approximation, we explain why the maximum temperature is sensitive to the ambient temperature in the single bubble sonoluminescence. The numerical simulation shows that the maximum temperature inside a sonoluminescing bubble depends on how much water vapour evaporates or coagulates at the bubble wall during the bubble shrinking to its minimum size. While the amount of water vapour inside the bubble at the initial and the final state of the compression depends on the saturated water vapour pressure which is sensitive to the ambient temperature. The lower the saturated vapour pressure is, the higher the maximum temperature is. This may lead to more general conclusion that those liquids with lower saturated vapour pressure are more favourable for the single bubble sonoluminescence. We also compare those bubbles with different noble gases, the result shows that the maximum temperatures in the different gas bubbles are almost the same for those with the same ambient temperature.

  5. Optimal Portfolio Selection in Ex Ante Stock Price Bubble and Furthermore Bubble Burst Scenario from Dhaka Stock Exchange with Relevance to Sharpe’s Single Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Bin Kamal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at constructing an optimal portfolio by applying Sharpe’s single index model of capital asset pricing in different scenarios, one is ex ante stock price bubble scenario and stock price bubble and bubble burst is second scenario. Here we considered beginning of year 2010 as rise of stock price bubble in Dhaka Stock Exchange. Hence period from 2005 -2009 is considered as ex ante stock price bubble period. Using DSI (All share price index in Dhaka Stock Exchange as market index and considering daily indices for the March 2005 to December 2009 period, the proposed method formulates a unique cut off point (cut off rate of return and selects stocks having excess of their expected return over risk-free rate of return surpassing this cut-off point. Here, risk free rate considered to be 8.5% per annum (Treasury bill rate in 2009. Percentage of an investment in each of the selected stocks is then decided on the basis of respective weights assigned to each stock depending on respective ‘β’ value, stock movement variance representing unsystematic risk, return on stock and risk free return vis-à-vis the cut off rate of return. Interestingly, most of the stocks selected turned out to be bank stocks. Again we went for single index model applied to same stocks those made to the optimum portfolio in ex ante stock price bubble scenario considering data for the period of January 2010 to June 2012. We found that all stocks failed to make the pass Single Index Model criteria i.e. excess return over beta must be higher than the risk free rate. Here for the period of 2010 to 2012, the risk free rate considered to be 11.5 % per annum (Treasury bill rate during 2012.

  6. Effect of a bubble nucleation model on cavitating flow structure in rarefaction wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N.; Schmidt, A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper explains research examining processes accompanying underwater explosions near the free surface. Particular attention is paid to the effect of heterogeneous nucleation on cavitating flow induced by underwater explosions near the free surface. Variation of the size spectrum of produced bubbles and influence of this process on flow structure are studied. The cavitating liquid is considered as a two-phase bubbly medium described in the framework of the Euler-Lagrange approach treating the carrier phase (liquid) as a continuum and the dispersed phase (bubbles) as a set of test particles. More detailed descriptions of a mathematical model, numerical method, and algorithm validation are observed in the authors' previous paper [see, Petrov and Schmidt (Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 60:367-373, 2015)].

  7. A model of Mira's cometary head/tail entering the Local Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, A; Canto, J; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Lopez-Camara, D; Velazquez, P F; De Colle, F

    2010-01-01

    We model the cometary structure around Mira as the interaction of an AGB wind from Mira A, and a streaming environment. Our simulations introduce the following new element: we assume that after 200 kyr of evolution in a dense environment Mira entered the Local Bubble (low density coronal gas). As Mira enters the bubble, the head of the comet expands quite rapidly, while the tail remains well collimated for a 100 kyr timescale. The result is a broad-head/narrow-tail structure that resembles the observed morphology of Mira's comet. The simulations were carried out with our new adaptive grid code WALICXE, which is described in detail.

  8. Multi-wavelength Emission from the Fermi Bubble. II. Secondary Electrons and the Hadronic Model of the Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.-S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray flux from the Fermi Bubbles (FBs) in the framework of the hadronic model in which gamma-rays are produced by collisions of relativistic protons with the protons of the background plasma in the Galactic halo. It is assumed in this model that the observed radio emission from the FBs is due to synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons produced by pp collisions. However, if these electrons lose their energy through synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission, the spectrum of secondary electrons will be too soft, and an additional arbitrary component of the primary electrons will be necessary in order to reproduce the radio data. Thus, a mixture of the hadronic and leptonic models is required for the observed radio flux. It was shown that if the spectrum of primary electrons is {\\propto} E_e-2, the permitted range of the magnetic field strength is within the 2-7 μG region. The fraction of gamma-rays produced by pp collisions can reach about 80% of the total gamma-ray flux from the FBs. If the magnetic field is 7 μG the model is unable to reproduce the data. Alternatively, the electrons in the FBs may lose their energy through adiabatic energy losses if there is a strong plasma outflow in the GC. Then, the pure hadronic model is able to reproduce characteristics of the radio and gamma-ray flux from the FBs. However, in this case the required magnetic field strength in the FBs and the power of CR sources are much higher than those following from observations.

  9. MULTI-WAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM THE FERMI BUBBLE. II. SECONDARY ELECTRONS AND THE HADRONIC MODEL OF THE BUBBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.-S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ko, C.-M. [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics and Center for Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-20

    We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray flux from the Fermi Bubbles (FBs) in the framework of the hadronic model in which gamma-rays are produced by collisions of relativistic protons with the protons of the background plasma in the Galactic halo. It is assumed in this model that the observed radio emission from the FBs is due to synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons produced by pp collisions. However, if these electrons lose their energy through synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission, the spectrum of secondary electrons will be too soft, and an additional arbitrary component of the primary electrons will be necessary in order to reproduce the radio data. Thus, a mixture of the hadronic and leptonic models is required for the observed radio flux. It was shown that if the spectrum of primary electrons is ∝E{sub e}{sup −2}, the permitted range of the magnetic field strength is within the 2-7 μG region. The fraction of gamma-rays produced by pp collisions can reach about 80% of the total gamma-ray flux from the FBs. If the magnetic field is <2 μG or >7 μG the model is unable to reproduce the data. Alternatively, the electrons in the FBs may lose their energy through adiabatic energy losses if there is a strong plasma outflow in the GC. Then, the pure hadronic model is able to reproduce characteristics of the radio and gamma-ray flux from the FBs. However, in this case the required magnetic field strength in the FBs and the power of CR sources are much higher than those following from observations.

  10. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2013-01-10

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  11. Influence of bubble size, diffuser width, and flow rate on the integral behavior of bubble plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Bruño.; Stoesser, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    A large-eddy simulation based Eulerian-Lagrangian model is employed to quantify the impact of bubble size, diffuser diameter, and gas flow rate on integral properties of bubble plumes, such as the plume's width, centerline velocity, and mass flux. Calculated quantities are compared with experimental data and integral model predictions. Furthermore, the LES data were used to assess the behavior of the entrainment coefficient, the momentum amplification factor, and the bubble-to-momentum spread ratio. It is found that bubble plumes with constant bubble size and smaller diameter behave in accordance with integral plume models. Plumes comprising larger and non-uniform bubble sizes appear to deviate from past observations and model predictions. In multi-diameter bubble plumes, a bubble self-organisation takes place, i.e., small bubbles cluster in the center of the plume whilst large bubbles are found at the periphery of the plume. Multi-diameter bubble plumes also feature a greater entrainment rate than single-size bubble plumes, as well as a higher spread ratio and lower turbulent momentum rate. Once the plume is fully established, the size of the diffuser does not appear to affect integral properties of bubble plumes. However, plume development is affected by the diffuser width, as larger release areas lead to a delayed asymptotic behavior of the plume and consequently to a lower entrainment and higher spread ratio. Finally, the effect of the gas flow rate on the integral plume is studied and is deemed very relevant with regards to most integral plume properties and coefficients. This effect is already fairly well described by integral plume models.

  12. CFD modelling of most probable bubble nucleation rate from binary mixture with estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ban Zhen; Keong, Lau Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2016-05-01

    The employment of different mathematical models to address specifically for the bubble nucleation rates of water vapour and dissolved air molecules is essential as the physics for them to form bubble nuclei is different. The available methods to calculate bubble nucleation rate in binary mixture such as density functional theory are complicated to be coupled along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In addition, effect of dissolved gas concentration was neglected in most study for the prediction of bubble nucleation rates. The most probable bubble nucleation rate for the water vapour and dissolved air mixture in a 2D quasi-stable flow across a cavitating nozzle in current work was estimated via the statistical mean of all possible bubble nucleation rates of the mixture (different mole fractions of water vapour and dissolved air) and the corresponding number of molecules in critical cluster. Theoretically, the bubble nucleation rate is greatly dependent on components' mole fraction in a critical cluster. Hence, the dissolved gas concentration effect was included in current work. Besides, the possible bubble nucleation rates were predicted based on the calculated number of molecules required to form a critical cluster. The estimation of components' mole fraction in critical cluster for water vapour and dissolved air mixture was obtained by coupling the enhanced classical nucleation theory and CFD approach. In addition, the distribution of bubble nuclei of water vapour and dissolved air mixture could be predicted via the utilisation of population balance model.

  13. Sphaleron and critical bubble in the scale invariant two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Fuyuto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the electroweak phase transition and the critical bubble in the scale invariant two Higgs doublet model in the light of recent LHC data. Moreover, the sphaleron decoupling condition is newly evaluated in this model. The analysis is done by using the resummed finite-temperature one-loop effective potential. It is found that the 125 GeV Higgs boson inevitably leads to the strong first-order electroweak phase transition, and the strength of which is always large enough to satisfy the sphaleron decoupling condition, vN/TN>1.2, where TN denotes a nucleation temperature and vN is the Higgs vacuum expectation value at TN. In this model, even if the Higgs boson couplings to gauge bosons and fermions are similar to the standard model values, the signal strength of the Higgs decay to two photons is reduced by 10% and the triple Higgs boson coupling is enhanced by 82% compared to the standard model prediction.

  14. Numerically modelling the sea-water and bubble plume dynamics found from the QICS project in Ardmucknish Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, M.; Sellami, N.; Chen, B.; Stahl, H.; Blackford, J.

    2013-12-01

    The QICS experiment carried out through spring 2012 investigated the nature and probability of leakage from a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage reservoir through a controlled CO2 release beneath a Scottish sea loch. This experiment allowed the measurement of the environmental impact, the development of various systems for monitoring, detecting and modelling leakage scenarios [1]. The ECO2 project involves the assessment of risk to the marine environment from sub-seabed CO2 storage sites [2] which means there is a strong link in aims for these two projects. Modelling the formation, dynamics and dissolution of CO2 gas bubbles in seawater allows the physiochemical impact on the marine environment to be predicted. This can be compared with data measured during the QICS experiment, proving the accuracy and viability of the models for full scale leakage scenarios. This study focuses on the role of bubble interactions on the plume formation and development; a two phase small scale plume model is improved by a sub-model of break up and coalescence of bubbles to simulate the bubble dynamics within a plume formation based on bubble measurements from the QICS experiment. The impact on the waters is shown through dissolution by the pCO2 and pH changes [3] and the model is validated against, and further developed utilising experimental measurements taken within the QICS project. [1] QICS, QICS: Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage. (Accessed 15.07.13), http://www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html [2] ECO2, ECO2 - Sub-seabed CO2 Storage: Impact on Marine Ecosystems. (Accessed 16.07.13), http://www.eco2-project.eu [3] Dewar, M., et al. Small-scale modelling of the physiochemical impacts of CO2 leaked from sub-seabed reservoirs or pipe-lines with in the North Sea and surrounding waters. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbu l.2013.03.005

  15. Modeling studies of electrolyte flow and bubble behavior in advanced Hall cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.

    Much research was performed in recent years by corporations and university/government labs on materials for use in advanced Hall-Heroult cells. Attention has focussed on materials for use as wettable cathodes and inert anodes and much was achieved in terms of material development. Comparatively less attention was devoted to how these materials might be incorporated in new or existing cells, i.e., to how the cells should be designed and redesigned, to take full advantage of these materials. The effort, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to address this issue, is described. The primary objectives are cell design where electrolyte flow can be managed to promote both the removal of the anode gas bubbles and the convection of dissolved alumina in the inter-electrode region, under conditions where the anode-cathode distance is small. The principal experimental tool was a water model consisting of a large tank in which simulated anodes can be suspended in either the horizontal or vertical configurations. Gas generation was by forcing compressed air through porous graphite and the fine bubbles characteristic of inert anodes were produced by adding butanol to the water. Velocities were measured using a laser Doppler velocimeter. Velocity measurements with two different anode designs (one that is flat and the other that has grooves) are presented. The results show that the electrode configuration has a significant effect on the fluid flow pattern in the inter-electrode region. Furthermore, it is shown that rapid fluid flow is obtained when the cell is operated with a submerged anode.

  16. A hierarchy of simple hyperbolic two-fluid models for bubbly flows

    CERN Document Server

    Drui, Florence; Kokh, Samuel; Massot, Marc

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of modeling both separate and disperse two-phase flows, we use in this paper a methodology for deriving two-fluid models that do not assume any flow topology. This methodology is based on a variational principle and on entropy dissipation requirement. Some of the models that are such derived and studied are already known in the contexts of the description of separate-or disperse-phase flows. However, we here propose an arrangement of these models into a hierarchy based on their links through relaxation parameters. Moreover, the models are shown to be compatible with the description of a monodisperse bubbly flow and, within this frame, the relaxation parameters can be identified. This identification is finally verified and discussed through comparisons with experimental measures of sound dispersion and with dispersion relations of a reference model for bubbly media.

  17. A genetic algorithm-based optimization model for pool boiling heat transfer on horizontal rod heaters at isolated bubble regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi Fazel, S. Ali

    2017-03-01

    A new optimized model which can predict the heat transfer in the nucleate boiling at isolated bubble regime is proposed for pool boiling on a horizontal rod heater. This model is developed based on the results of direct observations of the physical boiling phenomena. Boiling heat flux, wall temperature, bubble departing diameter, bubble generation frequency and bubble nucleation site density have been experimentally measured. Water and ethanol have been used as two different boiling fluids. Heating surface was made by several metals and various degrees of roughness. The mentioned model considers various mechanisms such as latent heat transfer due to micro-layer evaporation, transient conduction due to thermal boundary layer reformation, natural convection, heat transfer due to the sliding bubbles and bubble super-heating. The fractional contributions of individual mentioned heat transfer mechanisms have been calculated by genetic algorithm. The results show that at wall temperature difference more that about 3 K, bubble sliding transient conduction, non-sliding transient conduction, micro-layer evaporation, natural convection, radial forced convection and bubble super-heating have higher to lower fractional contributions respectively. The performance of the new optimized model has been verified by comparison of the existing experimental data.

  18. On the modeling of bubble evolution and transport using coupled level-set/CFD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlomiej Wierzbicki; Steven P Antal; Michael Z Podowski [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, and Center for Multiphase Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The ability to predict the shape of the gas/liquid/solid interfaces is important for various multiphase flow and heat transfer applications. Specific issues of interest to nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics, include the evolution of the shape of bubbles attached to solid surfaces during nucleation, bubble surface interactions in complex geometries, etc. Additional problems, making the overall task even more complicated, are associated with the effect of material properties that may be significantly altered by the addition of minute amounts of impurities, such as surfactants or nano-particles. The present paper is concerned with the development of an innovative approach to model time-dependent shape of gas/liquid interfaces in the presence of solid walls. The proposed approach combines a modified level-set method with an advanced CFD code, NPHASE. The coupled numerical solver can be used to simulate the evolution of gas/liquid interfaces in two-phase flows for a variety of geometries and flow conditions, from individual bubbles to free surfaces (stratified flows). The issues discussed in the full paper will include: a description of the novel aspects of the proposed level-set concept based method, an overview of the NPHASE code modeling framework and a description of the coupling method between these two elements of the overall model. A particular attention will be give to the consistency and completeness of model formulation for the interfacial phenomena near the liquid/gas/solid triple line, and to the impact of the proposed numerical approach on the accuracy and consistency of predictions. The accuracy will be measured in terms of both the calculated shape of the interfaces and the gas and liquid velocity fields around the interfaces and in the entire computational domain. The results of model testing and validation will also be shown in the full paper. The situations analyzed will include: bubbles of different sizes and varying

  19. Leverage bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  20. A stochastic model of bubble distribution in gas-solid fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the Langevin equation and the Fokker-Planck equation, a stochastic model of bubble distribution in a gas-solid fluidized bed was developed. A fluidized bed with a cross section of 0.3 m×0.02 m and a height of 0.8m was used to investigate the bubble distribution with the photographic method. Two distributors were used with orifice diameters of 3 and 6 mm and opening ratios of 6.4% and 6.8%, respectively. The particles were color glass beads with diameters of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm (Geldart group B particles). The model predictions are reasonable in accordance with the experiment data. The research results indicated that the distribution of bubble concentration was affected by the particle diameter, the fluidizing velocity, and the distributor style. The fluctuation extension of the distribution of bubble concentration narrowed as the particle diameter, fluidizing velocity and opening ratio of the distributor increased. For a given distributor and given particles the distribution was relatively steady along the bed height as the fluidizing velocity changed.

  1. Effect of bubble size on nanofiber diameter in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bubbles are widely used for fabrication of nanofibers. Bubble size affects not only bubble's surface tension, but also fiber's morphology. A mathematical model is established to reveal the effect of bubble size on the spinning process, and the experiment verification shows the theoretical analysis is reliable.

  2. Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Chemical Reactions in a Nano-Pulse Discharged Bubble for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuchen; Satoshi, Uehara; Hidemasa, Takana; Hideya, Nishiyama

    2016-09-01

    A zero-dimensional model to simulate a nano-pulse-discharged bubble in water was developed. The model consists of gas and liquid phases corresponding to the inside and outside of the bubble, respectively. The diffusions of chemical species from the gas to the liquid phase through the bubble interface was also investigated. The initial gas is Ar, but includes a little H2O and O2 in the bubble. The time evolution of the OH concentration in the liquid phase was mainly investigated as an important species for water treatment. It was shown that OH was generated in the bubble and then diffused into the liquid. With the application of a continuous nano-pulse discharge, more OH radicals were generated as the frequency increased at a low voltage for a given power consumption. supported partially by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (No. 26249015)

  3. Simulation of dynamic behavior in bubbling fluidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both the behavior of bubbles in the distributor with several orifices and the sensitive dependence of bubbling fluidization on initial condition have been simulated by particle-motion-resolved discrete model in which the gas flow is obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equation including two-phase interaction, and the motion of solid phase is obtained by decomposing the motion of each particle into collision process and suspension process. Compared with the pseudo-fluid models and previous discrete models, this model is authentic and can be widely used for simulating bubbling fluidization.

  4. Modeling of a slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Wei-xin; MA Hong-fang; LI Tao; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the global CO consumption rate model,the lumped product distribution model and the sedimentation-dispersion model of a catalyst,a steady-state,one-dimensional mathematical model of the slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were established.The mathematical simulation of the slurry bubble column reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was carried out under the following typical industrial operating conditions:temperature 230 ℃,pressure 3.0 MPa,gas flow 5× 105 m3/h,catalyst content in slurry phase 30%,reactor diameter 5.0 m and the composition of feed gas:y(H2)=0.60,y(CO)=0.30,y(N2)=0.10.The influences of operating pressure,temperature and m(H2)/m(CO) in feed gas on the reactor's reaction performance were simulated.

  5. Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B. [Chalk River Laboratories (Canada); Unrau, D. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.

  6. Statistical correlations and risk analyses techniques for a diving dual phase bubble model and data bank using massively parallel supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienke, B R; O'Leary, T R

    2008-05-01

    Linking model and data, we detail the LANL diving reduced gradient bubble model (RGBM), dynamical principles, and correlation with data in the LANL Data Bank. Table, profile, and meter risks are obtained from likelihood analysis and quoted for air, nitrox, helitrox no-decompression time limits, repetitive dive tables, and selected mixed gas and repetitive profiles. Application analyses include the EXPLORER decompression meter algorithm, NAUI tables, University of Wisconsin Seafood Diver tables, comparative NAUI, PADI, Oceanic NDLs and repetitive dives, comparative nitrogen and helium mixed gas risks, USS Perry deep rebreather (RB) exploration dive,world record open circuit (OC) dive, and Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP) extreme cave exploration profiles. The algorithm has seen extensive and utilitarian application in mixed gas diving, both in recreational and technical sectors, and forms the bases forreleased tables and decompression meters used by scientific, commercial, and research divers. The LANL Data Bank is described, and the methods used to deduce risk are detailed. Risk functions for dissolved gas and bubbles are summarized. Parameters that can be used to estimate profile risk are tallied. To fit data, a modified Levenberg-Marquardt routine is employed with L2 error norm. Appendices sketch the numerical methods, and list reports from field testing for (real) mixed gas diving. A Monte Carlo-like sampling scheme for fast numerical analysis of the data is also detailed, as a coupled variance reduction technique and additional check on the canonical approach to estimating diving risk. The method suggests alternatives to the canonical approach. This work represents a first time correlation effort linking a dynamical bubble model with deep stop data. Supercomputing resources are requisite to connect model and data in application.

  7. Population Balance Modeling of Polydispersed Bubbly Flow in Continuous-Casting Using Multiple-Size-Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Qi, Fengsheng; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2015-02-01

    A population balance model based on the multiple-size-group (MUSIG) approach has been developed to investigate the polydispersed bubbly flow inside the slab continuous-casting mold and bubble behavior including volume fraction, breakup, coalescence, and size distribution. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach is used to describe the equations of motion of the two-phase flow. All the non-drag forces (lift force, virtual mass force, wall lubrication force, and turbulent dispersion force) and drag force are incorporated in this model. Sato and Sekiguchi model is used to account for the bubble-induced turbulence. Luo and Svendsen model and Prince and Blanch model are used to describe the bubbles breakup and coalescence behavior, respectively. A 1/4th water model of the slab continuous-casting mold was applied to investigate the distribution and size of bubbles by injecting air through a circumferential inlet chamber which was made of the specially-coated samples of mullite porous brick, which is used for the actual upper nozzle. Against experimental data, numerical results showed good agreement for the gas volume fraction and local bubble Sauter mean diameter. The bubble Sauter mean diameter in the upper recirculation zone decreases with increasing water flow rate and increases with increasing gas flow rate. The distribution of bubble Sauter mean diameter along the width direction of the upper mold increases first, and then gradually decreases from the SEN to the narrow wall. Close agreements between the predictions and measurements demonstrate the capability of the MUSIG model in modeling bubbly flow inside the continuous-casting mold.

  8. Modeling of Multisize Bubbly Flow and Application to the Simulation of Boiling Flows with the Neptune_CFD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Morel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modeling of boiling multisize bubbly flows and its application to the simulation of the DEBORA experiment. We follow the method proposed originally by Kamp, assuming a given mathematical expression for the bubble diameter pdf. The original model is completed by the addition of some new terms for vapor compressibility and phase change. The liquid-to-interface heat transfer term, which essentially determines the bubbles condensation rate in the DEBORA experiment, is also modeled with care. First numerical results realized with the Neptune_CFD code are presented and discussed.

  9. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  10. PROGRESS TOWARDS MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-11-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  11. Dynamic morphology of gas hydrate on a methane bubble in water: Observations and new insights for hydrate film models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald; Haljasmaa, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Shaffer, Frank; Anderson, Brian J.; Levine, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-01

    Predicting the fate of subsea hydrocarbon gases escaping into seawater is complicated by potential formation of hydrate on rising bubbles that can enhance their survival in the water column, allowing gas to reach shallower depths and the atmosphere. The precise nature and influence of hydrate coatings on bubble hydrodynamics and dissolution is largely unknown. Here we present high-definition, experimental observations of complex surficial mechanisms governing methane bubble hydrate formation and dissociation during transit of a simulated oceanic water column that reveal a temporal progression of deep-sea controlling mechanisms. Synergistic feedbacks between bubble hydrodynamics, hydrate morphology, and coverage characteristics were discovered. Morphological changes on the bubble surface appear analogous to macroscale, sea ice processes, presenting new mechanistic insights. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate coverage and bubble dissolution rate is indicated. Understanding and incorporating these phenomena into bubble and bubble plume models will be necessary to accurately predict global greenhouse gas budgets for warming ocean scenarios and hydrocarbon transport from anthropogenic or natural deep-sea eruptions.

  12. A measurement model for real estate bubble size based on the panel data analysis: An empirical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyun; Liu, Deqiang; Malekian, Reza; Li, Zhixiong; Wang, Deqing

    2017-01-01

    Employing the fundamental value of real estate determined by the economic fundamentals, a measurement model for real estate bubble size is established based on the panel data analysis. Using this model, real estate bubble sizes in various regions in Japan in the late 1980s and in recent China are examined. Two panel models for Japan provide results, which are consistent with the reality in the 1980s where a commercial land price bubble appeared in most area and was much larger than that of residential land. This provides evidence of the reliability of our model, overcoming the limit of existing literature with this method. The same models for housing prices in China at both the provincial and city levels show that contrary to the concern of serious housing price bubble in China, over-valuing in recent China is much smaller than that in 1980s Japan.

  13. Modeling of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for a bubble column slurry reactor is presented for dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas. Methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by hydrogenation and the methanol dehydration are considered as independent reactions, in which methanol, dimethyl ether and carbon dioxide are the key components. In this model, the gas phase is considered to be in plug flow and the liquid phase to be in partly back mixing with axial distribution of solid catalyst. The simulation results show that the axial dispersion of solid catalysts, the operational height of the slurry phase in the bubble column slurry reactor, and the reaction results are influenced by the reaction temperature and pressure, which are the basic data for the scale-up of reactor.

  14. Acoustic emission noise from sodium vapour bubble collapsing: detection, interpretation, modelling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentico, G.; Pacilio, V.; Papalia, B.; Taglienti, S.; Tosi, V.

    1982-01-01

    Sodium vapour bubble collapsing is detected by means of piezoelectric accelorometers coupled to the test section via short waveguides. The output analog signal is processed by transforming it into a time series of pulses through the setting of an amplitude threshold and the shaping of a standard pulse (denominated 'event') every time the signal crosses that border. The number of events is counted in adjacent and equal time duration samples and the waiting time distribution between contiguous events is measured. Up to the moment, six kinetic properties have been found for the mentioned time series. They help in setting a stochastic model in which the subministration of energy into a liquid sodium medium induces the formation of vapour bubbles and their consequent collapsing delivers acoustic pulses. Finally, a simulation procedure is carried out: a Polya's urn model is adopted for simulating event sequences with a priori established requisites.

  15. Monoenergetic electron parameters in a spheroid bubble model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Sattarian; Sh.Rahmatallahpur; T.Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    A reliable analytical expression for the potential of plasma waves with phase velocities near the speed of light is derived.The presented spheroid cavity model is more consistent than the previous spherical and ellipsoidal models and it explains the mono-energetic electron trajectory more accurately,especially at the relativistic region.The maximum energy of electrons is calculated and it is shown that the maximum energy of the spheroid model is less than that of the spherical model.The electron energy spectrum is also calculated and it is found that the energy distribution ratio of electrons △E/E for the spheroid model under the conditions reported here is half that of the spherical model and it is in good agreement with the experimental value in the same conditions.As a result,the quasi-mono-energetic electron output beam interacting with the laser plasma can be more appropriately described with this model.

  16. Soap bubble hadronic states in a QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Kutnii, Sergii

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous solutions of the gap equation in the mean field approach to Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model are studied. An approximate Ginzburg-Landau-like gap equation is obtained and the domain wall solution is found. Binding of fermions to the domain wall is demonstrated. Compact domain wall with bound fermions is studied and stabilisation by fermion pressure is demonstrated which opens a possibility for existence of "soap bubble" hadronic states.

  17. Acoustic Model of the Remnant Bubble Cloud from Underwater Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    oceanography, Sydney, Academic Press. Underwater Explosion Research 1950, Office of Naval Re- search, Washington, D.C., Vol. 2. Wilcox, DC 1994, Turbulence Modeling for CFD, DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada CA.

  18. Evidence of speculative bubbles on the BOVESPA: an application of the Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bergmann de Queiroz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of bubbles in asset prices is a matter of great importance to governments and investors due to possible serious effects they may have on economies. In the case of shares, the presence of a price bubble can be seen by comparing prices and dividends in the long run. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of price bubbles in the Brazilian stock market, by comparing the IBOVESPA as price index and an index of dividends, built based on the methodology of IBOVESPA. The bubble was considered a unobserved state vector in a state-space model and was estimated using the Kalman filter. The results were compared with the standard present value model and intrinsic bubbles model (Froot e Obstfeld, 1991. Although the model establishes the presence of bubbles, the intrinsic bubbles model (Froot e Obstfeld, 1991 showed similar results with greater accuracy.

  19. Constraining the GENIE model of neutrino-induced single pion production using reanalyzed bubble chamber data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Philip; McFarland, Kevin [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Wilkinson, Callum [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    The longstanding discrepancy between bubble chamber measurements of ν{sub μ}-induced single pion production channels has led to large uncertainties in pion production cross section parameters for many years. We extend the reanalysis of pion production data in deuterium bubble chambers where this discrepancy is solved (Wilkinson et al., PRD 90, 112017 2014) to include the ν{sub μ}n → μ{sup -}pπ{sup 0} and ν{sub μ}n → μ{sup -}nπ{sup +} channels, and use the resulting data to fit the parameters of the GENIE pion production model. We find a set of parameters that can describe the bubble chamber data better than the GENIE default parameters, and provide updated central values and reduced uncertainties for use in neutrino oscillation and cross section analyses which use the GENIE model. We find that GENIE's non-resonant background prediction has to be significantly reduced to fit the data, which may help to explain the recent discrepancies between simulation and data observed by the MINERνA coherent pion and NOνA oscillation analyses. (orig.)

  20. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars confronting GeV -ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar; Kamakshya Prasad Modak; Subhendu Rakshit

    2016-02-01

    We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments. The -ray flux is computed from DM annihilation in this framework and is then compared with the Fermi-LAT observations from galactic centre region and Fermi bubble.

  1. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  2. Sonochemical effects on single-bubble sonoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, L

    2005-01-01

    A refined hydro-chemical model for single-bubble sonoluminescence is presented. The processes of water vapor evaporation and condensation, mass diffusion, and chemical reactions are taken into account. Numerical simulations of Xe-, Ar- and He-filled bubbles are carried out. The results show that the trapped water vapor in conjunction with its endothermic chemical reactions significantly reduces the temperature within the bubble so that the degrees of ionization are generally very low. The chemical radicals generated from water vapor are shown to play an increasingly important role in the light emission from Xe to He bubbles. Light spectra and pulses computed from an optically thin model and from an essentially blackbody model are compared with recent experimental results. It is found that the results of the blackbody model generally match better with the experiment ones than those of the optically thin model. Suggestions on how to reconcile the conflict are given.

  3. Experimental study on upward bubble velocity and pierce length distributions in a water model of copper converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Du; Jiayun Zhang; Tuping Zhou; Qifeng Shu

    2003-01-01

    The upward bubble velocity and the pierce length distributions in a sectional water model of the copper convener in Guixi Smelter in Jiangxi, China, were measured using a two-contact electro-resistivity probe. In the case of using a single tuyere, the bubble velocity distribution along longitudinal direction was similar to that derived from Guassian function. Beyond the center of the longitudinal range, the bubble pierce length exhibited a sudden increase. The upward bubble velocity at a specified location could go up to meters per second. Its probability at a fixed location obeys a lognormal function; the bubble pierce length there varies bellow a few centimeters. In the case of using multi-tuyeres, the upward bubble velocity was roughly uniform right above the tuyeres and showed a slow decrease beyond this region. The bubble pierce length within both of these two regions was roughly uniform. Its average value in the former region, however, was found to be somewhat lower than that in the later.

  4. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  5. Bubble-sweeping mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hao; (王; 昊); PENG; Xiaofeng; (彭晓峰); WANG; Buxuan; (王补宣); LEE; Duzhong; (李笃中)

    2003-01-01

    A series of subcooled boiling experiments was conducted on very small platinum wires having diameters of 0.1 and 0.025 mm. Vapor bubbles were visually observed to sweep back and forth along the wires in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of bubble-sweeping phenomenon are described, and the induced bubble interaction and nonlinear growth are investigated to understand the boiling heat transfer mechanisms. An unsymmetrical temperature model is proposed to explain the physical mechanism.

  6. The Centrality Dependence of the Parton Bubble Model for high energy heavy ion collisions and fireball surface substructure at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, S J

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier paper we developed a QCD inspired theoretical parton bubble model (PBM) for RHIC/LHC. The PBM quantitatively agreed with the strong charged particle pair correlations observed by the STAR collaboration at RHIC in the highest energy Au + Au central collisions, and also agreed with the Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) observed small final state source size approximately 2f radii in the transverse momentum range above 0.8 GeV/c. The model assumed a substructure of a ring of localized adjoining 2f radius bubbles(gluonic hot spots) perpendicular to the collider beam direction, centered on the beam, at mid-rapidity and located on the expanding fireball surface of the Au + Au collisions. In this paper we extend the model (PBME) to include the changing development of bubbles with centrality from the most central region where bubbles are very important to the most peripheral where the bubbles are gone. Energy density is found to be related to bubble formation and as centrality decreases the maximum energy d...

  7. A MODEL TO ESTIMATE VOLUME CHANGE DUE TO RADIOLYTIC GAS BUBBLES AND THERMAL EXPANSION IN SOLUTION REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. SOUTO; A HEGER

    2001-02-01

    Aqueous homogeneous solution reactors have been proposed for the production of medical isotopes. However, the reactivity effects of fuel solution volume change, due to formation of radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion, have to be mitigated to allow steady-state operation of solution reactors. The results of the free run experiments analyzed indicate that the proposed model to estimate the void volume due to radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion in solution reactors can accurately describe the observed behavior during the experiments. This void volume due to radiolytic gas bubbles and fuel solution thermal expansion can then be used in the investigation of reactivity effects in fissile solutions. In addition, these experiments confirm that the radiolytic gas bubbles are formed at a higher temperature than the fuel solution temperature. These experiments also indicate that the mole-weighted average for the radiolytic gas bubbles in uranyl fluoride solutions is about 1 {micro}m. Finally, it should be noted that another model, currently under development, would simulate the power behavior during the transient given the initial fuel solution level and density. The model is based on Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP computer code [Briesmeister, 1997] to obtain the reactor reactivity as a function of the fuel solution density, which, in turn, changes due to thermal expansion and radiolytic gas bubble formation.

  8. Vapor Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  9. Real-Time Measurements and Modelling on Dynamic Behaviour of SonoVue Bubbles Based on Light Scattering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Juan; GUAN J.F.; MATULA T.J.; Crum L.A.; WEI Rong-jue

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of SonoVue microbubbles a new generation ultrasound contrast agent is investigated in real time with light scattering method.Highly diluted SonoVue microbubbles are injected into a diluted gel made of xanthan gum and water.The responses of individual SonoVue bubbles to driven ultrasound pulses are measured.Both linear and nonlinear bubble oscillations are observed and the results suggest that SonoVue microbubbles can generate strong nonlinear responses.By fitting the experimental data of individual bubble responses with Sarkar's model,the shell coating parameter of the bubbles and dilatational viscosity is estimated to be 7.0 nm·s·Pa.

  10. Insights in hydrodynamics of bubbling fluidized beds at elevated pressure by DEM-CFD approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Mansourpour; Sedighe Karimi; Reza Zarghami; Navid Mostoufi; Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebagh

    2010-01-01

    A numerical simulation was conducted to study the effect of pressure on bubble dynamics in a gas-solid fluidized bed. The gas flow was modeled using the continuum theory and the solid phase, by the dis-crete element method (DEM). To validate the simulation results, calculated local pressure fluctuations were compared with corresponding experimental data of 1-mm polyethylene particles. It was shown that the model successfully predicts the hydrodynamic features of the fluidized bed as observed in the experiments. Influence of pressure on bubble rise characteristics such as bubble rise path, bubble sta-bility, average bubbles diameter and bubble velocity through the bed was investigated. The simulation results are in conformity with current hydrodynamic theories and concepts for fluidized beds at high pressures. The results show further that elevated pressure reduces bubble growth, velocity and stability and enhances bubble gyration through the bed, leading to change in bed flow structure.

  11. Well-posedness and convergence of cfd two-fluid model for bubbly flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidheeswaran, Avinash

    The current research is focused on developing a well-posed multidimensional CFD two-fluid model (TFM) for bubbly flows. Two-phase flows exhibit a wide range of local flow instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, plume and jet instabilities. They arise due to the density difference and/or the relative velocity between the two phases. A physically correct TFM is essential to model these instabilities. However, this is not the case with the TFMs in numerical codes, which can be shown to have complex eigenvalues due to incompleteness and hence are ill-posed as initial value problems. A common approach to regularize an incomplete TFM is to add artificial physics or numerically by using a coarse grid or first order methods. However, it eliminates the local physical instabilities along with the undesired high frequency oscillations resulting from the ill-posedness. Thus, the TFM loses the capability to predict the inherent local dynamics of the two-phase flow. The alternative approach followed in the current study is to introduce appropriate physical mechanisms that make the TFM well-posed. First a well-posed 1-D TFM for vertical bubbly flows is analyzed with characteristics, and dispersion analysis. When an incomplete TFM is used, it results in high frequency oscillations in the solution. It is demonstrated through the travelling void wave problem that, by adding the missing short wavelength physics to the numerical TFM, this can be removed by making the model well-posed. To extend the limit of well-posedness beyond the well-known TFM of Pauchon and Banerjee [1], the mechanism of collision is considered, and it is shown by characteristics analysis that the TFM then becomes well-posed for all void fractions of practical interest. The aforementioned ideas are then extended to CFD TFM. The travelling void wave problem is again used to demonstrate that by adding appropriate physics, the problem of ill-posedness is resolved. Furthermore, issues pertaining to

  12. Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.

  13. A model of particle removal in a dissolved air flotation tank: importance of stratified flow and bubble size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model and a computational fluid dynamic model of particle removal in dissolved air flotation were developed that included the effects of stratified flow and bubble-particle clustering. The models were applied to study the effect of operating conditions and formation of stratified flow on particle removal. Both modeling approaches demonstrated that the presence of stratified flow enhanced particle removal in the tank. A higher air fraction was shown to be needed at higher loading rates to achieve the same removal efficiency. The model predictions showed that an optimum bubble size was present that increased with an increase in particle size.

  14. A more general Force Balance Model to predict Bubble Departure and Lift-off Diameters in flow boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommajosyula, Ravikishore; Mazzocco, Thomas; Ambrosini, Walter; Baglietto, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Accurate prediction of Bubble Departure and Lift-off Diameters is key for development of closures in two-phase Eulerian CFD simulation of Flow Boiling, owing to its sensitivity in the Heat Flux partitioning approach. Several models ranging from simple correlations to solving complex force balance models have been proposed in literature; however, they rely on data-fitting for specific databases, and have shown to be inapplicable for general flow applications. The aim of this study is to extend the approach by proposing a more consistent and general formulation that accounts for relevant forces acting on the Bubble at the point of Departure and Lift-off. Among the key features of the model, the Bubble Inclination angle is treated as an unknown to be inferred along with the Departure Diameter, and the relative velocity of the bubble sliding on the surface, is modeled to determine the Lift-off Diameter. A novel expression is developed for the bubble growth force in terms of flow quantities, based on extensive data analysis. The model has been validated using 6 different experimental databases with varying flow conditions and 3 fluids. Results show high accuracy of predictions over a broad range, outperforming existing models both in terms of accuracy and generality. CASL - The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs.

  15. Investigation of bubble-bubble interaction effect during the collapse of multi-bubble system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueming; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Wenfeng

    2014-11-01

    Bubble collapse is not only an important subject among bubble dynamics, but also a key consequence of cavitation. It has been demonstrated that the structural damage is associated with the rapid change in flow fields during bubble collapse. How to model and simulate the behavior of the bubble collapse is now of great interest. In the present study, both theoretical analysis and a direct numerical simulation on the basis of VOF are performed to investigate the collapses of single bubble and bubble cluster. The effect of bubble-bubble interaction on the collapse of multi-bubble system is presented. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11272284, 11332009).

  16. Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Pipe Computed By an Eddy-Resolving Reynolds Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    induced turbulence of the underlying flow and the modification of the turbulent quantities by the dispersed bubbles. Due to the lack of realisable data...is modelled with the coefficient CVM taking the standard value of 0.5. Other forces which mainly act in the lateral direc- tion, like the lift, wall... values were used for αG = 0.033 and the mean gas velocity, in accordance with the case 4 from Hosokawa and Tomiyama (2009). The domain was 160D long in

  17. Genetic optimization of neural network and fuzzy logic for oil bubble point pressure modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar, Mohammad [Islamic Azad University, Kharg (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholami, Amin [Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asoodeh, Mojtaba [Islamic Azad University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Bubble point pressure is a critical pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) property of reservoir fluid, which plays an important role in almost all tasks involved in reservoir and production engineering. We developed two sophisticated models to estimate bubble point pressure from gas specific gravity, oil gravity, solution gas oil ratio, and reservoir temperature. Neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system are powerful tools for extracting the underlying dependency of a set of input/output data. However, the mentioned tools are in danger of sticking in local minima. The present study went further by optimizing fuzzy logic and neural network models using the genetic algorithm in charge of eliminating the risk of being exposed to local minima. This strategy is capable of significantly improving the accuracy of both neural network and fuzzy logic models. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to a dataset of 153 PVT data points. Results showed that the genetic algorithm can serve the neural network and neuro-fuzzy models from local minima trapping, which might occur through back-propagation algorithm.

  18. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 1. Experimental results of bubble detection using small models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    1999-05-01

    To prevent the expansion of the tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that in practical steam generators the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. To prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of the leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. To evaluate the relationship between the detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the bubble volume and bubble size, the structural shapes and bubble flow conditions were investigated experimentally, using a small structural model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect the bubbles under bubble flow conditions, and it is sensitive enough to detect small leakages within a short time. The doppler method thus has strong potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  19. Physics of bubble oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas [Third Physical Institute, University of Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    problem is formulated in the spirit of the n-body problem of astrophysics, but with more complicated interaction forces. Simulations are compared with three-dimensional bubble dynamics obtained by stereoscopic high speed digital videography.

  20. A model to estimate volume change due to radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion in solution reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, F.J. [NIS-6: Advanced Nuclear Technology, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heger, A.S. [ESA-EA: Engineering Sciences and Application, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the effects of radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion on the steady-state operation of solution reactors at the power level required for the production of medical isotopes, a calculational model has been developed. To validate this model, including its principal hypotheses, specific experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory SHEBA uranyl fluoride solution reactor were conducted. The following sections describe radiolytic gas generation in solution reactors, the equations to estimate the fuel solution volume change due to radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion, the experiments conducted at SHEBA, and the comparison of experimental results and model calculations. (author)

  1. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Chaofeng, E-mail: sang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Jizhong [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bonnin, Xavier [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Villetaneuse 93430 (France); Wang, L. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-08-15

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering.

  2. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Wang, L.; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-08-01

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering.

  3. Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rouxi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  5. Bubble Growth and Detachment from a Needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusser, Michael; Rambod, Edmond; Gharib, Morteza

    1999-11-01

    The release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle or orifice occurs in large number of applications, such as perforated plate columns, blood oxygenators and various methods of water treatment. It is also a widely used method in laboratory research on multiphase flow and acoustics for generating small bubbles in a controlled fashion. We studied experimentally the growth and pinch-off of air bubbles released from a submerged needle into a quiescent liquid or a liquid flowing parallel to the needle. Micron-sized bubbles were generated by an air-liquid dispenser. High-speed imaging was performed to study the formation and detachment of bubbles from the tip of the needle. The impact of the needle diameter was investigated and the size and number of produced bubbles were assessed for different flow rates of air and for different velocities of the imposed upward liquid flow. The results were compared with available theoretical models and numerical computations. The existence of a critical gas flow rate and two regimes of bubble growth were verified.

  6. A Unified Model of the Fermi Bubbles, Microwave Haze, and Polarized Radio Lobes: Reverse Shocks in the Galactic Center’s Giant Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Carretti, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The Galactic center’s giant outflows are manifest in three different, nonthermal phenomena: (1) the hard-spectrum, γ-ray “Fermi bubbles” emanating from the nucleus and extending to | b| ˜ 50^\\circ ; (2) the hard-spectrum, total-intensity microwave (˜20-40 GHz) “haze” extending to | b| ˜ 35^\\circ in the lower reaches of the Fermi bubbles; and (3) the steep-spectrum, polarized, “S-PASS” radio (˜2-20 GHz) lobes that envelop the bubbles and extend to | b| ˜ 60^\\circ . We find that the nuclear outflows inflate a genuine bubble in each Galactic hemisphere that has the classical structure, working outward, of reverse shock, contact discontinuity (CD), and forward shock. Expanding into the finite pressure of the halo and given appreciable cooling and gravitational losses, the CD of each bubble is now expanding only very slowly. We find observational signatures in both hemispheres of giant, reverse shocks at heights of ˜1 kpc above the nucleus; their presence ultimately explains all three of the nonthermal phenomena mentioned above. Synchrotron emission from shock-reaccelerated cosmic-ray electrons explains the spectrum, morphology, and vertical extent of the microwave haze and the polarized radio lobes. Collisions between shock-reaccelerated hadrons and denser gas in cooling condensations that form inside the CD account for most of the bubbles’ γ-ray emissivity. Inverse Compton emission from primary electrons contributes at the 10%-30% level. Our model suggests that the bubbles are signatures of a comparatively weak but sustained nuclear outflow driven by Galactic center star formation over ≳few × 108 yr.

  7. Field measurements and modeling of attenuation from near-surface bubbles for frequencies 1-20 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Peter H; Choi, Jee Woong; Williams, Neil J; Graber, Hans C

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of excess attenuation from near-surface bubbles from the Shallow Water '06 experiment are reported. These are transmission measurements made over the frequency range 1-20 kHz, and they demonstrate a frequency, grazing angle, and wind speed dependence in attenuation. Data modeling points to bubble void fractions of order 10(-6) in effect for wind speeds 10-13 m/s. Simultaneous measures of wind speed made within 1.5 and 11 km of the open water experimental location differed by 2 m/s in their respective 30 min average; this has cautionary implications for empirical models for bubble attenuation that are a strong function of wind speed.

  8. A Mass Transfer Model Based on Individual Bubbles and an Unsteady State Film Mechanism%基于单气泡非稳膜机理的相际传质模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 王铁峰; 王金福

    2004-01-01

    A gas-liquid mass transfer model based on an unsteady state film mechanism applied to a single bubble is presented. The mathematical model was solved using Laplace transform to obtain an analytical solution of concentration profile in terms of the radial position r and time t. The dynamic mass transfer flux was deduced and the influence of the bubble size was also determined. A mathematical method for deducing the average mass transfer flux directly from the Laplace transformed concentration is presented. Its accuracy is verified by comparing the numerical results with those from the indirect method. The influences of the model parameters, namely, the bubble size R, liquid film thickness δ, and the surface renewal constant s on the average mass transfer flux were investigated. The proposed model is useful for a better understanding of the mass transfer mechanism and an optimum design of gas-liquid contact equipment.

  9. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  10. Thermodynamically consistent modeling for dissolution/growth of bubbles in an incompressible solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Bothe, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    We derive mathematical models of the elementary process of dissolution/growth of bubbles in a liquid under pressure control. The modeling starts with a fully compressible version, both for the liquid and the gas phase so that the entropy principle can be easily evaluated. This yields a full PDE system for a compressible two-phase fluid with mass transfer of the gaseous species. Then the passage to an incompressible solvent in the liquid phase is discussed, where a carefully chosen equation of state for the liquid mixture pressure allows for a limit in which the solvent density is constant. We finally provide a simplification of the PDE system in case of a dilute solution.

  11. Chandra Observations of MBM 12 and Models of the Local Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. K.; Edgar, R. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Wargelin, B. J.; Freeman, P. E.; Biller, B. A.

    2005-04-01

    Chandra observations toward the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12 show unexpectedly strong and nearly equal foreground O VIII and O VII emission. As the observed portion of MBM 12 is optically thick at these energies, the emission lines must be formed nearby, coming from either the Local Bubble (LB) or charge exchange with ions from the Sun. Equilibrium models for the LB predict stronger O VII than O VIII, so these results suggest that the LB is far from equilibrium or that a substantial portion of O VIII is from another source, such as charge exchange within the solar system. Despite the likely contamination, we can combine our results with other EUV and X-ray observations to reject LB models that posit a cool recombining plasma as the source of LB X-rays.

  12. Laser-Generated Shocks and Bubbles as Laboratory-Scale Models of Underwater Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G. Jones

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater shocks and bubbles were generated using a high energy pulsed laser system. The advantages of this experimental approach are: (1 precisely controlled and measured experimental conditions; (2 improved diagnostics, including extensive imaging capabilities; (3 unique experiments, including a simultaneously detonated line charge; and (4 the ability to provide validation quality data for hydrodynamic simulation codes. Bubble sensitivity to variation of several experimental parameters was examined. Numerical simulations were performed corresponding to the experimental shots, showing that empirical bubble theory, experimental bubble data, and simulations were all in good agreement.

  13. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  14. Stratification of bubbly horizontal flows: modeling and experimental validation; Stratification des ecoulements a bulles horizontaux: modelisation et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottin, M.

    2010-12-17

    Hot films and optical probes enabled the acquisition of measurements in bubbly flows at 5, 20 and 40 diameters from the inlet of the vein on the METERO facility which test section is a horizontal circular pipe of 100 mm inner diameter. The distribution of the different phases, the existence of coalescence and sedimentation mechanisms, the influence of the liquid and gas flow rates, the radial and axial evolutions are analyzed thanks to fast camera videos and numerous and varied experimental results (void fraction, bubbles sizes, interfacial area, mean and fluctuating velocities and turbulent kinetic energy of the liquid phase). Some models, based on the idea that the flow reaches an equilibrium state sufficiently far from the inlet of the pipe, were developed to simulate mean interfacial area and turbulent kinetic energy transports in bubbly flows. (author)

  15. Identifying bubble collapse in a hydrothermal system using hiddden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Benitez, M.C.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Chouet, Bernard A.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in July 2003 and lasting through September 2003, the Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park exhibited an unusual increase in ground temperature and hydrothermal activity. Using hidden Markov model theory, we identify over five million high-frequency (>15 Hz) seismic events observed at a temporary seismic station deployed in the basin in response to the increase in hydrothermal activity. The source of these seismic events is constrained to within ~100 m of the station, and produced ~3500–5500 events per hour with mean durations of ~0.35–0.45 s. The seismic event rate, air temperature, hydrologic temperatures, and surficial water flow of the geyser basin exhibited a marked diurnal pattern that was closely associated with solar thermal radiance. We interpret the source of the seismicity to be due to the collapse of small steam bubbles in the hydrothermal system, with the rate of collapse being controlled by surficial temperatures and daytime evaporation rates.

  16. Reply to "Comment on 'Simple improvements to classical bubble nucleation models' ".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg

    2016-08-01

    We reply to the Comment by Schmelzer and Baidakov [Phys. Rev. E 94, 026801 (2016)].10.1103/PhysRevE.94.026801 They suggest that a more modern approach than the classic description by Tolman is necessary to model the surface tension of curved interfaces. Therefore we now consider the higher-order Helfrich correction, rather than the simpler first-order Tolman correction. Using a recent parametrization of the Helfrich correction provided by Wilhelmsen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064706 (2015)]JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.4907588, we test this description against measurements from our simulations, and find an agreement stronger than what the pure Tolman description offers. Our analyses suggest a necessary correction of order higher than the second for small bubbles with radius ≲1 nm. In addition, we respond to other minor criticism about our results.

  17. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  18. Magnetic bubbles and magnetic towers - I. General properties and simple analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, J.-J.; Amari, T.

    2012-02-01

    We consider magnetostatic equilibria in which a bounded region D containing a magnetized plasma is either fully confined by a field-free external medium - magnetic bubble equilibria (MBEqs) - or is confined by both such a medium and line-tying in a dense plasma region - magnetic tower equilibria (MTEqs). We first establish some of their general properties. In particular, we derive a series of useful integral equalities relating the magnetic field and the thermal pressures inside and outside D, respectively. We use them to prove the non-existence of an axisymmetric MBEq with a purely poloidal field, and to discuss some recent results of Braithwaite on MBEq formation by relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state. We next present two families of exact analytical axisymmetric MBEqs with, respectively, spherical and toroidal shapes. The first family is extracted from Prendergast's model of a self-gravitating magnetized body, while the second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which both magnetic and thermal pressures take constant values on any flux surface. MTEqs with a large variety of structures are thus obtained in a simple way: we start from an arbitrary MBEq and just consider the part of it above a given plane cutting the bubble D. For MBEqs and MTEqs in either family, we compute in closed form most of the interesting physical quantities (such as energy, magnetic helicity and twist). Our results are expected to be useful for building up simple models of several astrophysical objects (such as X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium, jets emitted by disc accreting compact objects, eruptive events in stellar coronae and their ejecta).

  19. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

  20. Numerical Prediction of Unsteady Behavior of Cavitating Flow on Hydrofoils using Bubble Dynamics Cavitation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-E- Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study with pressure-based finite volume method for prediction of non-cavitating and time dependent cavitating flow on hydrofoil. The phenomenon of cavitation is modeled through a mixture model. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow, a bubble dynamics cavitation model is used to investigate the unsteady behavior of cavitating flow and describe the generation and evaporation of vapor phase. The non-cavitating study focuses on choosing mesh size and the influence of the turbulence model. Three turbulence models such as Spalart-Allmaras, Shear Stress Turbulence (SST k-ω model and Re-Normalization Group (RNG k-ε model with enhanced wall treatment are used to capture the turbulent boundary layer on the hydrofoil surface. The cavitating study presents an unsteady behavior of the partial cavity attached to the foil at different time steps for σ=0.8. Moreover, this study focuses on cavitation inception, the shape and general behavior of sheet cavitation, lift and drag forces for different cavitation numbers. Finally, the flow pattern and hydrodynamic characteristics are also studied at different angles of attack.

  1. Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.

  2. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  3. Eulerian modeling of reactive gas-liquid flow in a bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread application of bubble columns and intensive research efforts devoted to understand their complex behavior, detailed knowledge on the fluid flow, mass transfer and chemical reactions as well as their interactions is currently very limited. Gas-liquid flow in bubble column react

  4. Magnetic Bubble Expansion as an Experimental Model for Extra-Galactic Radio Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan; Zhang, Yue; Hsu, Scott

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) is conducting laboratory experiments to address outstanding nonlinear plasma physics issues related to how magnetic energy and helicity carried by extra-galactic jets interacts with the intergalactic medium to form radio lobe structures. Experiments are being conducted in the 4 meter long, 50 cm diameter HELCAT linear plasma device at UNM. A pulsed magnetized coaxial gun (˜10 kV, ˜100 kA, ˜2 mWb) forms and injects magnetized plasma bubbles perpendicularly into a lower pressure weakly magnetized background plasma formed by a helicon and/or hot cathode source in HELCAT. Ideal MHD simulations show that an MHD shock develops ahead of the bubble as it propagates, and that the bubble develops asymmetries due to the background field [1]. Experimental data from plasma bubble injection into a background plasma, particularly magnetic probe measurements, will be discussed. [4pt] [1] W. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 072905 (2008).

  5. Structural Model of RNA Polymerase II Elongation Complex with Complete Transcription Bubble Reveals NTP Entry Routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The RNA polymerase II (Pol II is a eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of the messenger RNA using a DNA template. Despite numerous biochemical and biophysical studies, it remains elusive whether the "secondary channel" is the only route for NTP to reach the active site of the enzyme or if the "main channel" could be an alternative. On this regard, crystallographic structures of Pol II have been extremely useful to understand the structural basis of transcription, however, the conformation of the unpaired non-template DNA part of the full transcription bubble (TB is still unknown. Since diffusion routes of the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP substrate through the main channel might overlap with the TB region, gaining structural information of the full TB is critical for a complete understanding of Pol II transcription process. In this study, we have built a structural model of Pol II with a complete transcription bubble based on multiple sources of existing structural data and used Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations together with structural analysis to shed light on NTP entry pathways. Interestingly, we found that although both channels have enough space to allow NTP loading, the percentage of MD conformations containing enough space for NTP loading through the secondary channel is twice higher than that of the main channel. Further energetic study based on MD simulations with NTP loaded in the channels has revealed that the diffusion of the NTP through the main channel is greatly disfavored by electrostatic repulsion between the NTP and the highly negatively charged backbones of nucleotides in the non-template DNA strand. Taken together, our results suggest that the secondary channel is the major route for NTP entry during Pol II transcription.

  6. A simple model of ultrasound propagation in a cavitating liquid. Part II: Primary Bjerknes force and bubble structures

    CERN Document Server

    Louisnard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In a companion paper, a reduced model for propagation of acoustic waves in a cloud of inertial cavitation bubbles was proposed. The wave attenuation was calculated directly from the energy dissipated by a single bubble, the latter being estimated directly from the fully nonlinear radial dynamics. The use of this model in a mono-dimensional configuration has shown that the attenuation near the vibrating emitter was much higher than predictions obtained from linear theory, and that this strong attenuation creates a large traveling wave contribution, even for closed domain where standing waves are normally expected. In this paper, we show that, owing to the appearance of traveling waves, the primary Bjerknes force near the emitter becomes very large and tends to expel the bubbles up to a stagnation point. Two-dimensional axi-symmetric computations of the acoustic field created by a large area immersed sonotrode are also performed, and the paths of the bubbles in the resulting Bjerknes force field are sketched. C...

  7. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in austenitic stainless steels using an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, A.; Adjanor, G.; Domain, C.; Lescoat, M. L.; Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A.; Ortiz, C. J.; Souidi, A.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-06-01

    Implantation of 10 keV helium in 316L steel thin foils was performed in JANNuS-Orsay facility and modeled using a multiscale approach. Density Functional Theory (DFT) atomistic calculations [1] were used to obtain the properties of He and He-vacancy clusters, and the Binary Collision Approximation based code MARLOWE was applied to determine the damage and He-ion depth profiles as in [2,3]. The processes involved in the homogeneous He bubble nucleation and growth were defined and implemented in the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA [4]. In particular as the He to dpa ratio was high, self-trapping of He clusters and the trap mutation of He-vacancy clusters had to be taken into account. With this multiscale approach, the formation of bubbles was modeled up to nanometer-scale size, where bubbles can be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Their densities and sizes were studied as functions of fluence (up to 5 × 1019 He/m2) at two temperatures (473 and 723 K) and for different sample thicknesses (25-250 nm). It appears that the damage is not only due to the collision cascades but is also strongly controlled by the He accumulation in pressurized bubbles. Comparison with experimental data is discussed and sensible agreement is achieved.

  8. Comparative Protein Structure Modeling Using MODELLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Sali, Andrej

    2016-06-20

    Comparative protein structure modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and how to use the ModBase database of such models, and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.

    2012-01-01

    A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.

  10. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.

  11. Characteristics of a bubble jet near a vertical wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG A-man; YAO Xiong-liang; LI Jia

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of a coupled bubble jet and wall was built on the assumption of potential flow and calculated by the boundary integral method. A three-dimensional computing program was then developed. Starting with the basic phenomenon of the interaction between a bubble and a wall, the dynamics of bubbles near rigid walls were studied systematically with the program. Calculated results agreed well with experimental results. The relationship between the Bjerknes effect of a wall and characteristic parameters was then studied and the calculated results of various cases were compared and discussed with the Blake criterion based on the Kelvin-impulse theory. Our analyses show that the angle of the jet's direction and the pressure on the rigid wall have a close relationship with collapse force and the bubble's characteristic parameters. From this, the application range of Blake criterion can be determined. This paper aims to provide a basis for future research on the dynamics of bubbles near a wall.

  12. KINETIC MODELING OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION OVER A COBALT CATALYST IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR FOR INCORPORATION INTO A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia Gribik; Doona Guillen, PhD; Daniel Ginosar, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Currently multi-tubular fixed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) are used in commercial Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are a number of advantages of the SBCR compared to fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The main advantage of the SBCR is that temperature control and heat recovery are more easily achieved. The SBCR is a multiphase chemical reactor where a synthesis gas, comprised mainly of H2 and CO, is bubbled through a liquid hydrocarbon wax containing solid catalyst particles to produce specialty chemicals, lubricants, or fuels. The FT synthesis reaction is the polymerization of methylene groups [-(CH2)-] forming mainly linear alkanes and alkenes, ranging from methane to high molecular weight waxes. The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the FT process in a SBCR. This paper discusses the incorporation of absorption and reaction kinetics into the current hydrodynamic model. A phased approach for incorporation of the reaction kinetics into a CMFD model is presented here. Initially, a simple kinetic model is coupled to the hydrodynamic model, with increasing levels of complexity added in stages. The first phase of the model includes incorporation of the absorption of gas species from both large and small bubbles into the bulk liquid phase. The driving force for the gas across the gas liquid interface into the bulk liquid is dependent upon the interfacial gas concentration in both small and large bubbles. However, because it is difficult to measure the concentration at the gas-liquid interface, coefficients for convective mass transfer have been developed for the overall driving force between the bulk concentrations in the gas and liquid phases. It is assumed that there are no temperature effects from mass transfer of the gas phases to the bulk liquid phase, since there are only small amounts of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. The product from the

  13. Powering of cool filaments in cluster cores by buoyant bubbles. I. Qualitative model

    CERN Document Server

    Churazov, E; Schekochihin, A

    2013-01-01

    Cool-core clusters (e.g., Perseus or M87) often possess a network of bright gaseous filaments, observed in radio, IR, optical and X-ray bands. We propose that these filaments are powered by the reconnection of the magnetic field in the wakes of buoyant bubbles. AGN-inflated bubbles of relativistic plasma rise buoyantly in the cluster atmosphere, stretching and amplifying the field in the wake to values of $\\beta =8\\pi P_{gas}/B^2\\sim 1$. The field lines in the wake have opposite directions and are forced together as the bubble motion stretches the filament. This setup bears strong similarity to the coronal loops on the Sun or the Earth magneto-tail. The reconnection process naturally explains both the required level of local dissipation rate in filaments and the overall luminosity of filaments. The original source of power for the filaments is the potential energy of buoyant bubbles, inflated by the central AGN.

  14. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  15. Effect of PEO coating on bubble behavior within a polycarbonate microchannel array: A model for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblyn, Matthew; Truszkowska, Agnieszka; Mohammadi, Mahshid; Heintz, Keely; McGuire, Joseph; Sharp, Kendra; Jovanovic, Goran

    2016-07-01

    Obstruction of fluid flow by stationary bubbles in a microchannel hemodialyzer decreases filtration performance and increases damage to blood cells through flow maldistribution. A polyethylene oxide (PEO)-polybutadiene (PB)-polyethylene oxide surface modification, previously shown to reduce protein fouling and water/air contact angle in polycarbonate microchannel hemodialyzers, can improve microchannel wettability and may reduce bubble stagnation by lessening the resistive forces that compete with fluid flow. In this study, the effect of the PEO-PB-PEO coating on bubble retention in a microchannel array was investigated. Polycarbonate microchannel surfaces were coated with PEO-PB-PEO triblock polymer via radiolytic grafting. Channel obstruction was measured for coated and uncoated microchannels after injecting a short stream of air bubbles into the device under average nominal water velocities of 0.9 to 7.2 cm/s in the channels. The presence of the PEO coating reduced obstruction of microchannels by stationary bubbles within the range of 1.8 to 3.6 cm/s, average nominal velocity. Numerical simulations based on the lattice Boltzmann method indicate that beneficial effects may be due to the maintenance of a lubricating, thin liquid film around the bubble. The determined effective range of the PEO coating for bubble management serves as an important design constraint. These findings serve to validate the multiutility of the PEO-PB-PEO coating (bubble lubrication, biocompatibility, and therapeutic loading). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 941-948, 2016.

  16. The bursting of housing bubble as jamming phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Iwamura, Mitsuru; Umeno Saito, Yukiko; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a bubble burst model by focusing on transaction volume incorporating a traffic model that represents spontaneous traffic jam. We find that the phenomenon of bubble burst shares many similar properties with traffic jam formation on highway by comparing data taken from the U.S. housing market. Our result suggests that transaction volume could be a driving force of bursting phenomenon.

  17. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. Modeling and simulation of the bubble-induced flow in wine fermentation vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed flow pattern analyses regarding wine fermentations conducted without mechanical agitation are limited to lab-scale investigations, as industrial size measurements are expensive and difficult to realize. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD methods can offer an alternative and more flexible approach to gain insight into such bubble induced fluid flows. Therefore, the aim of this study was to transfer the findings of existing research onto a CFD model capable of capturing the three- dimensional flow pattern in industrial scale wine fermentation vessels. First results were obtained by using an extended version of the OpenFOAM® (v.2.2.x solver multiphaseEulerFoam for modeling the gas-liquid two phase system. With parameters from the most vigorous phase of wine fermentation a fully developed, unsteady flow regime could be established after approx. 120 s of real time. Thereby the groundwork for further evaluations of e.g. mixing efficiency or cooling equipment optimizations with CFD methods is laid.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLOW MODEL FOR FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Tami Grimmett; Anastasia M. Gribik; Steven P. Antal

    2010-09-01

    The Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. A central component of the HYTEST is the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) in which the gas-to-liquid reactions will be performed to synthesize transportation fuels using the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. SBCRs are cylindrical vessels in which gaseous reactants (for example, synthesis gas or syngas) is sparged into a slurry of liquid reaction products and finely dispersed catalyst particles. The catalyst particles are suspended in the slurry by the rising gas bubbles and serve to promote the chemical reaction that converts syngas to a spectrum of longer chain hydrocarbon products, which can be upgraded to gasoline, diesel or jet fuel. These SBCRs operate in the churn-turbulent flow regime which is characterized by complex hydrodynamics, coupled with reacting flow chemistry and heat transfer, that effect reactor performance. The purpose of this work is to develop a computational multiphase fluid dynamic (CMFD) model to aid in understanding the physico-chemical processes occurring in the SBCR. Our team is developing a robust methodology to couple reaction kinetics and mass transfer into a four-field model (consisting of the bulk liquid, small bubbles, large bubbles and solid catalyst particles) that includes twelve species: (1) CO reactant, (2) H2 reactant, (3) hydrocarbon product, and (4) H2O product in small bubbles, large bubbles, and the bulk fluid. Properties of the hydrocarbon product were specified by vapor liquid equilibrium calculations. The absorption and kinetic models, specifically changes in species concentrations, have been incorporated into the mass continuity equation. The reaction rate is determined based on the macrokinetic model for a cobalt catalyst developed by Yates and Satterfield [1]. The

  20. Exploring Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Geary, Melissa A.

    Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.

  1. Bubble diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  2. Cavitation-induced damage of soft materials by focused ultrasound bursts: A fracture-based bubble dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Pooya; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam D; Hutchens, Shelby B; Freund, Jonathan B

    2016-08-01

    A generalized Rayleigh-Plesset-type bubble dynamics model with a damage mechanism is developed for cavitation and damage of soft materials by focused ultrasound bursts. This study is linked to recent experimental observations in tissue-mimicking polyacrylamide and agar gel phantoms subjected to bursts of a kind being considered specifically for lithotripsy. These show bubble activation at multiple sites during the initial pulses. More cavities appear continuously through the course of the observations, similar to what is deduced in pig kidney tissues in shock-wave lithotripsy. Two different material models are used to represent the distinct properties of the two gel materials. The polyacrylamide gel is represented with a neo-Hookean elastic model and damaged based upon a maximum-strain criterion; the agar gel is represented with a strain-hardening Fung model and damaged according to the strain-energy-based Griffith's fracture criterion. Estimates based upon independently determined elasticity and viscosity of the two gel materials suggest that bubble confinement should be sufficient to prevent damage in the gels, and presumably injury in some tissues. Damage accumulation is therefore proposed to occur via a material fatigue, which is shown to be consistent with observed delays in widespread cavitation activity.

  3. Identifying bubble collapse in a hydrothermal system using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.B.; Benitez, M.C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Chouet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in July 2003 and lasting through September 2003, the Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park exhibited an unusual increase in ground temperature and hydrothermal activity. Using hidden Markov model theory, we identify over five million high-frequency (>15Hz) seismic events observed at a temporary seismic station deployed in the basin in response to the increase in hydrothermal activity. The source of these seismic events is constrained to within ???100 m of the station, and produced ???3500-5500 events per hour with mean durations of ???0.35-0.45s. The seismic event rate, air temperature, hydrologic temperatures, and surficial water flow of the geyser basin exhibited a marked diurnal pattern that was closely associated with solar thermal radiance. We interpret the source of the seismicity to be due to the collapse of small steam bubbles in the hydrothermal system, with the rate of collapse being controlled by surficial temperatures and daytime evaporation rates. copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A non-equilibrium ionization model of the Local Bubble (I)

    CERN Document Server

    de Avillez, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the first high-resolution non-equilibrium ionization simulation of the joint evolution of the Local Bubble (LB) and Loop I superbubbles in the turbulent supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM). The time variation and spatial distribution of the Li-like ions Civ, Nv, and Ovi inside the LB are studied in detail. Methods. This work uses the parallel adaptive mesh refinement code EAF-PAMR coupled to the newly developed atomic and molecular plasma emission module E(A+M)PEC, featuring the time-dependent calculation of the ionization structure of H through Fe, using the latest revision of solar abundances. The finest AMR resolution is 1 pc within a grid that covers a representative patch of the Galactic disk (with an area of 1 kpc^2 in the midplane) and halo (extending up to 10 kpc above and below the midplane). Results. The evolution age of the LB is derived by the match between the simulated and observed absorption features of the Li-like ions Civ, Nv, and Ovi . The modeled LB current evolution...

  5. An alternative possibility to equatorial plasma bubble forecasting through mathematical modeling and Digisonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousasantos, J.; Kherani, E. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs), or large-scale plasma depleted regions, are one of the subjects of great interest in space weather research since such phenomena have been extensively reported to cause strong degrading effects on transionospheric radio propagation at low latitudes, especially over the Brazilian region, where satellite communication interruptions by the EPBs have been, frequently, registered. One of the most difficult tasks for this field of scientific research is the forecasting of such plasma-depleted structures. This forecasting capability would be of significant help for users of positioning/navigation systems operating in the low-latitude/equatorial region all over the world. Recently, some efforts have been made trying to assess and improve the capability of predicting the EPB events. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative approach to EPB prediction by means of the use of mathematical numerical simulation associated with ionospheric vertical drift, obtained through Digisonde data, focusing on telling beforehand whether ionospheric plasma instability processes will evolve or not into EPB structures. Modulations in the ionospheric vertical motion induced by gravity waves prior to the prereversal enhancement occurrence were used as input in the numerical model. A comparison between the numerical results and the observed EPB phenomena through CCD all-sky image data reveals a considerable coherence and supports the hypothesis of a capability of short-term forecasting.

  6. Modeling of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced lesions in the presence of cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavrier; Chapelon; Gelet; Cathignol

    2000-07-01

    The classical "Bio Heat Transfer Equation (BHTE)" model is adapted to take into account the effects of oscillating microbubbles that occur naturally in the tissue during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. First, the Gilmore-Akulichev model is used to quantify the acoustic pressure scattered by microbubbles submitted to HIFU. Because this scattered pressure is not monochromatic, the concept of harmonic attenuation is introduced and a global attenuation coefficient is estimated for bubble-filled tissues. The first results show that this global attenuation coefficient varies significantly with respect to several parameters such as the frequency and the density of microbubbles in the medium, but also with respect to the incident acoustic pressure which thus becomes a transcendental function. Under these conditions, a layer-by-layer modeling, in the direction of propagation, is proposed to calculate the ultrasonic beam. Finally, the BHTE is solved and the HIFU-induced lesions are estimated by the calculation of the thermal dose. Using this model, it can be observed first that, when the firing power increases, the lesion develops clearly in the direction of the transducer, with a shape agreeing with in vivo experimentation. Next, it is observed that the lesion can be significantly modified in size and position, if an interface (skin or inner wall) is simulated as a zone with multiple cavitation nuclei. With a firing power increase, it is also shown how a secondary lesion can appear at the interface and how, beyond a certain threshold, this lesion develops at the main lesion expense. Finally, a better in-depth homogeneity of lesions is observed when the acoustic frequency of HIFU is increased.

  7. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF THREE-PHASE SLURRY-BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    1999-09-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding three-phase reactors from the point of view of kinetic theory. In a paper in press for publication in Chemical Engineering Science (Wu and Gidaspow, 1999) we have obtained a complete numerical solution of bubble column reactors. In view of the complexity of the simulation a better understanding of the processes using simplified analytical solutions is required. Such analytical solutions are presented in the attached paper, Large Scale Oscillations or Gravity Waves in Risers and Bubbling Beds. This paper presents analytical solutions for bubbling frequencies and standing wave flow patterns. The flow patterns in operating slurry bubble column reactors are not optimum. They involve upflow in the center and downflow at the walls. It may be possible to control flow patterns by proper redistribution of heat exchangers in slurry bubble column reactors. We also believe that the catalyst size in operating slurry bubble column reactors is not optimum. To obtain an optimum size we are following up on the observation of George Cody of Exxon who reported a maximum granular temperature (random particle kinetic energy) for a particle size of 90 microns. The attached paper, Turbulence of Particles in a CFB and Slurry Bubble Columns Using Kinetic Theory, supports George Cody's observations. However, our explanation for the existence of the maximum in granular temperature differs from that proposed by George Cody. Further computer simulations and experiments involving measurements of granular temperature are needed to obtain a sound theoretical explanation for the possible existence of an optimum catalyst size.

  8. The influence of fluid properties and pulse amplitude on bubble dynamics in the field of a shock wave lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Coleman, A J; Saunders, J E

    1993-11-01

    This study concerns the radial dynamics of a bubble driven by pulsed ultrasound of the type generated during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. In particular, a numerical model has been used to examine the sensitivity of the bubble oscillations to changes in both the amplitude of the driving field and the physical conditions of the fluid surrounding the bubble: viscosity, surface tension, temperature and gas content. It is shown that, at high negative pressures (p- = 10 MPa) as in lithotripsy, the timing and amplitude of bubble collapses have a considerably reduced sensitivity to the initial bubble size and all fluid parameters, except gas content, compared with those expected in lower-amplitude fields (p- = 0.2 MPa). This study indicates that, in the lithotripsy fields, the differences in the viscosity, surface tension and temperature of body fluids and the initial bubble size will have little effect on bubble dynamics compared with those expected in water.

  9. Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.

  10. Numerical experiments modeling the buoyancy of bubbles in a vertical plane layer of a magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsebers, A.O.

    1985-12-01

    The buoyancy of elliptical bubbles in the absence of surface tension are determined through a numerical experiment as a function of the semiaxis ratio, and the results are found to be in good agreement with the well-known Taylor-Saffman solution. Particular attention is given to the effect of the motion of bubbles on the development of a MHD instability in a transverse magnetic field, and it is shown that this motion stabilizes the development of perturbations in the motion direction and intensifies perturbations in the direction transverse to the motion. It is further shown that in the presence of a magnetic field, the configurations of the buoyant bubbles are not determined uniquely by physical parameters but also depend on their initial profiles. 6 references.

  11. Experiments performed with bubbly flow in vertical pipes at different flow conditions covering the transition region: simulation by coupling Eulerian, Lagrangian and 3D random walks models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos

    2012-08-01

    Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the

  12. Bubbling Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a

  13. Developed ‘laminar’ bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bubbles with different sizes have different dynamic and kineticbehavior in a two-phase bubbly flow. A common two-fluid model based on the uniform bubble size assumption is not suitable for a bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes. To deal with non-uniform bubbly flows, a multi-fluid model is established, with which bubbles are divided into several groups according to their sizes and a set of basic equations is derived for each group of bubbles with almost the same size. Through analyzing the bubble-bubble and bubble-pipe wall interactions, two new constitutive laws for the wall-force and pressure difference between the liquid phase and interface are developed to close the averaged basic equations. The respective phase distributions for each group of bubbles measured by a specially designed three-dimensional photographic method are used to check the model. Comparison between model-predicted values and experimental data shows that the model can describe laminar bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes.

  14. Revising the Local Bubble Model due to Solar Wind Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, Robin L

    2008-01-01

    The hot Local Bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood has been primarily studied through observations of its soft X-ray emission. The measurements were obtained by attributing all of the observed local soft X-rays to the bubble. However, mounting evidence shows that the heliosphere also produces diffuse X-rays. The source is solar wind ions that have received an electron from another atom. The presence of this alternate explanation for locally produced diffuse X-rays calls into question the existence and character of the Local Bubble. This article addresses these questions. It reviews the literature on solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray production, finding that SWCX accounts for roughly half of the observed local 1/4 keV X-rays found at low latitudes. This article also makes predictions for the heliospheric O VI column density and intensity, finding them to be smaller than the observational error bars. Evidence for the continued belief that the Local Bubble contains hot gas includes the remaining local...

  15. Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

  16. Interaction of two cavitation bubbles in a tube and its effects on heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cai, Jun; Tao, Yuequn; Huai, Xiulan

    2017-02-01

    When two cavitation bubbles exist in a confined space, the interaction between the bubbles significantly affects the characteristics of bubble dynamic behaviors. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model is established to study the growth and collapse of two cavitation bubbles in a heated tube and its effects on heat transfer. The liquid and gas phases throughout the calculation domain are solved by a set of Navier-Stokes equations. It is assumed that the gas inside the bubble is compressible vapor, and the surrounding liquid is incompressible water. The mass transfer between two phases is ignored. The calculated bubble profiles were compared to the available experimental data, and a good agreement has been achieved. Then, the relationship among the bubble motion, flow field and pressure distributions was analyzed. On this basis, the effects of bubble interaction on the heat transfer between the wall surface and sounding liquid were discussed. It is found that heat transfer in the centre wall region is enhanced owing to the vortex flow and micro-jet induced by the bubble contraction and collapse. In contrast, the highest surface temperature appears in the surrounding region, which is mainly attributed to the thermal resistance induced by the bubble. The present study is helpful to understand the heat transfer phenomenon with cavitation in the liquid.

  17. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: LEVERAGING CITIZEN SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING TO DETECT INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert, E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10%-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid-plane, and display a stronger excess of young stellar objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches—particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machine learning techniques. In cases where ''untrained' citizens can identify patterns that machines cannot detect without training, machine learning algorithms like Brut can use the output of citizen science projects as input training sets, offering tremendous opportunities to speed the pace of scientific discovery. A hybrid model of machine learning combined with crowdsourced training data from citizen scientists can not only classify large quantities of data, but also address the weakness of each approach if deployed alone.

  18. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  19. Computational modelling of the interaction of shock waves with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betney, M. R.; Tully, B.; Hawker, N. A.; Ventikos, Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a computational investigation of the interactions of a single shock wave with multiple gas-filled bubbles in a liquid medium. This work illustrates how multiple bubbles may be used in shock-bubble interactions to intensify the process on a local level. A high resolution front-tracking approach is used, which enables explicit tracking of the gas-liquid interface. The collapse of two identical bubbles, one placed behind the other is investigated in detail, demonstrating that peak pressures in a two bubble arrangement can exceed those seen in single bubble collapse. Additionally, a parametric investigation into the effect of bubble separation is presented. It is found that the separation distance has a significant effect on both the shape and velocity of the main transverse jet of the second bubble. Extending this analysis to effects of relative bubble size, we show that if the first bubble is sufficiently small relative to the second, it may become entirely entrained in the second bubble main transverse jet. In contrast, if the first bubble is substantially larger than the second, it may offer it significant protection from the incident shock. This protection is utilised in the study of a triangular array of three bubbles, with the central bubble being significantly smaller than the outer bubbles. It is demonstrated that, through shielding of bubbles until later in the collapse process, pressures over five times higher than the maximum pressure observed in the single bubble case may be achieved. This corresponds to a peak pressure that is approximately 40 times more intense than the incident shock wave. This work has applications in a number of different fields, including cavitation erosion, explosives, targeted drug delivery/intensification, and shock wave lithotripsy.

  20. Bubble–bubble interaction effects on dynamics of multiple bubbles in a vortical flow field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bubble–bubble interactions play important roles in the dynamic behaviours of multiple bubbles or bubble clouds in a vortical flow field. Based on the Rayleigh–Plesset equation and the modified Maxey–Riley equation of a single bubble, bubble–bubble interaction terms are derived and introduced for multiple bubbles. Thus, both the Rayleigh–Plesset and modified Maxey–Riley equations are improved by considering bubble–bubble interactions and then applied for the multiple bubbles entrainment into a stationary Gaussian vortex. Runge–Kutta fourth-order scheme is adopted to solve the coupled dynamic and kinematic equations and the convergence study has been conducted. Numerical result has also been compared and validated with the published experimental data. On this basis, the oscillation, trajectory and effects of different parameters of double-bubble and multi-bubble entrainment into Gaussian vortex have been studied and the results have been compared with those of the cases without bubble–bubble interactions. It indicates that bubble–bubble interactions influence the amplitudes and periods of bubble oscillations severely, but have small effects on bubble trajectories.

  1. Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.

  2. Engineering patterns of wrinkles and bubbles in supported graphene through modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Graphene deposited on a substrate often exhibits out-of-plane deformations with different features and origins. Networks of localized wrinkles have been observed in graphene synthesized through CVD, as a result of compressive stresses transmitted by the substrate. Graphene blisters have been reported with various sizes and shapes, and have been shown to be caused by gas trapped between graphene and substrate. Such wrinkles or bubbles locally modify the electronic properties and are often seen...

  3. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  4. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  5. Effect of grain morphology on gas bubble swelling in UMo fuels – A 3D microstructure dependent Booth model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Burkes, Douglas; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet

    2016-11-01

    A three dimensional microstructure dependent swelling model is developed for studying the fission gas swelling kinetics in irradiated nuclear fuels. The model is extended from the Booth model [1] in order to investigate the effect of heterogeneous microstructures on gas bubble swelling kinetics. As an application of the model, the effect of grain morphology, fission gas diffusivity, and spatial dependent fission rate on swelling kinetics are simulated in UMo fuels. It is found that the decrease of grain size, the increase of grain aspect ratio for the grain having the same volume, and the increase of fission gas diffusivity (fission rate) cause the increase of swelling kinetics. Other heterogeneities such as second phases and spatial dependent thermodynamic properties including diffusivity of fission gas, sink and source strength of defects could be naturally integrated into the model to enhance the model capability.

  6. Tuning bubbly structures in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Sharon M; Anna, Shelley L

    2012-06-01

    Foams have many useful applications that arise from the structure and size distribution of the bubbles within them. Microfluidics allows for the rapid formation of uniform bubbles, where bubble size and volume fraction are functions of the input gas pressure, liquid flow rate, and device geometry. After formation, the microchannel confines the bubbles and determines the resulting foam structure. Bubbly structures can vary from a single row ("dripping"), to multiple rows ("alternating"), to densely packed bubbles ("bamboo" and dry foams). We show that each configuration arises in a distinct region of the operating space defined by bubble volume and volume fraction. We describe the boundaries between these regions using geometric arguments and show that the boundaries are functions of the channel aspect ratio. We compare these geometric arguments with foam structures observed in experiments using flow-focusing, T-junction, and co-flow designs to generate stable nitrogen bubbles in aqueous surfactant solution and stable droplets in oil containing dissolved surfactant. The outcome of this work is a set of design parameters that can be used to achieve desired foam structures as a function of device geometry and experimental control parameters.

  7. Blowing bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    1999-04-01

    The article, based on a series of interviews with column flotation equipment suppliers, reviews and comments on the progress of bubble generator design. Developments mentioned include the Air/Water sparger from Cominco, the SparJet and SlamJet from CPT, the CISA sparger from Sevala CISA, Microcel flotation columns from Birtley Engineering, Flotaire column flotation cells from LMC International, and the Variable Gap Sparger from MinnovEX. 1 fig., 2 photo.

  8. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generator. Pt. 5. Experiment for detection of bubbles using the SG full sector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1997-05-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damages and to maintain structural safety in steam generators (SG) of fast breeder reactors (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers. Therefore, an active acoustic method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated in the sodium-water reactions, it being developed. In this paper, the attenuation characteristics of sound attenuated by bubbles and influence of background noise are investigated experimentally by using an SG full sector model (diameter ratio about 1/1, height ratio about 1/7) simulating the actual SG. As an experimental result, the received sound attenuation for ten seconds was more than 10 dB from air bubble injection when injected bubble of 10 l/s (equivalence water leak rate about 10 g/s). The attenuation of sound are least affected by bubble injection position of heat exchanger tube bunch department. And the time was about 25 seconds till the sound attenuation became 10 dB in case of quantity of air bubble 1 l/s (equivalent water leak rate about 1 g/s). It is clarified that the background noise hardly influenced water leak detection performance as a result of having examined influence of background noise. (author)

  9. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 4. Experimental results for detection of bubble using the SG full sector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1996-06-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damages and to maintain structural safety in steam generators (SG) of fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers. The active acoustic method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated at the sodium-water reactions, is being developed. In this paper, the attenuation characteristics of sound attenuated by bubbles are investigated experimentally by using the SG full sector model simulating the actual SG. An emitter and a receiver sensor are attached to the SG shell, and the attenuation of sounds due to passing of bubbles through the sound field is detected and measured. As a experimental result, it is clarified that the received sound attenuates immediately upon injection of bubbles, and the attenuation of sound are 2-5 dB at after 10 seconds from bubble injection of 10 l/s. The attenuation of sound are least affected by bubble injection location. (author)

  10. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  11. Calibration of PICO Bubble Chamber Dark Matter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Miaotianzi; PICO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PICO Collaboration builds bubble chambers for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. I will present the suite of calibration experiments performed to measure the sensitivity of these chambers to nuclear recoils (the expected WIMP signal) and to gamma rays (a common background to the WIMP signal). These calibrations include measurements with a 10-ml C3F8 bubble chamber at Northwestern University and with a 30-ml C3F8 bubble chamber deployed in the University of Montreal's tandem Van de Graaf facility, giving the bubble chamber response to a variety of gamma rays, broad-spectrum neutron sources, and mono-energetic low energy neutrons. I will compare our measured sensitivities to those predicted by a simple thermodynamic model and will show how the results impact our ability to detect dark matter, with a focus on light WIMP searches. Supported by DOE Grant: DE-SC0012161.

  12. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media.

  13. Computational analysis of ozonation in bubble columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones-Bolanos, E. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]|[Univ. de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia); Zhou, H.; Otten, L. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a new computational ozonation model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics along with the kinetics of ozone decay and microbial inactivation to predict the performance of ozone disinfection in fine bubble columns. The model can be represented using a mixture two-phase flow model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the water flow and using two transport equations to track the concentration profiles of ozone and microorganisms along the height of the column, respectively. The applicability of this model was then demonstrated by comparing the simulated ozone concentrations with experimental measurements obtained from a pilot scale fine bubble column. One distinct advantage of this approach is that it does not require the prerequisite assumptions such as plug flow condition, perfect mixing, tanks-in-series, uniform radial or longitudinal dispersion in predicting the performance of disinfection contactors without carrying out expensive and tedious tracer studies. (author)

  14. Bubble Generation in a Continuous Liquid Flow Under Reduced Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Salvatore Cezar

    1999-01-01

    The present work reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations. Experiments were performed aboard the DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft at NASA Glenn Research Center, using an air-water system. Three different flow tube diameters were used: 1.27, 1.9, and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of air injection nozzle to tube diameters were considered: 0.1 and 0.2. Gas and liquid volumetric flow rates were varied from 10 to 200 ml/s. It was experimentally observed that with increasing superficial liquid velocity, the bubbles generated decreased in size. The bubble diameter was shown to increase with increasing air injection nozzle diameters. As the tube diameter was increased, the size of the detached bubbles increased. Likewise, as the superficial liquid velocity was increased, the frequency of bubble formation increased and thus the time to detach forming bubbles decreased. Independent of the flow configuration (for either single nozzle or multiple nozzle gas injection), void fraction and hence flow regime transition can be controlled in a somewhat precise manner by solely varying the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. On the other hand, it is observed that uniformity of bubble size can be controlled more accurately by using single nozzle gas injection than by using multiple port injection, since this latter system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. A theoretical model, based on an overall force balance, is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic and bubbly flow regime. Under conditions of reduced gravity, the gas momentum flux enhances bubble detachment; however, the surface tension forces at the nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. Liquid drag and inertia can act either as attaching or detaching force, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with performed

  15. Wetting of soap bubbles on hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Wetting of sessile bubbles on solid and liquid surfaces has been studied. A model is presented for the contact angle of a sessile bubble based on a modified Young equation - the experimental results agree with the model. A hydrophilic surface results in a bubble contact angle of 90 deg whereas on a superhydrophobic surface one observes 134 deg. For hydrophilic surfaces, the bubble angle diminishes with bubble radius - whereas on a superhydrophobic surface, the bubble angle increases. The size of the Plateau borders governs the bubble contact angle - depending on the wetting of the surface.

  16. Three phase Eulerian-granular model applied on numerical simulation of non-conventional liquid fuels combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-dimensional CFD model of liquid fuel combustion in bubbling fluidized bed. The numerical procedure is based on the two-fluid Euler-Euler approach, where the velocity field of the gas and particles are modeled in analogy to the kinetic gas theory. The model is taking into account also the third - liquid phase, as well as its interaction with the solid and gas phase. The proposed numerical model comprise energy equations for all three phases, as well as the transport equations of chemical components with source terms originated from the component conversion. In the frame of the proposed model, user sub-models were developed for heterogenic fluidized bed combustion of liquid fuels, with or without water. The results of the calculation were compared with experiments on a pilot-facility (power up to 100 kW, combusting, among other fuels, oil. The temperature profiles along the combustion chamber were compared for the two basic cases: combustion with or without water. On the basis of numerical experiments, influence of the fluid-dynamic characteristics of the fluidized bed on the combustion efficiency was analyzed, as well as the influence of the fuel characteristics (reactivity, water content on the intensive combustion zone. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33042: Improvement of the industrial fluidized bed facility, in scope of technology for energy efficient and environmentally feasible combustion of various waste materials in fluidized bed

  17. A physically based framework for modeling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely sensed chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC, a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semilabile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecules. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll a and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  18. Experiments on turbulent diffusion of the gaseous phase in rectangular bubble column using image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Zaruba; Eckhard Krepper; Horst-Michael Prasser [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., P.O.Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the application of high-speed video observation combined with digital image processing techniques to measure the turbulent diffusion coefficient of the gaseous phase in a bubble column. The test channel is a rectangular bubble column with a cross-section of 100 x 20 mm and a height of 1500 mm. Sequences of the images were taken at different heights of the column with a high-speed video system. A diffuse illumination from the backside of the column was found to produce bubble images with a characteristic bright spot in the center. This bright spot was used for a bubble tracking that tolerates some overlapping of the bubbles. This allows to enhance the applicability of the bubble tracking to higher gas fractions compared to the tracking of the entire bubble shadows. After the bubble trajectories were extracted from the image sequence, the lateral displacement of bubbles between two virtual horizontal measuring planes was calculated for each bubble that crosses both planes. This lateral displacement is caused by the turbulent fluctuations of the bubble velocity. It is analyzed statistically by constructing probability density functions of the lateral displacement, which can be well described by Gaussian standard distributions. The dispersion coefficient of the standard distributions that were fitted to the experimental data shows a linear dependency from the square-root of the vertical distance between the two control planes, which supports the assumption of a diffusion model for the lateral displacement. Deviations from the linear dependency were identified to be the result of deterministic oscillatory motions of the rising bubbles. This effect is typical for low-viscosity liquids, while the bubble oscillations are damped at higher viscosities. Results are presented for different gas flow rates (superficial gas velocity ranged from 0.5 to 4 mm/s), different primary bubble sizes produced by a variation of the

  19. Reconstruction of elongated bubbles fusing the information from multiple optical probes through a Bayesian inference technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhankar; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha; Das, Prasanta Kr

    2016-07-01

    In this communication, a novel optical technique has been proposed for the reconstruction of the shape of a Taylor bubble using measurements from multiple arrays of optical sensors. The deviation of an optical beam passing through the bubble depends on the contour of bubble surface. A theoretical model of the deviation of a beam during the traverse of a Taylor bubble through it has been developed. Using this model and the time history of the deviation captured by the sensor array, the bubble shape has been reconstructed. The reconstruction has been performed using an inverse algorithm based on Bayesian inference technique and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. The reconstructed nose shape has been compared with the true shape, extracted through image processing of high speed images. Finally, an error analysis has been performed to pinpoint the sources of the errors.

  20. Thermal Phase in Bubbling Geometries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    We use matrix model to study thermal phase in bubbling half-BPS type IIB geometries with SO(4)×SO(4) symmetry.Near the horizon limit,we find that thermal vacua of bubbling geometries have disjoint parts,and each part is one kind of phase of the thermal system.We connect the thermal dynamics of bubbling geometries with one-dimensional fermions thermal system.Finally,we try to give a new possible way to resolve information loss puzzle.

  1. Bubble Dynamics and Resulting Noise from Traveling Bubble Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-13

    has resulted in models which aqree well with bubble dynamics recorded by high speed film . Chahine, et. al. (23) incorporated asymmetric bubble...recording on the tape soundtrack . 3.8 Measurement of Gas Nuclei in Water The role of nuclei density and size in cavitation inception has been the subject...interference between the coherent background and the particle-diffracted radiation exooses photographic film in the far-field of the nuclei. This

  2. High-Frequency Fiber-Optic Ultrasonic Sensor Using Air Micro-Bubble for Imaging of Seismic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Gang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A micro-fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models. The device consists of a micro-bubble followed by the end of a single-mode fiber (SMF. The micro-structure is formed by the discharging operation on a short segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF that is spliced to the SMF. This micro FPI is sensitive to ultrasonic waves (UWs, especially to the high-frequency (up to 10 MHz UW, thanks to its ultra-thin cavity wall and micro-diameter. A side-band filter technology is employed for the UW interrogation, and then the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR UW signal is achieved. Eventually the sensor is used for lateral imaging of the physical model by scanning UW detection and two-dimensional signal reconstruction.

  3. V&V Of CFD Modeling Of The Argonne Bubble Experiment: FY15 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, Nathaniel C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Basavarajappa, Manjunath [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In support of the development of accelerator-driven production of the fission product Mo 99, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of an electron-beam irradiated, experimental-scale bubble chamber have been conducted in order to aid in interpretation of existing experimental results, provide additional insights into the physical phenomena, and develop predictive thermal hydraulic capabilities that can be applied to full-scale target solution vessels. Toward that end, a custom hybrid Eulerian-Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase solver was developed, and simulations have been performed on high-resolution meshes. Good agreement between experiments and simulations has been achieved, especially with respect to the prediction of the maximum temperature of the uranyl sulfate solution in the experimental vessel. These positive results suggest that the simulation methodology that has been developed will prove to be suitable to assist in the development of full-scale production hardware.

  4. Modeling of mass transfer characteristics of bubble column reactor with surfactant present

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟荣; 史惠祥; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    Danckwert's method was used to determine the specific interfacial area, a, and the individual mass transfer coefficient, kL, during absorption of CO2 in a bubble column with an anionic surfactant in the carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution and NaAsO2 as catalyst, the presence of which decreases the specific interfacial area and the individual mass transfer coefficient. The specific interfacial area and the individual mass transfer coefficient increase with increasing superficial gas velocity. The specific interfacial area decreases whereas the individual mass transfer coefficient increases with increasing temperature. The results of experiments were used to determine the dependence of a, kL, and kLa on the surface tension, the temperature of the absorption phase, and the superficial velocity of the gas. The calculated results from the correlation were found to be within 10% deviation from the actual experimental results.

  5. Modeling of mass transfer characteristics of bubble column reactor with surfactant present

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟荣; 史惠祥; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    Danckwert's method was used to determine the specific interfacial area, a, and the individual mass transfer coefficient, κL, during absorption of CO2 in a bubble column with an anionic surfactant in the carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution and NaAsO2 as catalyst, the presence of which decreases the specific interracial area and the individual mass transfer coefficient. The specific interfacial area and the individual mass transfer coefficient increase with increasing superficial gas velocity. The specific interfacial area decreases whereas the individual mass transfer coefficient increases with increasing temperature. The results of experiments were used to determine the dependence of a, κL, and κLa on the surface tension, the temperature of the absorption phase, and the superficial velocity of the gas. The calculated results from the correlation were found to be within 10% deviation from the actual experimental results.

  6. Thermodynamic property of gases in the sonoluminescing bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yu; LI Guiqin; ZHOU Tieying

    2001-01-01

    With the theory of statistical physics dealing with chemical reaction (the law of mass action), the different thermodynamic property of noble gases (mono-atomic gases) in a small bubble and diatomic gases in a small bubble semi-quantitatively are analyzed. As bubbles of the mono-atomic and the diatomic gases are compressed, shock waves are produced in both bubbles. Though shock wave leads to sharp increase of pressure and temperature of gases in the bubble, diatomic gas will excitated vibrations and dissociate themselves to mono-atomic gas,these processes will consume many accumulated heat energy and block the further increase of the temperature. Therefore, compare with the mono-atomic gases in the bubble, there will be no enough charged particles ionized to flash for diatomic gases in the bubble, this may be the reason why a bubble of diatomic gases has no single bubble sonoluminescence while a bubble of noble gases has.

  7. Shock propagation in polydisperse bubbly flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Keita; Colonius, Tim; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of distributed bubble size on shock propagation in homogeneous bubbly liquids is computed using a continuum two-phase model. An ensemble-averaging technique is employed to derive the statistically averaged equations and a finite-volume method is used to solve the model equations. The bubble dynamics are incorporated using a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation which includes the effects of heat transfer, liquid viscosity and compressibility. For the case of monodispe...

  8. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    2016-01-01

    While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable. Howe...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....

  9. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  10. A THEORETICAL-MODEL FOR THE INFLUENCE OF GAS PROPERTIES AND PRESSURE ON SINGLE-BUBBLE FORMATION AT AN ORIFICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKINSON, PM; VANDIERENDONCK, LL

    1994-01-01

    A number of authors have on the basis of experiments determined that pressure and gas density can have an influence on bubble formation size. Usually this influence is attributed to the gas momentum force, generated by gas flowing into the bubble during its formation. In this article the theoretical

  11. Suppression of cavitation inception by gas bubble injection: a numerical study focusing on bubble-bubble interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Masato; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2007-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of cavitation and gas bubbles under negative pressure has been studied numerically to evaluate the effect of gas bubble injection into a liquid on the suppression of cavitation inception. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated by direct observation that cavitation occurs in liquid mercury when mechanical impacts are imposed, and this will cause cavitation damage in spallation neutron sources, in which liquid mercury is bombarded by a high-power proton beam. In the present paper, we describe numerical investigations of the dynamics of cavitation bubbles in liquid mercury using a multibubble model that takes into account the interaction of a cavitation bubble with preexisting gas bubbles through bubble-radiated pressure waves. The numerical results suggest that, if the mercury includes gas bubbles whose equilibrium radius is much larger than that of the cavitation bubble, the explosive expansion of the cavitation bubble (i.e., cavitation inception) is suppressed by the positive-pressure wave radiated by the injected bubbles, which decreases the magnitude of the negative pressure in the mercury.

  12. Vapor-Gas Bubble Evolution and Growth in Extremely Viscous Fluids Under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, John; Balasubramaniam, R.; Nahra, Henry; Agui, Juan; Truong, Duc

    2008-01-01

    Formation of vapor and gas bubbles and voids is normal and expected in flow processes involving extremely viscous fluids in normal gravity. Practical examples of extremely viscous fluids are epoxy-like filler materials before the epoxy fluids cure to their permanent form to create a mechanical bond between two substrates. When these fluids flow with a free liquid interface exposed to vacuum, rapid bubble expansion process may ensue. Bubble expansion might compromise the mechanical bond strength. The potential sources for the origin of the gases might be incomplete out-gassing process prior to filler application; regasification due to seal leakage in the filler applicator; and/or volatiles evolved from cure reaction products formed in the hardening process. We embarked on a study that involved conducting laboratory experiments with imaging diagnostics in order to deduce the seriousness of bubbling caused by entrained air and volatile fluids under space vacuum and low gravity environment. We used clear fluids with the similar physical properties as the epoxy-like filler material to mimic the dynamics of bubbles. Another aspect of the present study was to determine the likelihood of bubbling resulting from dissolved gases nucleating from solution. These experimental studies of the bubble expansion are compared with predictions using a modified Rayleigh- Plesset equation, which models the bubble expansion.

  13. Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From bubble bursting to droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séon, T.; Liger-Belair, G.

    2017-01-01

    When a bubble reaches an air-liquid interface, it ruptures, projecting a multitude of tiny droplets in the air. Across the oceans, an estimated 1018 to 1020 bubbles burst every second, and form the so called sea spray, a major player in earth's climate system. At a smaller scale, in a glass of champagne about a million bubbles nucleate on the wall, rise towards the surface and burst, giving birth to a particular aerosol that holds a concentrate of wine aromas. Based on the model experiment of a single bubble bursting in simple liquids, we depict each step of this effervescence, from bubble bursting to drop evaporation. In particular, we propose simple scaling laws for the jet velocity and the top drop size. We unravel experimentally the intricate roles of bubble shape, capillary waves, gravity, and liquid properties in the jet dynamics and the drop detachment. We demonstrate how damping action of viscosity produces faster and smaller droplets and more generally how liquid properties enable to control the bubble bursting aerosol characteristics. In this context, the particular case of Champagne wine aerosol is studied in details and the key features of this aerosol are identified. We demonstrate that compared to a still wine, champagne fizz drastically enhances the transfer of liquid into the atmosphere. Conditions on bubble radius and wine viscosity that optimize aerosol evaporation are provided. These results pave the way towards the fine tuning of aerosol characteristics and flavor release during sparkling wine tasting, a major issue of the sparkling wine industry.

  14. 球状泡群内气泡的耦合振动∗%Coupled oscillation of bubbles in a spherical bubble cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成会; 莫润阳; 胡静; 陈时

    2015-01-01

    The pressure wave emitted by a pulsating bubble affects the motions of other bubbles, so in an acoustic field bubbles are in a state of coupled oscillation. In this paper, a cluster with cavitation bubbles inside is considered, and a mathematical model is developed to describe the dynamics of the bubbles of the same radius inside a spherical cluster when the effects of coupled oscillation are included. Based on this new model, the nonlinear acoustic response of cavitation bubbles is analyzed numerically. Comparison of our model with those in the literature, shows that bubbles are suppressed heavily. Because of the coupled oscillations of bubbles, the motions of a bubble are affected by more constraints in the system, which cause the decrease of natural frequency of the bubbles. The nonlinear acoustical response of bubbles is improved by the coupled oscillation in a bubble cluster. With the rise in number density of the cluster, the suppression of bubble oscillation is enhanced. For a cluster of 1 mm radius, when the bubble number is below 500, the change of bubble number may cause a sharp decrease of maximum radial displacement of the bubbles. In cavitation region, there are bubble clusters and large-sized bubble, and the moving large bubble can absorb small bubbles from the surface of bubble cluster, so the bubble numbers inside a cluster varies with time, which may change the acoustic response of coupled oscillating bubbles. The increase of the liquid static pressure can suppress the oscillation of bubbles too, and there is a sensitive region (1–2 atm) that affects remarkably the acoustical response of bubbles. Driving ultrasound can affect the motion of bubble greatly. The range of cavitation bubble size is narrowed when the wave frequency increases. The bubbles whose initial radii are close to 5 µm are easy to be activated by ultrasound under given acoustic conditions, i.e. sizes of bubble cluster, surrounding liquid and inner gas. The cluster oscillation of

  15. Bubble chambers in high energy hadron collisions (and vice versa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, W. (Dept. Exp. High Energy Physics, Univ. of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1994-07-01

    The contribution of bubble chambers to the field of high energy hadron collisions during the last 20 years is reviewed and results are compared to those from other types of collisions and to expectations from models based on the quark-parton content of the respective hadrons. ((orig.))

  16. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  17. A physically-based framework for modelling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC, a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecules. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll a and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  18. Comparing the Discrete and Continuous Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    The solutions of the discrete logistic growth model based on a difference equation and the continuous logistic growth model based on a differential equation are compared and contrasted. The investigation is conducted using a dynamic interactive spreadsheet. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Probing nuclear bubble structure via neutron star asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We consider torsional oscillations that are trapped in a layer of spherical-hole (bubble) nuclear structure, which is expected to occur in the deepest region of the inner crust of a neutron star. Because this layer intervenes between the phase of slab nuclei and the outer core of uniform nuclear matter, torsional oscillations in the bubble phase can be excited separately from usual crustal torsional oscillations. We find from eigenmode analyses for various models of the equation of state of uniform nuclear matter that the fundamental frequencies of such oscillations are almost independent of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, but strongly depend on the slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy L. Although the frequencies are also sensitive to the entrainment effect, i.e., what portion of nucleons outside bubbles contribute to the oscillations, by having such a portion fixed, we can successfully fit the calculated fundamental frequencies of torsional oscillations in the bubble phase inside a star of specific mass and radius as a function of L. By comparing the resultant fitting formula to the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed from the soft-gamma repeaters, we find that each of the observed low-frequency QPOs can be identified either as a torsional oscillation in the bubble phase or as a usual crustal oscillation, given generally accepted values of L for all the stellar models considered here.

  20. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  1. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  2. Growth and collapse of laser-induced bubbles in glycerol-water mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiu-Mei; He Jie; Lu Jian; Ni Xiao-Wu

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive numerical and experimental analyses of the effect of viscosity on cavitation oscillations are performed. This numerical approach is based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained by using a fibre-optic diagnostic technique based on optical beam deflection (OBD). The maximum and minimum bubble radii as well as the oscillation times for each oscillation cycle are determined according to the characteristic signals. It is observed that the increasing of viscosity decreases the maximum bubble radii but increases the minimum bubble radii and the oscillation time. These experimental results are consistent with numerical results.

  3. Comparative dynamics in a health investment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenring, C

    1999-10-01

    The method of comparative dynamics fully exploits the inter-temporal structure of optimal control models. I derive comparative dynamic results in a simplified demand for health model. The effect of a change in the depreciation rate on the optimal paths for health capital and investment in health is studied by use of a phase diagram.

  4. Modelling and Simulation of Bubble Growth Dynamicsin Vacuum Jet%真空射流闪蒸特性的气泡动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 周晨初; 徐云飞; 洪流

    2016-01-01

    针对液体射流的真空闪蒸特性,建立气泡动力学模型分析了射流内部的气泡生长特性,并提出用无量纲数Ch描述真空射流中的气泡生长条件.通过数值仿真方法模拟了气泡在真空射流中的生长过程,研究了气泡初始半径、液体粘度、射流温度和射流半径等参数对气泡生长的影响.在真空环境中开展了不同液体工质的真空喷射试验,试验结果与Ch数预测结果吻合良好;开展水射流的闪蒸试验,获得了破碎距离的变化规律,并与计算结果进行了对比分析.%The growth of the bubble,inside a liquid jet in vacuum environment,was empirically approximated,mathemtically modeled,theoretically analyzed in fluid dynamics,and experimentally evaluated.The impact of the growth conditions,including but not limited to the the initial bubble radius,liquid viscosity,temperature,saturated vapor pressure,surface tension and jet-radius,on the buble-growth was investigated.In the simulation,the dimensionless bubble-formation critirion,Ch,was defined in terms of the surface tension,saturated vapor pressure and jetradius.The calculated results show that Ch significandy affects the bubble growth and jet' s flashing breakup.For example,the bubble grows only when Ch > 1,easily resulting in a flashing breakup of the jet because the bubble initial radius is smaller than jet radius.The vacuum ejection with different liquids,water in particular,was performed.The predicted and measured Chs were in good agreement.More realistic model is needed to fully understand the bubble growth.

  5. Loss Given Default Modelling: Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated several most popular Loss Given Default (LGD) models (LSM, Tobit, Three-Tiered Tobit, Beta Regression, Inflated Beta Regression, Censored Gamma Regression) in order to compare their performance. We show that for a given input data set, the quality of the model calibration depends mainly on the proper choice (and availability) of explanatory variables (model factors), but not on the fitting model. Model factors were chosen based on the amplitude of their correlati...

  6. Local interfacial area concentration measurement in bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S. T.

    1990-10-01

    The interfacial area concentration is one of the most important parameters in a thermal-hydraulic analysis of two-phase flow systems based on the two-fluid model. A theoretical foundation of the measurement method for the time averaged local interfacial area using a double sensor probe is presented. Based on this theory, the double sensor resistivity probe was employed for the measurement of local properties of two-phase flow such as the interfacial velocity, local interfacial area concentration and void fraction in vertical air-water bubbly flow. Experimental data are presented on the radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, bubble chord length and interfacial area concentration at various gas flow rates. In addition to these, some statistical information on turbulent motions of bubbles are presented. Each of the double sensors are checked against the global void measurement using a differential pressure. The result is very satisfactory. Furthermore, the area averaged void fraction, and the interfacial area concentration obtained from the double sensor probe measurement compared very well with the photographic measurements. The results show that the double sensor probe method is accurate and reliable for the local measurements of interfacial area and void fraction in bubbly two-phase flow. Results of the measurement of interfacial area concentration with the double sensor probe in forced flow loop are presented for bubbly flow at different liquid flow rates. The data indicate that the radial profiles of the interfacial area concentration show similar dependence on the liquid and gas flow rate like radial profiles of void fraction in the bubbly flow regime.

  7. Simulation of bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling Lagrangian and Eulerian models with 3D random walks models: Validation with experimental data using multi-sensor conductivity probes and Laser Doppler Anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Cobo, Jose L., E-mail: jlcobos@iqn.upv.es [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Chiva, Sergio [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Essa, Mohamed Ali Abd El Aziz [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Mendes, Santos [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have simulated bubbly flow in vertical pipes by coupling a Lagrangian model to an Eulerian one, and to a 3D random walk model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A set of experiments in a vertical column with isothermal co-current two phase flow have been performed and used to validate the previous model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the influence of the turbulence induced by the bubbles on the results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of experimental and computed results has been performed for different boundary conditions. - Abstract: A set of two phase flow experiments for different conditions ranging from bubbly flow to cap/slug flow have been performed under isothermal concurrent upward air-water flow conditions in a vertical column of 3 m height. Special attention in these experiments was devoted to the transition from bubbly to cap/slug flow. The interfacial velocity of the bubbles and the void fraction distribution was obtained using 2 and 4 sensors conductivity probes. Numerical simulations of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions were performed by coupling a Lagrangian code with an Eulerian one. The first one tracks the 3D motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates (r, {phi}, z) inside the fluid field under the action of the following forces: buoyancy, drag, lift, wall lubrication. Also we have incorporated a 3D stochastic differential equation model to account for the random motion of the individual bubbles in the turbulent velocity field of the carrier liquid. Also we have considered the deformations undergone by the bubbles when they touch the walls of the pipe and are compressed until they rebound. The velocity and turbulence fields of the liquid phase were computed by solving the time dependent conservation equations in its Reynolds Averaged Transport Equation form (RANS). The turbulent kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate {epsilon} transport equations

  8. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  9. Bubble-bubble interaction: A potential source of cavitation noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between microbubbles through pressure pulses has been studied to show that it can be a source of cavitation noise. A recent report demonstrated that the acoustic noise generated by a shrimp originates from the collapse of a cavitation bubble produced when the shrimp closes its snapper claw. The recorded acoustic signal contains a broadband noise that consists of positive and negative pulses, but a theoretical model for single bubbles fails to reproduce the negative ones. Using a nonlinear multibubble model we have shown here that the negative pulses can be explained by considering the interaction of microbubbles formed after the cavitation bubble has collapsed and fragmented: Positive pulses produced at the collapse of the microbubbles hit and impulsively compress neighboring microbubbles to generate reflected pulses whose amplitudes are negative. Discussing the details of the noise generation process, we have found that no negative pulses are generated if the internal pressure of the reflecti...

  10. X-ray Reflection from Inhomogeneous Accretion Disks: I. Toy Models and Photon Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R; Blaes, Omer M

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interiors of radiation dominated accretion disks show that significant density inhomogeneities can be generated in the gas. Here, we present the first results of our study on X-ray reflection spectra from such heterogeneous density structures. We consider two cases: first, we produce a number of toy models where a sharp increase or decrease in density of variable width is placed at different depths in a uniform slab. Comparing the resulting reflection spectra to those from an unaltered slab shows that the inhomogeneity can affect the emission features, in particular the Fe K and O VIII Lyalpha lines. The magnitude of any differences depends on both the parameters of the density change and the ionizing power of the illuminating radiation, but the inhomogeneity is required to be within ~2 Thomson depths of the surface to cause an effect. However, only relatively small variations in density (on the order of a few) are necessary for significant changes in the reflection features to be...

  11. A Comparative of business process modelling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.

  12. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  13. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Fifth technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this work is to convert our `learning gas-solid-liquid` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid, and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values.

  14. Bubbly vertex dynamics: a dynamical and geometrical model for epithelial tissues with curved cell shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimoto, Yukitaka

    2014-01-01

    In order to describe two-dimensionally packed cells in epithelial tissues both mathematically and physically, there have been developed several sorts of geometrical models, such as the vertex model, the finite element model, the cell-centered model, the cellular Potts model. So far, in any case, pressures have not neatly been dealt with and curvatures of the cell boundaries have been even omitted through their approximations. We focus on these quantities and formulate them on the vertex model. Thus, a model with the curvatures is constructed and its algorithm is given for simulation. Its possible extensions and applications will also be discussed.

  15. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  16. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-19

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  17. Major models used in comparative management

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Constantin Dima; Codruta Dura

    2001-01-01

    Comparative management literature emphasizes the following models: Farmer-Richman Model (based on the assumption that environment represents the main factor whom influence upon management is decisive); Rosalie Tung Model (using the following variables:environment,or extra-organisational variables, intra-organisational variables, personal and result variables); Child Model (including the three determinative domains-contingency, culture and economic system-threated as items objectively connecte...

  18. Simulations of Bubble Motion in an Oscillating Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynik, A. M.; Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    Finite-element simulations are used to investigate the motion of a gas bubble in a liquid undergoing vertical vibration. The effect of bubble compressibility is studied by comparing "compressible" bubbles that obey the ideal gas law with "incompressible" bubbles that are taken to have constant volume. Compressible bubbles exhibit a net downward motion away from the free surface that does not exist for incompressible bubbles. Net (rectified) velocities are extracted from the simulations and compared with theoretical predictions. The dependence of the rectified velocity on ambient gas pressure, bubble diameter, and bubble depth are in agreement with the theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...

  20. Characterization and modeling of bubbles size distribution in mechanical flotation cells; Caracterizacion y modelacion de las distribuciones de tamano de burbujas en celdas de flotacion con agitacion mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallebuona, G.; Casali, A.; Kracht, W.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, bubble size distribution is determined for tests in a batch flotation cells, for different impeller speed and air flowrate. Bubbles are sampled and their sizes are measured using image analysis. Size distributions by surface are expressed as cumulative percent passing as well as percent retained. The distributions show a common shape for all tests and are represented with a unique model, selected due to its goodness of fit. This model corresponds to an equation used in heavy media separation and considers two parameters: x{sub 5}0, the 50% passing size, and 1, an adjustable parameter. The correlation coefficient for all tests averages 0.999 for the cumulative distributions and 0.912 for the retained distributions. (Author) 15 refs.

  1. A Model of the Bubble Break-up in a Turbulent Flow; Modelizacion de la rotura de una Burbuja en un Flujo Turbulento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayod, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.; Martinez Bazan, C.

    2005-07-01

    In this report, a simplified model of the break-up of an air bubble in a turbulent water flow is proposed and analyzed numerically. According to Hinze's theory, and our experimental observations, the external flow field is assumed asymmetric and irrotational for away from the bubble. furthermore the turbulent flow-field is modelled by an asymmetric hyperbolic flow-field and the evolution of the air-water interface is calculated by the levels-set method for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical weber numbers and different Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the break-up times are obtained for super-critical Weber and Reynolds numbers allows the comparison of the numeric with our experimental results. Other possible break-up mechanisms for subcritical Weber number, i. e. the break-up by resonance, are also considered. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Calibrating optical bubble size by the displaced-mass method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.; Cohen, L.H.

    2003-01-01

    Bubble sizing by optical means is very common, but requires calibration by non-optical means. This is particularly important since apparent bubble size increases with decreasing threshold intensity. A calibration experiment was conducted comparing the displaced water mass from captured bubbles with

  3. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Fourth technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas-solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. The simulation of Air Product methanol reactors described in this paper are continuing. Granular temperatures and viscosities have been computed. Preliminary measurements of granular temperatures using the Air Product catalysts were obtained using our CCD camera.

  4. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  5. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  6. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  7. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of a bubble excited by an ultrasonic chirp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Euan; Mulholland, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    The fractional Fourier transform is proposed here as a model based, signal processing technique for determining the size of a bubble in a fluid. The bubble is insonified with an ultrasonic chirp and the radiated pressure field is recorded. This experimental bubble response is then compared with a series of theoretical model responses to identify the most accurate match between experiment and theory which allows the correct bubble size to be identified. The fractional Fourier transform is used to produce a more detailed description of each response, and two-dimensional cross correlation is then employed to identify the similarities between the experimental response and each theoretical response. In this paper the experimental bubble response is simulated by adding various levels of noise to the theoretical model output. The method is compared to the standard technique of using time-domain cross correlation. The proposed method is shown to be far more robust at correctly sizing the bubble and can cope with much lower signal to noise ratios.

  8. Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.

    2016-09-01

    The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong ["Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube," Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221-228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.

  9. Wall-induced path variation of a large deformable rising bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeong, Hyeonju

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the wall-induced path variation of a large deformable bubble (Re ~ O (103)) rising near a vertical wall in quiescent water. To change the wall effect, we consider different wall materials (acrylic, PTFE and sponge) and vary the initial distance between the bubble and the wall. Depending on the conditions, various motions like a periodic bouncing, sliding, migrating away, and non-periodic oscillation without collisions are captured. Analysis on the energy balance shows that, contrary to a low- Re bubble, the surface deformation plays a great role in bubble's rising behaviour. Especially, across the bubble-wall collision, the excessive surface energy compensates the deficit of kinetic energy, which enables the bubble to maintain a constant bouncing kinematics, despite the wall effect. The wall effect, appearing as a energy loss, decreases as the distance to the wall increases. Compared to the no-slip surface, the hydrophobic surface enhances or reduces the wall effect with the wall distance, whereas the porous surface reduces the energy loss due to the wall. The dependence of near-wall bubble motion on a wall configuration may give us an idea about how to predict or model the near-wall gas void-fraction. Supported by the NRF Programs (NRF-2012M2A8A4055647, NRF-2013R1A1A1008373) of Korean government.

  10. Effects of heterogeneous structure and diffusion permeability of body tissues on decompression gas bubble dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V P

    2000-07-01

    To gain insight into the special nature of gas bubbles that may form in astronauts, aviators and divers, we developed a mathematical model which describes the following: 1) the dynamics of extravascular bubbles formed in intercellular cavities of a hypothetical tissue undergoing decompression; and 2) the dynamics of nitrogen tension in a thin layer of intercellular fluid and in a thick layer of cells surrounding the bubbles. This model is based on the assumption that, due to limited cellular membrane permeability for gas, a value of effective nitrogen diffusivity in the massive layer of cells in the radial direction is essentially lower compared to conventionally accepted values of nitrogen diffusivity in water and body tissues. Due to rather high nitrogen diffusivity in intercellular fluid, a bubble formed just at completion of fast one-stage reduction of ambient pressure almost instantly grows to the size determined by the initial volume of the intercellular cavity, surface tension of the fluid, the initial nitrogen tension in the tissue, and the level of final pressure. The rate of further bubble growth and maximum bubble size depend on comparatively low effective nitrogen diffusivity in the cell layer, the tissue perfusion rate, the initial nitrogen tension in the tissue, and the final ambient pressure. The tissue deformation pressure performs its conservative action on bubble dynamics only in a limited volume of tissue (at a high density of formed bubbles). Our model is completely consistent with the available data concerning the random latency times to the onset of decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms associated with hypobaric decompressions simulating extravehicular activity. We believe that this model could be used as a theoretical basis for development of more adequate methods for the DCS risk prediction.

  11. Energy concentration and positional stability of sonoluminescent bubbles in sulfuric acid for different static pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Juan Manuel; Dellavale, Damián; Bonetto, Fabián José

    2013-09-01

    In this study we report several experimental and numerical results on the influence of static pressure (P_{0}) over the main parameters in single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), using a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA) with low concentrations of argon gas dissolved. Bifrequency driving was used in the experiments to enhance spatial stability of the bubbles. The experimental results were compared with simulations provided by a numerical code that models the radial dynamics of the bubbles. The results showed that an increase on the static pressure of the system shifts the Bjerknes instability threshold, allowing the bubble to access higher acoustic pressures (P_{Ac}^{}). Furthermore, a decrease in the measured ambient radius R_{0} and the calculated relative gas concentration c_{∞}/c_{0} were observed. A notorious increment in the bubble collapse violence and energy focusing for P_{0} above 1 bar was achieved. These were mainly indicated by the growth of the bubble expansion ratio (R_{max}/R_{0}), the bubble mechanical energy density, and the maximum bubble wall velocity dR/dt. In agreement with the previous statement, the maximum temperature during the bubble collapse predicted by the model is augmented as well. The use of different harmonics in the ultrasound pressure field regarding energy focusing is also discussed. Finally, we analyzed the stability regions of the R_{0}-P_{Ac}^{} parameter space via numerical predictions for P_{0} above the measured, identifying the shape instabilities as the main limiting agent to obtain further energy concentration in SA systems at high static pressures.

  12. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A

    2014-04-18

    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.

  13. On the fate of vacuum bubbles on matter backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rakic, Aleksandar; Adamek, Julian; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2009-01-01

    In this letter we discuss cosmological first order phase transitions with de Sitter bubbles nucleating on (inhomogeneous) matter backgrounds. The de Sitter bubble can be a toy model for an inflationary phase of universes like our own. Using the thin wall approximation and the Israel junction method we trace the classical evolution of the formed bubbles within a compound model. We first address homogeneous ambient space (FRW model) and already find that bubbles nucleated in a dust dominated background cannot expand. For an inhomogeneous dust background (LTB model) we describe cases with at least initially expanding bubbles. Yet, an ensuing passage of the bubble wall through ambient curvature inhomogeneities remains unnoticed for observers inside the bubble. Notable effects also for interior observers are found in the case of a rapid background phase transition in a FRW model.

  14. Two-dimensional investigation of forced bubble oscillation under microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Ruoyu; Masahiro KAWAJI

    2003-01-01

    Recent referential studies of fluid interfaces subjected to small vibration under microgravity conditions are reviewed. An experimental investigation was carried out aboard the American Space Shuttle Discovery. Two-dimensional (2-D) modeling and simulation were conducted to further understand the experimental results. The oscillation of a bubble in fluid under surface tension is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm was used to solve the partial differential equations on an Eulerian mesh in a 2-D coordinate. Free surfaces were represented with the volume of fluid (VOF) obtained by solving a kinematic equation. Surface tension was modeled via a continuous surface force (CSF) algorithm that ensures robustness and accuracy. A new surface reconstruction scheme, alternative phase integration (API) scheme, was adopted to solve the kinematic equation, and was compared with referential schemes. Numerical computations were conducted to simulate the transient behavior of an oscillating gas bubble in mineral oil under different conditions. The bubble positions and shapes under different external vibrations were obtained numerically. The computed bubble oscillation amplitudes were compared with experimental data.

  15. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  16. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  17. Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wiesmaier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available That rising bubbles may significantly affect magma mixing paths has already been demon strated by analogue experiments. Here, for the first time, bubble-advection experiments are performed employing volcanic melts at magmatic temperatures. Cylinders of basaltic glass were placed below cylinders of rhyolite glass. Upon melting, interstitial air formed bubbles that rose into the rhyolite melt, thereby entraining tails of basaltic liquid. The formation of plume-like filaments of advected basalt within the rhyolite was characterized by microCT and subsequent high-resolution EMP analyses. Melt entrainment by bubble ascent appears to be an efficient mechanism for mingling volcanic melts of highly contrasting compositions and properties. MicroCT imaging reveals bubbles trailing each other and multiple filaments coalescing into bigger ones. Rheological modelling of the filaments yields viscosities of up to 2 orders of magnitude lower than for the surrounding rhyolitic liquid. Such a viscosity contrast implies that bubbles rising successively are likely to follow this pathway of low resistance that previously ascending bubbles have generated. Filaments formed by multiple bubbles would thus experience episodic replenishment with mafic material. Inevitable implications for the concept of bubble advection in magma mixing include thereby both an acceleration of mixing because of decreased viscous resistance for bubbles inside filaments and non-conventional diffusion systematics because of intermittent supply of mafic material (instead of a single pulse inside a material. Inside the filaments, the mafic material was variably hybridised to andesitic through rhyolitic composition. Compositional profiles alone are ambiguous, however, to determine whether single or multiple bubbles were involved during formation of a filament. Statistical analysis, employing concentration variance as measure of homogenisation, demonstrates that also filaments appearing as single-bubble

  18. Bursting Bubbles and Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented

  19. Quasi-Analytic Model of OTHR Clutter from Equatorial Bubbles in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-27

    raytrace code developed to study OTH radar clutter is based on the theory provided by Hazelgrove [1954], Yeh and Liu [1972], Jones and Stephenson [1975... radar (OTHR) sky wave becomes Doppler shifted because the ionosphere through which the radio rays are propagating changes. One source of these changes...trace computations to yield predictions for Doppler shifts in the unstable ionosphere. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Over-the-horizon radar Computer model of the

  20. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation......While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration......, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments...

  1. Characterization of intergranular fission gas bubbles in U-Mo fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G.; Rest, J.; Shevlyakov, G. V.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SSCR RIAR

    2008-04-14

    plates were also performed and compared with the calculated quantities. Bubble density per unit grain boundary surface area was calculated by using the density per unit grain boundary length data. These data were used as input for mechanistic modeling described in section 4. Volumetric bubble density was calculated by using density per unit grain boundary surface area. Based on these data, bubble volumetric fraction was calculated. Bubble volume fraction was also calculated by using the density per unit cross section area. Bubble volume fraction was also directly measured for some plates. These three results are comparable although the direct measurement data are slightly larger than the others. Bubble volume fraction increased as a function of burnup, reaching {approx}2% of fuel volume at 3 x 10{sup 21} f/cm{sup 3}. Fission gas bubble swelling is minor compared to that of solid fission product swelling.

  2. Fundamental of Inclusion Removal from Molten Steel by Rising Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-tao; ZHANG Qiao-ying; LI Zheng-bang; XUE Zheng-liang

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of inclusion removal by attachment to rising bubble was analyzed, and the movement behavior of inclusion, the mechanism of bubbles/inclusion interaction, collision probability and adhesion probability were discussed. A mathematical model of inclusion removal from molten steel by attachment to fine bubble was developed. The results of theoretical analysis and mathematical model showed that the optimum bubble diameter for inclusion removal is 1 to 2 mm. A new method that argon is injected into the shroud from ladle to tundish during continuous casting has been proposed to produce fine bubble. It provides theoretical guides for production of super clean steel.

  3. Multiphase flow analysis using population balance modeling bubbles, drops and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Yeoh, Guan Heng; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Written by leading multiphase flow and CFD experts, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the use of PBM and CFD frameworks. Population balance approaches can now be used in conjunction with CFD, effectively driving more efficient and effective multiphase flow processes. Engineers familiar with standard CFD software, including ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS-Fluent, will be able to use the tools and approaches presented in this book in the effective research, modeling and control of multiphase flow problems. Builds a complete understanding of the theory behind the

  4. Gas bubbles in rats after heliox saturation and different decompression steps and rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogland, Steffen; Segadal, Kåre; Sundland, Harald; Hope, Arvid

    2002-06-01

    Effects of pressure reduction, decompression rate, and repeated exposure on venous gas bubble formation were determined in five groups (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV) of conscious and freely moving rats in a heliox atmosphere. Bubbles were recorded with a Doppler ultrasound probe implanted around the inferior caval vein. Rats were held for 16 h at 0.4 MPa (GI), 0.5 MPa (GII and GIII), 1.7 MPa (GIVa), or 1.9 MPa (GIV and GV), followed by decompression to 0.1 MPa in GI to GIII and to 1.1 MPa in GIV and GV. A greater decompression step, but at the same rate (GII vs. GI and GIVb vs. GIVa), resulted in significantly more bubbles (P < 0.01). A twofold decompression step resulted in equal amount of bubbles when decompressing to 1.1 MPa compared with 0.1 MPa. The faster decompression in GII and GVa (10.0 kPa/s) resulted in significantly more bubbles (P < 0.01) compared with GIII and GVb (2.2 kPa/s). No significant difference was observed in cumulative bubble score when comparing first and second exposure. With the present animal model, different decompression regimes may be evaluated.

  5. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2013-07-31

    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  6. The effect of thixotropy on a rising gas bubble: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghy, Kayvan; Vahabi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The deformation of a single, two-dimensional, circular gas bubble rising in an otherwise stationary thixotropic liquid in a confined rectangular vessel is numerically studied using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). The thixotropic liquid surrounding the bubble is assumed to obey the Moore model. The main objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the destruction-to-rebuild ratio (referred to by the thixotropy number in dimensionless form) in this model on the bubble's shape, velocity, and center-ofmass during its rise in the liquid. Based on the numerical results obtained in this work, it is found that the bubble moves faster in the Moore fluid as compared with its Newtonian counterpart. An increase in the thixotropy number is also shown to increase the bubble's speed at any given instant of time. The effect of thixotropy number is found to be noticeable only when it is large. For Moore fluid, a large thixotropy number means that the fluid is basically a shear-thinning fluid. Therefore, it is concluded that the shear-thinning behavior of the Moore model easily masks its thixotropic behavior in the bubble rise problem. The effect of thixotropy number is weakened when the Reynolds number is increased.

  7. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi...

  8. Bursting SN 1996cr's Bubble: Hydrodynamic and X-ray Modeling of its Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, Vikram V; Bauer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    SN1996cr is one of the five closest SNe to explode in the past 30 years. Due to its fortuitous location in the Circinus Galaxy at ~ 3.7 Mpc, there is a wealth of recently acquired and serendipitous archival data available to piece together its evolution over the past decade, including a recent 485 ks Chandra HETG spectrum. In order to interpret this data, we have explored hydrodynamic simulations, followed by computations of simulated spectra and light curves under non-equilibrium ionization conditions, and directly compared them to the observations. Our simulated spectra manage to fit both the X-ray continuum and lines at 4 epochs satisfactorily, while our computed light curves are in good agreement with additional flux-monitoring data sets. These calculations allow us to infer the nature and structure of the circumstellar medium, the evolution of the SN shock wave, and the abundances of the ejecta and surrounding medium. The data imply that SN 1996cr exploded in a low-density medium before interacting with ...

  9. A COUPLING MODEL OF WATER FLOWS AND GAS FLOWS IN EXHAUSTED GAS BUBBLE ON MISSILE LAUNCHED UNDERWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gas and water flows during an underwater missile launch are numerically studied. For the gas flow, the explicit difference scheme of Non-oscillation and Non-free-parameter Dissipation (NND) is utilized to solve the Euler equations for compressible fluids in the body-fitted coordinates. For the water flow, the Hess-Smith method is employed to solve the Laplace equation for the velocity potential of irrotational water flows based on the potential theory and the boundary element method. The hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for the free boundary conditions is used to compute the changes of the free surface of the exhausted gas bubble in time stepping. On the free surface of the exhausted gas bubble, the matched conditions of both the normal velocities and pressures are satisfied. From the numerical simulation, it is found that the exhausted gas bubble grows more rapidly in the axial direction than in the radial direction and the bubble will shrink at its "neck" finally. Numerical results of the movement of the shock wave and the distribution of the Mach number and the gas pressure within the bubble were presented, which reveals that at some time, the gas flow in the Laval nozzle is subsonic and the gas pressure in the nozzle is very high. Influences of various initial missile velocities and chamber total pressures and water depths on both the time interval when the gas flow in the nozzle is subsonic and the peak of the gas pressure at the nozzle end were discussed. It was suggested that a reasonable adjustment of the chamber total pressure can improve the performance of the engine during the underwater launch of missiles.

  10. Tribonucleation of bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Wildeman, Sander; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for "writing with bubbles," i.e., creating controlled patterns ...

  11. Testing models of a MIR-identified wind-blown bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christer

    2013-10-01

    1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, 10 Hygiea and 13 Egeria are among the largest bodies in the main asteroid belt representing about 40 percent of the belts total mass. While many of their physical properties such as size, mass, bulk density and albedo are quite well constrained, their surface composition remains elusive (apart for Vesta). Studies in the 0.4-4 micron range have not yet answered the question of their surface composition. We propose to carry out spectroscopic observations with high signal to noise ratio of these objects with FORCAST over the 5-40 micron range in order to bring new constraints on their surface composition. Such high SNR is required in order to resolve the weak emissivity features in the asteroid spectra, which in turn will allow us to properly identify the mineralogical and meteoritic analogs of those objects. In addition, the obtained data will allow us to refine the albedo, the thermal inertia and the surface roughness of these objects, which is particularly helpful when comparing asteroids and meteorites; also, SOFIA offers us a great opportunity for collecting the first complete mid-infrared spectra ever assembled for both Ceres and Vesta, which is of particular interest with respect to the Dawn mission. In order to avoid misinterpreting any spectral features due to the atmosphere, we need to properly estimate its contribution. To achieve this goal, the observations of both Hygiea and Vesta will be helpful since Hygiea has already been observed in this wavelength range by ISO and since Vestas surface composition is well known from the VNIR range as well as its meteoritic analogs (HED meteorites). This is a long-term project whose goal is to study the mid-infrared spectral properties of large main belt asteroids for which the 0.4-4 micron range has been unable to constrain their surface composition.

  12. Study of the reactivity effect of bubble collapse in molten liquid metal cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munno, F.J.; Sheaks, O.J.

    1977-08-01

    The reactivity effect of void collapse on a Core Disruptive Accident in a sodium free fast reactor core was studied. A two-dimensional transport theory computer code was employed to obtain a reactivity model which incorporated random distributions of voids in spatial location and bubble size. This model was implemented into VENUS-II and several excursions were investigated for the purpose of assessing the effect of bubble collapse reactivity on excursion energy. In addition, comparisons were made between the VENUS-II results obtained using the transport reactivity model and those obtained using a reactivity model developed from the Behrens' formulation of the leakage effects due to the presence of bubbles. The results indicate that excursion energy is sensitive to the shape of the reactivity versus void fraction function and that reactivity models based strictly on leakage effects are probably conservative compared to models which include both self-multiplication and leakage.

  13. Bubbles and market crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Youssefmir, M; Hogg, T; Youssefmir, Michael; Huberman, Bernardo; Hogg, Tad

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamical theory of asset price bubbles that exhibits the appearance of bubbles and their subsequent crashes. We show that when speculative trends dominate over fundamental beliefs, bubbles form, leading to the growth of asset prices away from their fundamental value. This growth makes the system increasingly susceptible to any exogenous shock, thus eventually precipitating a crash. We also present computer experiments which in their aggregate behavior confirm the predictions of the theory.

  14. The interaction between multiple bubbles and the free surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang A-Man; Yao Xiong-Liang

    2008-01-01

    The flow is assumed to be potential, and a boundary integral method is used to solve the Laplace equation for the velocity potential to investigate the shape and the position of the bubble. A 3D code to study the bubble dynamics is developed, and the calculation results agree well with the experimental data. Numerical analyses are carried out for the interaction between multiple bubbles near the free surface including in-phase and out-of-phase bubbles. The calculation result shows that the bubble period increases with the decrease of the distance between bubble centres because of the depression effect between multiple bubbles. The depression has no relationship with the free surface and it is more apparent for out-of-phase bubbles. There are great differences in dynamic behaviour between the in-phase bubbles and the out-of-phase bubbles due to the depression effect. Furthermore, the interaction among eight bubbles is simulated with a three-dimensional model, and the evolving process and the relevant physical phenomena are presented. These phenomena can give a reference to the future work on the power of bubbles induced by multiple charges exploding simultaneously or continuously.

  15. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  16. Dynamics of two interacting bubbles in a nonspherical ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinfu; Wang, Xun; Yang, Jing; Gong, Lunxun

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze a model of the oscillations of a pair of gas bubbles driven by nonspherical ultrasound. We derived our model based on the perturbation and potential flow theories and use it to study three cases of oscillation of two bubbles under driving ultrasound with different initial phases, different separation distances between the bubbles and different sound pressure amplitudes. For the driving ultrasound with different initial phases, we obtain the in-phase and anti-phase radial pulsations of the bubbles in incompressible liquid. We also study the effect of the secondary Bjerknes force on the oscillation of bubbles separated by different relative distances. Lastly, we analyze the ratio of a nonspherical to a spherical partial quantity, and the results show that the bubbles survive longer with decreases in both the pressure amplitude of nonspherical ultrasound and the initial bubbles radii.

  17. Effects of Gas Dynamics on Rapidly Collapsing Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauman, Spenser

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rapidly collapsing bubbles are of great interest due to the high degree of energy focusing that occurs withing the bubble. Molecular dynamics provides a way to model the interior of the bubble and couple the gas dynamics with the equations governing the bubble wall. While much theoretical work has been done to understand how a bubble will respond to an external force, the internal dynamics of the gas system are usually simplified greatly in such treatments. This paper shows how the gas system dynamics affect bubble collapse and illustrates what effects various modeling assumptions can have on the motion of the bubble wall. In addition, we present a method of adaptively partitioning space to improve the performance of collision intersection calculations when using an energy dependent collision cross section.

  18. Bubble-Driven Inertial Micropump

    CERN Document Server

    Torniainen, Erik D; Markel, David P; Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental action of the bubble-driven inertial micropump is investigated. The pump has no moving parts and consists of a thermal resistor placed asymmetrically within a straight channel connecting two reservoirs. Using numerical simulations, the net flow is studied as a function of channel geometry, resistor location, vapor bubble strength, fluid viscosity, and surface tension. Two major regimes of behavior are identified: axial and non-axial. In the axial regime, the drive bubble either remains inside the channel or continues to grow axially when it reaches the reservoir. In the non-axial regime the bubble grows out of the channel and in all three dimensions while inside the reservoir. The net flow in the axial regime is parabolic with respect to the hydraulic diameter of the channel cross-section but in the non-axial regime it is not. From numerical modeling, it is determined that the net flow is maximal when the axial regime crosses over to the non-axial regime. To elucidate the basic physical princi...

  19. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  20. Critical bubble radius in solvent sublation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The complex compound of dithizone-Co(Ⅱ) was separated and concentrated from the aqueous phase to n-octanol by solvent sublation. From the analysis of the coalescence behavior of bubbles on water-organic interface, the conception of critical bubble radius was proposed, and the value of the critical bubble radius in the water-octanol system was obtained: 1.196 × 10-3 m. The simulation of the mathematical model using CBR and experimental data is completed with perfect results, and the simulation of the mathematical model using CBR is very different with the classic one. The analytical results proved that the critical bubble radius should be adequately considered in mathematical model of solvent sublation.

  1. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  2. Liquid jet pumped by rising gas bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N. A.; Siegel, R.

    1975-01-01

    A two-phase mathematical model is proposed for calculating the induced turbulent vertical liquid flow. Bubbles provide a large buoyancy force and the associated drag on the liquid moves the liquid upward. The liquid pumped upward consists of the bubble wakes and the liquid brought into the jet region by turbulent entrainment. The expansion of the gas bubbles as they rise through the liquid is taken into account. The continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically for an axisymmetric air jet submerged in water. Water pumping rates are obtained as a function of air flow rate and depth of submergence. Comparisons are made with limited experimental information in the literature.

  3. Numerical investigation of bubble nonlinear dynamics characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jie, E-mail: shijie@hrbeu.edu.cn; Yang, Desen; Shi, Shengguo; Hu, Bo [Acoustic Science and Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Haoyang; Jiang, Wei [College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-28

    The complicated dynamical behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave can provide favorable conditions for many engineering applications. On the basis of Keller-Miksis model, the influences of control parameters, including acoustic frequency, acoustic pressure and radius of gas bubble, are discussed by utilizing various numerical analysis methods, Furthermore, the law of power spectral variation is studied. It is shown that the complicated dynamic behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave, such as bifurcation and chaos, further the stimulated scattering processes are revealed.

  4. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  5. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t

  6. Bubbles in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...

  7. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light ten

  8. Effect of internal bubbly flow on pipe vibrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on wall vibrations of a pipe due to injection of a uniform bubble cloud into the pipe flow. For different bubble void fractions and averaged bubble sizes, the vibrations were measured using accelerometers. To understand the underlying physics, the evolution of the vibration spectra along the streamwise direction was examined. Results showed that wall vibrations were greatly enhanced up to 25 dB, compared with no bubble case. The characteristics of the vibration were mainly dependent on void fraction. These vibrations were believed to be caused by two mechanisms: acoustic resonance and normal modes of the bubble cloud. The former, originating from the interaction between the first mode of the bubble cloud and the first acoustic mode of the pipe, persisted along the entire pipe to enhance the vibration over a broad band frequency range, while the later, due to the process of bubble formation, successively decayed in the streamwise direction.

  9. Use of optical probes to characterize bubble behavior in gas-solid fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainland, M.E.; Welty, J.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    Optical probes are used to study gas-solid fluidized-bed hydrodynamics. The probes each consisting of a light source and photodetector separated by a gap are suitable for use at combustion-level temperatures. The methodology to process the signal for calculation of bubble properties such as bubble frequency, local bubble residence time, bubble velocity, pierced length, bubble size, and visible bubble flow is presented. The signal processing technique is independent of bed operating conditions. The probe signal processing methodology is validated by comparing calculated bubble properties based on the probe signal with properties observed on videotapes of a 2-D bed.

  10. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Kendrew, Sarah; Williams, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find ...

  11. Bubble-Induced Star Formation in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Barnes, David J; Grand, Robert J J; Rahimi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to WLM. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae (SNe) feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor inter-stellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from lar...

  12. Bubble collision with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.

  13. Wavelet-transform-based active imaging of cavitation bubbles in tissues induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runna; Xu, Shanshan; Hu, Hong; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    Cavitation detection and imaging are essential for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapies. In this paper, an active cavitation imaging method based on wavelet transform is proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The Yang-Church model, which is a combination of the Keller-Miksis equation with the Kelvin-Voigt equation for the pulsations of gas bubbles in simple linear viscoelastic solids, is utilized to construct the bubble wavelet. Experiments with porcine muscles demonstrate that image quality is associated with the initial radius of the bubble wavelet and the scale. Moreover, the Yang-Church model achieves a somewhat better performance compared with the Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model. Furthermore, the pulse inversion (PI) technique is combined with bubble wavelet transform to achieve further improvement. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio (CTR) of the best tissue bubble wavelet transform (TBWT) mode image is improved by 5.1 dB compared with that of the B-mode image, while the CTR of the best PI-based TBWT mode image is improved by 7.9 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image. This work will be useful for better monitoring of cavitation in HIFU-induced therapies.

  14. Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.

  15. Predawn plasma bubble cluster observed in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsunoda, Roland; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Ishii, Mamoru; Yatini, Clara

    2016-06-01

    Predawn plasma bubble was detected as deep plasma depletion by GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network and in situ measurement onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 (DMSPF15) satellite and was confirmed by sparse GPS network in Southeast Asia. In addition to the deep depletion, the GPS network revealed the coexisting submesoscale irregularities. A deep depletion is regarded as a primary bubble. Submesoscale irregularities are regarded as secondary bubbles. Primary bubble and secondary bubbles appeared together as a cluster with zonal wavelength of 50 km. An altitude of secondary bubbles happened to be lower than that of the primary bubble in the same cluster. The observed pattern of plasma bubble cluster is consistent with the simulation result of the recent high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model. This event is only a single event out of 76 satellite passes at nighttime during 3-25 March 2012 that significantly shows plasma depletion at plasma bubble wall. The inside structure of the primary bubble was clearly revealed from the in situ density data of DMSPF15 satellite and the ground-based GRBR total electron content.

  16. Surfactant effect on the bubble motions and bubbly flow structures in a vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takagi@mach.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters. (invited paper)

  17. INVITED PAPER: Surfactant effect on the bubble motions and bubbly flow structures in a vertical channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters.

  18. Bubbles and Anti-bubbles in China’s Stock Market——An Empirical Study Based on LPPL Model%中国股市的泡沫与反泡沫——基于对数周期性幂律模型的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉翔; 高英

    2012-01-01

    在对股市泡沫和反泡沫的概念界定和形成机理进行规范分析的基础上,使用对数周期性幂律模型对我国股市的泡沫与反泡沫进行了分时间段的实证分析,得出了我国股市具有分形特征、存在对数周期性幂律泡沫及反泡沫、沪深两市转制趋于同步等一系列结论,提出了中国应适时适当使用财政政策、完善股市对称性等政策建议。%On the basis of normatively analyzing the definition and formation of bubbles and anti-bubbles,the paper performs an empirical analysis on data fitting for the bubbles and anti-bubbles of China’s stock market by employing the log-periodic power-law model and finds a series of valuable conclusions including that China’s stock market owns fractal characteristics,there are log-periodic power-law bubbles and anti-bubble in China’s stock market and Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market changes more and more synchronized.Finally,this paper provides some suggestions,such as China should use fiscal policies duly and properly and improve the symmetry of stock market.

  19. The Milky Way Project: Leveraging Citizen Science and Machine Learning to Detect Interstellar Bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, Christopher; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present Brut, an algorithm to identify bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane. Brut is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses bubbles identified by >35,000 citizen scientists from the Milky Way Project to discover the identifying characteristics of bubbles in images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We demonstrate that Brut's ability to identify bubbles is comparable to expert astronomers. We use Brut to re-assess the bubbles in the Milky Way Project catalog, and find that 10-30% of the objects in this catalog are non-bubble interlopers. Relative to these interlopers, high-reliability bubbles are more confined to the mid plane, and display a stronger excess of Young Stellar Objects along and within bubble rims. Furthermore, Brut is able to discover bubbles missed by previous searches -- particularly bubbles near bright sources which have low contrast relative to their surroundings. Brut demonstrates the synergies that exist between citizen scientists, professional scientists, and machi...

  20. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    expanded beam of a Q-switched laser pulse at wavelength of λ=532 nm and with pulse duration of ∼4 ns is focused at the center of a water tank using an aberration minimized lens design. Single cavitation bubbles are initiated via optical breakdown at this location which coincides with the position of which the shock wave is focused. The energy of the shock wave source has been altered in 8 steps. The pressure pulse amplitude of the impinging shock wave measured at the distance of about 1.8 mm above the focus location range from 24.4 MPa to 108.1 MPa. The lithotripter shock wave impact time is varied in three steps which provides the possibility of investigation of the bubble dynamics in both cases of collapsing and expanding cavities at the moment of the shock wave impingement. After the shock wave impact, the bubble spherical symmetry is broken and a liquid jet develops in the original direction of the shock propagation. The speed of the jet is increasing with the shock wave energy. Due to the energy transfer from the shock wave to the bubble, the forced cavity implosion is more violent in comparison to free oscillation. The pressure pulse amplitude released from the forced bubble collapse is amplified and the collapse time is reduced. These effects are discussed in chapter 5. Generally, when the bubble is collapsing at the time of the shock impact, the forced cavity collapse is more violent with a resultant of more pressure enhancement compared to the expanding bubbles at the moment of the shock arrival. The maximum pressure enhancement and reduction of bubble collapse time occur when the time interval between the moments of the shock impact and bubble collapse approaches the pulse duration of the compression part of the shock wave profile (i.e. ∼1 μs). For each specific shock wave arrival time, increasing the shock intensity leads to the fact that the bubble collapse takes place earlier relative to the moment of the shock impact and having more collapse pressure

  1. Jet flows from bubbles during subcooled pool boiling on micro wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; D. M. Christopher; PENG Xiaofeng; WANG Buxuan

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on subcooled nucleate boiling on ultra-small wires having diameters of 25―100 m. High-speed photography and laser PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technology were used to visually observe the bubble dynamics. For highly subcooled boiling at moderate heat fluxes, the bubbles generally remained attached to the micro heating wires and bubble-top jet flows were clearly observed. Smaller bubbles usually had stronger bubble-top jet flows, while larger bubbles seemed to produce multi-jet flows. The structures of the bubble-top jet flows, as well as multi-jet flows, were proposed from the experimental observation. A model was developed to describe jet flow phenomena from bubbles on micro wires. Numerical simulations for bubbles having diameter of 0.03 and 0.06 mm showed that both the bubble-top and multi-jet flows were induced by a strong Marangoni effect due to high temperature gradients near the wire. The predicted velocity magnitudes and flow structures agreed very well with experimental measurements. The bubble size relative to the wire is an important factor affecting the jet flow structure. For a 0.03 mm bubble on a 0.1 mm wire, only a bubble-top jet flow forms, while a complex multi-jet flow pattern forms around the bubble with a weak bubble-top jet and two side jet flows for a 0.06 mm bubble.

  2. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia

    compared to the traditional corona or dielectric barrier discharges. These conditions make the experimental evidence presented in this work valuable for the advancement of modeling and the theoretical understanding of the discharge in bubbles in water.

  3. Numerical Investigation on Bubble Growth and Sliding Process of Subcooled Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate single bubble evolution, a boiling phase change model in subcooled flow boiling is proposed in this paper, and VOF model combined with phase change model is adopted to simulate the single bubble growth and movement. The effects of flow velocity, liquid subcooling, wall superheat, and vapor-liquid contact angle are considered in this model. The predicted bubble growth curve agrees well with the experimental result. Based on the analysis of bubble shape evolution and temperature field, it is found that the average bubble growth rate, flow velocity, and dynamic contact angle have significant effect on the bubble shape evolution during the bubble growth and movement while the temperature gradient in superheated liquid does not change with bubble growing. The character of dynamic contact angle during bubble growth and movement is also obtained in different working condition.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Sub-cooled Cavitating Flow by Using Bubble Size Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka ITO; Hideki WAKAMATSU; Takao NAGASAKI

    2003-01-01

    A new cavitating model by using bubble size distribution based on mass of bubbles is proposed. Liquid phase is treated with Eulerian framework as a mixture containing minute cavitating bubbles. Vapor phase consists of various sizes of minute vapor bubbles, which is distributed to classes based on their mass. The change of bubble number density for each class was solved by considering the change of bubble mass due to phase change as well as generation of new bubbles due to heterogeneous nucleation. In this method the mass of bubbles is treated as an independent variable, in other word, a new coordinate, and dependant variables are solved in Eulerian framework for spatial coordinates and bubble-mass coordinate. The present method is applied to a cavitating flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle, and the two-phase flow with bubble size distribution and phase change was successfully predicted.

  5. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  6. Sound scattering from rough bubbly ocean surface based on modified sea surface acoustic simulator and consideration of various incident angles and sub-surface bubbles' radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolghasi, Alireza; Ghadimi, Parviz; Chekab, Mohammad A. Feizi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the capabilities and precision of a recently introduced Sea Surface Acoustic Simulator (SSAS) developed based on optimization of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Fresnel (HKF) method. The improved acoustic simulator, hereby known as the Modified SSAS (MSSAS), is capable of determining sound scattering from the sea surface and includes an extended Hall-Novarini model and optimized HKF method. The extended Hall-Novarini model is used for considering the effects of sub-surface bubbles over a wider range of radii of sub-surface bubbles compared to the previous SSAS version. Furthermore, MSSAS has the capability of making a three-dimensional simulation of scattered sound from the rough bubbly sea surface with less error than that of the Critical Sea Tests (CST) experiments. Also, it presents scattered pressure levels from the rough bubbly sea surface based on various incident angles of sound. Wind speed, frequency, incident angle, and pressure level of the sound source are considered as input data, and scattered pressure levels and scattering coefficients are provided. Finally, different parametric studies were conducted on wind speeds, frequencies, and incident angles to indicate that MSSAS is quite capable of simulating sound scattering from the rough bubbly sea surface, according to the scattering mechanisms determined by Ogden and Erskine. Therefore, it is concluded that MSSAS is valid for both scattering mechanisms and the transition region between them that are defined by Ogden and Erskine.

  7. Bubble dynamics in a two-dimensional gas-solid fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Related referential studies on gas-solid two-phase flows were briefly reviewed. Bubble ascending in a two-dimensional (2D) gas-solid fluidized bed was studied both experimentally and numerically. A modified continuum model expressed in the conservation form was used in numerical simulation. Solid-phase pressure was modeled via local sound speed; gas-phase turbulence was described by the K-ε two-equation model. The modified implicit multiphase formulation (IMF) scheme was used to solve the model equations in 2D Cartesian/cylindrical coordinates. The bubble ascending velocity and particle motion in the 2D fluidized bed were measured using the photochromic dye activation (PDA) technique, which was based on UV light activation of particles impregnated with the dye. Effects of bed height and superficial gas velocity on bubble formation and ascent were investigated numerically. The numerically obtained bubble ascending velocities were compared with experimental measurements. Gas bubble in jetting gas-solids fluidized bed was also simulated numerically.

  8. Impact of asset price bubble on market risk based on quantile regression model%基于分位数回归模型的资产价格泡沫对市场风险的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷冬; 巴曙松

    2014-01-01

    Asset price bubble is the deviation of price from the fundamental values .The existence of a bubble changes investors'expectations ,boosts asset prices and causes investors to underestimate risk ,and endangers the stability of market operation .Here ,the bubble of Shanghai and Shenzhen stock market was measured ,and the impact of bubbles on market risk based on quantile regression model was studied .The results show that market risk is correlated with bubbles ;the larger the bubble ,the greater the risk ,and the greater its impacts on long‐term risk than on short‐term risk .Both short‐term bubble and long‐term bubble affect market risk :w hile in the short term ,a bubble boosts asset prices and reduces risk ;w hile in the long term ,the probability of a bubble's collapse increases ,thus increasing market risk .%资产“泡沫”是指资产的市场价格对其基础价值的偏离。泡沫的存在会改变投资者预期,助推资产价格上涨,使投资者低估风险,危及市场稳定运行。在度量沪深股票市场中的泡沫程度的基础上,应用分位数回归模型研究了泡沫对市场风险的影响。得出以下结论:泡沫与市场风险存在相关关系,泡沫越大市场风险越大,且泡沫对长期风险的影响比短期风险更大。市场风险受到短期泡沫和长期泡沫的共同影响。泡沫在短期内助推资产价格上涨,使短期内市场风险下降;而长期来看,泡沫破裂可能性增大,市场风险增加。

  9. Numerical and experimental study of dissociation in an air-water single-bubble sonoluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Gabriela F; Urteaga, Raúl; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2005-10-01

    We performed a comprehensive numerical and experimental analysis of dissociation effects in an air bubble in water acoustically levitated in a spherical resonator. Our numerical approach is based on suitable models for the different effects considered. We compared model predictions with experimental results obtained in our laboratory in the whole phase parameter space, for acoustic pressures from the bubble dissolution limit up to bubble extinction. The effects were taken into account simultaneously to consider the transition from nonsonoluminescence to sonoluminescence bubbles. The model includes (1) inside the bubble, transient and spatially nonuniform heat transfer using a collocation points method, dissociation of O2 and N2, and mass diffusion of vapor in the noncondensable gases; (2) at the bubble interface, nonequilibrium evaporation and condensation of water and a temperature jump due to the accommodation coefficient; (3) in the liquid, transient and spatially nonuniform heat transfer using a collocation points method, and mass diffusion of the gas in the liquid. The model is completed with a Rayleigh-Plesset equation with liquid compressible terms and vapor mass transfer. We computed the boundary for the shape instability based on the temporal evolution of the computed radius. The model is valid for an arbitrary number of dissociable gases dissolved in the liquid. We also obtained absolute measurements for R(t) using two photodetectors and Mie scattering calculations. The robust technique used allows the estimation of experimental results of absolute R0 and P(a). The technique is based on identifying the bubble dissolution limit coincident with the parametric instability in (P(a),R0) parameter space. We take advantage of the fact that this point can be determined experimentally with high precision and replicability. We computed the equilibrium concentration of the different gaseous species and water vapor during collapse as a function of P(a) and R0. The

  10. Nonlinear Bubbling and Micro-Convection at a Submerged Orifice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the nonlinear behavior of bubble formation from a single submerged orifice and induced liquid motion (micro-convection) surrounding the bubble. The experimental data reveals that departing periods of successive bubbles evolve multiple periods from single to triple periods when the gas flow rate is increased and that the micro-convection evolves bifurcation phenomena similar to the so-called "period doubling" in chaos dynamics. The photographic observation using high-speed video movies and data analysis indicate that the nonlinear features come from the deformation of the bubble and also the interaction between consecutive bubbles. A new comprehensive theoretical model is developed for describing the instantaneous bubble behaviors during formation and ascendance processes and for predicting the departing periods and sizes of successive bubbles for constant flow rate conditions. Owing to the estimation of instantaneous interactions between successive bubbles and the incorporation of the wake effect of previous bubbles, the present model describes the evolution process and mechanisms of bubble departing periods corresponding to different gas flow rate regimes. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results.

  11. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei-Hang; Chen, Wei-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005).

  12. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Government adopts regulations to control real estate prices A mid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real

  13. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai

    2002-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  14. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 2. Detection characteristics of bubble in-water using large scale SG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    2000-06-01

    To prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that, in practical steam generators, the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. However to prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of a leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. The detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the influence of background noise were investigated experimentally. In-water experiments were performed using an SG full-sector model that simulates actual SGs. The results show that the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.1 l/s (equivalent to a water leak rate of about 0.1 g/s) within a few seconds and that the background noise has little effect on water leak detection performance. The Doppler method thus has great potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  15. Lyα-Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionization: Large-Scale Bubble Morphology and Small-Scale Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The visibility of Lyα emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse H I patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate their impacts on Lyα transfer, we apply a novel combination of analytic modelling and cosmological hydrodynamical, radiative transfer simulations to three reionization models: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse H I outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where H I exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the hybrid `web-bubble' model. The three models can explain the observed Lyα luminosity function equally well, but with very different H I fractions. This confirms a degeneracy between the ionization topology of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the H I fraction inferred from Lyα surveys. We highlight the importance of the clustering of small-scale absorbers around galaxies. A combined analysis of the Lyα luminosity function and the Lyα fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. Constraints can be improved by analyzing the full MUV-dependent redshift evolution of the Lyα fraction of Lyman break galaxies. We find that the IGM-transmission probability distribution function is unimodal for bubble models and bimodal in web models. Comparing our models to observations, we infer that the neutral fraction at z ˜ 7 is likely to be of order of tens of per cent when interpreted with bubble or web-bubble models, with a conservative lower limit ˜1% when interpreted with web models.

  16. Lyα-emitting galaxies as a probe of reionization: large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Dijkstra, Mark; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2016-12-01

    The visibility of Lyα-emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse H I patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate their impacts on Lyα transfer, we apply a novel combination of analytic modelling and cosmological hydrodynamical, radiative transfer simulations to three reionization models: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse H I outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where H I exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the hybrid `web-bubble' model. The three models can explain the observed Lyα luminosity function equally well, but with very different H I fractions. This confirms a degeneracy between the ionization topology of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the H I fraction inferred from Lyα surveys. We highlight the importance of the clustering of small-scale absorbers around galaxies. A combined analysis of the Lyα luminosity function and the Lyα fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. Constraints can be improved by analysing the full MUV-dependent redshift evolution of the Lyα fraction of Lyman break galaxies. We find that the IGM-transmission probability distribution function is unimodal for bubble models and bimodal in web models. Comparing our models to observations, we infer that the neutral fraction at z ˜ 7 is likely to be of the order of tens of per cent when interpreted with bubble or web-bubble models, with a conservative lower limit ˜1 per cent when interpreted with web models.

  17. Bubbling Out of Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Jim Chanos,founder of the U.S. hedge fund Kynikos Associates,characterized the prop-erty bubble in China as "Dubai times 1,000-or worse." Many Chinese economists agree. Yi Xianrong,a senior researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,said the property bubble in China was far worse than the Dubai crisis in an interview with the Beijing-based International Herald Leader. Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  19. How does gas pass? Bubble transport through sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauria, K. E.; Rempel, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    The transport of gas through marine sediments is critical for both the formation and the ultimate fate of gas that is housed temporarily within hydrates. We monitored the gas flux produced by repeated bubble injections into a particle layer that was initially saturated with liquid. The size of ejected bubbles and the period between ejection events were different from the input size and period. Our observations clearly demonstrate bubble break-up as well as coalescence and the formation of preferred bubble migration pathways. We develop an elementary, semi-empirical model to interpret aspects of these results and predict the gas flux expected from a given size distribution of bubble inputs as a function of basic host sediment characteristics. Models of gas transport that use simple modifications to Darcy's law are not adequate to cope with bubble dynamics in the parameter regime that we observe.

  20. A critical review of physiological bubble formation in hyperbaric decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Eckersley, Robert J; Balestra, Costantino; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Bubbles are known to form in the body after scuba dives, even those done well within the decompression model limits. These can sometimes trigger decompression sickness and the dive protocols should therefore aim to limit bubble formation and growth from hyperbaric decompression. Understanding these processes physiologically has been a challenge for decades and there are a number of questions still unanswered. The physics and historical background of this field of study is presented and the latest studies and current developments reviewed. Heterogeneous nucleation is shown to remain the prime candidate for bubble formation in this context. The two main theories to account for micronuclei stability are then to consider hydrophobicity of surfaces or tissue elasticity, both of which could also explain some physiological observations. Finally the modeling relevance of the bubble formation process is discussed, together with that of bubble growth as well as multiple bubble behavior.

  1. Correction of bubble size distributions from transmission electron microscopy observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Eldrup, M.; Horsewell, A.; Skov Pedersen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy of a high density of gas bubbles in a metal matrix yield a distorted size distribution due to bubble overlap and bubble escape from the surface. A model is described that reconstructs 3-dimensional bubble size distributions from 2-dimensional projections on taking these effects into account. Mathematically, the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which is solved by regularization technique. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations support the validity of our model. (au) 1 tab., 32 ills., 32 refs.

  2. DGP with bubble of nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    We construct exact solutions with the bubble of nothing in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati(DGP) braneworld model. The configuration with a single brane can be constructed, unlike in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model. The geometry on the single brane looks like the Einstein-Rosen bridge. We also discuss the junction of multi branes. Surprisingly, even without any artificial matter fields on the branes such as three dimensional tension of the codimension two objects, two branes can be connected in certain configurations. We investigate solutions of multi branes too. The presence of solutions may indicate the semiclassical instability of the models.

  3. Interstellar Bubbles in Two Young HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Naze, Y; Points, S D; Danforth, C W; Rosado, M; Chen, C H R; Naze, Yael; Chu, You-Hua; Points, Sean D.; Danforth, Charles W.; Rosado, Margarita

    2001-01-01

    Massive stars are expected to produce wind-blown bubbles in the interstellar medium; however, ring nebulae, suggesting the existence of bubbles, are rarely seen around main-sequence O stars. To search for wind-blown bubbles around main-sequence O stars, we have obtained high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images and high-dispersion echelle spectra of two pristine HII regions, N11B and N180B, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These HII regions are ionized by OB associations that still contain O3 stars, suggesting that the HII regions are young and have not hosted any supernova explosions. Our observations show that wind-blown bubbles in these HII regions can be detected kinematically but not morphologically because their expansion velocities are comparable to or only slightly higher than the isothermal sound velocity in the HII regions. Bubbles are detected around concentrations of massive stars, individual O stars, and even an evolved red supergiant (a fossil bubble). Comparisons between the observed bu...

  4. Problems on holographic imaging technique and adapt lasers for bubble chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bjelkhagen, H I

    1982-01-01

    Different types of holographic recording technique for bubble chambers are presented and compared. The influence of turbulence on resolution is discussed as well as the demand on laser equipment. Experiments on a test model of HOLEBC using a pulsed ruby laser are also presented.

  5. Interaction of two three-dimensional explosion bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiong-liang; ZHANG A-man; LIU Yu-chen

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of two underwater explosion bubbles was mathematically analyzed in this paper. Based on the assumption of potential flow, high-order curved elements were used to discretize the boundary integral equation and solve it. Assuming that gas inside the bubble follows the isentropic rule,the Euler-Lagrange method was used to trace the evolution of the bubble, and when calculating the singular integral, the singularity of the double-layer singular integral was eliminated by reconstructing a principal-value integral of double-layer potential so that a more precise result could be obtained. Elastic mesh technique (EMT) was also used when tracing the evolution of the bubble interface, and numerical smoothing wasn't needed. A comparison of calculations using this three-dimensional model with results of the Reyleigh-Plesset bubble model shows that the three-dimensional model and calculation method in this paper is practical. This three-dimensional model was applied to simulate the interaction of two bubbles under the action of gravity, and the dynamic characteristics of two bubbles near the surface was also analyzed. Bubbles influenced by surface effects and gravity present severe non-linearity. This paper provides a reference for research into the dynamics of multi-bubbles.

  6. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  7. Gas transfer in a bubbly wake flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, A.; Gulliver, J. S.; Monson, G. M.; Ellis, C.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Hong, J.

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports simultaneous bubble size and gas transfer measurements in a bubbly wake flow of a hydrofoil, designed to be similar to a hydroturbine blade. Bubble size was measured by a shadow imaging technique and found to have a Sauter mean diameter of 0.9 mm for a reference case. A lower gas flow rate, greater liquid velocities, and a larger angle of attack all resulted in an increased number of small size bubbles and a reduced weighted mean bubble size. Bubble-water gas transfer is measured by the disturbed equilibrium technique. The gas transfer model of Azbel (1981) is utilized to characterize the liquid film coefficient for gas transfer, with one scaling coefficient to reflect the fact that characteristic turbulent velocity is replaced by cross-sectional mean velocity. The coefficient was found to stay constant at a particular hydrofoil configuration while it varied within a narrow range of 0.52-0.60 for different gas/water flow conditions.

  8. Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling

    CERN Document Server

    Hua-Lin, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB+3g/L POPOP+ 15 mg Bis--MSB) was studied by measuring the light yield as the function of nitrogen bubbling time. it shows that the light yield of fully purged liquid scintillator would increase of nearly 11% in room temperature and room atmosphere pressure. A simple model of nitrogen bubbling was built to describe the relationship between relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and bubbling time.

  9. 3D reconstruction of single rising bubble in water using digital image processing and characteristic matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchen Bian; Feng Dong; Weida Zhang; Hongyi Wang; Chao Tan; Zhiqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the shape of a bubble will lay a firm foundation for further description of the dynamic characteristics of bubbly flow,especially for a single rising bubble or separate bubbles whose interaction could be neglected.In this case,the rising bubble is usually simulated as an ellipsoid consisting of two semi-ellipsoids up and down.Thus the projected image of a bubble consists of two semi-ellipses.In this paper,a method for reconstructing the ellipsoid bubble model is described following digital image processing,using the Hough transform in 2D ellipse parameter extraction which could cover most of the bubble edge points in the image.Then a method based on characteristic symmetric matrix is described to detect 3D bubble ellipsoid model parameters from 2D ellipse parameters of projection planes.This method can be applied to bubbles rising with low-velocity in static flow field much in conformity with the projection theory and the shape variation of the rising bubble.This method does not need to solve nonlinear equation sets and provides an easy way to calculate the characteristic matrix of a space ellipsoid model for deformed bubble.For bubble application,two assumed conditions and a calibration factor are proposed to simplify calculation and detection.Errors of ellipsoid center and three axes are minor.Errors of the three rotation angles have no negative effect on further study on bubbly flow.

  10. Comparative study of hybrid RANS-LES models for separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G.; Lakshmanan, S. K.; Gopalan, H.; De, A.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid RANS-LES models are proven to be capable of predicting massively separated flows with reasonable computation cost. In this paper, Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) based detached eddy simulation (DES) model and three SST based hybrid models with different RANS to LES switching criteriaare investigated. The flow over periodic hill at Re = 10,595 is chosen as the benchmark for comparing the performance of the different models due to the complex flow physics and reasonablecomputational cost. The model performances are evaluated based on their prediction capabilities of velocity and stress profiles, and separation and reattachment point. The simulated results are validatedagainst experimental and numerical results available in literature. The S-A DES model predicted separation bubble accurately at the top of the hill, as reported earlier in experiments and other numerical results. This model also correctly predicted velocity and stress profiles in recirculation region. However, the performance of this model was poor in the post reattachment region. On the other hand, the k-ω SST based hybrid models performed poorly in recirculation region, but it fairly predicted stress profiles in post reattachment region.

  11. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  12. Modelo Hidrodinámico para la Velocidad de un Par de Burbujas Ascendiendo en Línea Hydrodynamic Model for the Velocity of a Bubble Pair Rising In-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis hidrodinámico de la interacción de dos burbujas esféricas del mismo tamaño alineadas en la dirección de un flujo uniforme, laminar, newtoniano e incompresible. La burbuja puntera se considera aislada y la burbuja acarreada (segunda burbuja está sujeta a la acción de cuatro fuerzas: flotación, arrastre cuasiestacionario, impulso del fluido y masa agregada. Aplicando un balance de fuerzas sobre cada burbuja se obtuvo una nueva expresión para la velocidad de ascenso de la burbuja acarreada. La expresión se comparó con mediciones experimentales, realizadas por otros autores citados en la literatura, para números de Reynolds de 3.06, 21.5 y 35.4 y se obtuvo un error relativo promedio entre 1.2% y 2.1%. Se discuten dos alternativas para aproximar la reducción del arrastre sobre la burbuja acarreada. Se encontró que el arrastre cuasiestacionario no puede incorporar el efecto total de la estela sobre la burbuja acarreadaA hydrodynamic analysis on the interaction of two equal-size spherical bubbles aligned on the direction of a uniform, laminar, newtonian and incompressible flow, is presented. The leading bubble is considered as an isolated bubble and the trailing bubble (second bubble is subjected to four forces: buoyancy, quasisteady drag, fluid impulse and added mass. By applying a force balance on each bubble, an expression for the rising velocity of the trailing bubble was obtained. Comparison of this expression with existing experimental data for 3.06, 21.5 and 35.4 Reynolds number was performed, obtaining a relative average error between 1.2% and 2.1%. Two possible approaches on the trailing bubble drag reduction effect are discussed. It was found that a quasisteady drag is, by itself, unable to incorporate the whole wake effect on the trailing bubble.

  13. The equilibrium shape of bubbles on curved interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Poe, Daniel; Walls, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The equilibrium shape for a bubble resting at a free surface depends on a balance of hydrostatic and capillary forces, with the smallest bubbles approximating a sphere and a hemisphere for the largest. This shape has been shown to be important to several processes ranging from gas transfer across the thin film cap to the production of jet droplets. Past works calculating the equilibrium shape assume that the interface is flat. However, there are instances where the curvature of the boundary may be comparable to the bubble itself. For example, a bubble bursting on the surface of a rain droplet. Here we relax the assumption of a flat interface and extend the classic bubble shape calculations to account for a curved interface boundary. An understanding of the extent of this deformation and the precise equilibrium bubble shape is important to applications in fields ranging from air-sea exchange to combustion dynamics. We acknowledge financial support from NSF Grant No. 1351466.

  14. DIGITAL IMAGE MEASUREMENT OF BUBBLE MOTION IN AERATED WATER FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Digital image measurement method, as an ex-tension of Particle Image Velocimetry of single-phase flowmeasurement, was investigated for application to air-watertwo-phase flows. The method has strong potential ability inmeasuring bubble geometrical features and moving velocitiesfor complex bubble motion in aerated water flow. Both dilutedand dense bubble rising flows are measured using the digitalimage method. Measured bubble shapes and sizes, and bubblevelocities are affected by threshold selection for binary image.Several algorithms for selecting threshold are compared andmethods for calculating the time-averaged void fraction arediscussed.

  15. Bubble migration in a compacting crystal-liquid mush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Recent theoretical models have suggested that bubbles are unlikely to undergo significant migration in a compaction crystal mush by capillary invasion while the system remains partly molten. To test this, experiments of bubble migration during compaction in a crystal-liquid mush were modeled using deformable foam crystals in corn syrup in a volumetric burette, compacted with rods of varying weights. A bubble source was provided by sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer®). Large bubbles (>several crystal sizes) are pinched by the compacting matrix and become overpressured and deformed as the bubbles experience a load change from hydrostatic to lithostatic. Once they begin to move, they move much faster than the compaction-driven liquid. Bubbles that are about the same size as the crystals but larger than the narrower pore throats move by deformation or breaking into smaller bubbles as they are forced through pore restrictions. Bubbles that are less than the typical pore diameter generally move with the liquid: The liquid + bubble mixture behaves as a single phase with a lower density than the bubble-free liquid, and as a consequence it rises faster than bubble-free liquid and allows for faster compaction. The overpressure required to force a bubble through the matrix (max grain size = 5 mm) is modest, about 5 %, and it is estimated that for a grain size of 1 mm, the required overpressure would be about 25 %. Using apatite distribution in a Stillwater olivine gabbro as an analog for bubble nucleation and growth, it is suggested that relatively large bubbles initially nucleate and grow in liquid-rich channels that develop late in the compaction history. Overpressure from compaction allows bubbles to rise higher into hotter parts of the crystal pile, where they redissolve and increase the volatile content of the liquid over what it would have without the bubble migration, leading to progressively earlier vapor saturation during crystallization of the interstitial liquid

  16. Bubble motion measurements during foam drainage and coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurdev, G; Saint-Jalmes, A; Langevin, D

    2006-08-15

    We have studied bubble motion within a column of foam allowed to undergo free drainage. We have measured bubble motion upward with time and as a function of their initial positions. Depending on the gas used, which sets the coarsening and drainage rates, different bubble upward motion types have been identified (constant speed, acceleration or deceleration) and explained in relation with liquid downward flows. The proofs of the consistency between bubble upward motion and liquid downward flow are obtained both by comparing the bubble motion curves to the liquid drainage ones, and by comparing the time variations of the liquid fraction extracted from bubble motion to direct liquid fraction measurements by electrical conductimetry. The agreement between bubble position tracking and electrical conductivity shows in particular that it is possible to determine the drainage regime from such simple bubble motion measurements. This work also allowed us to demonstrate a special case of foam coarsening and expansion, occurring when the foam gas is less soluble than the outside one, caused by diffusion of this external gas into the foam. All these results allow us to build a picture of drainage and coarsening seen from the bubble point of view.

  17. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen

    2007-03-26

    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  18. Development of a water leak detection system for LMFBR steam generator. Pt. 3. Experimental results for detection of bubbles using the SG sector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1995-05-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damages and to maintain structural safety in steam generators (SG) of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers. The active acoustic detection method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated at the sodium-water reactions, has drawn general interests owing to its short response time and reduction of the influence of background noise. Sound attenuation is also subjected to structures such as heat transfer tubes and shrouds. Accordingly, it is necessary to evaluate the sound attenuation due to structures. However, studies in these respects are very few. In this paper, using the water bath and SG sector model, the attenuation characteristics of sounds due to flat plates and heat transfer tubes are investigated under various conditions and discussed. (author).

  19. An Axial Dispersion Model for Evaporating Bubble Column Reactor%蒸发鼓泡塔反应器的轴向分散模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 李希

    2004-01-01

    Evaporating bubble column reactor (EBCR) is a kind of aerated reactor in which the reaction heat is removed by the evaporation of volatile reaction mixture. In this paper, a mathematical model that accounts for the gas-liquid exothermic reaction and axial dispersions of both gas and liquid phase is employed to study the performance of EBCR for the process of p-xylene(PX) oxidation. The computational results show that there are remarkable concentration and temperature gradients in EBCR for high ratio of height to diameter (H/DT). The temperature is lower at the bottom of column and higher at the top, due to rapid evaporation induced by the feed gas near the bottom. The concentration profiles in the gas phase are more nonuniform than those (except PX) in the liquid phase, which causes more solvent burning consumption at high H/DT ratio. For p-xylene oxidation, the optimal H/DT is around 5.

  20. Comparative analysis of growth characteristics of hydrate formation on the surface of suspended water droplet and bubble%悬垂水滴与悬浮气泡表面气体水合物形成特性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆引哲; 刘道平; 杨亮

    2015-01-01

    Based on a set of high-pressure visual experiment device used for the natural gas hydrates crystallization and growth on the surface of suspended water droplet and suspended bubble,the influence of factors such as pressure,temperature,water quality on the crystallization and growth are analyzed and discussed respectively.Comparative analysis of the experimental phenomena about the characteristics of hydrate formation on the surface of suspended water droplet and bubble was discussed.Temperature and pressure are the important factors of hydrate crystallization and growth.The decrease of temperature or the increase of pressure will also improve the growth of hydrate.This paper also provides experimental support for the development of spray and bubbling method to improve the hydrate formation.%基于悬垂水滴和悬浮气泡表面形成气体水合物的可视化耐高压实验装置,分析探讨了反应压力、温度、水质等因素对水滴和气泡表面气体水合物成核和生长规律的影响。对已有的关于研究单个静止悬垂水滴和悬浮气泡表面气体水合物生长特性的实验现象及结果进行了对比分析,得出结论:温度和压力是影响表面水合物结晶与生长的重要因素;温度的降低或压力的升高均使水合反应速度加快。研究为发展喷雾法和鼓泡法这两种强化制备水合物的方式提供了有效的实验支撑。

  1. MEASUREMENT OF BUBBLE-BUBBLE INTERACTION DEPENDED ON REYNOLDS NUMBER USING STEREOSCOPIC BUBBLE-TRACKING TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jian-wu; MURAI Yuichi; YAMAMOTO Fujio

    2005-01-01

    Bubble-bubble interaction in free rising bubbly flows is experimentally investigated in the present study.The velocity vectors of the bubbles are measured by a stereoscopic bubble-tracking technique and then the relative velocity vectors of two nearest-neighbor bubbles are calculated with high statistical reliability.With the measurement data at Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 75, the vertical attraction and the horizontal repulsion are confirmed for Re<10 as known by the past study based on Navier-Stokes simulation.The new finding of the present measurement is that the bubbles of Re>30 have repulsive velocity bothin the horizontal and the vertical directions as those rise closely.Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of the bubble-bubble interaction is discussed with the data analysis of the interaction vector fields.

  2. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  3. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  4. Numerical simulation of bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling under velocity and temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreini, Mohammad, E-mail: m.bahreini1990@gmail.com; Ramiar, Abas, E-mail: aramiar@nit.ac.ir; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ranjbar@nit.ac.ir

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.

  5. Voronoi analysis of bubbly flows via ultrafast X-ray tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Yuk Man; Mueller, Karolin; Azizi, Salar; Schubert, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Although clustering of bubbles plays a significant role in bubble column reactors regarding the heat and mass transfer due to bubble-bubble and flow field interactions, it has yet to be fully understood. Contrary to flows in bubble columns, most literature studies on clustering report numerical and experimental results on dilute or micro-bubbly flows. In this paper, clustering of bubbles in a cylindrical bubble column of 100 mm diameter is experimentally investigated. Ultrafast X-ray tomographic imaging is used to obtain the bubble positions within a hybrid Eulerian framework. By means of Voronoi analysis, the clustering behavior of bubbles is investigated. Experiments are performed with different superficial gas velocities, where Voronoi diagrams are constructed at several column heights. From the PDFs of the Voronoi diagrams, it is shown that the bubble structuring in terms of Voronoi cell volumes develops slower than the bubble size distribution. The latter reaches a steady state earlier with increasing column height. The measured PDFs are compared with the PDF of randomly distributed points, which showed that the amount of bubbles as part of clusters (Voronoi cells < V/ anti V{sub cluster}) as well as bubbles as part of voids (Voronoi cells > V/ anti V{sub void}) increases with the superficial gas velocity. It is found that all experiments have an approximate cluster limit V/ anti V{sub cluster} of 0.63, while the void limit V/ anti V{sub void} varies between 1.5 and 3.0. (orig.)

  6. Acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Bo; Zhang Jian-Run; Li Pu

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic pressure model of bubble bursting is proposed.An experiment studying the acoustic characteristics of the bursting bubble at the surface of a high-viscosity liquid is reported.It is found that the sudden bursting of a bubble at the high-viscosity liquid surface generates N-shape wave at first,then it transforms into a jet wave.The fundamental frequency of the acoustic signal caused by the bursting bubble decreases linearly as the bubble size increases.The results of the investigation can be used to understand the acoustic characteristics of bubble bursting.

  7. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-07-22

    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Experimantal Study on the Bubble Clustering in Bubbly Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shu; Fujiwara, Akiko; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2003-11-01

    The statistical properties of bubbly flows and the near-wall bubble-clustering behaviors are investigated for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size, turbulent properties of liquid phase and the bubble clustering motion were measured using image-processing technique, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), respectively. Using 3-pentanol as a surfactant, the mono-dispersed 1mm-bubbles are generated. The mono-dispersed bubbles in upward flows accumulate near the wall and construct bubble clusters. These bubble clusters were investigated. Experimental observation showed that the size of bubble cluster can be much larger than that of the coherent structure in single phase turbulence. The clusters change their shape in time and space and these bubble motions accelerate the mean streamwise velocity near the wall due to the buoyancy effect. Thus the mean velocity profile of the liquid phase becomes flattened. It is suggested that the highly accumulated bubbles in the vicinity of the wall disturb the transport of turbulence energy produced in the wall shear layer from the central region of the channel flow. Furthermore, in the middle of channel, the fluctuations of the liquid phase are mainly generated by the bubble motions.

  9. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  10. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  11. Dynamics of Magnetized Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Background Magnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D. M.; Gilmore, M.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation of dense magnetized plasma, either collimated with mainly azimuthal B-field (jet) or toroidal with closed B-field (bubble), in a background plasma occurs in a number of solar and astrophysical cases. Such cases include coronal mass ejections moving in the background solar wind and extragalactic radio lobes expanding into the extragalactic medium. Understanding the detailed MHD behavior is crucial for correctly modeling these events. In order to further the understanding of such systems, we are investigating the injection of dense magnetized jets and bubbles into a lower density background magnetized plasma using a coaxial plasma gun and a background helicon or cathode plasma. In both jet and bubble cases, the MHD dynamics are found to be very different when launched into background plasma or magnetic field, as compared to vacuum. In the jet case, it is found that the inherent kink instability is stabilized by velocity shear developed due to added magnetic tension from the background field. In the bubble case, rather than directly relaxing to a minimum energy Taylor state (spheromak) as in vacuum, there is an expansion asymmetry and the bubble becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable on one side. Recent results will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.

  12. Gas Bubble Growth in Muddy Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    appropriate model for growth (i.e. non - Newtonian viscous vs. plastic (Bingham) vs. elastic vs. visco-elastic). The modelling research (Bernard Boudreau...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 On the modelling front, we have a working model of a sediment as a Newtonian /Power-Law fluid , surrounding a... Newtonian model or approximated with a Power-Law fluid model. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Bubbles seriously compromise acoustic sensing of sediments, e.g. locating

  13. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  14. Bubbles of Nothing and Supersymmetric Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J; Sousa, Kepa; Urrestilla, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the non-perturbative stability of supersymmetric compactifications with respect to decay via a bubble of nothing. We show examples where this kind of instability is not prohibited by the spin structure, i.e., periodicity of fermions about the extra dimension. However, such "topologically unobstructed" cases do exhibit an extra-dimensional analog of the well-known Coleman-De Luccia suppression mechanism, which prohibits the decay of supersymmetric vacua. We demonstrate this explicitly in a four dimensional Abelian-Higgs toy model coupled to supergravity. The compactification of this model to $M_3 \\times S_1$ presents the possibility of vacua with different windings for the scalar field. Away from the supersymmetric limit, these states decay by the formation of a bubble of nothing, dressed with an Abelian-Higgs vortex. We show how, as one approaches the supersymmetric limit, the circumference of the topologically unobstructed bubble becomes infinite, thereby preventing the realization of this dec...

  15. Bubble dynamics in perfused tissue undergoing decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, S; Nir, A; Kerem, D

    1981-02-01

    A mathematical model describing bubble dynamics in a perfused tissue undergoing decompression is presented, taking into account physical expansion and inward diffusion from surrounding supersaturated tissue as growth promoting factors and tissue gas elimination by perfusion, tissue elasticity, surface tension and inherent unsaturation as resolving driving forces. The expected behavior after a step reduction of pressure of a bubble initially existing in the tissue, displaying both growth and resolution has been demonstrated. A strong perfusion-dependence of bubble resolution time at low perfusion rates is apparent. The model can account for various exposure pressures and saturation fractions of any inert gas-tissue combination for which a set of physical and physiological parameters is available.

  16. Nucleation of vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Young Jae; Yeom, Dong-han

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study nucleation of vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke type theory of gravity. In the Euclidean signatures, we calculate field combinations of vacuum bubbles as solutions of Einstein and field equations as well as their probabilities by integrating the Euclidean action. We illustrate three possible ways to obtain vacuum bubbles: true vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ > -3/2, false vacuum bubbles for $\\omega$ -3/2 when the vacuum energy of the false vacuum in the potential of the Einstein frame is less than that of the true vacuum. After the bubble is nucleated at the t = 0 surface, we can smoothly connect and match the field combinations to some solutions of the Lorentzian signatures and consistently continue their subsequent evolutions. Therefore, we conclude that, in general scalar-tensor theories or Brans-Dicke type theories, which include some models of string theory, vacuum bubbles are allowed not only in the form of true vacuum bubbles but also false vacuum bubbles, as long as a special cond...

  17. Synchronous observation of rising soluble bubble through quiescent solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifu ZHANG; Shuai TIAN; Weizhong LI; Yongchen SONG

    2009-01-01

    An experimental method using computer image processing technology (CIPT) was proposed to observe and investigate the velocity, deformation, heat and mass transfer, etc. of a rising soluble gas (CO2) bubble through a quiescent hot water. A model was set up to describe the behavior of the bubble in a visual experi-mental system in which a high-speed camera rose instantaneously with the movement of the bubble. A series of trajectory videos about the bubble were recorded by a computer linked to the camera. The trajectory, volume changes and rate of mass transfer of the bubble were obtained by the CIPT. It is found that the single bubble follows a rolling trajectory at the initial stage when there is mass transfer. With the volume decreasing, the disturbed behavior of the bubble becomes tempered. When the rising velocity of the bubble reaches the maximum, the velocity is nearly at a constant. The experimental and analysis results show that this method is useful for the research on the mass transfer and the movement of rising bubbles in liquid.

  18. The Early Years: Blowing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Blowing bubbles is not only a favorite summer activity for young children. Studying bubbles that are grouped together, or "foam," is fun for children and fascinating to many real-world scientists. Foam is widely used--from the bedroom (mattresses) to outer space (insulating panels on spacecraft). Bubble foam can provide children a…

  19. Effects of Swirl Bubble Injection on Mass Transfer and Hydrodynamics for Bubbly Flow Reactors: A Concept Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqi Ahmad Salam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble flow reactors (BFR are commonly used for various industrial processes in the field of oil and gas production, pharmaceutical industries, biochemical and environmental engineering etc. The operation and performance of these reactors rely heavily on a range of hydrodynamic parameters; prominent among them are geometric configurations including gas injection geometry, operating conditions, mass transfer etc. A huge body of literature is available to describe the optimum design and performance of bubbly flow reactors with conventional bubble injection. Attempts were made to modify gas injection for improved efficiency of BFR’s. However, here instead of modifying the geometry of the gas injection, an attempt has been made to generate swirl bubbles for gaining larger mass transfer between gas and liquid. Here an exceptionally well thought strategies have been used in our numerical simulations towards the design of swirl injection mechanism, whose paramount aspect is to inhibit the rotary liquid motion but facilitates the swirl movement for bubbles in nearly stationary liquid. Our comprehension here is that the swirl motion can strongly affect the performance of bubbly reactor by identifying the changes in hydrodynamic parameters as compared to the conventional bubbly flows. In order to achieve this bubbly flow, an experimental setup has been designed as well as computational fluid dynamic (CFD code was used with to highlight a provision of swirl bubble injection by rotating the sparger plate.

  20. Bubble Dynamics for Nucleate Pool Boiling of Water, Ethanol and Methanol Pure Liquids under the Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samane hamzekhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble dynamics is the most important sub-phenomenon, which basically affects the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient. In this research, bubble departure diameter values were experimentally measured for heat fluxes up to 110 kW.m-2. Experiments were carried out for pool boiling of pure liquids, including water, ethanol and methanol on a horizontal smoothed cylinder, at atmospheric pressure. For ethanol and methanol, rigid spherical bubbles with small contact area were observed. The spherical shapes seem to be because of small diameters.For all test fluids, experimental results show that bubble diameter increases with increasing heat flux. Most predictions have a similar trend for increasing bubble diameter versus increasing heat flux. Also, the existing well-known and most common used correlations are comparatively discussedwith the present experimental data. Finally, a new model for the prediction of vapor bubble departure diameter, based on Buckingham theory, in nucleate boiling is proposed, which predicts the experimental data with a satisfactory accuracy.

  1. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  2. The Liberal Arts Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresto, John

    2011-01-01

    The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…

  3. Popping the Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Amid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real estate market.In the past month,the government launched a series of regulatory policies aimed at cooling the overheated market.

  4. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  5. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  6. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...

  7. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  8. Microfluidic "blinking" bubble pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zhizhong; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports data obtained on a simple micropump, suitable for electrolytes, based on the periodic growth and collapse of a single vapor bubble in a microchannel. With a channel diameter of the order of 100 µm, pumping rates of several tens of µl/min and pressure differences of several kPa are

  9. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  10. Density-fluctuation symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation for a bubbly liquid with experimental support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Liquids with gas bubbles are commonly seen in medical science, natural science, daily life and engineering. Nonlinear-wave symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov model for a bubbly liquid is hereby performed. An auto-Bäcklund transformation and with some solitonic solutions are obtained. With respect to the density fluctuation of the bubble-liquid mixture, both the auto-Bäcklund transformation and solitonic solutions depend on the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions. We note that some shock waves given by our solutions have been observed by the gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments. Effects on a bubbly liquid with respect to the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions might be detected by the future gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments.

  11. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis.

  12. Volume Displacement Effects in Bubble-laden Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihonski, Andrew; Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh

    2012-11-01

    When a few bubbles are entrained in a traveling vortex ring, it has been shown that even at extremely low volume loadings, their presence can significantly affect the structure of the vortex core (Sridhar & Katz 1999). A typical Euler-Lagrange point-particle model with two-way coupling for this dilute system, wherein the bubbles are assumed subgrid and momentum point-sources are used to model their effect on the flow, is shown to be unable to accurately capture the experimental trends of bubble settling location and vortex distortion for a range of bubble parameters and vortex strengths. The bubbles experience a significant amount of drag, lift, added mass, pressure, and gravity forces. However, these forces are in balance of each other, as the bubbles reach a mean settling location away from the vortex core. Accounting for fluid volume displacement due to bubble motion, using a model termed as volumetric coupling, experimental trends on vortex distortion and bubble settling location are well captured. The fluid displacement effects are studied by introducing a notion of a volumetric coupling force, the net force on the fluid due to volumetric coupling, which is found to be dominant even at the low volume loadings investigated here.

  13. Inflation and bubbles in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Castillo, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.

    1986-11-01

    Following Israel's study of singular hypersurfaces and thin shells in general relativity, the complete set of Einstein's field equations in the presence of a bubble boundary SIGMA is reviewed for all spherically symmetric embedding four-geometries M+/-. The mapping that identifies points between the boundaries Σ+ and Σ- is obtained explicitly when the regions M+ and M- are described by a de Sitter and a Minkowski metric, respectively. In addition, the evolution of a bubble with vanishing surface energy density is studied in a spatially flat Robertson-Walker space-time, for region M- radiation dominated with a vanishing cosmological constant, and an energy equation in M+ determined by the matching. It is found that this type of bubble leads to a ``worm-hole'' matching; that is, an infinite extent exterior of a sphere is joined across the wall to another infinite extent exterior of a sphere. Interior-interior matches are also possible. Under this model, solutions for a bubble following a Hubble law are analyzed. Numerical solutions for bubbles with constant tension are also obtained.

  14. Pattern Generation by Bubble Packing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel V.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new computational method forornamental Pattern design. The work is a concerted effort ofevaluation of various methods and the comparatively betterprocess is used for designing keeping in mind the accuracyrequirement for such Indian traditional ethnic designs. The firststep in the process to apply the CAD tools to design the patterns.Small semantics (profile are made using the mathematicalmodelling to make different pattern. Geometric constraints suchas scaling, rotation, transformation etc. are applied to make andmodify the profiles. To create patterns, obtains node locationsthrough a physically based particle simulation, which we call'bubble packing. Bubbles are closely packed on the corners,edges and on the surface domain, and nodes are placed at thecenters of the bubbles. Experimental results show that ourmethod can create high quality ornamental patterns. Thefabrication of the ornaments is on rapid prototype machine.

  15. One Bubble to Rule Them All

    CERN Document Server

    Hartle, James

    2016-01-01

    We apply the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum cosmology to predict probabilities for our local observations of a universe undergoing false vacuum eternal inflation. At a sufficiently fine-grained level, histories of the universe describe a mosaic of bubble universes separated by inflationary regions. We show that predictions for local observations can be obtained directly from sets of much coarser grained histories which only follow a single bubble. These coarse-grained histories contain neither information about our unobservable location nor about the unobservable large-scale structure outside our own bubble. Applied to a landscape of false vacua in the no-boundary state we predict our local universe emerged from the dominant decay channel of the lowest energy false vacuum. We compare and contrast this framework for prediction based on quantum cosmology with traditional approaches to the measure problem in cosmology.

  16. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened w

  17. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column: draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob

  18. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical extent

  19. A Unified Model of the Fermi Bubbles, Microwave Haze, and Polarized Radio Lobes: Reverse Shocks in the Galactic Center's Giant Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Galactic Center's giant outflows are manifest in three different, non-thermal phenomena: i) the hard-spectrum, \\gamma-ray `Fermi Bubbles' emanating from the nucleus and extending to |b| ~ 50 degrees; ii) the hard-spectrum, total-intensity microwave (~ 20-40 GHz) `Haze' extending to |b| ~ 35 degrees in the lower reaches of the Fermi Bubbles; and iii) the steep spectrum, polarized, `S-PASS' radio (~ 2-20 GHz) Lobes that envelop the Bubbles and extend to |b| ~ 60 degrees. We find that the nu...

  20. Collision of a small bubble with a large falling particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejrazka Jiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The motion of a tiny bubble (< 1mm in a neighborhood of a solid sphere falling through a liquid is studied. A model assuming irrotational flow around the sphere and spherical bubble shape is provided; this model is validated by comparison with the experiment. The model can be further simplified by neglecting inertial forces, which are negligible in present experiments. Results of the model are provided also for the opposite limit, in which the inertial forces are dominating the bubble motion.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of bubble nucleation in dark matter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Denzel, Philipp; Angélil, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Bubble chambers and droplet detectors used in dosimetry and dark matter particle search experiments use a superheated metastable liquid in which nuclear recoils trigger bubble nucleation. This process is described by the classical heat spike model of F. Seitz [Phys. Fluids (1958-1988) 1, 2 (1958)], which uses classical nucleation theory to estimate the amount and the localization of the deposited energy required for bubble formation. Here we report on direct molecular dynamics simulations of heat-spike-induced bubble formation. They allow us to test the nanoscale process described in the classical heat spike model. 40 simulations were performed, each containing about 20 million atoms, which interact by a truncated force-shifted Lennard-Jones potential. We find that the energy per length unit needed for bubble nucleation agrees quite well with theoretical predictions, but the allowed spike length and the required total energy are about twice as large as predicted. This could be explained by the rapid energy di...

  2. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in oil-refrigerant mixtures under isothermal decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Joao Paulo; Barbosa Junior, Jader R.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: jpdias@polo.ufsc.br, jrb@polo.ufsc.br, prata@polo.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model to predict the growth of gaseous refrigerant bubbles in oil-refrigerant mixtures with high contents of oil subjected to isothermal decompression. The model considers an Elementary Cell (EC) in which a spherical bubble is surrounded by a concentric and spherical liquid layer containing a limited amount of dissolved liquid refrigerant. The pressure reduction in the EC generates a concentration gradient at the bubble interface and the refrigerant is transported to the bubble by molecular diffusion. After a sufficiently long period of time, the concentration gradient in the liquid layer and the bubble internal pressure reach equilibrium and the bubble stops growing, having attained its stable radius. The equations of momentum and chemical species conservation for the liquid layer, and the mass balance at the bubble interface are solved via a coupled finite difference procedure to determine the bubble internal pressure, the refrigerant radial concentration distribution and the bubble growth rate. Numerical results obtained for a mixture of ISO VG10 ester oil and refrigerant HFC-134a showed that bubble growth dynamics depends on model parameters like the initial bubble radius, initial refrigerant concentration in the liquid layer, decompression rate and EC temperature. Despite its simplicity, the model showed to be a potential tool to predict bubble growth and foaming which may result from important phenomena occurring inside refrigeration compressors such as lubrication of sliding parts and refrigerant degassing from the oil stored in oil sump during compressor start-up. (author)

  3. Numerical Study on Interaction Between Two Bubbles Rising Side by Side in CMC Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenyuan; YIN Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in shear-thinning fluid using volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with continuous surface force (CSF) method.By considering rheological characteristics of fluid,this approach was able to accurately capture the deformation of bubble interface,and validated by comparing with the experimental results.The rising of bubble pairs with different configurations,including horizontal alignment and oblique alignment,was simulated by the method.The influences of the bubble initial distance and the bubble alignment were studied by analyzing the bubble deformation,rising paths and flow fields surrounding bubbles.The results indicate that within certain initial bubble spacing of S* =3.3(S* =SI/D,SI initial distance between bubbles,and D bubble diameter),the dynamic interaction between two bubbles aligned horizontally shows repulsive effect that decreases with the increase of initial bubble spacing,but weakens to certain degree by the shear-thinning properties of fluid.However,the interaction between two bubbles aligned obliquely presents a repulsive effect for the small angle involved but an attractive impact for the large one,which is yet strengthened by the rheological characteristics of fluid.

  4. Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van

    1999-10-01

    About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.

  5. Energy partition at the collapse of spherical cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, M.; Obreschkow, D.; Kobel, P.; Dorsaz, N.; de Bosset, A.; Farhat, M.

    2012-10-01

    Spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles produce a shock wave followed by a rebound bubble. Here we present a systematic investigation of the energy partition between the rebound and the shock. Highly spherical cavitation bubbles are produced in microgravity, which suppresses the buoyant pressure gradient that otherwise deteriorates the sphericity of the bubbles. We measure the radius of the rebound bubble and estimate the shock energy as a function of the initial bubble radius (2-5.6mm) and the liquid pressure (10-80kPa). Those measurements uncover a systematic pressure dependence of the energy partition between rebound and shock. We demonstrate that these observations agree with a physical model relying on a first-order approximation of the liquid compressibility and an adiabatic treatment of the noncondensable gas inside the bubble. Using this model we find that the energy partition between rebound and shock is dictated by a single nondimensional parameter ξ=Δpγ6/[pg01/γ(ρc2)1-1/γ], where Δp=p∞-pv is the driving pressure, p∞ is the static pressure in the liquid, pv is the vapor pressure, pg0 is the pressure of the noncondensable gas at the maximal bubble radius, γ is the adiabatic index of the noncondensable gas, ρ is the liquid density, and c is the speed of sound in the liquid.

  6. Energy partition at the collapse of spherical cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, M; Obreschkow, D; Kobel, P; Dorsaz, N; de Bosset, A; Farhat, M

    2012-10-01

    Spherically collapsing cavitation bubbles produce a shock wave followed by a rebound bubble. Here we present a systematic investigation of the energy partition between the rebound and the shock. Highly spherical cavitation bubbles are produced in microgravity, which suppresses the buoyant pressure gradient that otherwise deteriorates the sphericity of the bubbles. We measure the radius of the rebound bubble and estimate the shock energy as a function of the initial bubble radius (2-5.6mm) and the liquid pressure (10-80kPa). Those measurements uncover a systematic pressure dependence of the energy partition between rebound and shock. We demonstrate that these observations agree with a physical model relying on a first-order approximation of the liquid compressibility and an adiabatic treatment of the noncondensable gas inside the bubble. Using this model we find that the energy partition between rebound and shock is dictated by a single nondimensional parameter ξ=Δpγ6/[p(g0)1/γ(ρc2)1-1/γ], where Δp=p∞ - pv is the driving pressure, p∞ is the static pressure in the liquid, pv is the vapor pressure, pg0 is the pressure of the noncondensable gas at the maximal bubble radius, γ is the adiabatic index of the noncondensable gas, ρ is the liquid density, and c is the speed of sound in the liquid.

  7. Detecting stellar-wind bubbles through infrared arcs in H ii regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Haworth, Thomas J.; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert; Harries, Tim J.

    2016-02-01

    Mid-infrared arcs of dust emission are often seen near ionizing stars within H ii regions. A possible explanations for these arcs is that they could show the outer edges of asymmetric stellar wind bubbles. We use two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of wind bubbles within H ii regions around individual stars to predict the infrared emission properties of the dust within the H ii region. We assume that dust and gas are dynamically well-coupled and that dust properties (composition, size distribution) are the same in the H ii region as outside it, and that the wind bubble contains no dust. We post-process the simulations to make synthetic intensity maps at infrared wavebands using the torus code. We find that the outer edge of a wind bubble emits brightly at 24 μm through starlight absorbed by dust grains and re-radiated thermally in the infrared. This produces a bright arc of emission for slowly moving stars that have asymmetric wind bubbles, even for cases where there is no bow shock or any corresponding feature in tracers of gas emission. The 24 μm intensity decreases exponentially from the arc with increasing distance from the star because the dust temperature decreases with distance. The size distribution and composition of the dust grains has quantitative but not qualitative effects on our results. Despite the simplifications of our model, we find good qualitative agreement with observations of the H ii region RCW 120, and can provide physical explanations for any quantitative differences. Our model produces an infrared arc with the same shape and size as the arc around CD -38°11636 in RCW 120, and with comparable brightness. This suggests that infrared arcs around O stars in H ii regions may be revealing the extent of stellar wind bubbles, although we have not excluded other explanations.

  8. Helium nano-bubble evolution in aging metal tritides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of helium (He) nano-bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging bulk metal tritides is presented which accounts for major features of the experimental database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, is found to occur during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal and is sensitive to the He diffusivity and pairing energy. An effective helium diffusivity of 0.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K is required to generate the average bubble density of 5x 1017 bubbles/cm3 observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early bubble growth by dislocation loop punching with a l/radius bubble pressure dependence produces good agreement with He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from swelling data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, and hydride pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) shifts. The model predicts that later in life neighboring bubble interactions may first lower the loop punching pressure through cooperative stress effects, then raise the pressure by partial blocking of loops. It also accounts for the shape of the bubble spacing distribution obtained from NMR data. This distribution is found to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases, providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation, and indicating that further significant bubble nucleation does not occur throughout life. Helium generated within the escape depth of surfaces and surface-connected porosity produces the low-level early helium release. Accelerated or rapid release is modeled as inter-bubble fracture using an average ligament stress criterion. Good agreement is found between the predicted onset of fracture and the observed He-metal ratio (HeM) for rapid He release from bulk palladium tritide. An examination of how inter-bubble fracture varies over the bubble spacing distribution shows that the critical Hem will be

  9. On 3D reconstruction of bubbles in volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.; Mulukutla, G.; Kiely, C.

    2007-12-01

    Bubbles in volcanic ash particles are primarily represented by the remnants of films and plateau borders from disrupting foam. Without preservation of complete bubbles, measuring bubble size distributions a challenging task, but one for which we have taken a novel approach. Concavities in ash particles retain a record of bubble sizes in the curvature of their concave surfaces that resulted from bubble fragmentation and quenching during energetic magma eruptions. We have used two methods to measure bubble fragment curvature on the basis of 3D reconstruction of ash particle surfaces. One is based on High Resolution X-Ray Tomography (HRXRT) and the second one is based on stereo images from tilting Scattered Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both methods allow the creation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of the ash particle surfaces which in turn are used to identify and measure vertical cross-sectional profiles of the individual bubble fragments ("craters"). Function fit analysis for circular or elliptical functions are applied to each bubble cross sectional profile in two orthogonal directions to reconstruct sizes of the original, complete bubbles. The method allows measurement of submicron (SEM; XUM), micron or larger (HRXRT) bubbles in ash particles. The bubble size distributions so obtained can provide valuable insights regarding magma dynamics and vesiculation that lead to explosive eruptions, as well as the processes of fragmentation in eruption columns. There are no previous systematic information/databases of vesiculation metrics for explosive silicic eruptions, but this new method can be used to produce these and thus provide better insights into prehistoric eruption styles for volcanic hazard assessment.

  10. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  11. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P, E-mail: korneev@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apt. Postal 51 y 216 CP72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  12. Re-solution of fission gas - A review: Part I. Intragranular bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)]. E-mail: fuelpr@nuc.berkeley.edu; Wongsawaeng, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Theories of fission-fragment-driven re-solution of fission-gas atoms from intragranular bubbles in irradiated UO{sub 2} nuclear fuel are reviewed. Two mechanisms of re-solution are generally accepted: the heterogeneous process destroys entire bubbles in the path of fission fragments and returns the gas to the solid as individual atoms; the homogeneous process re-solves fission-gas atoms singly by scattering collisions with fission fragments and uranium recoils whose paths intersect the bubbles. Coupling of these two re-solution models with the bubble nucleation analogs determines the size and number density of the intragranular bubble population. Two approaches are reviewed: the single-size theory, in which all bubbles are accorded one size, and the bubble distribution theory, which seeks to determine the variation of bubble number density with size.

  13. Effects of surface orientation on lifetime of near-surface nanoscale He bubble in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiechao; Fu, Baoqin; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In multiscale modeling of the morphological evolution of plasma facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, the knowledge of the timescales of the involved physical processes is important. In the present study, a new method based on molecular dynamics simulations was developed to extract the lifetime of helium bubbles near tungsten surfaces. It was found that the lifetime of a helium bubble can be described by the Arrhenius equation. However, the lifetime of a helium bubble depends on the thickness of tungsten film above the helium bubble in the substrate and the bubble size. The influence of surface orientations on the lifetime of helium bubbles was also observed, and the performance of helium bubbles on the (1 1 1) surface is very different from on the (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces. The role of the helium bubble lifetime in other simulation techniques, such as in kinetic Monte Carlo methods and rate theory, is discussed.

  14. The Step-wise Velocity of an Air Bubble Rising in a Vertical Tube Filled with a Liquid Dispersion of Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heon Ki; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-03-02

    The motion of air bubbles in tubes filled with aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) is of practical interest for bubblejets, lab-on-a-chip, and transporting media. Therefore, the focus of this study is the dynamics of air bubbles rising in a tube in a nanofluid. Many authors experimentally and analytically proposed that the velocity of rising air bubbles is constant for long air bubbles suspended in a vertical tube in common liquids (e.g. an aqueous glycerol solution) when the capillary number is larger than 10-4. For the first time, we report here a systematic study of an air bubble rising in a vertical tube in a nanofluid (e.g. an aqueous silica dioxide nanoparticle suspension, nominal particle size, 19nm). We varied the bubble length scaled by the diameter of the tubes (L/D), the concentration of the nanofluid (10, and 12.5 v%) and the tube diameter (0.45cm, 0.47cm, and 0.50cm). The presence of the nanoparticles creates a significant change in the bubble velocity compared with the bubble rising in the common liquid with the same bulk viscosity. We observed a novel phenomenon of a step-wise increase in the air bubble rising velocity vs. bubble length for small capillary numbers less than 10-7. This step-wise velocity increase vs. the bubble length was not observed in a common fluid. The step-wise velocity increase is attributed to the nanoparticle self-layering phenomenon in the film adjacent to the tube wall. In order to elucidate the role of the nanoparticle film self-layering on the bubble rising velocity, the effect of the capillary number, the tube diameter (e.g, the capillary pressure), and nanofilm viscosity are investigated. We propose a model that takes into consideration the nanoparticle layering in the film confinement to explain the step-wise velocity phenomenon versus the length of the bubble. The oscillatory film interaction energy isotherm is calculated and the Frenkel approach is used to estimate the film viscosity.

  15. Bubbles and denaturation in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Van Erp, T S; Peyrard, M; Erp, Titus S. van; Cuesta-Lopez, Santiago; Peyrard, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The local opening of DNA is an intriguing phenomenon from a statistical physics point of view, but is also essential for its biological function. For instance, the transcription and replication of our genetic code can not take place without the unwinding of the DNA double helix. Although these biological processes are driven by proteins, there might well be a relation between these biological openings and the spontaneous bubble formation due to thermal fluctuations. Mesoscopic models, like the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model, have fairly accurately reproduced some experimental denaturation curves and the sharp phase transition in the thermodynamic limit. It is, hence, tempting to see whether these models could be used to predict the biological activity of DNA. In a previous study, we introduced a method that allows to obtain very accurate results on this subject, which showed that some previous claims in this direction, based on molecular dynamics studies, were premature. This could either imply that the present...

  16. Numerical Simulation on Ship Bubbly Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiping Fu; Pengcheng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Based on a volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in the general computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT6.3.26,the viscous flow with free surface around a model-scaled KRISO container ship(KCS)was first numerically simulated.Then with a rigid-lid-free-surface method,the underwater flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model to simulate the bubbly wake around the KCS hull.The realizable k-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the ship bubbly wake.The air entrainment model,which is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface,and the solving method were verified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.

  17. Multi-dimensional modeling of gas-liquid two-phase flows. Application to the simulation of ascending bubble flows in vertical ducts; Modelisation multidimensionnelle des ecoulements diphasiques gaz-liquide. Application a la simulation des ecoulements a bulles ascendants en conduite verticale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Ch

    1997-10-31

    The aim of this thesis is the 3-D modeling and numerical simulation of liquid/gas (water/vapor or water/air) two-phase flows in cooling circuits of nuclear power plants during normal and accidental situations. The development of a multidimensional dual-fluid model encounters two problems: the statistical effects of turbulence and the interface mass, momentum and energy transfers. The models developed in this study were introduced in the 3-D module of the CATHARE code developed by the CEA and the results were compared to experimental results available in the literature. The first chapter describes the equations of the local dual-fluid model for the 3-D description of two-phase flows. Closing relations adapted to dispersed flows with isothermal bubbles and without phase transformation are proposed and focus on the momentum transfer at the interfaces. The theoretical study of turbulence in the liquid phase of a bubble flow is modelled in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the voluminal interface area used in the interface mass, momentum and energy transfers, and chapters 4 and 5 concern the application of the developed models to concrete situations. Chapter 4 describes in details the 3-D module of the CATHARE code while chapter 5 gives a comparison of numerical results obtained using the CATHARE code with other experimental results obtained at EdF. (J.S.) 109 refs.

  18. Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.

    2015-10-07

    The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second

  19. Dynamics of a single cavitating and reacting bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Guillermo; Fuster, Daniel; Dopazo, Cesar

    2007-06-01

    Some of the studies on the dynamics of cavitating bubbles often consider simplified submodels assuming uniform fluid properties within the gas bubbles, ignoring chemical reactions, or suppressing fluid transport phenomena across the bubble interface. Another group of works, to which the present contribution belongs, includes the radial dependence of the fluid variables. Important fluid processes that occur inside the gas bubble, such as chemical reactions, and across the bubble interface, such as heat and mass transfer phenomena, are here considered also. As a consequence, this model should yield more realistic results. In particular, it is found that water evaporation and condensation are fundamental transport phenomena in estimating the dissociation reactions of water into OH. The thermal and mass boundary layers and the radial variation of the chemical concentrations also seem essential for accurate predictions.

  20. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  1. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  2. CRISIS FOCUS Blowing Bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese stock and property markets have been outperforming expectations, fueled by an unprecedented surge in bank lending. Xie Guozhong, an economist and board member of Rosetta Stone Advisors, argues the robust Chinese economic figures are only propped up by bubbles, whose bursting will lead to a hard landing for the economy. Xie published his opinion in a related article in Caijing Magazine. Edited excerpts follow:

  3. Ab initio calculation of the potential bubble nucleus 34Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, T.; Somà, V.; Lecluse, S.; Barbieri, C.; Navrátil, P.

    2017-03-01

    Background: The possibility that an unconventional depletion (referred to as a "bubble") occurs in the center of the charge density distribution of certain nuclei due to a purely quantum mechanical effect has attracted theoretical and experimental attention in recent years. Based on a mean-field rationale, a correlation between the occurrence of such a semibubble and an anomalously weak splitting between low angular-momentum spin-orbit partners has been further conjectured. Energy density functional and valence-space shell model calculations have been performed to identify and characterize the best candidates, among which 34Si appears as a particularly interesting case. While the experimental determination of the charge density distribution of the unstable 34Si is currently out of reach, (d ,p ) experiments on this nucleus have been performed recently to test the correlation between the presence of a bubble and an anomalously weak 1 /2--3 /2- splitting in the spectrum of 35Si as compared to 37S. Purpose: We study the potential bubble structure of 34Si on the basis of the state-of-the-art ab initio self-consistent Green's function many-body method. Methods: We perform the first ab initio calculations of 34Si and 36S. In addition to binding energies, the first observables of interest are the charge density distribution and the charge root-mean-square radius for which experimental data exist in 36S. The next observable of interest is the low-lying spectroscopy of 35Si and 37S obtained from (d ,p ) experiments along with the spectroscopy of 33Al and 35P obtained from knock-out experiments. The interpretation in terms of the evolution of the underlying shell structure is also provided. The study is repeated using several chiral effective field theory Hamiltonians as a way to test the robustness of the results with respect to input internucleon interactions. The convergence of the results with respect to the truncation of the many-body expansion, i.e., with respect to

  4. Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Lee, Judy; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a simple and effective experimental approach to measuring the interaction forces between two small bubbles (approximately 80-140 microm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions on the scale of micrometers to nanometers. The colloidal probe technique using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles of various sizes. By using an ultrasonic source, we generated numerous small bubbles on a mildly hydrophobic surface of a glass slide. A single bubble picked up with a strongly hydrophobized V-shaped cantilever was used as the colloidal probe. Sample force measurements were used to evaluate the pure water bubble cleanliness and the general consistency of the measurements.

  5. Bubble Formation Characteristics from a Sieve Tray with Liquid Cross—flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUSonglin; XUShimin

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus,desinged to simulate bubbling of a sieve tray operated in froth regime,was employed. Bubble contact angles in and above the incipient weeping regimer for an air-water-plexiglas system were investigated. The influence of both liquid cross-flow and gas up-flow upon bubble contact angles was examined. A model considering the influence of liquid cross-flow was developed to predict bubble size from a sieve hole in froth operation regime.The comparison shows that the bubble sizes predicted by the present model are consistent with our experimental values and the available published experimental data.

  6. 窄矩形通道内过冷流动沸腾汽泡生长模型研究%Experimental Study on Bubble Growth Model of Subcooled Flow Boiling in Narrow Rectangular Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健; 高璞珍; 许超; 李少丹; 郑强

    2014-01-01

    By using a high speed camera ,a visual investigation of vapor bubble grow th under different system pressures in narrow rectangular channel was performed . The influences of system pressure ,bulk subcooling ,wall superheat and bulk velocity on bubble growth were analyzed . Bubble growth model which could meet different experimental conditions was established based on the Zuber model .The results show that Ja , Bo , Re and non‐dimensional temperature θcan describe the impact of the thermal parameters and flow parameters on bubble grow th comprehensively . T he exponential coefficients of K and n decrease with increasing system pressure ;bubble growth time and maximum diameter decrease with increasing θ.It is proved that the model correlates with the experimental data very well . As the bubble diameters are stochastic intensely under low pressure ,the relative errors between the model predicted values and experimental data under low pressure are relatively large .%采用高速摄影的方式,对不同系统压力条件下窄矩形通道内汽泡生长过程进行了可视化实验研究,分析了回路系统压力、主流过冷度、壁面过热度、主流速度等热工参数对汽泡生长的影响,并在Zuber公式的基础上建立了可满足不同实验工况的汽泡生长模型。结果表明:Ja、Bo、Re和无量纲温度θ可较为全面地描述热工参数和流动参数对汽泡生长的影响,在其他条件相同的情况下,汽泡生长指数拟合曲线的 K和n值随压力的升高明显减小;θ越大,汽泡的生长时间和所能达到的最大直径越小;在给定的参数范围内模型结果与实验结果符合较好,但由于低压条件下汽泡直径变化的随机性更强,所以模型结果与个别低压实验数据的相对误差较大。

  7. Blood platelet-derived microparticles release and bubble formation after an open-sea air dive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Jean-Michel; Gempp, Emmanuel; Ignatescu, Mihaela

    2012-10-01

    Bubble-induced platelet aggregation offers an index for evaluating decompression severity in humans and in a rat model of decompression sickness. Endothelial cells, blood platelets, or leukocytes shed microparticles (MP) upon activation and during cell apoptosis. The aim was to study blood platelet MP (PMP) release and bubble formation after a scuba-air dive in field conditions. Healthy, experienced divers were assigned to 1 experimental group (n = 10) with an open-sea air dive to 30 msw for 30 min and 1 control group (n = 5) during head-out water immersion for the same period. Bubble grades were monitored with a pulsed doppler according to Kissman Integrated Severity Score (KISS). Blood samples for platelet count (PC) and PMP (annexin V and CD41) were taken 1 h before and after exposure in both groups. The result showed a decrease in post-dive PC compared with pre-dive values in experimental group with no significant change in the control group. We observed a significant increase in PMP values after the dive while no change was revealed in the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between the PMP values after the dive and the KISS bubble score. The present study highlighted a relationship between the post-dive decrease in PC, platelet MP release, and bubble formation. Release of platelet MPs could reflect bubble-induced platelet aggregation and could play a key role in alteration of the coagulation. Further studies must investigate endothelial and leukocyte MP release in the same field conditions.

  8. Modeling of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas%合成气制二甲醚三相淤浆床反应器的数学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 应卫勇; 房鼎业

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model for a bubble column slurry reactor is presented for dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas. Methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by hydrogenation and the methanol dehydration are considered as independent reactions, in which methanol, dimethyl ether and carbon dioxide are the key components. In this model, the gas phase is considered to be in plug flow and the liquid phase to be in partly back mixing with axial distribution of solid catalyst. The simulation results show that the axial dispersion of solid catalysts, the operational height of the slurry phase in the bubble column slurry reactor, and the reaction results are influenced by the reaction temperature and pressure, which are the basic data for the scale-up of reactor.

  9. CFD simulation of bubbly turbulent Tayor-Couette flow☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Gao; Bo Kong; R. Dennis Vigil

    2016-01-01

    Bubbly gas–liquid Taylor–Couette vortex flow has been the subject of several recent investigations both because of interest in bubble-induced drag reduction and because such devices have potential applications to a variety of chemical and biochemical processing problems. In order to quantitatively describe the hydrodynamics of highly turbulent two phase Taylor–Couette flow, a rigorous two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and compared with previously published experimental data. This model includes a comprehensive description of the constitutive closure for inter-phase forces and turbulence was simulated using both the k–εand k–ωmodels. In addition, the mechanism by which the dispersed fluid attains a non-uniform radial and axial distribution is analyzed and the relative importance of various interphase forces is discussed. Lastly the model was validated by comparison of simulation predictions with experimental data, and it is shown that the CFD model correctly predicts phase velocity, velocity fluctuation, and gas distribution, and may provide guidance for reactor design and scale-up.

  10. Concentration distribution around a growing gas bubble in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S A; Mohamed, K G

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the concentration distribution around a growing nitrogen gas bubble in the blood and other tissues of divers who surface too quickly, when the ambient pressure through the decompression process is variable and constant. This effort is a modification of Sirinivasan et al. model (1999) [9]. The mathematical model is solved analytically to find the growth rate of a gas bubble in a tissue after decompression in the ambient pressure. Moreover, the concentration distribution around the growing bubble is introduced. The growth process is affected by ascent rate alpha (t), tissue diffusivity D(T), initial concentration difference DeltaC(0), surface tension sigma and void fraction varphi(0).

  11. Electrowetting of a soap bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture - the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometre thick films of Teflon. Voltages less than 40V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g. laboratory-on-a-chip) - the potential gains in terms of volume, speed and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.

  12. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  13. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  14. Establishment of Measurement Techniques for Sliding Bubble on a Horizontal Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu-Na Kim; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanistic wall boiling model includes many parameters relevant with bubble behaviors, such as the bubble departure diameter, bubble lift-off diameter, bubble waiting time, etc. Although there have been a large number of studies investigating bubble behavior, the subjects of observation are almost bubbles on a plane or vertical tube. Since the bubble motion is highly influenced by the directions of gravitational force and the heating surfaces, it is expected that the bubble behavior on a horizontal tube is largely different from those on the other geometry. The heat exchanger of APR+ has horizontal U-tube configuration installed in a water pool, of which diameter is 50mm. The study aims to establish measurement techniques for sliding bubbles on a horizontal tube. The measurement parameters include the diameter, interface area, volume, and velocity of the bubble. Additionally, in order to analyze the force acting on the bubble, liquid velocity measurement method was proposed. This paper presents the procedure of the measurement; the phase separation technique, 3-D reconstruction technique, and velocity measurement techniques. For visualization of the sliding bubble behavior, bubble and liquid velocity measurement methods were established which use two high speed cameras and a continuous LASER for the PTV and PIV. Three steps for the bubble shape and velocity measurement (the phase separation, 3-D reconstruction, and velocity calculation), were successfully set up and verified. A PIV technique which uses two different time duration for two regions where the velocity difference is huge was proposed and tested. Using these methods, various information regarding a sliding bubble can be obtained such as bubble and liquid velocities, shape, volume, surface area etc.

  15. Analysis of the real estate market in Las Vegas: Bubble, seasonal patterns, and prediction of the CSW indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We analyze 27 house price indices of Las Vegas from June 1983 to March 2005, corresponding to 27 different zip codes. These analyses confirm the existence of a real estate bubble, defined as a price acceleration faster than exponential, which is found, however, to be confined to a rather limited time interval in the recent past from approximately 2003 to mid-2004 and has progressively transformed into a more normal growth rate comparable to pre-bubble levels in 2005. There has been no bubble till 2002 except for a medium-sized surge in 1990. In addition, we have identified a strong yearly periodicity which provides a good potential for fine-tuned prediction from month to month. A monthly monitoring using a model that we have developed could confirm, by testing the intra-year structure, if indeed the market has returned to “normal” or if more turbulence is expected ahead. We predict the evolution of the indices one year ahead, which is validated with new data up to September 2006. The present analysis demonstrates the existence of very significant variations at the local scale, in the sense that the bubble in Las Vegas seems to have preceded the more global USA bubble and has ended approximately two years earlier (mid-2004 for Las Vegas compared with mid-2006 for the whole of the USA).

  16. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma bubbles are large-scale (10 to 100 km) depletions in plasma density found in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. Their formation has been found to entail the upward transport of plasma over hundreds of kilometers in altitude, suggesting that bubbles play significant roles in the physics of many of the diverse and unique features found in the low-latitude ionosphere. In the simplest scenario, plasma bubbles appear first as perturbations in the bottomside F layer, which is linearly unstable to the gravitationally driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Once initiated, bubbles develop upward through the peak of the F layer into its topside (sometimes to altitudes in excess of 1000 km), a behavior predicted by the nonlinear form of the same instability. While good general agreement has been found between theory and observations, little is known about the detailed physics associated with plasma bubbles. Our research activity centered around two topics: the shape of plasma bubbles and associated electric fields, and the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of plasma bubbles. The first topic was pursued because of a divergence in view regarding the nonlinear physics associated with plasma bubble development. While the development of perturbations in isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer into plasma bubbles is well accepted, some believed bubbles to be cylinder-like closed regions of depleted plasma density that floated upward leaving a turbulent wake behind them (e.g., Woodman and LaHoz, 1976; Ott, 1978; Kelley and Ott, 1978). Our results, summarized in a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, consisted of incoherent scatter radar measurements that showed unambiguously that the depleted region is wedgelike and not cylinderlike, and a case study and modeling of SM-D electric field instrument (EFI) measurements that showed that the absence of electric-field perturbations outside the plasma-depleted region is a distinct signature of wedge

  17. Bubble reconstruction method for wire-mesh sensors measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukin, Roman V.

    2016-08-01

    A new algorithm is presented for post-processing of void fraction measurements with wire-mesh sensors, particularly for identifying and reconstructing bubble surfaces in a two-phase flow. This method is a combination of the bubble recognition algorithm presented in Prasser (Nuclear Eng Des 237(15):1608, 2007) and Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm developed in Kazhdan et al. (Poisson surface reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the fourth eurographics symposium on geometry processing 7, 2006). To verify the proposed technique, a comparison was done of the reconstructed individual bubble shapes with those obtained numerically in Sato and Ničeno (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 70(4):441, 2012). Using the difference between reconstructed and referenced bubble shapes, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was estimated. At the next step, the algorithm was applied to void fraction measurements performed in Ylönen (High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle (Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Nr. 20961, 2013) by means of wire-mesh sensors in a rod bundle geometry. The reconstructed bubble shape yields bubble surface area and volume, hence its Sauter diameter d_{32} as well. Sauter diameter is proved to be more suitable for bubbles size characterization compared to volumetric diameter d_{30}, proved capable to capture the bi-disperse bubble size distribution in the flow. The effect of a spacer grid was studied as well: For the given spacer grid and considered flow rates, bubble size frequency distribution is obtained almost at the same position for all cases, approximately at d_{32} = 3.5 mm. This finding can be related to the specific geometry of the spacer grid or the air injection device applied in the experiments, or even to more fundamental properties of the bubble breakup and coagulation processes. In addition, an application of the new algorithm for reconstruction of a large air-water interface in a tube bundle is

  18. The effect of bubble nest size on sexual selection in wild Siamese fighting fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullica Jaroensutasinee

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bubble nest size was tested on male contest and female preference in wild Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan, a sexually dimorphic fish that exhibits paternal care. Females presented with two potential mates of different bubble nest areas did not prefer larger bubble nest males. Larger bubble nest males were not more successful in male contests. There were no differences in fighting duration. Comparing agonistic behaviour between large and small bubble nest males, there were no differences between these two males concerning any agonistic behaviours during fighting.

  19. Comparing Poisson Sigma Model with A-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonechi, F.; Cattaneo, A. S.; Iraso, R.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the A-model as a gauge fixing of the Poisson Sigma Model with target a symplectic structure. We complete the discussion in [4], where a gauge fixing defined by a compatible complex structure was introduced, by showing how to recover the A-model hierarchy of observables in terms of the AKSZ observables. Moreover, we discuss the off-shell supersymmetry of the A-model as a residual BV symmetry of the gauge fixed PSM action.

  20. Bubble dynamics inside an outgassing hydrogel confined in a Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudin, Florence; Noblin, Xavier; Bouret, Yann; Argentina, Médéric; Raufaste, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    We report an experimental study of bubble dynamics in a non-Newtonian fluid subjected to a pressure decrease. The fluid is a hydrogel, composed of water and a synthetic clay, prepared and sandwiched between two glass plates in a Hele-Shaw geometry. The rheological properties of the material can be tuned by the clay concentration. As the imposed pressure decreases, the gas initially dissolved in the hydrogel triggers bubble formation. Different stages of the process are observed: bubble nucleation, growth, interaction, and creation of domains by bubble contact or coalescence. Initially bubble behave independently. They are trapped and advected by the mean deformation of the hydrogel, and the bubble growth is mainly driven by the diffusion of the dissolved gas through the hydrogel and its outgassing at the reactive-advected hydrogel-bubble interface. In this regime, the rheology of the fluid does not play a significant role on the bubble growth. A model is proposed and gives a simple scaling that relates the bubble growth rate and the imposed pressure. Carbon dioxide is shown to be the gas at play, and the hydrogel is degassing at the millimeter scale as a water solution does at a smaller scale. Later, bubbles are not independent anymore. The growth rate decreases, and the morphology becomes more anisotropic as bubbles interact because they are separated by a distance smaller than the individual stress field extension. Our measurements show that the interaction distance scales with the bubbles' size.

  1. Hydrodynamic extensional stress during the bubble bursting process for bioreactor system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tinh; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, In Su; Woo, Nam Sub; Han, Sang Mok; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Cell damage, one of critical issues in the bioreactor design for animal cell culture, is caused mainly from the bubble bursting at the free surface subjected to strong extensional flows. In this work, extensive computational studies are performed to investigate bubble bursting process in great details. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of bubble diameters (from 0.5 to 6 mm) and the surface tension values (from 0.03 to 0.072 N/m), with which effects of the bubble size and surfactant (PF68) concentration on the hydrodynamic stress are investigated. For all the cases, the maximum extensional stress appears at the instance when receding films impact each other at the bottom of the bubble. A model equation based on numerical simulations is presented to predict the maximum extensional stress as a function of the bubble diameter and the surface tension. The bubble diameter has turned out to contribute significantly the maximum hydrodynamic extensional stress. In addition, the bubble collapsed time and the affected volume around a bubble subjected to the critical extensional stress are investigated. The extensional stress estimation is reported as a function of the bubble size and the surface tension. The influence of the bubble size on the maximum stress dominates and extensional stress reaches up to the order of 104 Pa for bubble size of 0.5 mm.

  2. Sensitivity of a bubble growth to the cheese material properties during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokoua, G.; Grenier, D.; Lucas, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a model of transport phenomena describes a single bubble growth in semi-hard cheese. Carbon dioxide production, its transport to the bubble interface, equilibrium laws and mechanics were coupled. Semi-hard cheese mainly behaves as elastic when loads are quickly applied to a piece of cheese like during chewing (few seconds). However, when slowly loaded with increasing gas pressure during ripening in warm room, the mechanical cheese behavior can be simply modelled as a viscous material (Grenier et al. [9]). It is true, as long as viscosity remains low compared to the rate of gas production. This paper investigates a wider range of viscosity (from core η = 6.32 × 107 Pa.s to rind η = 2.88 × 108 Pa.s) than that used in previous studies. FEM simulations have shown that higher viscosities encountered close to the rind of a cheese block can partly explain the increase in gas pressure within bubbles from the core to the rind (up to 3.4 kPa). These results confirm that mechanics does not really control the evolution of bubble volume in cheese. However, mechanics can explain greater pressure observed close to the rind even if gas production is lower than at core.

  3. The Orion OB1 association; 2, the Orion-Eridanus bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, A G A; Burton, W B; Brown, Anthony G A; Hartmann, D; Burton, W B

    1995-01-01

    Observations of the interstellar medium in the vicinity of the Orion OB1 association show a cavity filled with hot ionized gas, surrounded by an expanding shell of neutral hydrogen (the Orion-Eridanus Bubble). In this paper we examine this cavity and the surrounding bubble with the aid of data from the Leiden/Dwingeloo HI survey. We present neutral-hydrogen maps for the Orion-Eridanus region which allow identification of the HI filaments and arcs delineating the Bubble and derivation of its expansion velocity. The HI data are compared to X-ray, CO and IRAS 100 micron data. Using models of wind blown bubbles that take the density stratification of the Galactic HI layer into account we show that the stellar winds and supernovae from stars in Orion OB1 can account for the size as well as the expansion velocity of the HI shell. However, density inhomogeneities in the ambient interstellar medium cause significant discrepancies between our model and the observed shell.

  4. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    using deep field Hubble observations, Castellano and collaborators found an additional 6 galaxies in the same region as the first two, also at a redshift of z~7!The authors believe these galaxies provide a simple explanation of the ionized bubble: each of these faint, normal galaxies produced a small ionized bubble. The overlap of these many small bubbles provided the larger ionized region from which the light of the two originally discovered galaxies was able to escape.How normal is this clustering of galaxies found by Castellano and collaborators? The team demonstrates via cosmological modeling that the number density of galaxies in this region is a factor of 34 greater than would be expected at this distance in a random pointing of the same size.These results greatly support the theoretical prediction that the first ionization fronts in the universe were formed in regions with significant galaxy overdensities. The discovery of this deep-field collection of galaxies strongly suggests that reionization was driven by faint, normal star-forming galaxies in a clumpy process.CitationM. Castellano et al 2016 ApJ 818 L3. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/818/1/L3

  5. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  6. Evolution and physics in comparative protein structure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiser, András; Feig, Michael; Brooks, Charles L; Sali, Andrej

    2002-06-01

    From a physical perspective, the native structure of a protein is a consequence of physical forces acting on the protein and solvent atoms during the folding process. From a biological perspective, the native structure of proteins is a result of evolution over millions of years. Correspondingly, there are two types of protein structure prediction methods, de novo prediction and comparative modeling. We review comparative protein structure modeling and discuss the incorporation of physical considerations into the modeling process. A good starting point for achieving this aim is provided by comparative modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints. Incorporation of physical considerations is illustrated by an inclusion of solvation effects into the modeling of loops.

  7. Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.

    1999-01-01

    forming bubble decreases, as the superficial liquid velocity is in-creased. Furthermore, it is shown that the void fraction of the resulting two-phase flow increases with volumetric gas flow rate Q(sub d), pipe diameter and gas injection nozzle diameter, while they decrease with surrounding liquid flow. The important role played by flowing liquid in detaching bubbles in a reduced gravity environment is thus emphasized. We observe that the void fraction can be accurately controlled by using single nozzle gas injection, rather than by employing multiple port injection, since the later system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. It is of interest to note that empirical bubble size and corresponding void fraction are somewhat smaller for the co-flow geometry than the cross-flow configuration at similar flow conditions with similar pipe and nozzle diameters. In order to supplement the empirical data, a theoretical model is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic (Q(sub d) = 1 - 1000 cu cm/s) and bubbly flow regime within the framework of the co-flow configuration. This theoretical model is based on an overall force balance acting on the bubble during the two stages of generation, namely the expansion and the detachment stage. Two sets of forces, one aiding and the other inhibiting bubble detachment are identified. Under conditions of reduced gravity, gas momentum flux enhances, while the surface tension force at the air injection nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. In parallel, liquid drag and inertia can act as both attaching and detaching forces, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with our experimental results. However, at higher superficial liquid velocities, as the bubble loses its spherical form, empirical bubble size no longer matches the theoretical predictions. In summary, we have developed a combined experimental and

  8. Comparing SVARs and SEMs : Two models of the UK economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.P.A.M.; Wallis, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The structural vector autoregression (SVAR) and simultaneous equation macroeconometric model (SEM) styles of empirical macroeconomic modelling are compared and contrasted, with reference to two models of the UK economy, namely the long-run structural VAR model of Garratt, Lee, Pesaran and Shin and t

  9. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen

    2010-04-09

    expanded beam of a Q-switched laser pulse at wavelength of λ=532 nm and with pulse duration of ∼4 ns is focused at the center of a water tank using an aberration minimized lens design. Single cavitation bubbles are initiated via optical breakdown at this location which coincides with the position of which the shock wave is focused. The energy of the shock wave source has been altered in 8 steps. The pressure pulse amplitude of the impinging shock wave measured at the distance of about 1.8 mm above the focus location range from 24.4 MPa to 108.1 MPa. The lithotripter shock wave impact time is varied in three steps which provides the possibility of investigation of the bubble dynamics in both cases of collapsing and expanding cavities at the moment of the shock wave impingement. After the shock wave impact, the bubble spherical symmetry is broken and a liquid jet develops in the original direction of the shock propagation. The speed of the jet is increasing with the shock wave energy. Due to the energy transfer from the shock wave to the bubble, the forced cavity implosion is more violent in comparison to free oscillation. The pressure pulse amplitude released from the forced bubble collapse is amplified and the collapse time is reduced. These effects are discussed in chapter 5. Generally, when the bubble is collapsing at the time of the shock impact, the forced cavity collapse is more violent with a resultant of more pressure enhancement compared to the expanding bubbles at the moment of the shock arrival. The maximum pressure enhancement and reduction of bubble collapse time occur when the time interval between the moments of the shock impact and bubble collapse approaches the pulse duration of the compression part of the shock wave profile (i.e. ∼1 μs). For each specific shock wave arrival time, increasing the shock intensity leads to the fact that the bubble collapse takes place earlier relative to the moment of the shock impact and having more collapse pressure

  10. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J., E-mail: jrm@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A. [Departamento de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gama-Goicochea, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. > The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. > A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. > The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 {<=} Re {<=} 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 {<=} Er {<=} 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  11. Effect of an entrained air bubble on the acoustics of an ink channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Roger; de Jong, Jos; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2008-05-01

    Piezo-driven inkjet systems are very sensitive to air entrapment. The entrapped air bubbles grow by rectified diffusion in the ink channel and finally result in nozzle failure. Experimental results on the dynamics of fully grown air bubbles are presented. It is found that the bubble counteracts the pressure buildup necessary for the droplet formation. The channel acoustics and the air bubble dynamics are modeled. For good agreement with the experimental data it is crucial to include the confined geometry into the model: The air bubble acts back on the acoustic field in the channel and thus on its own dynamics. This two-way coupling limits further bubble growth and thus determines the saturation size of the bubble.

  12. Luminescence of transient single cavitation bubbles in non-aqueous liquids produced by the modified tube-arrest method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xian-Mei; Ying Chong-Fu; Li Chao

    2005-01-01

    Large transient single bubbles of effective diameters in centimetres were generated by the modified tube-arrest method in 7 nonaqueous liquids besides water and in glycerin-water mixtures. During collapse, nearly all these bubbles gave off light emissions of various intensities, which in 6 liquids were correlated with the saturation vapour pressure and viscosity of the respective liquid. Bubbles in ethylene glycol and propylene glycol did not follow this rule, but those in the former liquid showed some unusual regularity in luminescence variation, and the bubbles in both the liquids were particularly bright. The luminous properties of the transient single bubble are compared with those of the usual stable single bubble.

  13. Comparing Poisson Sigma Model with A-model

    CERN Document Server

    Bonechi, Francesco; Iraso, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the A-model as a gauge fixing of the Poisson Sigma Model with target a symplectic structure. We complete the discussion in [arXiv:0706.3164], where a gauge fixing defined by a compatible complex structure was introduced, by showing how to recover the A-model hierarchy of observables in terms of the AKSZ observables. Moreover, we discuss the off-shell supersymmetry of the A-model as a residual BV symmetry of the gauge-fixed PSM action.

  14. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  15. Dynamic Bubble Behaviour during Microscale Subcooled Boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; PENG Xiao-Feng; David M.Christopher

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bubble cycles, including initiation, growth and departure, are the physical basis of nucleate boiling. The presentinvestigation, however, reveals unusual bubble motions during subcooled nucleate boiling on microwires 25 orl00μm in diameter. Two types of bubble motions, bubble sweeping and bubble return, are observed in theexperiments. Bubble sweeping describes a bubble moving back and forth along the wire, which is motion parallelto the wire. Bubble return is the bubble moving back to the wire after it has detached or leaping above thewire. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the driving mechanisms forboth bubble sweeping and return. Marangoni flow from warm to cool regions along the bubble interface is foundto produce the shear stresses needed to drive these unusual bubble movements.

  16. 基于跳跃-扩散期权实物定价模型的房地产泡沫测定%Test of real estate bubble based on Jump-diffusion Option Pricing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华锋; 李玲玲; 胡素敏

    2012-01-01

    利用跳跃-扩散过程的实物定价模型测定房地产的基础价格,并在此基础上厘定房地产泡沫的临界值,建立房地产泡沫的测定模型,以北京市住房价格为例,判断北京市房地产的泡沫状况,为房地产宏观调控提供参考.%In this paper,the reasonable price of estate is determined by a jump-diffusion materials pricing model,then the critical value of the real estate bubble is determined and.thus the real estate bubble measurement model is established.Taking the housing price in Beijing as an example,we judge status of the real estate bubble and provide reference for real estate economy in macro-economic control.

  17. Fermi bubble simulations: black hole feedback in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszkowski, M; Zweibel, E

    2013-01-01

    The $Fermi$ gamma-ray telescope discovered a pair of bubbles at the Galactic center. These structures are spatially-correlated with the microwave emission detected by the WMAP and Planck satellites. These bubbles were likely inflated by a jet launched from the vicinity of a supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. Using MHD simulations, which self-consistently include interactions between cosmic rays and magnetic fields, we build models of the supersonic jet propagation, cosmic ray transport, and the magnetic field amplification within the $Fermi$ bubbles. Our key findings are that: (1) the synthetic $Fermi$ gamma-ray and WMAP microwave spectra based on our simulations are consistent with the observations, suggesting that a single population of cosmic ray leptons may simultaneously explain the emission across a range of photon energies; (2) the model fits the observed centrally-peaked microwave emission if a second, more recent, pair of jets embedded in the $Fermi$ bubbles is included in the model. Thi...

  18. Dynamics of Bubbles Rising in Finite and Infinite Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.C. Maneri; P.F. Vassallo

    2000-10-27

    The dynamic behavior of single bubbles rising in quiescent liquid Suva (R134a) in a duct has been examined through the use of a high speed video system. Size, shape and velocity measurements obtained with the video system reveal a wide variety of characteristics for the bubbles as they rise in both finite and infinite media. This data, coupled with previously published data for other working fluids, has been used to assess and extend a rise velocity model given by Fan and Tsuchiya. As a result of this assessment, a new rise velocity model has been developed which maintains the physically consistent characteristics of the surface tension in the distorted bubbly regime. In addition, the model is unique in that it covers the entire range of bubble sizes contained in the spherical, distorted and planar slug regimes.

  19. Improved process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons under varying wind speeds and gas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the lagoon water total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model using a...

  20. Global Solutions to Bubble Growth in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Lavi

    2010-01-01

    We study a moving boundary problem modeling an injected fluid into another viscous fluid. The viscous fluid is withdrawn at infinity and governed by Darcy's law. We present solutions to the free boundary problem in terms of time-derivative of a generalized Newtonian potentials of the characteristic function of the bubble. This enables us to show that the bubble occupies the entire space as the time tends to infinity if and only if the internal generalized Newtonian potential of the initial bubble is a quadratic polynomial.

  1. Bubble interaction dynamics in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskii, Yurii A; Hamilton, Mark F; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A

    2007-02-01

    Two models of interacting bubble dynamics are presented, a coupled system of second-order differential equations based on Lagrangian mechanics, and a first-order system based on Hamiltonian mechanics. Both account for pulsation and translation of an arbitrary number of spherical bubbles. For large numbers of interacting bubbles, numerical solution of the Hamiltonian equations provides greater stability. The presence of external acoustic sources is taken into account explicitly in the derivation of both sets of equations. In addition to the acoustic pressure and its gradient, it is found that the particle velocity associated with external sources appears in the dynamical equations.

  2. Local inflammation, dissemination and coalescence of lesions are key for the progression towards active tuberculosis: the bubble model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ePrats

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of a tuberculosis (TB infection towards active disease is driven by a combination of factors mostly related to the host response. The equilibrium between control of the bacillary load and the pathology generated is crucial as regards preventing the growth and proliferation of TB lesions. In addition, some experimental evidence suggests an important role of both local endogenous reinfection and the coalescence of neighboring lesions.Herein we propose a mathematical model that captures the essence of these factors by defining three hypotheses: (i lesions grow logistically due to the inflammatory reaction; (ii new lesions can appear as a result of extracellular bacilli or infected macrophages that escape from older lesions; and (iii lesions can merge when they are close enough. This model was implemented in Matlab to simulate the dynamics of several lesions in a 3D space. It was also fitted to available microscopy data from infected C3HeB/FeJ mice, an animal model of active TB that reacts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an exaggerated inflammatory response.The results of the simulations show the dynamics observed experimentally, namely an initial increase in the number of lesions followed by oscillations, and an exponential increase in the mean area of the lesions. In addition, further analysis of experimental and simulation results show a strong coincidence of the area distributions of lesions at day 21, thereby highlighting the consistency of the model. Three simulation series removing each one of the hypothesis corroborate their essential role in the dynamics observed.These results demonstrate that three local factors, namely an exaggerated inflammatory response, an endogenous reinfection and a coalescence of lesions, are needed in order to progress towards active TB. The failure of one of these factors stops induction of the disease. This mathematical model may be used as a basis for developing strategies to stop the

  3. A Coupled Economic and Physical Model of Coastal Adaptation and Abandonment: Are human occupied coastlines a bubble waiting to burst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Policy discussions of adaptation by coastal residents to increasing rates of sea level rise and changing frequency of damaging storms have focused on community land use planning processes. This view neglects the role that market dynamics and climate change expectations play in the way coastal communities choose among risk mitigation options and manage land use decisions in an environment of escalating risks. We use a model coupling physical coastal processes with an agent-based model of behavior in real estate and mitigation markets to examine the interplay of climate-driven coastal hazards, collective mitigation decisions, and individual beliefs. The physical component model simulates barrier island processes that respond to both storms and slow scale dynamics associated with sea level rise. The economic component model is an agent-based model of economic behavior where agents are rational economic actors working off different assessments of future climate-driven events. Agents differentially update their beliefs based on a) how much emphasis they give to observed coastal changes and b) how much weight they give to scientific predictions. In essence, agents differ along a spectrum of how much they believe that the past is the best guide to the future and how quickly they react to new information. We use the coupled model to explore three questions of interest to coastal policy. First, how do the interplay of costal processes, beliefs, and mitigation choices affect the level and stability of real estate prices? Second, how does this interplay affect the incentives for community investments in shoreline protection? Third, how do expectations and reactions to observed events, as well as mitigation investments, affect the built environment in circumstances when climate risks reach very high levels? This last question relates to a key aspect of climate change adaptation on the coast - when does mitigation give way to abandonment as an optimal adaptation strategy

  4. Triangular bubble spline surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

    2011-11-01

    We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.

  5. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  6. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a liquid is exposed to extremely high heat-fluxes. Within a few microseconds a bubble in the form vapour film is generated, followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and finally the bubbles collapse. This effect, which already has proven its use in curren

  7. Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias;

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...

  8. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  9. Turbulence Modification Structures in an Upward Bubbly Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiko; Hishida, Koichi; Eaton, John

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanism of modification of turbulence in gas-liquid bubbly flow. We especially focused on the effect of void fraction and bubble diameter, which are important factors in turbulence modification. Fluid velocity was measured by applying PIV with fluorescent tracer particles, and bubble shapes and positions were obtained by the shadow-image technique. The experiment consisted of a fully developed vertical upward pipe flow with void fraction 0.5diameter is 2R=44mm and the Re=9700. In order to compare the effect of the bubble diameter at fixed void fraction, nearly 60ppm of 3-Pentanol (C5H11OH) surfactant was added as the surfactant. Bubbles accelerated the mean streamwise velocity near the wall. Thus the mean streamwise velocity profile was flatted. Moreover, the streamwise fluctuation velocity was suppressed at the middle pipe region. It is suggested that the highly concentrated bubbles in the vicinity of the wall disturb the transport of turbulence energy produced by the wall shear layer toward the middle of pipe. Thus the fluctuation velocity is remarkably reduced at the wide region of the pipe center. Moreover, in the middle of pipe, the turbulence structure is governed by the presence of bubbles.

  10. BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERTICALLY VIBRO-FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhou; Hiroyuki Kage; Hongzhong Li

    2005-01-01

    Measurement of bubble size and local average bubble rise velocity was carried out in a vertically sinusoidal vibro-fluidized bed. Glass beads of Geldart group B particles were fluidized at different gas velocities, while the bed was vibrated at different frequencies and amplitudes to study their effects on the bubble behavior. This is compared with the case of no vibration in a two-dimensional bed and it is concluded that with vibration the local average bubble size,dbav, decreases significantly, especially at minimum bubbling velocity. The average bubble size increases slightly with increasing vibration frequency and amplitude. The local average bubble rise velocity is higher than that with no vibration,though with increasing vibration frequency and amplitude, it does not change significantly.

  11. Conical bubble photoluminescence from rhodamine 6G in 1, 2-propanediol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shou-Jie; Ai Xi-Cheng; Dong Li-Fang; Chen De-Ying; Wang Qi; Li Xue-Chen; Zhang Jian-Ping; Wang Long

    2006-01-01

    A modified U-tube conical bubble sonoluminescence device is used to study the conical bubble photoluminescence.The spectra of conical bubble sonoluminescence at different concentrations of rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) solution in 1,2-propanediol have been measured. Results show that the sonoluminescence from the conical bubbles can directly excite Rh6G, which in turn can fluoresce. The light emission of this kind is referred to as conical bubble photoluminescence.The maximum of fluorescence spectral line intensity in the conical bubble photoluminescence has a red shift in relative to that of the standard photo-excited fluorescence, which is due to the higher self-absorption of Rh6G, and the spectral line of conical bubble photoluminescence is broadened in width compared with that of photo-excited fluorescence.

  12. Parmodel: a web server for automated comparative modeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Hugo Brandão; Jorge, Guilherme Eberhart; Freitas Da Silveira, Nelson José; Camera, João Carlos; Canduri, Fernanda; De Azevedo, Walter Filgueira

    2004-12-24

    Parmodel is a web server for automated comparative modeling and evaluation of protein structures. The aim of this tool is to help inexperienced users to perform modeling, assessment, visualization, and optimization of protein models as well as crystallographers to evaluate structures solved experimentally. It is subdivided in four modules: Parmodel Modeling, Parmodel Assessment, Parmodel Visualization, and Parmodel Optimization. The main module is the Parmodel Modeling that allows the building of several models for a same protein in a reduced time, through the distribution of modeling processes on a Beowulf cluster. Parmodel automates and integrates the main softwares used in comparative modeling as MODELLER, Whatcheck, Procheck, Raster3D, Molscript, and Gromacs. This web server is freely accessible at .

  13. Comparing Structural Brain Connectivity by the Infinite Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Herlau, Tue; Dyrby, Tim;

    2013-01-01

    The growing focus in neuroimaging on analyzing brain connectivity calls for powerful and reliable statistical modeling tools. We examine the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) as a tool to identify and compare structure in brain connectivity graphs by contrasting its performance on graphs from...... modeling tool for the identification of structure and quantification of similarity in graphs of brain connectivity in general....

  14. The role of bubbles during air-sea gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Steven; Bushinsky, Seth

    2016-06-01

    The potential for using the air-sea exchange rate of oxygen as a tracer for net community biological production in the ocean is greatly enhanced by recent accuracy improvements for in situ measurements of oxygen on unmanned platforms. A limiting factor for determining the exchange process is evaluating the air-sea flux contributed by bubble processes produced by breaking waves, particularly during winter months under high winds. Highly accurate measurements of noble gases (Ne, Ar & Kr) and nitrogen, N2, in seawater are tracers of the importance of bubble process in the surface mixed layer. We use measured distributions of these gases in the ventilated thermocline of the North Pacific and an annual time series of N2 in the surface ocean of the NE Subarctic Pacific to evaluate four different air-water exchange models chosen to represent the range of model interpretation of bubble processes. We find that models must have an explicit bubble mechanism to reproduce concentrations of insoluble atmospheric gases, but there are periods when they all depart from observations. The recent model of Liang et al. (2013) stems from a highly resolved model of bubble plumes and categorizes bubble mechanisms into those that are small enough to collapse and larger ones that exchange gases before they resurface, both of which are necessary to explain the data.

  15. Optimal Acoustic Attenuation of Weakly Compressible Media Permeated with Air Bubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bin; CHENG Jian-Chun

    2007-01-01

    Based on fuzzy logic (FL) and genetic algorithm (GA), we present an optimization method to obtain the optimal acoustic attenuation of a longitudinal acoustic wave propagating in a weakly compressible medium permeated with air bubbles. In the optimization, the parameters of the size distribution of bubbles in the medium are optimized for providing uniformly high acoustic attenuation in the frequency band of interest. Compared with other traditional optimization methods, the unique advantage of the present method is that it can locate the global optimum quickly and effectively in need of knowing the mathematical model precisely. As illustrated by a numerical simulation, the method is effective and essential in enhancing the acoustic attenuation of such a medium in an optimal manner. The bubbly medium with optimized structural parameters can effectively attenuate longitudinal waves at intermediate frequencies with an acoustic attenuation approximating a constant value of 10(dB/cm). Such bubbly media with optimal acoustic attenuations may be applied to design acoustic absorbent by controlling broader attenuation band and higher efficiency.

  16. Size distribution of air bubbles entering the brain during cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M L Chung

    Full Text Available Thousands of air bubbles enter the cerebral circulation during cardiac surgery, but whether high numbers of bubbles explain post-operative cognitive decline is currently controversial. This study estimates the size distribution of air bubbles and volume of air entering the cerebral arteries intra-operatively based on analysis of transcranial Doppler ultrasound data.Transcranial Doppler ultrasound recordings from ten patients undergoing heart surgery were analysed for the presence of embolic signals. The backscattered intensity of each embolic signal was modelled based on ultrasound scattering theory to provide an estimate of bubble diameter. The impact of showers of bubbles on cerebral blood-flow was then investigated using patient-specific Monte-Carlo simulations to model the accumulation and clearance of bubbles within a model vasculature.Analysis of Doppler ultrasound recordings revealed a minimum of 371 and maximum of 6476 bubbles entering the middle cerebral artery territories during surgery. This was estimated to correspond to a total volume of air ranging between 0.003 and 0.12 mL. Based on analysis of a total of 18667 embolic signals, the median diameter of bubbles entering the cerebral arteries was 33 μm (IQR: 18 to 69 μm. Although bubble diameters ranged from ~5 μm to 3.5 mm, the majority (85% were less than 100 μm. Numerous small bubbles detected during cardiopulmonary bypass were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation to be benign. However, during weaning from bypass, showers containing large macro-bubbles were observed, which were estimated to transiently affect up to 2.2% of arterioles.Detailed analysis of Doppler ultrasound data can be used to provide an estimate of bubble diameter, total volume of air, and the likely impact of embolic showers on cerebral blood flow. Although bubbles are alarmingly numerous during surgery, our simulations suggest that the majority of bubbles are too small to be harmful.

  17. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  18. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  19. Estimation of the lifetime of small helium bubbles near tungsten surfaces - A methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiechao; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Under low energy and high flux/fluence irradiation of helium (He) atoms, the formation and bursting of He bubbles on tungsten (W) surfaces play important roles in the morphological evolution of component surfaces in fusion reactors. Microscopically, the bursting of He bubbles is a stochastic process, and He bubbles have statistically average lifetimes. In the present paper, a molecular dynamics-based method was developed to extract, for the first time, the lifetime of He bubbles near tungsten surfaces. It was found that He bubble bursting can be treated as an activated event. Its frequency or, equivalently, the average lifetime of bubbles follows the Arrhenius equation. For a given bubble size, the activation energy exhibits a good linear dependence with the depth, and the pre-exponential factor obeys the Meyer-Neldle rule. These results are useful for establishing a model in multi-scale simulations of the morphological evolution of component surfaces in fusion reactors.

  20. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model