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Sample records for btz black string

  1. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  2. Geometric description of BTZ black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole in (2+1) gravity. We use the formalism of geometrothermodynamics to introduce in the space of equilibrium states a two-dimensional thermodynamic metric whose curvature is nonvanishing, indicating the presence of thermodynamic interaction, and free of singularities, indicating the absence of phase transitions. Similar results are obtained for generalizations of the BTZ black hole which include a Chern-Simons term and a dilatonic field. Small logarithmic corrections of the entropy turn out to be represented by small corrections of the thermodynamic curvature, reinforcing the idea that thermodynamic curvature is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.

  3. Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Sheykhi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.

  4. Thermodynamical and dynamical properties of charged BTZ black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Bin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Cheng-Yong [Peking University, Center for High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM)-Maragha, P. O. Box: 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the spacetime properties of BTZ black holes in the presence of the Maxwell field and Born-Infeld field and find rich properties in the spacetime structures when the model parameters are varied. Employing Landau-Lifshitz theory, we examine the thermodynamical phase transition in the charged BTZ black holes. We further study the dynamical perturbation in the background of the charged BTZ black holes and find different properties in the dynamics when the thermodynamical phase transition occurs. (orig.)

  5. Quantum correction to the entropy of noncommutative BTZ black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Cavalcanti, A. G.; Passos, E.; Spinelly, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we consider the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in the tunneling formalism via Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for noncommutative BTZ black hole. In our results we obtain several types of corrections including the expected logarithmic correction to the area entropy associated with the noncommutative BTZ black holes. We also show that the area entropy product of the noncommutative BTZ black holes is dependent on mass and by analyzing the nature of the specific heat capacity we have observed that the noncommutative BTZ black hole is stable at some range of parameters.

  6. BTZ black hole from Poisson–Lie T-dualizable sigma models with spectators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eghbali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The non-Abelian T-dualization of the BTZ black hole is discussed in detail by using the Poisson–Lie T-duality in the presence of spectators. We explicitly construct a dual pair of sigma models related by Poisson–Lie symmetry. The original model is built on a 2+1-dimensional manifold M≈O×G, where G as a two-dimensional real non-Abelian Lie group acts freely on M, while O is the orbit of G in M. The findings of our study show that the original model indeed is canonically equivalent to the SL(2,R Wess–Zumino–Witten (WZW model for a given value of the background parameters. Moreover, by a convenient coordinate transformation we show that this model describes a string propagating in a spacetime with the BTZ black hole metric in such a way that a new family of the solutions to low energy string theory with the BTZ black hole vacuum metric, constant dilaton field and a new torsion potential is found. The dual model is built on a 2+1-dimensional target manifold M˜ with two-dimensional real Abelian Lie group G˜ acting freely on it. We further show that the dual model yields a three-dimensional charged black string for which the mass M and axion charge Q per unit length are calculated. After that, the structure and asymptotic nature of the dual space–time including the horizon and singularity are determined.

  7. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. M. Jawwad Riaz

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein–Smarr formula of the rotating. Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system con- tributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the ...

  8. Superradiance in the BTZ black hole with Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Ferreira, Hugo R. C.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2018-03-01

    We show the existence of superradiant modes of massive scalar fields propagating in BTZ black holes when certain Robin boundary conditions, which never include the commonly considered Dirichlet boundary conditions, are imposed at spatial infinity. These superradiant modes are defined as those solutions whose energy flux across the horizon is towards the exterior region. Differently from rotating, asymptotically flat black holes, we obtain that not all modes which grow up exponentially in time are superradiant; for some of these, the growth is sourced by a bulk instability of AdS3, triggered by the scalar field with Robin boundary conditions, rather than by energy extraction from the BTZ black hole. Thus, this setup provides an example wherein Bosonic modes with low frequency are pumping energy into, rather than extracting energy from, a rotating black hole.

  9. The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.

  10. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com

    2016-04-15

    An exotic Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are “dumb”, which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  11. Thermodynamics of BTZ black holes in gravity’s rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Salwa

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we deform the thermodynamics of a BTZ black hole from rainbow functions in gravity’s rainbow. The rainbow functions will be motivated from the results in loop quantum gravity and noncommutative geometry. It will be observed that the thermodynamics gets deformed due to these rainbow functions, indicating the existence of a remnant. However, the Gibbs free energy does not get deformed due to these rainbow functions, and so the critical behavior from Gibbs does not change by this deformation. This is because the deformation in the entropy cancels out the temperature deformation.

  12. Thermodynamics of novel charged dilatonic BTZ black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the three-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell theory in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field has been studied. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Two new classes of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, vector and tensor field equations, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass of the new black holes have been calculated, making use of the Gauss's law and Abbott–Deser proposal, respectively. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e. temperature and entropy obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of the first law of black hole thermodynamics has been confirmed for both of the new black holes we just obtained. A black hole thermal stability or phase transition analysis has been performed, making use of the canonical ensemble method. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, it has been found that for either of the new black hole solutions there are some specific ranges in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in these ranges are locally stable. The points of type one and type two phase transitions have been determined. The black holes, with the horizon radius equal to the transition points are unstable. They undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.

  13. Thermodynamics of novel charged dilatonic BTZ black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field has been studied. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Two new classes of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, vector and tensor field equations, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass of the new black holes have been calculated, making use of the Gauss's law and Abbott-Deser proposal, respectively. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e. temperature and entropy) obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of the first law of black hole thermodynamics has been confirmed for both of the new black holes we just obtained. A black hole thermal stability or phase transition analysis has been performed, making use of the canonical ensemble method. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, it has been found that for either of the new black hole solutions there are some specific ranges in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in these ranges are locally stable. The points of type one and type two phase transitions have been determined. The black holes, with the horizon radius equal to the transition points are unstable. They undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.

  14. Thermodynamic interpretation of the field equation of BTZ charged black hole near the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larranaga, A.

    2008-01-01

    As is already known, a spacetime horizon acts like a boundary of a thermal system and we can associate with it notions such as temperature and entropy. Following the work of M. Akbar, in this paper we will show how it is possible to interpret the field equation of a charged BTZ black hole near the horizon as a thermodynamic identity dE=TdS+P r dA+ΦdQ$, where Φ is the electric potential and $Q$ is the electric charge of a BTZ black hole. These results indicate that the field equations for the charged BTZ black hole possess intrinsic thermodynamic properties near the horizon.

  15. Charged BTZ black holes in the context of massive gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Upadhyay, S.; Eslam Panah, B.

    2017-04-01

    Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black holes are excellent laboratories for studying black hole thermodynamics, which is a bridge between classical general relativity and the quantum nature of gravitation. In addition, three-dimensional gravity could have equipped us for exploring some of the ideas behind the two-dimensional conformal field theory based on the AdS3/CFT2 . Considering the significant interest in these regards, we examine charged BTZ black holes. We consider the system contains massive gravity with energy dependent spacetime to enrich the results. In order to make high curvature (energy) BTZ black holes more realistic, we modify the theory by energy dependent constants. We investigate thermodynamic properties of the solutions by calculating heat capacity and free energy. We also analyze thermal stability and study the possibility of the Hawking-Page phase transition. At last, we study the geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes and compare the results of various approaches.

  16. Fermion Fields in BTZ Black Hole Space-Time and Entanglement Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Veer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the entanglement entropy of fermion fields in BTZ black hole space-time and calculate prefactor of the leading and subleading terms and logarithmic divergence term of the entropy using the discretized model. The leading term is the standard Bekenstein-Hawking area law and subleading term corresponds to first quantum corrections in black hole entropy. We also investigate the corrections to entanglement entropy for massive fermion fields in BTZ space-time. The mass term does not affect the area law.

  17. Quasinormal modes of BTZ black hole and Hawking-like radiation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, B.S.; Ertem, Uemit [Department of Physics, Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, 06100, Tandogan-Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-04-15

    The Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole model corresponds to a solution of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant, and by a conformal rescaling its metric can be mapped onto the hyperbolic pseudosphere surface (Beltrami trumpet) with negative curvature. Beltrami trumpet shaped graphene sheets have been predicted to emit Hawking radiation that is experimentally detectable by a scanning tunnelling microscope. Here, for the first time we present an analytical algorithm that allows variational solutions to the Dirac Hamiltonian of graphene pseudoparticles in BTZ black hole gravitational field by using an approach based on the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians within a discrete-basis-set method. We show that our model not only reproduces the exact results for the real part of quasinormal mode frequencies of (2+1)-dimensional spinless BTZ black hole, but also provides analytical results for the real part of quasinormal modes of spinning BTZ black hole, and also offers some predictions for the observable effects with a view to gravity-like phenomena in a curved graphene sheet. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. A correction of (2+1) Dimensional BTZ Black Hole Entropy as a New Series with Dependence on Plank Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, F.; Darvishi, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the corrected entropy and Hawking temperature of the BTZ black hole which obtained from (2 + 1) dimensional black hole. Besides, we generalize our analysis of black holes to the case of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. The corrections to the Hawking temperature and entropy of apparent horizon for FRW universe are also obtained. Comparing the results with the high energy black hole demonstrates how the semi-classic approximation affects the thermodynamics of the BTZ black hole, corrected terms, classical action and the entropy.

  19. Canonical entropy of three-dimensional BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ren; Zhang Shengli

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation of the black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. It is found that the radiation spectrum of the black hole is not a strictly pure thermal spectrum. How does the departure from pure thermal spectrum affect the entropy? This is a very interesting problem. In this Letter, we calculate the partition function by energy spectrum obtained from tunnel effect. Using the partition function, we compute the black hole entropy and derive the expression of the black hole entropy after considering the radiation. And we derive the entropy of charged black hole. In our calculation, we consider not only the correction to the black hole entropy due to fluctuation of energy but also the effect of the change of the black hole charges on entropy. There is no other hypothesis. Our result is more reasonable. According to the fact that the black hole entropy is not divergent, we obtain the lower limit of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole energy. That is, the least energy of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which satisfies the stationary condition in thermodynamics

  20. Gott time machines, BTZ black hole formation, and choptuik scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham; Sen

    2000-02-07

    We study the formation of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.

  1. Thermodynamics of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes in rainbow gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the charged three-dimensional Einstein's theory coupled to a dilatonic field has been considered in the rainbow gravity. The dilatonic potential has been written as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Four new classes of charged dilatonic rainbow black hole solutions, as the exact solution to the coupled field equations of the energy dependent space time, have been obtained. Two of them are correspond to the Coulomb's electric field and the others are consequences of a modified Coulomb's law. Total charge and mass as well as the entropy, temperature and electric potential of the new charged black holes have been calculated in the presence of rainbow functions. Although the thermodynamic quantities are affected by the rainbow functions, it has been found that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is still valid for all of the new black hole solutions. At the final stage, making use of the canonical ensemble method and regarding the black hole heat capacity, the thermal stability or phase transition of the new rainbow black hole solutions have been analyzed.

  2. Black strings ending on horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2012-12-01

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  3. Black strings and classical hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Yang, H.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the geometry near the event horizon of a family of black string solutions with traveling waves. It has previously been shown that the metric is continuous there. Contrary to expectations, we find that the geometry is not smooth, and the horizon becomes singular whenever a wave is present. Both five-dimensional and six-dimensional black strings are considered with similar results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Lifshitz spacetimes, solitons, and generalized BTZ black holes in quantum gravity at a Lifshitz point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Fu-Wen [Institute for Advanced Physics Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310032 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University,Nanchang 330031 (China); Lin, Kai [Institute for Advanced Physics Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310032 (China); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,CP 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong [Institute for Advanced Physics Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310032 (China); GCAP-CASPER, Physics Department, Baylor University,Waco, TX 76798-7316 (United States); Wu, Qiang [Institute for Advanced Physics Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2014-04-08

    In this paper, we study static vacuum solutions of quantum gravity at a fixed Lifshitz point in (2+1) dimensions, and present all the diagonal solutions in closed forms in the infrared limit. The exact solutions represent spacetimes with very rich structures: they can represent generalized BTZ black holes, Lifshitz space-times or Lifshitz solitons, in which the spacetimes are free of any kind of space-time singularities, depending on the choices of the free parameters of the solutions. We also find several classes of exact static non-diagonal solutions, which represent similar space-time structures as those given in the diagonal case. The relevance of these solutions to the non-relativistic Lifshitz-type gauge/gravity duality is discussed.

  5. A SIMPLE DERIVATION OF FINITE-TEMPERATURE CFT CORRELATORS FROM THE BTZ BLACK HOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple Lie-algebraic approach to momentum-space two-point functions of two-dimensional conformal field theory at finite temperature dual to the BTZ black hole. Making use of the real-time prescription of AdS/CFT correspondence and ladder equations of the Lie algebra so(2,2 ∼= sl(2,RL⊕sl(2,RR, we show that the finite-temperature two-point functions in momentum space satisfy linear recurrence relations with respect to the left and right momenta. These recurrence relations are exactly solvable and completely determine the momentum-dependence of retarded and advanced two-point functions of finite-temperature conformal field theory.

  6. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  7. String model of black hole microstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of black holes arbitrarily far from extremality is modeled by a gas of weakly interacting strings. As an effective low-energy description of black holes the string model provides several highly nontrivial consistency checks and predictions. Speculations on a fundamental origin of the model suggest surprising simplifications in nonperturbative string theory, even in the absence of supersymmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Wavy strings: Black or bright?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloper, N.; Myers, R.C.; Roussel, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in string theory have brought forth considerable interest in time-dependent hair on extended objects. This novel new hair is typically characterized by a wave profile along the horizon and angular momentum quantum numbers l,m in the transverse space. In this work, we present an extensive treatment of such oscillating black objects, focusing on their geometric properties. We first give a theorem of purely geometric nature, stating that such wavy hair cannot be detected by any scalar invariant built out of the curvature and/or matter fields. However, we show that the tidal forces detected by an infalling observer diverge at the open-quotes horizonclose quotes of a black string superposed with a vibration in any mode with l≥1. The same argument applied to longitudinal (l=0) waves detects only finite leading-order tidal forces. We also provide an example with a manifestly smooth metric, proving that at least a certain class of these longitudinal waves have regular horizons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Black holes in realistic branes: Black string-like objects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M., E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-25

    A realistic model describing a black string-like object in an expanding Universe is analyzed in the context of the McVittie's solution of the Einstein field equations. The bulk metric near the brane is provided analogously to previous solutions for black strings. In particular, we show that at least when the Hubble parameter on the brane is positive, a black string-like object seems to play a fundamental role in the braneworld scenario, generalizing the standard black strings in the context of a dynamical brane.

  11. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  12. Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2015-01-01

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α ′ -corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g s ) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  13. Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Zakharov, Valentin I. [ITEP,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics & Technology,Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova str. 8, Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-24

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α{sup ′}-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g{sub s}) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  14. Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)

  15. The black hole interpretation of string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1990-01-01

    For scattering processes in which both s and t are significantly larger than the Planck mass we have string theory on the one hand, and on the other hand the physics of black hole formation and decay. Both these descriptions are as yet ill understood. It is argued in this paper that a lot of insight

  16. Strings, black holes, and quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We find multiple relations between extremal black holes in string theory and 2- and 3-qubit systems in quantum information theory. We show that the entropy of the axion-dilaton extremal black hole is related to the concurrence of a 2-qubit state, whereas the entropy of the STU black holes, Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) as well as non-BPS, is related to the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state. We relate the 3-qubit states with the string theory states with some number of D-branes. We identify a set of large black holes with the maximally entangled Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger (GHZ) class of states and small black holes with separable, bipartite, and W states. We sort out the relation between 3-qubit states, twistors, octonions, and black holes. We give a simple expression for the entropy and the area of stretched horizon of small black holes in terms of a norm and 2-tangles of a 3-qubit system. Finally, we show that the most general expression for the black hole and black ring entropy in N=8 supergravity/M theory, which is given by the famous quartic Cartan E 7(7) invariant, can be reduced to Cayley's hyperdeterminant describing the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state

  17. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  18. Black string in dRGT massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth; Ghosh, Suchant G.

    2017-12-01

    We present a cylindrically symmetric solution, both charged and uncharged, which is known as a black string solution to the nonlinear ghost-free massive gravity found by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This "dRGT black string" can be thought of as a generalization of the black string solution found by Lemos. Moreover, the dRGT black string solution includes other classes of black string solution such as the monopole-black string ones since the graviton mass contributes to the global monopole term as well as the cosmological-constant term. To investigate the solution, we compute mass, temperature, and entropy of the dRGT black string. We found that the existence of the graviton mass drastically affects the thermodynamics of the black string. Furthermore, the Hawking-Page phase transition is found to be possible for the dRGT black string as well as the charged dRGT black string. The dRGT black string solution is thermodynamically stable for r>r_c with negative thermodynamical potential and positive heat capacity while it is unstable for r

  19. Black string in dRGT massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannukij, Lunchakorn; Wongjun, Pitayuth; Ghosh, Suchant G.

    2017-01-01

    We present a cylindrically symmetric solution, both charged and uncharged, which is known as a black string solution to the nonlinear ghost-free massive gravity found by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This ''dRGT black string'' can be thought of as a generalization of the black string solution found by Lemos. Moreover, the dRGT black string solution includes other classes of black string solution such as the monopole-black string ones since the graviton mass contributes to the global monopole term as well as the cosmological-constant term. To investigate the solution, we compute mass, temperature, and entropy of the dRGT black string. We found that the existence of the graviton mass drastically affects the thermodynamics of the black string. Furthermore, the Hawking-Page phase transition is found to be possible for the dRGT black string as well as the charged dRGT black string. The dRGT black string solution is thermodynamically stable for r > r c with negative thermodynamical potential and positive heat capacity while it is unstable for r < r c where the potential is positive. (orig.)

  20. Black string in dRGT massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannukij, Lunchakorn [Mahidol University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Wongjun, Pitayuth [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand); Ghosh, Suchant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre of Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of Kwazulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-12-15

    We present a cylindrically symmetric solution, both charged and uncharged, which is known as a black string solution to the nonlinear ghost-free massive gravity found by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This ''dRGT black string'' can be thought of as a generalization of the black string solution found by Lemos. Moreover, the dRGT black string solution includes other classes of black string solution such as the monopole-black string ones since the graviton mass contributes to the global monopole term as well as the cosmological-constant term. To investigate the solution, we compute mass, temperature, and entropy of the dRGT black string. We found that the existence of the graviton mass drastically affects the thermodynamics of the black string. Furthermore, the Hawking-Page phase transition is found to be possible for the dRGT black string as well as the charged dRGT black string. The dRGT black string solution is thermodynamically stable for r > r{sub c} with negative thermodynamical potential and positive heat capacity while it is unstable for r < r{sub c} where the potential is positive. (orig.)

  1. Counting states of black strings with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Marolf, D.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a family of solutions to string theory which depend on arbitrary functions and contain regular event horizons. They describe six-dimensional extremal black strings with traveling waves and have an inhomogeneous distribution of momentum along the string. The structure of these solutions near the horizon is studied and the horizon area computed. We also count the number of BPS string states at weak coupling whose macroscopic momentum distribution agrees with that of the black string. It is shown that the number of such states is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black string with traveling waves. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  3. STU black holes and string triality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Kallosh, R.; Rahmfeld, J.; Shmakova, M.; Wong, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    We find double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F=STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2,Z)] 3 symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without a prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric vs T,U moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using a particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals that of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In the democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S, T, and U duality symmetries are nonperturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. STU Black Holes and String Triality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2003-05-23

    We found double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F = STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2, Z)]{sup 3} symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric versus T,U-moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals the area formula of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S and T and U duality symmetries are non-perturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges.

  5. Black strings in AdS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernamonti, Alice; Caldarelli, Marco M.; Klemm, Dietmar; Olea, Rodrigo; Sieg, Christoph; Zorzan, Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    We present non-extremal magnetic black string solutions in five-dimensional gauged supergravity. The conformal infinity is the product of time and S1 × Script Sh, where Script Sh denotes a compact Riemann surface of genus h. The construction is based on both analytical and numerical techniques. We compute the holographic stress tensor, the Euclidean action and the conserved charges of the solutions and show that the latter satisfy a Smarr-type formula. The phase structure is determined in the canonical ensemble, and it is shown that there is a first order phase transition from small to large black strings, which disappears above a certain critical magnetic charge that is obtained numerically. For another particular value of the magnetic charge, that corresponds to a twisting of the dual super Yang-Mills theory, the conformal anomalies coming from the background curvature and those arising from the coupling to external gauge fields exactly cancel. We also obtain supersymmetric solutions describing waves propagating on extremal BPS magnetic black strings, and show that they possess a Siklos-Virasoro reparametrization invariance.

  6. The electrically charged BTZ black hole with self (anti-self) dual Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, M.; Koikawa, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant Λ in 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions discussed by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli are solved by assuming a self (anti-self) dual equation E r-circumflex = ± B -circumflex , which is imposed on the orthonormal basis components of the electric field E r-circumflex and the magnetic field B -circumflex . This solution describes an electrically charged extra black hole with mass M=8πGQ 2 e , angular momentum J = ±8πGQ 2 e / modul Λ 1/2 and electric charge Q e . Although the coordinate components of the electric field E r and the magnetic field B have singularities on the horizon at r (4πGQ 2 e / modul Λ) 1/2 , the spacetime has the same value of constant negative curvature R = 6Λ as that of Banados et al. (author). 5 refs

  7. Classical and quantum equations of motion of an n-dimensional BTZ black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Greenwood

    2016-05-01

    Classically, we show that the time taken for gravitational collapse follows that of the typical formation of a black hole via gravitational collapse; that is, an asymptotic observer will see that the collapse takes an infinite amount of time to occur, while an infalling observer will see the collapse to both the horizon and the classical singularity occur in a finite amount of time. Quantum mechanically, we take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the classical singularity from the point of view of both asymptotic and infalling observers. In the absence of radiation and fluctuations of the metric, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an asymptotic observer. The most interesting quantum mechanical effect comes in when investigating near the classical singularity. Here, we find, that the quantum effects in this region are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular, and it also displays non-local effects, which depend on the energy density of the domain wall.

  8. Horizon strings and interior states of a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Yogendran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We provide an explicit construction of classical strings that have endpoints on the horizons of the 2D Lorentzian black hole. We argue that this is a dual description of geodesics that are localized around the horizon which are the Lorentzian counterparts of the winding strings of the Euclidean black hole (the cigar geometry. Identifying these with the states of the black hole, we can expect that issues of black hole information loss can be posed sharply in terms of a fully quantizable string theory.

  9. Stationary strings near a higher-dimensional rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Stevens, Kory A.

    2004-01-01

    We study stationary string configurations in a space-time of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. We demonstrate that the Nambu-Goto equations for a stationary string in the 5D (five-dimensional) Myers-Perry metric allow a separation of variables. We present these equations in the first-order form and study their properties. We prove that the only stationary string configuration that crosses the infinite redshift surface and remains regular there is a principal Killing string. A worldsheet of such a string is generated by a principal null geodesic and a timelike at infinity Killing vector field. We obtain principal Killing string solutions in the Myers-Perry metrics with an arbitrary number of dimensions. It is shown that due to the interaction of a string with a rotating black hole, there is an angular momentum transfer from the black hole to the string. We calculate the rate of this transfer in a space-time with an arbitrary number of dimensions. This effect slows down the rotation of the black hole. We discuss possible final stationary configurations of a rotating black hole interacting with a string

  10. Black strings, low viscosity fluids, and violation of cosmic censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans

    2010-09-03

    We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship.

  11. Hawking Radiation of Massive Bosons via Tunneling from Black Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhong-Wen

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the Hawking radiation of massive bosons from 4-dimensional and 5-dimensional black strings are studied in quantum tunneling formalism. First, we derive the Hamilton-Jacobi equation set via the Proca equation and WKB approximation. Then, the tunneling rates and Hawking temperatures of the black strings are obtained. Our calculations show that the tunneling rates and Hawking temperatures are related to the properties of black strings' spacetime. When compare our results with those of scalars and fermions cases, it finds that they are the same.

  12. Measuring the $W$-hair of String Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    1992-01-01

    We have argued previously that the infinitely many gauge symmetries of string theory provide an infinite set of conserved (gauge) quantum numbers ($W$-hair) which characterise black hole states and maintain quantum coherence. Here we study ways of measuring the $W$-hair of spherically-symmetric four-dimensional objects with event horizons, treated as effectively two-dimensional string black holes. Measurements can be done either through the s-wave scattering of light particles off the string black-hole background, or through interference experiments of Aharonov-Bohm type. In the first type of measurement, selection rules

  13. String Theory Effects on Five-Dimensional Black Hole Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Alejandra; Kraus, Per; Larsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    We review recent developments in understanding quantum/string corrections to BPS black holes and strings in five-dimensional supergravity. These objects are solutions to the effective action obtained from M-theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold, including the one-loop corrections determined by anomaly cancellation and supersymmetry. We introduce the off-shell formulation of this theory obtained through the conformal supergravity method and review the methods for investigating supersymmetric solutions. This leads to quantum/string corrected attractor geometries, as well as asymptotically flat black strings and spinning black holes. With these solutions in hand, we compare our results with analogous studies in four-dimensional string-corrected supergravity, emphasizing the distinctions between the four and five dimensional theories.

  14. Quantum hair and the string-black hole correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment in which an energetic massless string probes a "stringhole" (a heavy string lying on the correspondence curve between strings and black holes) at large enough impact parameter for the regime to be under theoretical control. The corresponding, explicitly unitary, $S$-matrix turns out to be perturbatively sensitive to the microstate of the stringhole: in particular, at leading order in $l_s/b$, it depends on a projection of the stringhole's Lorentz-contracted quadrupole moment. The string-black hole correspondence is therefore violated if one assumes quantum hair to be exponentially suppressed as a function of black-hole entropy. Implications for the information paradox are briefly discussed.

  15. Can superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes generate supermassive black holes in the early universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Testing effective string models of black holes with fixed scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnitz, M.; Klebanov, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    We solve the problem of mixing between the fixed scalar and metric fluctuations. First, we derive the decoupled fixed scalar equation for the four-dimensional black hole with two different charges. We proceed to the five-dimensional black hole with different electric (one-brane) and magnetic (five-brane) charges, and derive two decoupled equations satisfied by appropriate mixtures of the original fixed scalar fields. The resulting greybody factors are proportional to those that follow from coupling to dimension (2,2) operators on the effective string. In general, however, the string action also contains couplings to chiral operators of dimension (1,3) and (3,1), which cause disagreements with the semiclassical absorption cross sections. Implications of this for the effective string models are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Loop variables in the geometry of a rotating black string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A M de M; Moraes, Fernando; Furtado, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyse in the Wilson loop context the parallel transport of vectors and spinors around a closed loop in the background spacetime of a rotating black string in order to classify its global properties. We also examine particular closed orbits in this spacetime and verify the Mandelstam relations

  18. Radiation from a class of string theoretic black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alwis, S.P.; Sato, K.

    1997-01-01

    The emission of a scalar with low energy ω, from a D- (4≤D≤8) dimensional black hole with n charges, is studied in both string and semiclassical calculations. In the lowest order in ω, the weak coupling string and semiclassical calculations agree provided that the Bekenstein-Hawking formula is valid and the effective central charge c eff =6 for any D. When the next order in ω is considered, however, there is no agreement between the two schemes unless D=5, n=3 or D=4, n=4. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. On the Evaporation of Black Holes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1992-01-01

    We show that, in string theory, the quantum evaporation and decay of black holes in two-dimensional target space is related to imaginary parts in higher-genus string amplitudes. These arise from the regularisation of modular infinities due to the sum over world-sheet configurations, that are known to express the instabilities of massive string states in general, and are not thermal in character. The absence of such imaginary parts in the matrix model limit confirms that the latter constitutes the final stage of the evaporation process, at least in perturbation theory. Our arguments appear to be quite generic, related only to the summation over world-sheet surfaces, and hence should also apply to higher-dimensional target spaces.

  20. Absorption of scalars by extremal black holes in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Filipe

    2017-09-01

    We show that the low frequency absorption cross section of minimally coupled test massless scalar fields by extremal spherically symmetric black holes in d dimensions is equal to the horizon area, even in the presence of string-theoretical α ' corrections. Classically one has the relation σ = 4 GS between that absorption cross section and the black hole entropy. By comparing in each case the values of the horizon area and Wald's entropy, we discuss the validity of such relation in the presence of higher derivative corrections for extremal black holes in many different contexts: in the presence of electric and magnetic charges; for nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric black holes; in d=4 and d=5 dimensions. The examples we consider seem to indicate that this relation is not verified in the presence of α ' corrections in general, although being valid in some specific cases (electrically charged maximally supersymmetric black holes in d=5). We argue that the relation σ = 4 GS should in general be valid for the absorption cross section of scalar fields which, although being independent from the black hole solution, have their origin from string theory, and therefore are not minimally coupled.

  1. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS 5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.061601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2013)005) and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2010)085) in AdS 4 .

  2. Remarks on Remnants by Fermions’ Tunnelling from Black Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyou Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawking’s calculation is unable to predict the final stage of the black hole evaporation. When effects of quantum gravity are taken into account, there is a minimal observable length. In this paper, we investigate fermions’ tunnelling from the charged and rotating black strings. With the influence of the generalized uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperatures are not only determined by the rings, but also affected by the quantum numbers of the emitted fermions. Quantum gravity corrections slow down the increases of the temperatures, which naturally leads to remnants left in the evaporation.

  3. String propagation in an exact four-dimensional black hole background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study string propagation in an exact, stringy, four-dimensional dyonic black hole background. The exact solutions in terms of elliptic functions describing string configurations in the J=0 limit are obtained by solving the string equations of motion and constraints. By using the covariant formalism, we also investigate the propagation of physical perturbations along the string in the given curved background. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Rotating black string and the effective Teukolsky equation in the braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    In the Randall-Sundrum two-brane (RS1) model, a large Kerr black hole on the brane can be naturally identified with a section of a rotating black string. To estimate Kaluza-Klein (KK) corrections on gravitational waves emitted by perturbed rotating black strings, we give the effective Teukolsky equation on the brane, which is a separable equation and hence numerically manageable. In this process, we derive the master equation for the electric part of the Weyl tensor, E μν , which is also useful in discussing the transition from black strings to localized black holes triggered by Gregory-Laflamme instability

  5. String-loop corrections to effective action and black-hole instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Iofa, M.Z.

    1994-07-01

    Following the ideas of Ellis, Mavromatos and Nanopoulos, to account for instability of 2D black-hole solution, we discuss possible imaginary string-loop corrections to the coefficient at the Einstein term in string effective action. In closed bosonic string theory, such corrections appear because of the tachyon contribution to the integration measure over the moduli. In superstring theory (in critical as well as in non-critical dimensions), no one-string-loop complex corrections to the Einstein term are generated and the mechanism for generating black-hole instabilities proposed above fails. (author). 21 refs

  6. Charged black string thin-shell wormholes in modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeem-ul-Haq Bhatti, M.; Yousaf, Z.; Ashraf, Sara

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility for the existence of thin-shell wormholes for the charged black string in the framework of f(R) gravity theory. We have carried out our analysis by keeping linear perturbations about static equilibrium solutions where we have surgically pasted the interior spacetime to an exterior vacuum geometry. We have assumed logarithmic as well as exponential form of well-known f(R) models and investigated their role in the modeling of stable/unstable thin-shell wormholes. As a specific case, we perform our analysis through distributions of mass, charge and equation of state parameter. We found that various static thin-shell wormhole backgrounds are possible for different parametric values of f(R) models. We also concluded that modified gravity induced by logarithmic and exponential f(R) models could likely to host wide range of wormholes.

  7. Black branes and black strings in the astrophysical and cosmological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Chopovsky, Alexey; Zhuk, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    We consider Kaluza-Klein models where internal spaces are compact flat or curved Einstein spaces. This background is perturbed by a compact gravitating body with the dust-like equation of state (EoS) in the external/our space and an arbitrary EoS parameter Ω in the internal space. Without imposing any restrictions on the form of the perturbed metric and the distribution of the perturbed energy densities, we perform the general analysis of the Einstein and conservation equations in the weak-field limit. All conclusions follow from this analysis. For example, we demonstrate that the perturbed model is static and perturbed metric preserves the block-diagonal form. In a particular case Ω = - 1 / 2, the found solution corresponds to the weak-field limit of the black strings/branes. The black strings/branes are compact gravitating objects which have the topology (four-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime) × (d-dimensional internal space) with d ≥ 1. We present the arguments in favour of these objects. First, they satisfy the gravitational tests for the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ at the same level of accuracy as General Relativity. Second, they are preferable from the thermodynamical point of view. Third, averaging over the Universe, they do not destroy the stabilization of the internal space. These are the astrophysical and cosmological aspects of the black strings/branes.

  8. Microscopic Calabi-Yau black holes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Saeid

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study microscopic aspects of Calabi-Yau black holes in string theory. We compute the absorption cross-section of the space-time massless scalars by the worldvolume of D2-branes, wrapped on the S 2 of an AdS 2 x S 2 x CY 3 geometry of a fourdimensional D4-D0 Calabi-Yau black hole. The D2-brane can also have a generic D0 probe-brane charge. However, we restrict ourselves to D2-branes with small D0-charge so that the perturbation theory is applicable. According to the proposed AdS 2 /QM correspondence the candidate for the dual theory is the quantum mechanics of a set of probe D0-branes in the AdS 2 geometry. For small but non-zero probe D0-charge we find the quantum mechanical absorption cross-section seen by an asymptotic anti-de Sitter observer. We repeat the calculations for vanishing probe D0-charge as well and discuss our result by comparing with the classical absorption cross-section. In other project, for a given fourdimensional Calabi-Yau black hole with generic D6-D4-D2-D0 charges we identify a set of supersymmetric branes, which are static or stationary in the global coordinates, of the corresponding eleven-dimensional near horizon geometry. The set of these BPS states, which include the branes partially or fully wrap the horizon, should play a role in understanding the partition function of black holes with D6-charge. (orig.)

  9. Microscopic Calabi-Yau black holes in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Saeid

    2011-07-22

    In this thesis we study microscopic aspects of Calabi-Yau black holes in string theory. We compute the absorption cross-section of the space-time massless scalars by the worldvolume of D2-branes, wrapped on the S{sup 2} of an AdS{sub 2} x S{sup 2} x CY{sub 3} geometry of a fourdimensional D4-D0 Calabi-Yau black hole. The D2-brane can also have a generic D0 probe-brane charge. However, we restrict ourselves to D2-branes with small D0-charge so that the perturbation theory is applicable. According to the proposed AdS{sub 2}/QM correspondence the candidate for the dual theory is the quantum mechanics of a set of probe D0-branes in the AdS{sub 2} geometry. For small but non-zero probe D0-charge we find the quantum mechanical absorption cross-section seen by an asymptotic anti-de Sitter observer. We repeat the calculations for vanishing probe D0-charge as well and discuss our result by comparing with the classical absorption cross-section. In other project, for a given fourdimensional Calabi-Yau black hole with generic D6-D4-D2-D0 charges we identify a set of supersymmetric branes, which are static or stationary in the global coordinates, of the corresponding eleven-dimensional near horizon geometry. The set of these BPS states, which include the branes partially or fully wrap the horizon, should play a role in understanding the partition function of black holes with D6-charge. (orig.)

  10. Evaporation of microscopic black holes in string theory and the bound on species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.; Luest, D.

    2010-01-01

    We address the question how string compactifications with D-branes are consistent with the black hole bound, which arises in any theory with number of particle species to which the black holes can evaporate. For the Kaluza-Klein particles, both longitudinal and transversal to the D-branes, it is relatively easy to see that the black hole bound is saturated, and the geometric relations can be understood in the language of species-counting. We next address the question of the black hole evaporation into the higher string states and discover, that contrary to the naive intuition, the exponentially growing number of Regge states does not preclude the existence of semi-classical black holes of sub-stringy size. Our analysis indicates that the effective number of string resonances to which such micro black holes evaporate is not exponentially large but is bounded by N = 1/g s 2 , which suggests the interpretation of the well-known relation between the Planck and string scales as the saturation of the black hole bound on the species number. In addition, we also discuss some other issues in D-brane compactifications with a low string scale of order TeV, such as the masses of light moduli fields. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Near horizon limits of massless BTZ and their CFT duals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Simón, J.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the massless BTZ black hole and show that it is possible to take its "near horizon" limit in two distinct ways. The first one leads to a null self-dual orbifold of AdS3 and the second to a spacelike singular AdS3/Z_K orbifold in the large K limit, the "pinching orbifold". We show that

  12. Near horizon limits of massless BTZ and their CFT duals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Simón, J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the massless BTZ black hole and show that it is possible to take its "near horizon" limit in two distinct ways. The first one leads to a null self-dual orbifold of AdS3 and the second to a spacelike singular AdS3/Z_K orbifold in the large K limit, the "pinching orbifold". We show that

  13. State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bellucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.

  14. All or nothing: On the small fluctuations of two-dimensional string theoretic black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Gerald [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Raiten, Eric [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    1992-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of small fluctuations about two-dimensional string-theoretic and string-inspired black holes is presented. It is shown with specific examples that two-dimensional black holes behave in a radically different way from all known black holes in four dimensions. For both the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole and the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive dilaton with constant field strength, it is shown that there are a {\\it continuous infinity} of solutions to the linearized equations of motion, which are such that it is impossible to ascertain the classical linear response. It is further shown that the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive, linear dilaton admits {\\it no small fluctuations at all}. We discuss possible implications of our results for the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black hole.

  15. State-space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations and Black Holes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a new perspective of black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic state-space geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, \\textit{viz.}, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory. Keywords: Intrinsic Geometry; ...

  16. On the W-hair of string black holes and the singularity problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    1992-01-01

    We argue that the infinitely many gauge symmetries of string theory provide an infinite set of conserved (gauge) quantum numbers (W-hair) which characterise black hole states and maintain quantum coherence, even during exotic processes like black hole evaporation/decay. We study ways of measuring the W-hair of spherically-symmetric four-dimensional objects with event horizons, treated as effectively two-dimensional string black holes. Measurements can be done either through the s-wave scattering of light particles off the string black-hole background, or through interference experiments of Aharonov-Bohm type. We also speculate on the role of the extended W-symmetries possessed by the topological field theories that describe the region of space-time around a singularity.

  17. Black hole remnant in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen-Yu [Chung Yuan Christian University, Department of Physics, Center for High Energy Physics, Chung Li City (China); National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); Wu, Shang-Yu [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Electrophysics, Hsinchu (China)

    2015-12-15

    The solution of a remnant was suggested for the black hole ground state after surface gravity is corrected for the loop quantum effect. On the other hand, a Schwarzschild black hole in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space would tunnel into the thermal soliton solution known as the Hawking-Page phase transition. In this letter, we investigate the low temperature phase of a three-dimensional Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole and four-dimensional AdS Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the thermal soliton is energetically favored rather than the remnant solution at low temperature in three dimensions, while a Planck-size remnant is still possible in four dimensions. Though the BTZ remnant seems energetically disfavored, we argue that it is still possible to find in the overcooled phase if strings were present, and its implication is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Black hole remnant in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen-Yu, E-mail: steve.wen@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Center for High Energy Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li City, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 106, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shang-Yu, E-mail: loganwu@gmail.com [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-21

    The solution of a remnant was suggested for the black hole ground state after surface gravity is corrected for the loop quantum effect. On the other hand, a Schwarzschild black hole in asymptotic anti-de Sitter space would tunnel into the thermal soliton solution known as the Hawking–Page phase transition. In this letter, we investigate the low temperature phase of a three-dimensional Banados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole and four-dimensional AdS Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the thermal soliton is energetically favored rather than the remnant solution at low temperature in three dimensions, while a Planck-size remnant is still possible in four dimensions. Though the BTZ remnant seems energetically disfavored, we argue that it is still possible to find in the overcooled phase if strings were present, and its implication is discussed.

  19. String-theoretic breakdown of effective field theory near black hole horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the validity of the equivalence principle near horizons in string theory, analyzing the breakdown of effective field theory caused by longitudinal string spreading effects. An experiment is set up where a detector is thrown into a black hole a long time after an early infalling string. Light cone gauge calculations, taken at face value, indicate a detectable level of root-mean-square longitudinal spreading of the initial string as measured by the late infaller. This results from the large relative boost between the string and detector in the near-horizon region, which develops automatically despite their modest initial energies outside the black hole and the weak curvature in the geometry. We subject this scenario to basic consistency checks, using these to obtain a relatively conservative criterion for its detectability. In a companion paper, we exhibit longitudinal nonlocality in well-defined gauge-invariant S-matrix calculations, obtaining results consistent with the predicted spreading albeit not in a direct analog of the black hole process. We discuss applications of this effect to the firewall paradox, and estimate the time and distance scales it predicts for new physics near black hole and cosmological horizons.

  20. F-Theory, spinning black holes and multi-string branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighat, Babak [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Murthy, Sameer [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vandoren, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-01-04

    We study 5d supersymmetric black holes which descend from strings of generic N=(1,0) supergravity in 6d. These strings have an F-theory realization in 6d as D3 branes wrapping smooth genus g curves in the base of elliptic 3-folds. They enjoy (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry with an extra SU(2){sub L} current algebra at level g realized on the left-movers. When the smooth curves degenerate they lead to multi-string branches and we find that the microscopic worldsheet theory flows in the IR to disconnected 2d CFTs having different central charges. The single string sector is the one with maximal central charge, which when wrapped on a circle, leads to a 5d spinning BPS black hole whose horizon volume agrees with the leading entropy prediction from the Cardy formula. However, we find new phenomena where this branch meets other branches of the CFT. These include multi-string configurations which have no bound states in 6 dimensions but are bound through KK momenta when wrapping a circle, as well as loci where the curves degenerate to spheres. These loci lead to black hole configurations which can have total angular momentum relative to a Taub-Nut center satisfying J{sup 2}>M{sup 3} and whose number of states, though exponentially large, grows much slower than those of the large spinning black hole.

  1. New black hole, string and membrane solutions of the four-dimensional heterotic string

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Michael J; Minasian, R; Rahmfeld, J; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Minasian, Ruben; Rahmfeld, Joachim

    1994-01-01

    We present solutions of the low-energy four-dimensional heterotic string corresponding to $p$-branes with $p=0,1,2$, which are characterized by a mass per unit $p$-volume, ${\\cal M}_{p+1}$, and topological ``magnetic'' charge, $g_{p+1}$. In the extremal limit, $\\sqrt{2} \\kappa {\\cal M}_{p+1} = g_{p+1}$, they reduce to the recently discovered non-singular supersymmetric monopole, string and domain wall solutions. A novel feature is that the solutions involve both the dilaton and the modulus fields. In particular, the effective scalar coupling to the Maxwell field, $e^{-\\alpha \\phi} F_{\\mu\

  2. Electromagnetic quasi normal modes of rotating black strings and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Jaqueline; Zanchin, Vilson T.; Miranda, Alex S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: For asymptotically flat four-dimensional spacetimes, Hawking's topology theorem assures that, under certain reasonable conditions, the horizon of a black hole must be topologically spherical. However the presence of a negative cosmological constant renders possible the existence of a multiply connected spacetime with an event horizon. A given identification of points in a planar Schwarzschild-AdS black hole generates a black string (or cylindrical black hole), which in turn can be put to rotate by an illegitimate coordinate transformation - a boost in the compact direction. The conformal field theory (CFT) dual of a such a rotating black string lives on a Minkowski space with compact spatial dimensions. On basis of the AdS/CFT duality, we interpret a CFT plasma moving with respect to the preferred rest frame introduced by the topology as the holographic dual to a rotating black string. We explore the consequences of this correspondence by investigating the electromagnetic perturbations of a rotating black string for different rotation parameter values. As usual, the electromagnetic quasi normal modes (QNM) correspond to the poles of retarded Green functions of R-symmetry currents in the boundary field theory. The low-momentum regime of the QNM dispersion relations are analytically studied both in the static and rotating cases. Finally, we investigate numerically the effects of rotation on all the family of black-string electromagnetic quasi normal modes. We interpret these results from the CFT perspective and notice the emergence of effects like Doppler shift of the frequencies and dilation of the thermalization times. (author)

  3. Black Holes, q-Deformed 2d Yang-Mills, and Non-perturbative Topological Strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aganagic, Mina; Ooguri, Hirosi; Saulina, Natalia; Vafa, Cumrun

    2005-01-28

    We count the number of bound states of BPS black holes on local Calabi-Yau three-folds involving a Riemann surface of genus g. We show that the corresponding gauge theory on the brane reduces to a q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the Riemann surface. Following the recent connection between the black hole entropy and the topological string partition function, we find that for a large black hole charge N, up to corrections of O(e^-N), Z_BH is given as a sum of a square of chiral blocks, each of which corresponds to a specific D-brane amplitude. The leading chiral block, the vacuum block, corresponds to the closed topological string amplitudes. The sub-leading chiral blocks involve topological string amplitudes with D-brane insertions at 2g-2 points on the Riemann surface analogous to the Omega points in the large N 2d Yang-Mills theory. The finite N amplitude provides a non-perturbative definition of topological strings in these backgrounds. This also leads to a novel non-perturbative formulation of c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius.

  4. Black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a string cloud background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao; Richarte, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a black hole solution in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory for the string cloud model in a five-dimensional spacetime. We analyze the event horizons and naked singularities. Later, we compute the Hawking temperature T H , the specific heat C, the entropy S, and the Helmholtz free energy F of the black hole. The entropy was computed using the Wald formulation. In addition, the quantum correction to the Wald's entropy is considered for the string cloud source. We mainly explore the thermodynamical global and local stability of the system with vanishing or non-vanishing cosmological constant. The global thermodynamic phase structure indicates that the Hawking-Page transition is achieved for this model. Further, we observe that there exist stable black holes with small radii and that these regions are enlarged when choosing small values of the string cloud density and of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter. Besides, the rate of evaporation for these black holes are studied, determining whether the evaporation time is finite or not. Then, we concentrate on the dynamical stability of the system, studying the effective potential for s-waves propagating on the string cloud background.

  5. Classical and quantum aspects of BPS black holes in N=2,D=4 heterotic string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, S.-J.

    1997-01-01

    We study classical and quantum aspects of D=4, N=2 BPS black holes for T 2 compactification of D=6, N=1 heterotic string vacua. We extend dynamical relaxation phenomena of moduli fields to a background consisting of a BPS soliton or a black hole and provide a simpler but more general derivation of the Ferrara-Kallosh extremized black hole mass and entropy. We study quantum effects to the BPS black hole mass spectra and to their dynamical relaxation. We show that, despite non-renormalizability of string effective supergravity, the quantum effect modifies BPS mass spectra only through coupling constant and moduli field renormalizations. Based on target-space duality, we establish a perturbative non-renormalization theorem and obtain the exact BPS black hole mass and entropy in terms of the renormalized string loop-counting parameter and renormalized moduli fields. We show that a similar conclusion holds, in the large T 2 limit, for leading non-perturbative correction. We finally discuss implications to type-I and type-IIA Calabi-Yau black holes. (orig.)

  6. Quantum Mechanics and Black Holes in Four-Dimensional String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1992-01-01

    In previous papers we have shown how strings in a two-dimensional target space reconcile quantum mechanics with general relativity, thanks to an infinite set of conserved quantum numbers, ``W-hair'', associated with topological soliton-like states. In this paper we extend these arguments to four dimensions, by considering explicitly the case of string black holes with radial symmetry. The key infinite-dimensional W-symmetry is associated with the $\\frac{SU(1,1)}{U(1)}$ coset structure of the dilaton-graviton sector that is a model-independent feature of spherically symmetric four-dimensional strings. Arguments are also given that the enormous number of string {\\it discrete (topological)} states account for the maintenance of quantum coherence during the (non-thermal) stringy evaporation process, as well as quenching the large Hawking-Bekenstein entropy associated with the black hole. Defining the latter as the measure of the loss of information for an observer at infinity, who - ignoring the higher string qua...

  7. Black hole production at the CERN LHC: String balls and black holes from pp and lead-lead collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamblin, Andrew; Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2002-01-01

    If the fundamental Planck scale is near a TeV, then parton collisions with high enough center-of-mass energy should produce black holes. The production rate for such black holes at the CERN LHC has been extensively studied for the case of a proton-proton collision. In this paper, we extend this analysis to a lead-lead collision at LHC. We find that the cross section for small black holes which may in principle be produced in such a collision is either enhanced or suppressed, depending upon the black hole mass. For example, for black holes with a mass around 3 TeV we find that the differential black hole production cross section, dσ/dM, in a typical lead-lead collision is up to 90 times larger than that for black holes produced in a typical proton-proton collision. We also discuss the cross sections for 'string ball' production in these collisions. For string balls of mass about 1 (2) TeV, we find that the differential production cross section in a typical lead-lead collision may be enhanced by a factor up to 3300 (850) times that of a proton-proton collision at LHC

  8. Rotating circular strings, and infinite non-uniqueness of black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    We present new self-gravitating solutions in five dimensions that describe circular strings, i.e., rings, electrically coupled to a two-form potential (as e.g., fundamental strings do), or to a dual magnetic one-form. The rings are prevented from collapsing by rotation, and they create a field analogous to a dipole, with no net charge measured at infinity. They can have a regular horizon, and we show that this implies the existence of an infinite number of black rings, labeled by a continuous parameter, with the same mass and angular momentum as neutral black rings and black holes. We also discuss the solution for a rotating loop of fundamental string. We show how more general rings arise from intersections of branes with a regular horizon (even at extremality), closely related to the configurations that yield the four-dimensional black hole with four charges. We reproduce the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a large extremal ring through a microscopic calculation. Finally, we discuss some qualitative ideas for a microscopic understanding of neutral and dipole black rings. (author)

  9. On black holes, space-time foam and the nature of time in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatos, N.E.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy

    1993-04-01

    It is shown that the light particles in string theory obey an effective quantum mechanics modified by the inclusion of a quantum-gravitational friction term, induced by unavoidable couplings to unobserved massive string states in the space-time foam. This term is related to the W-symmetries that couple light particles to massive solitonic string states in black hole backgrounds, and has a formal similarity to simple models of environmental quantum friction. All properties follow from a definition of target-time as a Renormalization Group scale parameter and the associated (generic) properties of the renormalization group flow. Some experimental consequences, concerning CPT violation detectable in systems that are generally considered as sensitive probes of quantum mechanics (e.g. neutral kaons), are briefly discussed. (author). 52 refs., 1 fig

  10. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Junjin; Wu Shuangqing

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one (√(-g)≠1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant

  11. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addazi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di L’Aquila,67010 Coppito, L’Aquila (Italy); LNGS, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso,67010 Assergi (Italy); Bianchi, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata andI.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Veneziano, Gabriele [Collége de France,11 place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza,00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of 2→N scattering at N∼sM{sub P}{sup −2}≫1. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter’s results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass √s, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  12. Glimpses of black hole formation/evaporation in highly inelastic, ultra-planckian string collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2017-02-22

    We revisit possible glimpses of black-hole formation by looking at ultra-planckian string-string collisions at very high final-state multiplicity. We compare, in particular, previous results using the optical theorem, the resummation of ladder diagrams at arbitrary loop order, and the AGK cutting rules, with the more recent study of $2 \\rightarrow N$ scattering at $N \\sim s M_P^{-2} \\gg 1$. We argue that some apparent tension between the two approaches disappears once a reinterpretation of the latter's results in terms of suitably defined infrared-safe cross sections is adopted. Under that assumption, the typical final state produced in an ultra-planckian collision does indeed appear to share some properties with those expected from the evaporation of a black hole of mass $\\sqrt{s}$, although no sign of thermalization is seen to emerge at this level of approximation.

  13. Stability analysis of thin-shell wormholes from charged black string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: azammath@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we construct thin-shell wormholes from charged black string through cut and paste procedure and investigate its stability. We assume modified generalized Chaplygin gas as a dark energy fluid (exotic matter) present in the thin layer of matter-shell. The stability of these constructed thin-shell wormholes is investigated in the scenario of linear perturbations. We conclude that static stable as well as unstable configurations are possible for cylindrical thin-shell wormholes.

  14. Coloured Black Holes in Higher Curvature String Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kanti, Panagiota

    1997-01-01

    We consider the combined Yang Mills-Dilaton-Gravity system in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term as it appears in the $4D$ Effective Superstring Action. We give analytical arguments and demonstrate numerically the existence of black hole solutions with non-trivial dilaton and Yang Mills hair for the particular case of SU(2) gauge fields. The thermodynamical properties of the solutions are also discussed.

  15. Echoes of chaos from string theory black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Vijay [David Rittenhouse Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB),and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB),and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Czech, Bartłomiej [Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Sárosi, Gábor [David Rittenhouse Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB),and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-29

    The strongly coupled D1-D5 conformal field theory is a microscopic model of black holes which is expected to have chaotic dynamics. Here, we study the weak coupling limit of the theory where it is integrable rather than chaotic. In this limit, the operators creating microstates of the lowest mass black hole are known exactly. We consider the time-ordered two-point function of light probes in these microstates, normalized by the same two-point function in vacuum. These correlators display a universal early-time decay followed by late-time sporadic behavior. To find a prescription for temporal coarse-graining of these late fluctuations we appeal to random matrix theory, where we show that a progressive time-average smooths the spectral form factor (a proxy for the 2-point function) in a typical draw of a random matrix. This coarse-grained quantity reproduces the matrix ensemble average to a good approximation. Employing this coarse-graining in the D1-D5 system, we find that the early-time decay is followed by a dip, a ramp and a plateau, in remarkable qualitative agreement with recent studies of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We study the timescales involved, comment on similarities and differences between our integrable model and the chaotic SYK model, and suggest ways to extend our results away from the integrable limit.

  16. General rotating black holes in string theory: Greybody factors and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Larsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    We derive the wave equation for a minimally coupled scalar field in the background of a general rotating five-dimensional black hole. It is written in a form that involves two types of thermodynamic variables, defined at the inner and outer event horizon, respectively. We model the microscopic structure as an effective string theory, with the thermodynamic properties of the left- and right-moving excitations related to those of the horizons. Previously known solutions to the wave equation are generalized to the rotating case, and their regime of validity is sharpened. We calculate the greybody factors and interpret the resulting Hawking emission spectrum microscopically in several limits. We find a U-duality-invariant expression for the effective string length that does not assume a hierarchy between the charges. It accounts for the universal low-energy absorption cross section in the general nonextremal case. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: testing critical string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, JoAnne L; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G

    2005-12-31

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With approximately 20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, . In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  18. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN large Hadron collider testing critical string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With ~20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, n. In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if n is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  19. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  20. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Thomas G. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verschelde, Henri [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Zakharov, Valentin I. [ITEP,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute Phys. & Technol.,Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova str 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-04

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  1. Two-dimensional black hole as a topological coset model of c = 1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, S.; Vafa, C.

    1993-01-01

    We show that a special superconformal coset (with c=3) is equivalent to c=1 matter coupled to two-dimensional gravity. This identification allows a direct computation of the correlation functions of the c=1 non-critical string to all genus, and at nonzero cosmological constant, directly from the continuum approach. The results agree with those of the matrix model. Moreover we connect our coset with a twisted version of a euclidean two-dimensional black hole, in which the ghost and matter systems are mixed. (orig.)

  2. Non-Abelian, supersymmetric black holes and strings in 5 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meessen, Patrick; Ortín, Tomás; Ramírez, Pedro F.

    2016-01-01

    We construct and study the first supersymmetric black-hole and black-string solutions of non-Abelian-gauged N=1,d=5 supergravity (N=1,d=5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory) with non-trivial SU(2) gauge fields: BPST instantons for black holes and BPS monopoles of different kinds (’t Hooft-Polyakov, Wu-Yang and Protogenov) for black strings and also for certain black holes that are well defined solutions only for very specific values of all the moduli. Instantons, as well as colored monopoles do not contribute to the masses and tensions but do contribute to the entropies. The construction is based on the characterization of the supersymmetric solutions of gauged N=1,d=5 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets achieved in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/08/096 which we elaborate upon by finding the rules to construct supersymmetric solutions with one additional isometry, both for the timelike and null classes. These rules automatically connect the timelike and null non-Abelian supersymmetric solutions of N=1,d=5 SEYM theory with the timelike ones of N=2,d=4 SEYM theory http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.78.065031; http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/09/099 by dimensional reduction and oxidation. In the timelike-to-timelike case the singular Kronheimer reduction recently studied in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2015.04.065 plays a crucial role.

  3. Hawking radiation as tunneling from charged black holes in 0A string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongbin

    2011-09-01

    There has been much work on explaining Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling process through horizons. Basically, this intuitive picture requires the calculation of the imaginary part of the action for outgoing particle. And two ways are known for achieving this goal: the null-geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method. We apply these methods to the charged black holes in 2D dilaton gravity which is originated from the low energy effective theory of type 0A string theory. We derive the correct Hawking temperature of the black holes including the effect of the back reaction of the radiation, and obtain the entropy by using the 1st law of black hole thermodynamics. For fixed-charge ensemble, the 0A black holes are free of phase transition and thermodynamically stable regardless of mass-charge ratio. We show this by interpreting the back reaction term as the inverse of the heat capacity of the black holes. Finally, the possibility of the phase transition in the fixed-potential ensemble is discussed.

  4. An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and the String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, W [University of Victoria (Canada)

    2006-07-21

    their simultaneous validity cannot lead to inconsistencies. Students and non-specialists will welcome this book, which provides an entry into this fascinating realm at a level that can be enjoyed by an enterprising undergraduate. The first chapter introduces the Schwarzschild black hole and the various coordinate systems used for its description. In four brief chapters (29 pages) the authors then manage a clear presentation of the thermal properties of quantum fields in Rindler and Schwarzschild space that skirts the operator formalism of QFT. Two further chapters treat charged black holes and the stretched-horizon description of black hole electrodynamics. Chapter 8, 'The Laws of Nature', explains how information is quantified, the quantum xerox principle and the entanglement entropy of black holes, with a detailed account of how this evolves as the hole evaporates. This sets the stage for a discussion of the black hole information puzzle and the complementarity principle in chapter 9. The pace heats up in the second part of the book, which in 48 pages sketches a variety of topics: Bousso's entropy bound and holography, the AdS/CFT correspondence, a 13 page introduction to string theory and the ideas underlying the string-based derivations of the entropy-area relation for higher-dimensional black holes. This well-planned, stimulating and sometimes provocative book can be enthusiastically recommended. (Book review of An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and the String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe by Leonard Susskind and James Lindesay, 2005 Singapore: World Scientific, 183 pp, ISBN 981-256-083-1)

  5. Thermodynamics of rotating black branes in gravity with first order string corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dehghani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, the rotating black brane solutions with zero curvature horizon of classical gravity with first order string corrections are introduced. Although these solutions are not asymptotically anti de Sitter, one can use the counterterm method in order to compute the conserved quantities of these solutions. Here, by reviewing the counterterm method for asymptotically anti de Sitter spacetimes, the conserved quantities of these rotating solutions are computed. Also a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy and the angular momenta is obtained, and it is shown that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, a stability analysis in the canonical ensemble is performed, and it is shown that the system is thermally stable. This is in commensurable with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black object with zero curvature horizon.

  6. Dark matter cosmic string in the gravitational field of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczny, Łukasz; Nakonieczna, Anna; Rogatko, Marek

    2018-03-01

    We examined analytically and proposed a numerical model of an Abelian Higgs dark matter vortex in the spacetime of a stationary axisymmetric Kerr black hole. In analytical calculations the dark matter sector was modeled by an addition of a U(1)-gauge field coupled to the visible sector. The backreaction analysis revealed that the impact of the dark vortex presence is far more complicated than causing only a deficit angle. The vortex causes an ergosphere shift and the event horizon velocity is also influenced by its presence. These phenomena are more significant than in the case of a visible vortex sector. The area of the event horizon of a black hole is diminished and this decline is larger in comparison to the Kerr black hole with an Abelian Higgs vortex case. After analyzing the gravitational properties for the general setup, we focused on the subset of models that are motivated by particle physics. We retained the Abelian Higgs model as a description of the dark matter sector (this sector contained a heavy dark photon and an additional complex scalar) and added a real scalar representing the real component of the Higgs doublet in the unitary gauge, as well as an additional U(1)-gauge field representing an ordinary electromagnetic field. Moreover, we considered two coupling channels between the visible and dark sectors, which were the kinetic mixing between the gauge fields and a quartic coupling between the scalar fields. After solving the equations of motion for the matter fields numerically we analyzed properties of the cosmic string in the dark matter sector and its influence on the visible sector fields that are directly coupled to it. We found out that the presence of the cosmic string induced spatial variation in the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field and a nonzero electromagnetic field around the black hole.

  7. String in AdS Black Hole: A Thermo Field Dynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cantcheff, M Botta; Marchioro, Dafni F Z; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Based on Maldacena's description of an eternal AdS-black hole, we reassess the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD) formalism in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The model studied here involves the maximally extended AdS-Schwarschild solution and two (non-interacting) copies of the CFT associated to the global AdS spacetime, along with an extension of the string by imposing natural gluing conditions in the horizon. We show that the gluing conditions in the horizon define a string boundary state which is identified with the TFD thermal vacuum, globally defined in the Kruskal extension of the AdS black hole. We emphasize the connection of this picture with unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation and we show that information about the bulk and the conformal boundary is present in the SU(1,1) parameters. Using the unitary SU(1,1) TFD formulation, a canonical prescription for calculating the worldsheet real time thermal Green's function is made and the entropy associated with the entanglement of the two CFT's is calculat...

  8. Rotating elastic string loops in flat and black hole spacetimes: stability, cosmic censorship and the Penrose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2018-04-01

    We rederive the equations of motion for relativistic strings, that is, one-dimensional elastic bodies whose internal energy depends only on their stretching, and use them to study circular string loops rotating in the equatorial plane of flat and black hole spacetimes. We start by obtaining the conditions for equilibrium, and find that: (i) if the string’s longitudinal speed of sound does not exceed the speed of light then its radius when rotating in Minkowski’s spacetime is always larger than its radius when at rest; (ii) in Minkowski’s spacetime, equilibria are linearly stable for rotation speeds below a certain threshold, higher than the string’s longitudinal speed of sound, and linearly unstable for some rotation speeds above it; (iii) equilibria are always linearly unstable in Schwarzschild’s spacetime. Moreover, we study interactions of a rotating string loop with a Kerr black hole, namely in the context of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture and the Penrose process. We find that: (i) elastic string loops that satisfy the null energy condition cannot overspin extremal black holes; (ii) elastic string loops that satisfy the dominant energy condition cannot increase the maximum efficiency of the usual particle Penrose process; (iii) if the dominant energy condition (but not the weak energy condition) is violated then the efficiency can be increased. This last result hints at the interesting possibility that the dominant energy condition may underlie the well known upper bounds for the efficiencies of energy extraction processes (including, for example, superradiance).

  9. An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and the String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, W

    2006-01-01

    lead to inconsistencies. Students and non-specialists will welcome this book, which provides an entry into this fascinating realm at a level that can be enjoyed by an enterprising undergraduate. The first chapter introduces the Schwarzschild black hole and the various coordinate systems used for its description. In four brief chapters (29 pages) the authors then manage a clear presentation of the thermal properties of quantum fields in Rindler and Schwarzschild space that skirts the operator formalism of QFT. Two further chapters treat charged black holes and the stretched-horizon description of black hole electrodynamics. Chapter 8, 'The Laws of Nature', explains how information is quantified, the quantum xerox principle and the entanglement entropy of black holes, with a detailed account of how this evolves as the hole evaporates. This sets the stage for a discussion of the black hole information puzzle and the complementarity principle in chapter 9. The pace heats up in the second part of the book, which in 48 pages sketches a variety of topics: Bousso's entropy bound and holography, the AdS/CFT correspondence, a 13 page introduction to string theory and the ideas underlying the string-based derivations of the entropy-area relation for higher-dimensional black holes. This well-planned, stimulating and sometimes provocative book can be enthusiastically recommended. (book review)

  10. Exact Holography and Black Hole Entropy in N=8 and N=4 String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João

    2017-07-01

    We compute the exact entropy of one-eighth and one-quarter BPS black holes in N=8 and N=4 string theory respectively. This includes all the N=4 CHL models in both K3 and T 4 compactifications. The main result is a measure for the finite dimensional integral that one obtains after localization of supergravity on AdS 2 × S 2. This measure is determined entirely by an anomaly in supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory on local AdS3 and takes into account the contribution from all the supergravity multiplets. In Chern-Simons theory on compact manifolds, this is the anomaly that computes a certain one-loop dependence on the volume of the manifold. For one-eighth BPS black holes, our results are a first principles derivation of a measure proposed in arXiv:1111.1161, while in the case of one-quarter BPS black holes our result computes exactly all the perturbative or area corrections. Moreover, we argue that instantonic contributions can be incorporated and give evidence by computing the measure, which matches precisely the microscopics. Along with this, we find a unitary condition that truncates the answer to a finite sum of instantons in perfect agreement with a microscopic formula. Our results therefore solve a number of puzzles related to localization in supergravity and constitute a larger number of examples where holography can be shown to hold exactly.

  11. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  12. (1 + 1)-dimensional gauge symmetric gravity model and related exact black hole and cosmological solutions in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a four-dimensional extension of the Poincaré algebra (N) in (1 + 1)-dimensional space-time and obtain a (1 + 1)-dimensional gauge symmetric gravity model using the algebra N. We show that the obtained gravity model is dual (canonically transformed) to the (1 + 1)-dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS) gravity. We also obtain some black hole and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solutions by solving its classical equations of motion. Then, we study A4,8A1/⊗A1 gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model and obtain some exact black hole and cosmological solutions in string theory. We show that some obtained black hole and cosmological metrics in string theory are same as the metrics obtained in solutions of our gauge symmetric gravity model.

  13. On the many saddle points description of quantum black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano, E-mail: cristiano.germani@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2014-06-02

    Considering two dimensional gravity coupled to a CFT, we show that a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of two Liouville theories matched at the horizon. The black hole exterior corresponds to a space-like while the interior to a time-like Liouville theory. This matching automatically implies that a semiclassical black hole has an infinite entropy. The path integral description of the time-like Liouville theory (the Black Hole interior) is studied and it is found that the correlation functions of the coupled CFT-gravity system are dominated by two (complex) saddle points, even in the semiclassical limit. We argue that this system can be interpreted as two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates constructed out of two degenerate quantum states. In AdS/CFT context, the same system is mapped into two interacting strings intersecting inside a three-dimensional BTZ black hole.

  14. New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology.A Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Norma G.

    2002-01-01

    New Developments in String Gravity and String Cosmology are reported: 1-String driven cosmology and its Predictions. 2-The primordial gravitational wave background in string cosmology. 3-Non-singular string cosmologies from Exact Conformal Field Theories. 4-Quantum Field Theory, String Temperature and the String Phase of de Sitter space-time, 5-Hawking Radiation in String Theory and the String Phase of Black Holes. 6-New Dual Relation between Quantum Field Theory regimes and String regimes in...

  15. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  16. Thermodynamics of Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2008-01-01

    We show that all thermodynamic quantities of the Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes in three dimensions can be obtained from the dilaton and its potential of two-dimensional dilaton gravity through dimensional reduction. These are all between nonrotating uncharged BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli) black hole (NBTZ) and charged BTZ black hole (CBTZ).

  17. First advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the First Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ was: 1)Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2)Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravity, astrophysics, and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Astrophysics, and Strings; Relativistic Gravity; (Super)Strings. About 40 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 30 invited talks and contributed presentations. The full text of 17 of them are included in this book

  18. Long-range nonlocality in six-point string scattering: Simulation of black hole infallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva

    2017-09-01

    We set up a tree-level six-point scattering process in which two strings are separated longitudinally such that they could only interact directly via a nonlocal spreading effect such as that predicted by light-cone gauge calculations and the Gross-Mende saddle point. One string, the "detector," is produced at a finite time with energy E by an auxiliary 2 →2 subprocess, with kinematics such that it has sufficient resolution to detect the longitudinal spreading of an additional incoming string, the "source." We test this hypothesis in a gauge-invariant S-matrix calculation convolved with an appropriate wavepacket peaked at a separation X between the central trajectories of the source and produced detector. The amplitude exhibits support for scattering at the predicted longitudinal separation X ˜α'E , in sharp contrast to the analogous quantum field theory amplitude (whose support manifestly traces out a tail of the position-space wavefunction). The effect arises in a regime in which the string amplitude is not obtained as a convergent sum of such QFT amplitudes, and has larger amplitude than similar QFT models (with the same auxiliary four-point amplitude). In a linear dilaton background, the amplitude depends on the string coupling as expected if the scattering is not simply occurring on the wavepacket tail in string theory. This manifests the scale of longitudinal spreading in a gauge-invariant S-matrix amplitude, in a calculable process with significant amplitude. It simulates a key feature of the dynamics of time-translated horizon infallers.

  19. Some investigations of null and time like geodesics in Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de sitter black hole with a straight string passing through it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, Eak Raj

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational field of Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de-sitter Black hole with a straight string passing through it. In such space analytical and numerical solutions of null and time like geodesics are investigated. The string parameter a + is found to affect both the angle of deflection in null geodesics and the precession of perihelion on time like geodesics .It is seen that the deflection of null and time like geodesics near the gravitating mass of de-sitter space time increases with t he gravitational field of a straight string in flat space time has the property that the Newtonian potential vanishes yet there are non trivial gravitational effects. A test particle is neither attracted nor repelled by a string, yet the conical nature of space outside of string produces observable effects such as light deflection . Schwarzschild Black hole is a mathematical solution to the Einstein's field equations and corresponds to the gravitational field of massive compact spherically symmetric ob normal. References 1. Aryal, M.M, A. Vilenkin and L.H Ford, 1986, Phys.Rev. D32 ,2262 2. Moriyasu ,K ., 1980 , An introduction to gauge Invariance 3. Vilenkin A., 1985 , Physical reports , cosmic strings and Domain walls 4. Berry, M. , 1976 , Principle of cosmology and Gravitation 5. Mishner , C.W ., K.S .Throne , J.A wheeler , 1973. (Author)

  20. Second advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Second Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ held on 10-16 June 2004. It served four purposes: 1) Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2) Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference; 4) Stimulated creation of a new generation of young physicists for further development of the above basic topics in fundamental science. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravity, astrophysics, and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Relativistic Gravity; (Super)Strings. About 35 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 28 invited talks and contributed presentations. They and guided general discussion as well, which took place confirmed the considerable interest to the themes of the workshop. The full text of 16 of the presented papers are included in this book

  1. Third advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Third Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ held on 13-20 June 2005. The workshop: 1) Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2) Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference; 4) Stimulated creation of a new generation of young physicists for further development of the above basic topics in fundamental science. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Relativistic Gravity; Particle Physics and Fundamental Interactions; (Super)Strings. About 40 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 32 invited talks and contributed presentations. They and guided general discussion as well, which took place confirmed the considerable interest to the themes of the workshop. The full text of 22 of the presented papers are included in this book

  2. A non-critical string approach to black holes, time and quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    1994-01-01

    We review our approach to time and quantum dynamics based on non-critical string theory, developing its relationship to previous work on non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and the microscopic arrow of time. We exhibit specific non-factorizing contributions to the {\

  3. Search for microscopic black holes and string balls in final states with leptons and jets with the ATLAS detector at √s = 8 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, M.; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 8 (2014), s. 1-48 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gravitation * black hole * string * ATLAS * CERN LHC Coll Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014

  4. The Cardy limit of the topologically twisted index and black strings in AdS{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Nedelin, Anton; Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2017-04-04

    We evaluate the topologically twisted index of a general four-dimensional N=1 gauge theory in the “high-temperature' limit. The index is the partition function for N=1 theories on S{sup 2}×T{sup 2}, with a partial topological twist along S{sup 2}, in the presence of background magnetic fluxes and fugacities for the global symmetries. We show that the logarithm of the index is proportional to the conformal anomaly coefficient of the two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained from the compactification on S{sup 2}. We also present a universal formula for extracting the index from the four-dimensional conformal anomaly coefficient and its derivatives. We give examples based on theories whose holographic duals are black strings in type IIB backgrounds AdS{sub 5}×SE{sub 5}, where SE{sub 5} are five-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces.

  5. Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by using differences between two free energies. However, we do not identify what order of the phase transition between scalar and non-rotating BTZ black holes occurs in three dimensions, although there exists a possible decay of scalar black hole to non-rotating BTZ black hole

  6. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis.

  7. An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light

  8. Global Structure of Black Holes in String Theory with Gauss-Bonnet Correction in Various Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, N.; Torii, T.

    2010-08-01

    We study global structures of black hole solutions in Einstein gravity with Gauss-Bonnet term coupled to dilaton in various dimensions. In particular we focus on the problem whether the singularity is weakened due to the Gauss-Bonnet term and dilaton. We find that there appears the non-central singularity between horizon and the center in many cases, where the metric does not diverge but the Kretschmann invariant does diverge. Hence this is a singularity, but we find the singularity is much milder than the Schwarzschild solution and the non-dilatonic one. We discuss the origin of this ``fat'' singularity. In other cases, we encounter singularity at the center which is much stronger than the usual one. We find that our black hole solutions have three different types of the global structures; the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-AdS and ``regular AdS black hole" types.

  9. Supersymmetric Conical Defects: Towards a string theoretic description of black hole formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; de Boer, J.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Ross, S.F.

    2001-01-01

    Conical defects, or point particles, in $AdS_3$ are one of the simplest non-trivial gravitating systems, and are particularly interesting because black holes can form from their collision. We embed the BPS conical defects of three dimensions into the N=4b supergravity in six dimensions, which arises

  10. Ultra high energy cosmic rays and possible signature of black strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rita C. dos; Coimbra-Araújo, Carlos H. [Departamento de Engenharias e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Pioneiro, 2153, 85950-000 Palotina, PR, Brazil. (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580, Santo André-SP, Brazil. (Brazil); De Souza, Vitor, E-mail: ritacassia@ufpr.br, E-mail: carlos.coimbra@ufpr.br, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-carlense 400, São Carlos (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) probably originate in extreme conditions in which extra dimension effects might be important. In this paper we calculate the correction in black hole accretion mechanisms due to extra dimension effects in the static and rotating cases. A parametrization of the external Kerr horizons in both cases is presented and analysed. We use previous calculations of upper limits on the UHECR flux to set limits on the UHECR production efficiency of nine sources. The upper limit on the UHECR luminosity calculation is based on GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements. The total luminosity due to the accretion mechanism is compared to the upper limit on UHECRs. The dependence of the UHECR production efficiency upper limit on black hole mass is also presented and discussed.

  11. Effects of brane-flux transition on black holes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Oda, Kin-ya

    2007-01-01

    Extremal N = 2 black holes in four dimensions can be described by an ensemble of D3-branes wrapped on internal supersymmetric three-cycles of Calabi-Yau threefolds on which type IIB superstring theory is compactified. We construct a similar configuration, with extra RR and NS-NS three-form fluxes being turned on. We can avoid the Freed-Witten anomaly on the D3-branes by enforcing the pullback of these extra fluxes to the D3-branes to vanish at the classical level. In the setup the D3-brane charge is not conserved since it is classified as a trivial class in twisted K-theory. Consequently, the D3-branes may disappear by encountering an instantonic D5-brane localized in time. We discuss what happens on the black hole described by such disappearing D3-branes, relying mainly on topological arguments. Especially, we argue that another RR three-form flux will be left as a lump of remnant which is localized in the uncompactified four-dimensional space-time and that it may carry the same amount of degrees of freedom to describe a black hole, in cooperation with the original NS-NS flux, after this transition of the D3-branes

  12. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... To have this test, you swallow a string with a weighted gelatin capsule on the end. The string is pulled out 4 hours later. Any bile , blood, or mucus attached to ...

  13. Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by usi...

  14. Lectures on strings and dualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafa, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this set of lectures I review recent developments in string theory emphasizing their non-perturbative aspects and their recently discovered duality symmetries. The goal of the lectures is to make the recent exciting developments in string theory accessible to those with no previous background in string theory who wish to join the research effort in this area. Topics covered include a brief review of string theory, its compactifications, solitons and D-branes, black hole entropy and wed of string dualities. (author)

  15. Safety of BTZ retreatment for patients with low-grade peripheral neuropathy during the initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisheva, Aleksandra P; Wang, James; Spektor, Tanya M; Bitran, Jacob D; Lutzky, Jose; Tabbara, Imad A; Ye, Joseph Z; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Stampleman, Laura V; Steis, Ronald G; Moezi, Mehdi M; Swift, Regina A; Maluso, Tina M; Udd, Kyle A; Eshaghian, Shahrooz; Nassir, Youram; Berenson, James R

    2017-10-01

    Neuropathy is an important complication that may limit treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Previous studies have focused on treatment efficacy and have shown that retreatment with bortezomib (BTZ) is an effective treatment option. The goal of this study was to focus on the clinical manifestations of peripheral neuropathy (PN) and to retrospectively compare the incidence and severity of PN between the initial BTZ regimen and upon retreatment. Furthermore, this study evaluated how certain factors affect BIPN, which will help determine what conditions should be considered prior to retreatment. Charts were reviewed from 93 patients who were retreated with a BTZ-containing regimen after previously being treated with this drug. Among the patients who developed PN, most patients in the study had low-grade neuropathy during the initial BTZ treatment (n = 52, 68%). The results showed no evidence of cumulative toxicity, and there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PN upon retreatment. Factors such as the presence of baseline PN, number of prior treatments, dose of BTZ, and comorbidities did not increase the severity of PN upon retreatment. The lapse of time between the two regimens also did not affect the severity of PN. The results suggest that retreatment with BTZ may be a feasible option, without additional risks of PN, for MM patients even with peripheral neuropathy during their initial treatment with this drug.

  16. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  17. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time' can have a beginning or end. Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities ...

  18. Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We find a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynam- ical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution and give corrections to the area law to get ...

  19. Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution and give corrections to the area law to get the exact ...

  20. String Theory for Pedestrians (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  1. String Theory for Pedestrians (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  2. String Theory for Pedestrians (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    This is a non-technical rapid course on string theory. Lecture 1 is an introduction to the basics of the subject: classical and quantum strings, D(irichlet) branes and string-string dualities. In lecture 2 I will discuss string unification of the fundamental forces, covering both its successes and failures. Finally in lecture 3 I will review string models of black hole microstates, the holographic gauge/gravity duality and, if time permits, potential applications to the physics of the strong interactions.

  3. String theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo.

    1987-10-01

    The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)

  4. Hyperbolic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We introduce hyperbolic strings as closed bosonic strings with the target space R d-1,1 xT q+1,1 which has an additional time-like dimension in the internal space. The Fock spaces of the q-parametric family of standard bosonic, fermionic and heterotic strings with the target spaces of dimension n≤d+q are shown to be embedded into the Fock space of hyperbolic strings. The condition of the absence of anomaly fixes d and q for all three types of strings written in a bosonized form. (orig.)

  5. Search for microscopic black holes and string balls in final states with leptons and jets with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$=8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A search for an excess of events with multiple high transverse momentum objects including charged leptons and jets is presented, using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. No excess of events beyond Standard Model expectations is observed. Using extra-dimensional models for black hole and string ball production and decay, exclusion contours are determined as a function of the mass threshold for production and the fundamental gravity scale for two, four and six extra dimensions. For six extra dimensions, mass thresholds of $4.8$--$6.2$ TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, depending on the fundamental gravity scale and model assumptions. Upper limits on the fiducial cross-sections for non-Standard Model production of these final states are set.

  6. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. String theory and quantum gravity '92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.; Iengo, R.; Narain, K.S.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; Verlinde, H.

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings of the 1992 Trieste Spring School and Workshop on String Theory and Quantum Gravity contains introductions and overviews of recent work on the use of two-dimensional string inspired models in the study of black holes, a lecture on gravitational scattering at planckian energies, another on the physical properties of higher-dimensional black holes and black strings in string theory, a discussion on N=2 superconformal field theories, a lecture about the application of matrix model techniques to the study of string theory in two dimensions, and an overview of the current status and developments in string field theory. Connections with models in statistical mechanics are also discussed. These proceedings contain seven lectures and ten contributions. Refs and figs

  8. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  9. Bosonic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.

  10. Cosmological Quantum String Vacua and String-String Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Soo-Jong

    1996-01-01

    Implications of string-string dualities to cosmological string vacua are discussed. Cosmological vacua of classical string theories comprise of disjoint classses mapped one another by scale-factor T-duality. Each classes are, however, afflicted with initial/final cosmological singularities. It is argued that quantum string theories and string-string dualities dramatically resolve these cosmological singularities out so that disjoint classical cosmological vacua are continuously connected in a...

  11. Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....

  12. String Theory and M-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.

    String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line

  13. Magnetic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Max

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es

  14. Lattice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs

  15. An overview of progress in string theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There has been many interesting developments in string theory in last couple of years. The purpose of this article is to present a brief account of the progress made in string theory. The two invited talks by S R Das and S Mukhi in this volume contain more detailed accounts of our understanding of black hole physics and the ...

  16. An overview of progress in string theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. There has been many interesting developments in string theory in last couple of years. The purpose of this article is to present a brief account of the progress made in string theory. The two invited talks by S R Das and S Mukhi in this volume contain more detailed accounts of our understanding of black hole physics ...

  17. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  18. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Alejandra González-Martínez

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1, an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae.In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity.These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  19. Singleton strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engquist, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands); Sundell, P. [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Tamassia, L. [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    The group theoretical structure underlying physics in anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetime is intrinsically different with respect to the flat case, due to the presence of special ultra-short representations, named singletons, that do not admit a flat space limit. The purpose of this collaboration is to exploit this feature in the study of string and brane dynamics in AdS spacetime, in particular while trying to establish a connection between String Theory in AdS backgrounds (in the tensionless limit) and Higher-Spin Gauge Theory. (orig.)

  20. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  1. Strings draw theorists together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael

    2000-01-01

    setting in which string theory in a space-time of dimension d is identical to Yang-Mills gauge theory in d - 1 dimensions. Maldacena and several others talked about recent developments in this area. It is one example of the remarkable ''holographic principle'', originally developed by Gerard 't Hooft of Utrecht University, who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics last year. According to this idea, a general feature of quantum gravity is that physical information inside any volume is encoded on the surface of that volume. 't Hooft believes that the holographic properties of quantum gravity can only be accommodated by making a radical change to the basic structure of quantum mechanics, which would imply that quantum mechanics has a classical origin. A number of other speakers gave fascinating glimpses into the way in which the structure of string theory should combine with the principles of quantum theory to produce a consistent description of physics under extreme conditions. For example, string theory could resolve long-standing paradoxes about quantum mechanics in the presence of black holes, which originated with the work of Hawking in the 1970s. The confident mood of the meeting was based largely on the compelling theoretical ideas in string theory, but there was also an acute sense that experimental verification is crucial. The theory should obviously have many observational ramifications, most clearly in the realm of ultrahigh-energy physics or the physics of the early universe. There was also unanimous agreement that the discovery of supersymmetry at Fermilab in the US or at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN would be a dramatic first step towards such verification. (UK)

  2. D-branes from Liouville strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1997-01-01

    We develop quantization aspects of our Liouville approach to non-critical strings, proposing a path-integral formulation of a second quantization of string theory, that incorporates naturally the couplings of string sources to background fields. Such couplings are characteristic of macroscopic string solutions and/or D-brane theories. Resummation over world-sheet genera in the presence of stringy (\\sigma-model) soliton backgrounds, and recoil effects associated with logarithmic operators on the world sheet, play a crucial r\\^ole in inducing such sources as well-defined renormalization-group counterterms. Using our Liouville renormalization group approach, we derive the appropriate second-order equation of motion for the D brane. We discuss within this approach the appearance of open strings, whose ends carry non-trivial Chan-Paton-like quantum numbers related to the W_\\infty charges of two-dimensional string black holes.

  3. Teaching Strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…

  4. String phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews a number of topics in the field of string phenomenology, focusing on orientifold/F-theory models yielding semirealistic low-energy physics. The emphasis is on the extraction of the low-energy effective action and possible tests of specific models at the LHC.

  5. What is the maximum rate at which entropy of a string can increase?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropotenko, Kostyantyn

    2009-01-01

    According to Susskind, a string falling toward a black hole spreads exponentially over the stretched horizon due to repulsive interactions of the string bits. In this paper such a string is modeled as a self-avoiding walk and the string entropy is found. It is shown that the rate at which information/entropy contained in the string spreads is the maximum rate allowed by quantum theory. The maximum rate at which the black hole entropy can increase when a string falls into a black hole is also discussed.

  6. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  7. Large-D gravity and low-D strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2013-06-21

    We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse.

  8. The "Magic" String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  9. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  10. String Theory in a Nutshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenderis, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and detailed guide to

  11. String Theory in a Nutshell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skenderis, Kostas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-11-21

    The book 'String Theory in a Nutshell' by Elias Kiritsis provides a comprehensive introduction to modern string theory. String theory is the leading candidate for a theory that successfully unifies all fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. The subject has been continuously developing since the early 1970s, with classic textbooks on the subject being those of Green, Schwarz and Witten (1987) and Polchinski (1998). Since the latter was published there have been substantial developments, in particular in understanding black holes and gravity/gauge theory dualities. A textbook treatment of this important material is clearly needed, both by students and researchers in string theory and by mathematicians and physicists working in related fields. This book has a good selection of material, starting from basics and moving into classic and modern topics. In particular, Kiritsis' presentation of the basic material is complementary to that of the earlier textbooks and he includes a number of topics which are not easily found or covered adequately elsewhere, for example, loop corrections to string effective couplings. Overall the book nicely covers the major advances of the last ten years, including (non-perturbative) string dualities, black hole physics, AdS/CFT and matrix models. It provides a concise but fairly complete introduction to these subjects which can be used both by students and by researchers. Moreover the emphasis is on results that are reasonably established, as is appropriate for a textbook; concise summaries are given for subjects which are still in flux, with references to relevant reviews and papers. A positive feature of the book is that the bibliography sections at the end of each chapter provide a comprehensive guide to the literature. The bibliographies point to reviews and pedagogical papers on subjects covered in this book as well as those that were omitted. It is rare for a textbook to contain such a self-contained and

  12. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  13. Closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1987-01-01

    A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)

  14. From cosmic string to superconducting string

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H C; Lee, B K

    1999-01-01

    We consider the dynamical symmetry breaking of a chirally-invariant Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the background gravity of a local cosmic string. By analyzing the one-loop effective action, we show how a cosmic string at a very high energy scale forms a global superconducting string to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at a low energy.

  15. Evidence for string substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, O.

    1996-06-01

    The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes

  16. Throat quantization of the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini(-AdS) black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Maeda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Adopting the throat quantization pioneered by Louko and Mäkelä, we derive the mass and area spectra for the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole and its anti-de Sitter (AdS) generalization in arbitrary dimensions. We find that the system can be quantized exactly in three special cases: the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, toroidal black holes in any dimension, and five-dimensional Schwarzshild–Tangherlini(-AdS) black holes. For the remaining cases the spectra are obtained for large mass using the WKB approximation. For asymptotically flat black holes, the area/entropy has an equally spaced spectrum, as expected from previous work. In the asymptotically AdS case on the other hand, it is the mass spectrum that is equally spaced. Our exact results for the BTZ black hole mass with Dirichlet boundary conditions are consistent with the spectra of the corresponding operators in the dual CFT. (paper)

  17. Colliding waves on a string in AdS$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the classical motion of a string in global AdS$_3$. The initially static string stretches between two antipodal points on the boundary circle. Both endpoints are perturbed which creates cusps at a steady rate. The cusps propagate towards the interior where they collide. The behavior of the string depends on the strength of forcing. Three qualitatively different phases can be distinguished: transparent, gray, and black. The transparent region is analogous to a standing wave. In the black phase, there is a horizon on the worldsheet and cusps never reach the other endpoint. The string keeps folding and its length grows linearly over time. In the gray phase, the string still grows linearly. However, cusps do cross to the other side. The transparent and gray regions are separated by a transition point where a logarithmic accumulation of cusps is numerically observed. A simple model reproduces the qualitative behavior of the string in the three phases.

  18. Quantum tunneling from three-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, Asiya; Gohar, H.; Lin, Hai; Saifullah, K.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from three-dimensional black holes. For this purpose the emission of charged scalar and charged fermionic particles is investigated from charged BTZ black holes, with and without rotation. We use the quantum tunneling approach incorporating WKB approximation and spacetime symmetries. Another class of black holes which is asymptotic to a Sol three-manifold has also been investigated. This procedure gives us the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, and we compute the temperature of the radiation for these black holes. We also consider the quantum tunneling of particles from black hole asymptotic to Sol geometry

  19. Open string theory in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.; Kutasov, D.

    1992-01-01

    We show that tree level open two dimensional string theory is exactly solvable; the solution exhibits some unusual features, and is qualitatively different from the closed case. The open string 'tachyon' S-matrix describes free fermions, which can be interpreted as the quarks at the ends of the string. These 'quarks' live naturally on a lattice in space-time. We also find an exact vacuum solution of the theory, corresponding to a charged black hole. (orig.)

  20. The heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional string theories, either bosonic or supersymmetric, came in two varieties, closed string theories and open string theories. Closed string are neutral objects which describe at low energies gravity or supergravity. Open strings have geometrically invariant ends to which charge can be attached, thereby obtaining, in addition to gravity, Yang-Mills gauge interactions. Recently a new kind of string theory was discovered--the heterotic string, which is a chiral hybrid of the closed superstring and the closed bosonic string, and which produces by an internal dynamical mechanism gauge interactions of a totally specified kind. Although this theory is found in an attempt to produce a superstring theory which would yield a low energy E/sub 8/xE/sub 8/ supersymmetric, anomaly free, gauge theory, as suggested by the anomaly cancellation mechanism of Green and Schwarz, it fits naturally into the general framework of consistent string theories

  1. Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Drukker, Nadav

    2002-01-01

    Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.

  2. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  3. Chronology protection in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Many solutions of General Relativity appear to allow the possibility of time travel. This was initially a fascinating discovery, but geometries of this type violate causality, a basic physical law which is believed to be fundamental. Although string theory is a proposed fundamental theory of quantum gravity, geometries with closed timelike curves have resurfaced as solutions to its low energy equations of motion. In this paper, we will study the class of solutions to low energy effective supergravity theories related to the BMPV black hole and the rotating wave-D1-D5-brane system. Time travel appears to be possible in these geometries. We will attempt to build the causality violating regions and propose that stringy effects prohibit their construction. The proposed chronology protection agent for these geometries mirrors a mechanism string theory employs to resolve a class of naked singularities. (author)

  4. Relativistic classical strings. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, C.A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.) [pt

  5. std::string Append

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 689 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 STD ::STRING APPEND Tom Nealis...DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STD ::STRING APPEND 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...two or more strings together while developing a C++ application is a very common task. For std ::strings, there are two primary ways to achieve the

  6. Strings in the Sun?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.; Vilenkin, A.

    1988-01-01

    If light superconducting strings were formed in the early Universe, then it is very likely that now they exist in abundance in the interstellar plasma and in stars. The dynamics of such strings can be dominated by friction, so that they are ''frozen'' into the plasma. Turbulence of the plasma twists and stretches the strings, forming a stochastic string network. Such networks must generate particles and magnetic fields, and may play an important role in the physics of stars and of the Galaxy

  7. What is a chiral 2d CFT? And what does it have to do with extremal black holes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, V.; de Boer, J.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Simón, J.

    2010-01-01

    The near horizon limit of the extremal BTZ black hole is a "self-dual orbifold" of AdS3. This geometry has a null circle on its boundary, and thus the dual field theory is a Discrete Light Cone Quantized (DLCQ) two dimensional CFT. The same geometry can be compactified to two dimensions giving AdS2

  8. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  9. Dynamics of Carroll strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Biel [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pons, Josep M. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèriaand Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB) Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona,Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll p-brane action are also discussed.

  10. Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, J.

    2009-05-01

    String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity

  11. Minimal open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.

  12. Cosmic strings and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishniac, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the compatibility of inflation with the cosmic string theory for galaxy formation. There is a general conflict between having sufficient string tension to effect galaxy formation, and reheating after inflation to a high enough temperature that strings may form in a thermal phase transition. To escape this conflict, we propose a class of models where the inflation is coupled to the string-producing field. The strings are formed late in inflation as the inflaton rolls towards its zero-temperature value. A large subset of these models have a novel large-scale distribution of galaxies that is fractal, displays biasing without dynamics or feedback mechanisms, and contains voids. (orig.)

  13. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  14. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  15. Closed Strings From Nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.

  16. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  17. The arithmetic of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.G.O.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author nobody has succeeded as yet in extracting any new numbers from string theory. This paper discusses how if one cannot get new numbers from string theory, maybe one can get new strings out of number theory. Number theory is generally regarded as the purest form of mathematics. So how can it conceivably make contact with physics which aims at describing nature? The author discusses how the connecting link of these two disciplines is provided by the compact Riemann surfaces. These appear as world sheets of interacting strings. For instance, string-string scattering at the three-loop level involves the four external strings attaching themselves to a genus three compact surface

  18. From Rindler horizon to mini black holes at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj [Islamic Azad University, Department of Science, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently researchers (A. Sepehri et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 344, 79 (2013)) have considered the signature of superstring balls near mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information loss for these types of strings. Motivated by their work, we consider the evolution of events in high energy experiments from lower energies for which the Rindler horizon is formed to higher energies in which mini black holes and string balls are emerged. Extending the Gottesman and Preskill method to string theory, we find the information loss for excited strings ''string balls'' in mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information transformation from the collapsing matter to the state of outgoing Hawking radiation for strings. We come to the conclusion that information transformation for high energy strings is complete. Then the thermal distribution of excited strings near mini black holes at LHC is calculated. In order to obtain the total string cross section near black holes produced in proton-proton collision, we multiply the black hole production cross section by the thermal distribution of strings. It is observed that many high energy excited strings are produced near the event horizon of TeV black holes. These excited strings evaporate to standard model particles like Higgs boson and top quark at Hagedorn temperature. We derive the production cross section for these particles due to string ball decay at LHC and consider their decay to light particles like bottom quarks and gluons. (orig.)

  19. Restoring unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2005-01-01

    Whether or not a system is unitary can be seen from the way it, if perturbed, relaxes back to equilibrium. The relaxation of a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of a correlation function which exponentially decays with time. In the momentum space it is represented by an infinite set of complex poles to be identified with the quasinormal modes. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the relaxation in unitary theory in finite volume: the correlation function of the perturbation in this case is a quasiperiodic function of time and, in general, is expected to show the Poincare recurrences. In this paper I demonstrate how restore unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the simplest example of an eternal black hole in finite volume. I start with reviewing the relaxation in the semiclassical BTZ black hole and how this relaxation is mirrored in the boundary conformal field theory as suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. I analyze the sum over SL(2,Z) images of the BTZ space-time and suggest that it does not produce a quasiperiodic relaxation, as one might have hoped, but results in a correlation function which decays by power law. I develop an earlier suggestion and consider a nonsemiclassical deformation of the BTZ space-time that has the structure of a wormhole connecting two asymptotic regions semiclassically separated by a horizon. The small deformation parameter λ is supposed to have a nonperturbative origin to capture the finite N behavior of the boundary theory. The discrete spectrum of perturbation in the modified space-time is computed and is shown to determine the expected unitary behavior: the corresponding time evolution is quasiperiodic with a hierarchy of large time scales ln1/λ and 1/λ interpreted, respectively, as the Heisenberg and Poincare time scales in the system

  20. Cosmic strings in unified gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Some spontaneously broken gauge theories can give rise to stringlike vacuum structures (vortices). It has been pointed out by Vilenkin that in grand unified theories these can be sufficiently massive to have cosmological implications, e.g., in explaining the formation of galaxies. The circumstances in which such structures occur are examined. They do not occur in the simplest grand unified theories, but can occur in some more elaborate models which have been proposed. The cross section for the scattering of elementary particles by strings is estimated. This is used to evaluate the effect of collisions on the dynamics of a collapsing circular string, with particular attention to the question of whether energy dissipation by collision can reduce the rate of formation of black holes by collapsed strings, which may be unacceptably large in models where strings occur. It is found that the effect of collisions is not important in the case of grand unified strings, although it can be important for lighter strings

  1. Open-closed string correspondence in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, M.; Sachs, I.

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Strings, texture, and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We examine mechanisms, several of which are proposed here, to generate structure formation, or to just add large-scale features, through either gauged or global cosmic strings or global texture, within the framework of inflation. We first explore the possibility that strings or texture form if there is no coupling between the topological theory and the inflaton or spacetime curvature, via (1) quantum creation, and (2) a sufficiently high reheat temperature. In addition, we examine the prospects for the inflaton field itself to generate strings or texture. Then, models with the string/texture field coupled to the curvature, and an equivalent model with coupling to the inflaton field, are considered in detail. The requirement that inflationary density fluctuations are not so large as to conflict with observations leads to a number of constraints on model parameters. We find that strings of relevance for structure formation can form in the absence of coupling to the inflaton or curvature through the process of quantum creation, but only if the strings are strongly type I, or if they are global strings. If formed after reheating, naturalness suggests that gauged cosmic strings correspond to a type-I superconductor. Similarly, gauged strings formed during inflation via conformal coupling ξ=1/6 to the spacetime curvature (in a model suggested by Yokoyama in order to evade the millisecond pulsar constraint on cosmic strings) are expected to be strongly type I

  3. Topics in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, A.

    1986-01-01

    There exist several string models. In the first lecture, the simplest one, the open bosonic string, which turns out to live most naturally in 26 dimensions will be described in some detail. In the second lecture, the closed bosonic strings, and the open and closed 10-dimensional strings (superstrings) are reviewed. In the third lecture, various compactification schemes which have been proposed to deal with the extra space dimensions, from 4 to 10 or 26 are dealt with; in particular, the Frenkel-Kac construction which builds non-Abelian internal symmetry groups out of the compactified dimensions, and the resulting heterotic string are described. Finally, in the fourth lecture, the important problem of the second quantization of string theories, and of the underlying gauge invariance which is responsible for the possibility of dealing, in a consistent fashion, with interacting high-spin states without negative metric is addressed. 41 references, 8 figures

  4. N = 2 string amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooguri, H.

    1995-08-01

    In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically

  5. Black hole conserved charges in Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we construct mass, angular momentum and entropy of black hole solution of Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetimes. The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We apply our result for conserved charge Qμ(ξ¯ to the rotating BTZ black hole solution of GMMG, and find energy, angular momentum and entropy. Then we show that our results for these quantities are consistent with the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  6. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...

  7. Interpolating string field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles

  8. 6d string chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2018-02-01

    We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.

  9. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  10. QCD and hadronic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1989-01-01

    This series of lectures is devoted to review ot he connections between QCD and string theories. One reviews the phenomenological models leading to string pictures in non perturbative QCD and the string effects, related to soft gluon coherence, which arise in perturbative QCD. One tries to build a string theory which goes to QCD at the zero slope limit. A specific model, based on superstring theories is shown to agree with QCD four point amplitudes at the Born approximation and with one loop corrections. One shows how this approach can provide a theoretical framework to account for the phenomenological property of parton-hadron duality.(author)

  11. Heterotic cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Krause, Axel

    2006-01-01

    We show that all three conditions for the cosmological relevance of heterotic cosmic strings, the right tension, stability and a production mechanism at the end of inflation, can be met in the strongly coupled M-theory regime. Whereas cosmic strings generated from weakly coupled heterotic strings have the well-known problems posed by Witten in 1985, we show that strings arising from M5-branes wrapped around 4-cycles (divisors) of a Calabi-Yau in heterotic M-theory compactifications solve these problems in an elegant fashion

  12. Log corrections to entropy of three dimensional black holes with soft hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Perez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    We calculate log corrections to the entropy of three-dimensional black holes with "soft hairy" boundary conditions. Their thermodynamics possesses some special features that preclude a naive direct evaluation of these corrections, so we follow two different approaches. The first one exploits that the BTZ black hole belongs to the spectrum of Brown-Henneaux as well as soft hairy boundary conditions, so that the respective log corrections are related through a suitable change of the thermodynamic ensemble. In the second approach the analogue of modular invariance is considered for dual theories with anisotropic scaling of Lifshitz type with dynamical exponent z at the boundary. On the gravity side such scalings arise for KdV-type boundary conditions, which provide a specific 1-parameter family of multi-trace deformations of the usual AdS3/CFT2 setup, with Brown-Henneaux corresponding to z = 1 and soft hairy boundary conditions to the limiting case z → 0+. Both approaches agree in the case of BTZ black holes for any non-negative z. Finally, for soft hairy boundary conditions we show that not only the leading term, but also the log corrections to the entropy of black flowers endowed with affine û (1) soft hair charges exclusively depend on the zero modes and hence coincide with the ones for BTZ black holes.

  13. Counting States of Near-Extremal Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    A six-dimensional black string is considered and its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy computed. It is shown that to leading order above extremality this entropy precisely counts the number of string states with the given energy and charges. This identification implies that Hawking decay of the near-extremal black string can be analyzed in string perturbation theory and is perturbatively unitary. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Superfermionic superconformal string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to superconformal dynamics of string interactions is formulated in terms of two-dimensional fermion fields and without boson fields commonly used in string theories. The vertex operators for emission of π-mesons are constructed within the framework of this approach. 5 refs

  15. Semilocal and electroweak strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T

    We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without

  16. Inflationary string theory?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, the success of this description indicates that inflation is likely to be associated with physics at energies considerably higher than the weak scale, for which string theory is arguably our most promising candidate. These observations strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it ...

  17. Open string model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Onogi, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    Consistency conditions of open string theories, which can be a powerful tool in open string model building, are proposed. By making use of these conditions and assuming a simple prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, open string theories in several backgrounds are studied. We show that 1. there exist a large number of consistent bosonic open string theories on Z 2 orbifolds, 2. SO(32) type I superstring is the unique consistent model among fermionic string theories on the ten-dimensional flat Minkowski space, and 3. with our prescription for the Chan-Paton factors, there exist no consistent open superstring theories on (six-dimensional Minkowski space-time) x (Z 2 orbifold). (orig.)

  18. String-Math 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...

  19. String field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the authors summarize the rapid progress in constructing string field theory actions, such as the development of the covariant BRST theory. They also present the newer geometric formulation of string field theory, from which the BRST theory and the older light cone theory can be derived from first principles. This geometric formulation allows us to derive the complete field theory of strings from two geometric principles, in the same way that general relativity and Yang-Mills theory can be derived from two principles based on global and local symmetry. The geometric formalism therefore reduces string field theory to a problem of finding an invariant under a new local gauge group they call the universal string group (USG). Thus, string field theory is the gauge theory of the universal string group in much the same way that Yang-Mills theory is the gauge theory of SU(N). The geometric formulation places superstring theory on the same rigorous group theoretical level as general relativity and gauge theory

  20. Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.)

  1. Final Report: "Strings 2014"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, Edward

    2015-10-21

    The Strings 2014 meeting was held at Princeton University June 23-27, 2014, co-sponsored by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. The goal of the meeting was to provide a stimulating and up-to-date overview of research in string theory and its relations to other areas of physics and mathematics, ranging from geometry to quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and more. This brief report lists committee members and speakers but contains no scientific information. Note that the talks at Strings 2014 were videotaped and are available on the conference website: http://physics.princeton.edustrings2014/Talk_titles.shtml.

  2. String theory for pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  3. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  4. Cosmic strings and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Brandenberger, R.; Turok, N.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the application of the theory of cosmic strings to explain the structure of the Universe. The formation of cosmic strings in the early Universe is outlined, along with the Big Bang theory, Grand Unified theories, and the first three minutes after the Big Bang. A description is given of the shaping of the Universe by cosmic strings, including the evolution of the string. The possibility for direct observation of cosmic strings is discussed. (U.K.)

  5. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  6. RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    9.30-10.30 B. Pioline Black Hole Degeneracies, Topological Strings and Quantum Attractor Flow (2/4) 10.30-11.30 S. Minwalla Large N Thermal Phase Transitions (2/4) 12.15-13.15 B. Craps Big Bang Models in String Theory (3/4) 14.00 CERN presentation and visit Organiser(s): CERN and Neuchâtel UniversityMore information: http://www.unine.ch/phys/string/rtn-school/index.php

  7. Subsurface drill string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, William L [Rigby, ID; Clark, Don T [Idaho Falls, ID; Grover, Blair K [Idaho Falls, ID; Mathewson, Rodney O [Idaho Falls, ID; Seymour, Craig A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  8. Field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1987-01-01

    We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 -anti L 0 =0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism; we show that it can be incorporated in the gauge invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Langrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. (orig.)

  9. The QCD Effective String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espriu, D.

    2003-01-01

    QCD can be described in a certain kinematical regime by an effective string theory. This string must couple to background chiral fields in a chirally invariant manner, thus taking into account the true chirally non-invariant QCD vacuum. By requiring conformal symmetry of the string and the unitarity constraint on chiral fields we reconstruct the equations of motion for the latter ones. These provide a consistent background for the propagation of the string. By further requiring locality of the effective action we recover the Lagrangian of non-linear sigma model of pion interactions. The prediction is unambiguous and parameter-free. The estimated chiral structural constants of Gasser and Leutwyler fit very well the phenomenological values. (author)

  10. Strings with zero tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J.

    1988-05-01

    We describe bosonic strings by using a kind of Lagrangian compatible with the zero tension limit. The work is developed on an extended configuration space and the quantization is carried out with details.

  11. Field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    We review the construction of the free equations of motion for open and closed strings in 26 dimensions, using the methods of the Florida Group. Differing from previous treatments, we argue that the constraint L 0 - L 0 -bar = 0 should not be imposed on all the fields of the closed string in the gauge invariant formalism: we show that it can be incorporated in the invariant formalism at the price of being unable to extract the equations of motion from a Lagrangian. We then describe our purely algebraic method to introduce interactions, which works equally well for open and closed strings. Quartic interactions are absent except in the Physical Gauge. Finally, we speculate on the role of the measure of the open string path functional. 20 refs

  12. String Theory Rocks!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.

  13. String theory compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The lectures in this book provide graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a concise introduction to the concepts and formalism required to reduce the ten-dimensional string theories to the observable four-dimensional space-time - a procedure called string compactification. The text starts with a very brief introduction to string theory, first working out its massless spectrum and showing how the condition on the number of dimensions arises. It then dwells on the different possible internal manifolds, from the simplest to the most relevant phenomenologically, thereby showing that the most elegant description is through an extension of ordinary Riemannian geometry termed generalized geometry, which was first introduced by Hitchin. Last but not least, the authors review open problems in string phenomenology, such as the embedding of the Standard Model and obtaining de Sitter solutions.

  14. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  15. String dynamics in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.; Neveu, A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent works of the authors on string interpretation of the Wilson loop operators in QCD are reviewed in a self-contained fashion. Although most of the results habe already appeared in print, some new material is presented in renormalization of the Wilson loop operator and on the use of light-cone expansion to derive a linear string-like equation in light-cone formalism. (orig.)

  16. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  17. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hong Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.

  19. Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjelstad, Jens E-mail: jens.fjelstad@kau.se; Hwang, Stephen E-mail: stephen.hwang@kau.se

    2002-04-29

    We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression.

  20. Sectors of solutions in three-dimensional gravity and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjelstad, Jens; Hwang, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We examine the connection between three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant and two-dimensional CFT via the Chern-Simons formulation. A set of generalized spectral flow transformations are shown to yield new sectors of solutions. One implication is that the microscopic calculation of the entropy of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is corrected by a multiplicative factor with the result that it saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking expression

  1. The physics and mathematics of microstates in string theory: And a monstrous Farey tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, P.

    2016-01-01

    A dissertation that delves into physical and mathematical aspects of string theory. In the first part of this work, microscopic properties string theoretic black holes are investigated. The second part is concerned with the moonshine phenomenon. The theory of generalized umbral moonshine is

  2. Strings, Axions and Solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish

    This thesis is divided into two chapters. Chapter I is about the dynamics of radiating axionic strings and the lower bound on the mass of the invisible axion. It has been suggested that, without inflation, the decay of axionic strings produced after the Peccei -Quinn phase transition is the primary source of cosmic relic axions. Knowing the density of these axions would then allow the derivation of a cosmological bound on the mass of the axion. In order to obtain a sharp bound it is essential to know the spectrum of the emitted axions and the detailed motion of a global string strongly coupled to the axionic field. To this end, following the analogy with Dirac's treatment of classical radiating electrons, self-consistent renormalized equations are obtained that describe the dynamics of a radiating global string interacting with its surrounding axionic field. The numerical formalism for evolving string trajectories using these equations is described, and is applied to the case of a circular loop. It is argued that for large wavelength oscillations of cosmic string loops, the motion is well approximated by the motion of a free Nambu-Goto string with appropriate renormalization. Consequently, a lower bound of 10 ^{-3} eV on the mass of the axion is obtained. Together with the recent upperbound of 4 times 10^{-4 } eV from the supernova SN1987a, it marginally rules out the invisible axion. Chapter II is about superstrings and solitons. It is shown that the quantum renormalization of the superstring tension vanishes to all orders in string perturbation theory. A low-energy analysis of macroscopic superstrings is presented and various analogies between these superstrings and solitons in supersymmetric theories are discussed. These include the existence of exact multi-string solutions of the low -energy supergravity super-Yang-Mills equations of motion and a Bogomol'nyi bound for the energy per unit length which is saturated by these solutions. Arguments are presented that

  3. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Geodesically complete BTZ-type solutions of 2  +  1 Born–Infeld gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D

    2017-01-01

    We study Born–Infeld gravity coupled to a static, non-rotating electric field in 2  +  1 dimensions and find exact analytical solutions. Two families of such solutions represent geodesically complete, and hence nonsingular, spacetimes. Another family represents a point-like charge with a singularity at the center. Despite the absence of rotation, these solutions resemble the charged, rotating BTZ solution of general relativity but with a richer structure in terms of horizons. The nonsingular character of the first two families turn out to be attached to the emergence of a wormhole structure on their innermost region. This seems to be a generic prediction of extensions of general relativity formulated in metric-affine (or Palatini) spaces, where metric and connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. (paper)

  5. PT-symmetric strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑ n=1 ∞ 1/E n p , with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities

  6. Windings of twisted strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Twistor string models have been known for more than a decade now but have come back under the spotlight recently with the advent of the scattering equation formalism which has greatly generalized the scope of these models. A striking ubiquitous feature of these models has always been that, contrary to usual string theory, they do not admit vibrational modes and thus describe only conventional field theory. In this paper we report on the surprising discovery of a whole new sector of one of these theories which we call "twisted strings," when spacetime has compact directions. We find that the spectrum is enhanced from a finite number of states to an infinite number of interacting higher spin massive states. We describe both bosonic and world sheet supersymmetric models, their spectra and scattering amplitudes. These models have distinctive features of both string and field theory, for example they are invariant under stringy T-duality but have the high energy behavior typical of field theory. Therefore they describe a new kind of field theories in target space, sitting on their own halfway between string and field theory.

  7. Perspectives on string phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Kumar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie beyond it. String/M theory has emerged as a broad framework for describing a plethora of diverse physical systems, which includes condensed matter systems, gravitational systems as well as elementary particle physics interactions. If string/M theory is to be considered as a candidate theory of Nature, it must contain an effectively four-dimensional universe among its solutions that is indistinguishable from our own. In these solutions, the extra dimensions of string/M Theory are “compactified” on tiny scales which are often comparable to the Planck length. String phenomenology is the branch of string/M theory that studies such solutions, relates their properties to data, and aims to answer many of the outstanding questions of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. This book contains perspectives on stri...

  8. String field theory solution for any open string background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014

  9. Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism

  10. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  11. Strings for quantumchromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    2007-04-01

    During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)

  12. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  13. String theory meets QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N

    2003-01-01

    String theory began life in the late 1960s as an attempt to understand the properties of nuclear matter such as protons and neutrons. Although it was not successful it has since developed a life of its own as a possible theory of everything - with the potential to incorporate quantum gravity as well as the other forces of nature. However, in a remarkable about face in the last five years, it has now been discovered that string theory and the standard theory of nuclear matter - QCD - might in fact describe the same physics. This is an exciting development that was the centre of discussion at a major workshop in Seattle in February. After spending 30 years as a possible theory of everything, string theory is returning to its roots to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. (U.K.)

  14. Deriving the four-string and open-closed string interactions from geometric string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the questions concerning the covariant open string field theory is why there are two distinct BRST theories and why the four-string interaction appears in one version but not the other. The authors solve this mystery by showing that both theories are gauge-fixed versions of a higher gauge theory, called the geometric string field theory, with a new field, a string verbein e μσ νρ , which allows us to gauge the string length and σ parametrization. By fixing the gauge, the authors can derive the endpoint gauge (the covariantized light cone gauge), the midpoint gauge of Witten, or the interpolating gauge with arbitrary string length. The authors show explicitly that the four-string interaction is a gauge artifact of the geometric theory (the counterpart of the four-fermion instantaneous Coulomb term of QED). By choosing the interpolating gauge, they produce a new class of four-string interactions which smoothly interpolate between the endpoint gauge and the midpoint gauge (where it vanishes). Similarly, they can extract the closed string as a bound state of the open string, which appears in the endpoint gauge but vanishes in the midpoint gauge. Thus, the four-string and open-closed string interactions do not have to be added to the action as long as the string vierbein is included

  15. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2013-04-15

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  16. String theory in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.

    1988-01-01

    A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs

  17. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  18. Cover array string reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; P. Pissis, Solon; Tischler, German

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A proper factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y is within some occurrence of u in y. The concept generalises the notion of periods of a string. An integer array C is the minimal-cover (resp. maximal-cover) array of y if C[i] is the minimal (resp. maximal) length of covers of y[0.. i], or zero if no cover exists. In this paper, we present a constructive algorithm checking the validity of an array as a minimal-cover or maximal-cover array of some str...

  19. The spectra of supersymmetric states in string theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, M.C.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study the spectra of supersymmetric states in string theory compactifications with eight and sixteen supercharges, with special focus placed on the quantum states of black holes and the phenomenon of wall-crossing in these theories. A self-contained introduction to the relevant

  20. Four-qubit entanglement classification from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L; Dahanayake, D; Duff, M J; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2010-09-03

    We invoke the black-hole-qubit correspondence to derive the classification of four-qubit entanglement. The U-duality orbits resulting from timelike reduction of string theory from D=4 to D=3 yield 31 entanglement families, which reduce to nine up to permutation of the four qubits.

  1. Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2014-01-01

    We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity

  2. A Lifshitz black hole in four dimensional R2 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Liu Yan; Sun Yawen

    2009-01-01

    We consider a higher derivative gravity theory in four dimensions with a negative cosmological constant and show that vacuum solutions of both Lifshitz type and Schroedinger type with arbitrary dynamical exponent z exist in this system. Then we find an analytic black hole solution which asymptotes to the vacuum Lifshitz solution with z = 3/2 at a specific value of the coupling constant. We analyze the thermodynamic behavior of this black hole and find that the black hole has zero entropy while non-zero temperature, which is very similar to the case of BTZ black holes in new massive gravity at a specific coupling. In addition, we find that the three dimensional Lifshitz black hole recently found by E. Ayon-Beato et al. has a negative entropy and mass when the Newton constant is taken to be positive.

  3. Stationary black holes with stringy hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss properties of black holes which are pierced by special configurations of cosmic strings. For static black holes, we consider radial strings in the limit when the number of strings grows to infinity while the tension of each single string tends to zero. In a properly taken limit, the stress-energy tensor of the string distribution is finite. We call such matter stringy matter. We present a solution of the Einstein equations for an electrically charged static black hole with the stringy matter, with and without a cosmological constant. This solution is a warped product of two metrics. One of them is a deformed 2-sphere, whose Gaussian curvature is determined by the energy density of the stringy matter. We discuss the embedding of a corresponding distorted sphere into a three-dimensional Euclidean space and formulate consistency conditions. We also found a relation between the square of the Weyl tensor invariant of the four-dimensional spacetime of the stringy black holes and the energy density of the stringy matter. In the second part of the paper, we discuss test stationary strings in the Kerr geometry and in its Kerr-NUT-(anti-)de Sitter generalizations. Explicit solutions for strings that are regular at the event horizon are obtained. Using these solutions, the stress-energy tensor of the stringy matter in these geometries is calculated. Extraction of the angular momentum from rotating black holes by such strings is also discussed.

  4. String theory in four dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    ``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.

  5. Why Strings? Grand Masters Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotman, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the reasons to teach stringed instruments: (1) strings can be adapted to the size of the child; (2) home performance material resource availability; (3) stringed music skills contribute to developing basic skills; and (4) the importance of interaction in music. (CMK)

  6. Stringy origin of 4d black hole microstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Morales, J.F. [I.N.F.N. - Sezione di Roma 2,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pieri, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    We derive a precise dictionary between micro-state geometries and open string condensates for a large class of excitations of four dimensional BPS black holes realised in terms of D3-branes intersecting on a six-torus. The complete multipole expansion of the supergravity solutions at weak coupling is extracted from string amplitudes involving one massless closed string and multiple open strings insertions on disks with mixed boundary conditions.

  7. RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    9.30-10.30 A. Dabholkar Black Holes Entropy and Microstate Counting (4/4) 10.30-11.30 M. Grana Flux Compactifications and Generalized Geometry (3/4) 12.15-13.15 B. Pioline Black Hole Degeneracies, Topological Strings and Quantum Attractor Flow (3/4) 14.00-15.00 S. Minwalla Large N Thermal Phase Transitions (3/4) 15.00-16.00 B. Craps Big Bang Models in String Theory (4/4) 16.30 Workgroups Organiser(s): CERN and Neuchâtel UniversityMore information: http://www.unine.ch/phys/string/rtn-school/index.php

  8. A Vibrating String Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Russev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    A simple experiment demonstrating the excitation of a standing wave in a metal string is presented here. Several tasks using the set-up are considered, which help the students to better understand the standing waves, the interaction between electric current and magnetic field and the resonance phenomena. This can serve also as a good lecture…

  9. New Z3 strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.C. Kneipp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Yang–Mills–Higgs theory with the gauge group SU(3 broken to its center Z3 by two scalar fields in the adjoint representation and obtain new Z3 strings asymptotic configurations with the gauge field and magnetic field in the direction of the step operators.

  10. On exceptional instanton strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Zotto, M.; Lockhart, G.

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1, 0) theories within F-theory there are only six “pure” 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3), SO(8), F4, E6, E7, and E8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons

  11. Hypermultiplets and topological strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocek, M.; Vafa, C.; Vandoren, S.

    2005-01-01

    The c-map relates classical hypermultiplet moduli spaces in compactifications of type II strings on a Calabi-Yau threefold to vector multiplet moduli spaces via a further compactification on a circle. We give an off-shell description of the c-map in N = 2 superspace. The superspace Lagrangian for

  12. SUPERCOLLIDER: String test success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    On 14 August at the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Laboratory in Ellis County, Texas, the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) successfully met its objective by operating a half-cell of five collider dipole magnets, one quadrupole magnet, and two spool pieces at the design current of 6500 amperes

  13. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...

  14. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to ch...

  15. Help from the strings

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)

  16. On exceptional instanton strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Lockhart, Guglielmo

    2017-09-01

    According to a recent classification of 6d (1 , 0) theories within F-theory there are only six "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are SU(3) , SO(8) , F 4 , E 6 , E 7, and E 8. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For G simply-laced, we determine the 2d N=(0,4) worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted S 2 compactification of the 4d N=2 theories of type H 2 , D 4 , E 6 , E 7 and E 8 (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding T 2 × S 2 partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of G instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding elliptic genera by modularity. As an example of such procedure, the elliptic genera for a single instanton string are determined. The same method also fixes the elliptic genus for case of one F 4 instanton. These results unveil a rather surprising relation with the Schur index of the corresponding 4d N=2 models.

  17. Device for balancing parallel strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  18. Gravitational effects of global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best

  19. 2-D gravisolitons in string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    1996-01-01

    Several gravitational string backgrounds can be interpreted as 2-dim soliton solutions of reduced axion-dilaton gravity. They include black-hole and worm-hole solutions as well as cosmological models with an exact conformal field theory description. We illustrate the use of gravisolitons for the particular example of Nappi-Witten universe which is thus "created" from flat space by soliton dressing. We also make some general comments about the status of gravisolitons in comparison to soliton solutions of other 2-dim integrable systems without gravity. (Contribution to the proceedings of the 2nd International Sakharov Conference, Moscow)

  20. Stringing physics along

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu

    2007-02-15

    In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian

  1. The string soundscape at gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garcia, Isabel; Krippendorf, Sven; March-Russell, John

    2018-04-01

    We argue that gravitational wave signals due to collisions of ultra-relativistic bubble walls may be common in string theory. This occurs due to a process of post-inflationary vacuum decay via quantum tunnelling. Though we study a specific string construction involving warped throats, we argue that our conclusions are more general. Many such transitions could have occurred in the post-inflationary Universe, as a large number of throats with exponentially different mass scales can be present in the string landscape, leading to several signals of widely different frequencies - a soundscape connected to the landscape of vacua. Detectors such as aLIGO/VIRGO, LISA, and pulsar timing observations with SKA and EPTA have the sensitivity to detect such signals. A distribution of primordial black holes is also a likely consequence, though reliable estimates of masses and their abundance require dedicated numerical simulations, as do the fine details of the gravitational wave spectrum due to the unusual nature of the transition.

  2. String Thermodynamics in D-Brane Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Kogan, I I; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermal properties of string gases propagating in various D-brane backgrounds in the weak-coupling limit, and at temperatures close to the Hagedorn temperature. We determine, in the canonical ensemble, whether the Hagedorn temperature is limiting or non-limiting. This depends on the dimensionality of the D-brane, and the size of the compact dimensions. We find that in many cases the non-limiting behaviour manifest in the canonical ensemble is modified to a limiting behaviour in the microcanonical ensemble and show that, when there are different systems in thermal contact, the energy flows into open strings on the `limiting' D-branes of largest dimensionality. Such energy densities may eventually exceed the D-brane intrinsic tension. We discuss possible implications of this for the survival of Dp-branes with large values of p in an early cosmological Hagedorn regime. We also discuss the general phase diagram of the interacting theory, as implied by the holographic and black-hole/string correspon...

  3. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating ...

  4. Axions in String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2006-06-09

    In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.

  5. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  6. The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao.

    1985-09-01

    We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)

  7. Half-string oscillator approach to string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordes, J.; Chan Hongmo; Nellen, L.; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1989-05-01

    We give an operator formulation of the string field theory proposed by E. Witten using half-string oscillator modes. This formalism, identifying the physical string states as infinite matrices, is developed in such a way that interactions at the level of vertices can be calculated in terms of products and traces of these matrices without relying on ill-defined manipulations of functional integrals. (author)

  8. Quantized string models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1982-10-15

    We discuss and compare the Lorentz covariant path integral quantization of the three bose string models, namely, the Nambu, Eguchi and Brink-Di Vecchai-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) ones. Along with a critical review of the subject with some uncertainties and ambiguities clearly stated, various new results are presented. We work out the form of the BDHP string ansatz for the Wilson average and prove a formal inequivalence of the exact Nambu and BDHP models for any space-time dimension d. The above three models known to be equivalent on the classical level, are shown to be equivalent in a semiclassical approximation near a minimal surface and also in the leading 1/d-approximation for the static q-barq-potential. We analyze scattering amplitudes predicted by the BDHP string and find that when exactly calculated for d<26 they are different from the old dual ones, and possess a non-linear spectrum which may be considered as free from tachyons in the ground state.

  9. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O...

  10. An invariant string propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.; Moore, G.; Nelson, P.; Polchinski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors show that the Polyakov path integral is used to define off-shell quantities in string theory. The path integral of Polyakov gives an elegant description of strings and their interactions. However, its use has been limited to obtaining the Koba-Nielsen expressions for S-matrix elements. It is not yet clear what quantities make sense in string theory. This study shows that the path integral can be used to define off-shell quantities as well. In particular it defines a natural n-point function in loop space as the sum of all world surfaces bounded by n specific spacetime curves. The reader is referred for more detail. The report first outlines general evaluation then discusses the additional features added by boundaries. Locally, the three gauge freedoms ξ/sup a/ and δphi can be used to take g/sub ab/ (σ) to the unit matrix. Globally, this is not quite possible. In general the researchers choose a family of fiducial metrics g/sub ab/ (σ,tau), depending on a finite number of Teichmuller parameters tau, and every metric is gauge equivalent to one of these

  11. How to simulate global cosmic strings with large string tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaer, Vincent B.; Moore, Guy D., E-mail: vklaer@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: guy.moore@physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, Darmstadt, D-64289 Germany (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Global string networks may be relevant in axion production in the early Universe, as well as other cosmological scenarios. Such networks contain a large hierarchy of scales between the string core scale and the Hubble scale, ln( f {sub a} / H ) ∼ 70, which influences the network dynamics by giving the strings large tensions T ≅ π f {sub a} {sup 2} ln( f {sub a} / H ). We present a new numerical approach to simulate such global string networks, capturing the tension without an exponentially large lattice.

  12. Maximal unbordered factors of random strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cording, Patrick Hagge; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs

    2016-01-01

    A border of a string is a non-empty prefix of the string that is also a suffix of the string, and a string is unbordered if it has no border. Loptev, Kucherov, and Starikovskaya [CPM 2015] conjectured the following: If we pick a string of length n from a fixed alphabet uniformly at random...

  13. Counting Dependent and Independent Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimand, Marius

    We derive quantitative results regarding sets of n-bit strings that have different dependency or independency properties. Let C(x) be the Kolmogorov complexity of the string x. A string y has α dependency with a string x if C(y) - C(y |x) ≥ α. A set of strings {x 1, ..., x t } is pairwise α-independent if for all inot=j, C(x i ) - C(x i |x j ) ≤ α. A tuple of strings (x 1, ..., x t ) is mutually α-independent if C(x π(1) ... x π(t)) ≥ C(x 1) + ... + C(x t ) - α, for every permutation π of [t]. We show that:

  14. Quantum backreaction in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evnin, O.

    2012-01-01

    There are situations in string theory when a finite number of string quanta induce a significant backreaction upon the background and render the perturbation theory infrared-divergent. The simplest example is D0-brane recoil under an impact by closed strings. A more physically interesting case is backreaction on the evolution of a totally compact universe due to closed string gas. Such situations necessitate qualitative amendments to the traditional formulation of string theory in a fixed classical background. In this contribution to the proceedings of the XVII European Workshop on String Theory in Padua, I review solved problems and current investigations in relation to this kind of quantum backreaction effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Comparing double string theory actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-04-28

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.

  16. Comparing double string theory actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed

  17. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  18. A rotating hairy AdS{sub 3} black hole with the metric having only one Killing vector field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Norihiro [Department of Physics, Osaka University,Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ishibashi, Akihiro [Department of Physics, Kinki University,Higashi-Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Maeda, Kengo [Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology,Saitama 330-8570 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    We perturbatively construct a three-dimensional rotating AdS black hole with a real scalar hair. We choose the mass of a scalar field slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound and impose a general boundary condition for the bulk scalar field at AdS infinity. We first show that rotating BTZ black holes are unstable against scalar field perturbations under our more general boundary condition. Next we construct a rotating hairy black hole perturbatively with respect to a small amplitude ϵ of the scalar field, up to O(ϵ{sup 4}). Our hairy black hole is stationary and exhibits no dissipation, but the lumps of the non-linearly perturbed geometry break axial symmetry, thus providing the first example of a rotating black hole whose metric admits only one Killing vector field. Furthermore, we numerically show that the entropy of our hairy black hole is larger than that of the BTZ black hole with the same energy and the angular momentum. We briefly discuss if our rotating hairy black hole in lumpy geometry could be the endpoint of the instability.

  19. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  20. Introduction to strings and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traubenberg, M.R. de.

    1988-01-01

    We discuss the main features on the formulation of string theory that, in a primitive level, describe the hadronic phenomenon of duality. We also study an extension of the models of closed and strings with spin. Then, by using supersymmetry, it is formulated the theory of superstrings and heterotic strings with the aim of unify the fundamental interactions and matter. (M.W.O.) [pt

  1. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, T.W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of a system of strings created at a phase transition early in the history of the universe is reviewed. The two possible end points are a string-dominated universe, which behaves much like a matter-dominated one, and a scaling solution, in which the persistence length of the system of strings scales with the horizon distance. The latter is the basis for a very attractive theory of galaxy formation. (Auth.)

  2. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  3. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-01

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S 3 . Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet σ-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL 2 (C). (orig.)

  4. String Theory in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias

    2007-01-01

    This book is the essential new introduction to modern string theory, by one of the world's authorities on the subject. Concise, clearly presented, and up-to-date, String Theory in a Nutshell brings together the best understood and most important aspects of a theory that has been evolving since the early 1980s. A core model of physics that substitutes one-dimensional extended ""strings"" for zero-dimensional point-like particles (as in quantum field theory), string theory has been the leading candidate for a theory that would successfully unify all fundamental forces of nature, includin

  5. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Turok, N.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-06-01

    We summarize our new results on cosmic strings. These results include: the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution, a simple ''one scale'' model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power, results from large scale numerical simulations, and a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bond on Gμ of approximately 10 -7 emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. We discuss how numerical uncertainties affect this. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences. 22 refs

  6. The ABCDEFG of Little Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Haouzi, Nathan; Kozçaz, Can

    2017-01-01

    Starting from type IIB string theory on an $ADE$ singularity, the (2,0) little string arises when one takes the string coupling $g_s$ to 0. In this setup, we give a unified description of the codimension-two defects of the little string, for any simple Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. Geometrically, these are D5 branes wrapping 2-cycles of the singularity. Equivalently, the defects are specified by a certain set of weights of $^L {\\mathfrak{g}}$, the Langlands dual of ${\\mathfrak{g}}$. As a firs...

  7. A primer on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schomerus, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.

  8. Collective string interactions in AdS/QCD and high multiplicity p A collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Ramamurti, Adith; Shuryak, Edward

    2015-07-01

    QCD strings originate from high-energy scattering in the form of Reggeons and Pomerons, and have been studied in some detail in lattice numerical simulations. Production of multiple strings, with their subsequent breaking, is now a mainstream model of high-energy p p and p A collisions. Recent LHC experiments revealed that the high multiplicity ends of such collisions show interesting collective effects. This ignited an interest in the interaction of QCD strings and multistring dynamics. Holographic models, collectively known as AdS/QCD, developed in the last decade, describe both hadronic spectroscopy and basic thermodynamics, but so far no studies of the QCD strings have been done in this context. The subject of this paper is to do this. First, we study in more detail the scalar sector of hadronic spectroscopy, identifying "glueballs" and "scalar mesons," and calculate the degree of their mixing. The QCD strings, holographic images of the fundamental strings, thus have a "gluonic core" and a "sigma cloud." The latter generates σ exchanges and collectivization of the strings, affecting, at a certain density, the chiral condensate and even the minimum of the effective string potential, responsible for the very existence of the QCD strings. Finally, we run dynamical simulations of the multistring systems, in the "spaghetti" setting approximating central p A collisions, and specify conditions for their collectivization into a black hole, or the dual quark gluon plasma fireball.

  9. Strings, Branes and Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs

  10. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  11. String-inspired cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wands, David

    2002-01-01

    I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas

  12. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  13. Sequestering in String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman

    2007-04-04

    We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification.

  14. Sequestering in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman

    2007-01-01

    We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification

  15. Transmutations for Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boumenir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.  

  16. New ambitwistor string theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Eduardo [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Roehrig, Kai A. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    We describe new ambitwistor string theories that give rise to the recent amplitude formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills, (Dirac)-Born-Infeld, Galileons and others introduced by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In the case of the Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes, an important role is played by a novel worldsheet conformal field theory that provides the appropriate colour factors precisely without the spurious multitrace terms of earlier models that had to be ignored by hand. This is needed to obtain the correct multitrace terms that arise when Yang-Mills is coupled to gravity.

  17. Energy in a String Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  18. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  19. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  20. Differential formulation in string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzo, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The equations of gauge invariance motion for theories of boson open strings and Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond superstring are derived. A construction for string theories using differential formalism, is introduced. The importance of BRST charge for constructing such theories and the necessity of introduction of auxiliary fields are verified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Progress in string theory research

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...

  2. Deformations of topological open strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Ma, Whee Ky

    Deformations of topological open string theories are described, with an emphasis on their algebraic structure. They are encoded in the mixed bulk-boundary correlators. They constitute the Hochschild complex of the open string algebra - the complex of multilinear maps on the boundary Hilbert space.

  3. Tadpole resummations in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2008-01-01

    While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed

  4. String theory and water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V; Pennington, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    We uncover a remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of nonlinear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain c-hat <1 string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A, A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We observe that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A, D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non-perturbative definition for the first time. Notably, we discover that the Painleve IV equation plays a key role in organizing the string theory physics, joining its siblings, Painleve I and II, whose roles have previously been identified in this minimal string context.

  5. String-localized quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)

  6. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics. In this article, we describe some of these approaches. Keywords. String theory; cosmological singularities. PACS Nos 11.25.

  7. String theory and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Angel

    2006-01-01

    I will provide a basic introduction to string theory as a unified theory of gravitational and gauge interactions. I will review recent constructions of string theory models leading at low energies to the Standard Model of particle interactions, and which include interesting new phenomenology beyond the standard model, like supersymmetry, boranes, and (possible large) extra dimensions

  8. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sidered to portray early universe reasonably well. Letelier [2] obtained some particular. Bianchi type I string-dust models in which at a certain epoch, strings disappear with a phase transition to an anisotropic fluid. Another Bianchi type I model has been presented by Banerjee et al [3] which obeys Takabayashi's equation of ...

  9. String theory : physics or metaphysics?

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.

  10. New limits on cosmic strings from gravitational wave observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Siemens, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    We combine new analysis of the stochastic gravitational wave background to be expected from cosmic strings with the latest pulsar timing array (PTA) limits to give an upper bound on the energy scale of the possible cosmic string network, Gμ LIGO and to be expected from LISA and BBO. Current estimates for the gravitational wave background from supermassive black hole binaries are at the level where a PTA detection is expected. But if PTAs do observe a background soon, it will be difficult in the short term to distinguish black holes from cosmic strings as the source, because the spectral indices from the two sources happen to be quite similar. If PTAs do not observe a background, then the limits on Gμ will improve somewhat, but a string network with Gμ substantially below 10-11 will produce gravitational waves primarily at frequencies too high for PTA observation, so significant further progress will depend on intermediate-frequency observatories such as LISA, DECIGO and BBO.

  11. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  12. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  13. Testing string theory at LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.

  14. Oscillons from string moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cefalà, Francesco; Krippendorf, Sven; Muia, Francesco; Orani, Stefano; Quevedo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    A generic feature of string compactifications is the presence of many scalar fields, called moduli. Moduli are usually displaced from their post-inflationary minimum during inflation. Their relaxation to the minimum could lead to the production of oscillons: localised, long-lived, non-linear excitations of the scalar fields. Here we discuss under which conditions oscillons can be produced in string cosmology and illustrate their production and potential phenomenology with two explicit examples: the case of an initially displaced volume modulus in the KKLT scenario and the case of a displaced blow-up Kähler modulus in the Large Volume Scenario (LVS). One, in principle, observable consequence of oscillon dynamics is the production of gravitational waves which, contrary to those produced from preheating after high scale inflation, could have lower frequencies, closer to the currently observable range. We also show that, for the considered parameter ranges, oscillating fibre and volume moduli do not develop any significant non-perturbative dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the vacua in the LVS and the KKLT scenario are stable against local overshootings of the field into the decompatification region, which provides an additional check on the longevity of these metastable configurations.

  15. Quark Confinement and Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerardus

    QCD was proposed as a theory for the strong interactions long before we had any idea as to how it could be that its fundamental constituents, the quarks, are never seen as physical particles. Massless gluons also do not exist as free particles. How can this be explained? The first indication that this question had to be considered in connection with the topological structure of a gauge theory came when Nielsen and Olesen observed the occurrence of stable magnetic vortex structures [1] in the Abelian Higgs model. Expanding on such ideas, the magnetic monopole solution was found [2]. Other roundabout attempts to understand confinement involve instantons. Today, we have better interpretations of these topological structures, including a general picture of the way they do lead to unbound potentials confining quarks. It is clear that these unbound potentials can be ascribed to a string-like structure of the vortices formed by the QCD field lines. Can string theory be used to analyze QCD? Many researchers think so. The leading expert on this is Sacha Polyakov. In his instructive account he adds how he experienced the course of events in Gauge Theory, emphasizing the fact that quite a few discoveries often ascribed to researchers from the West, actually were made independently by scientists from the Soviet Union…

  16. String dualities and superpotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Tae-Won

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)

  17. String dualities and superpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Won

    2010-09-15

    The main objective of this thesis is the computation of the superpotential induced by D5- branes in the type IIB string theory and by five-branes in the heterotic string theory. Both superpotentials have the same functional form which is the chain integral of the holomorphic three-form. Using relative (co)homology we can unify the flux and brane superpotential. The chain integral can be seen as an example of the Abel-Jacobi map. We discuss many structures such as mixed Hodge structure which allows for the computation of Picard-Fuchs differential equations crucial for explicit computations. We blow up the Calabi-Yau threefold along the submanifold wrapped by the brane to obtain geometrically more appropriate configuration. The resulting geometry is non-Calabi-Yau and we have a canonically given divisor. This blown-up geometry makes it possible to restrict our attention to complex structure deformations. However, the direct computation is yet very difficult, thus the main tool for computation will be the lift of the brane configuration to a F-theory compactification. In F-theory, since complex structure, brane and, if present, bundlemoduli are all contained in the complex structure moduli space of the elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfold, the computation can be dramatically simplified. The heterotic/F-theory duality is extended to include the blow-up geometry and thereby used to give the blow-up geometry amore physical meaning. (orig.)

  18. Twist Field as Three String Interaction Vertex in Light Cone String Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Isao; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that matrix string theory and light-cone string field theory are closely related. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the twist field, which represents string interactions in matrix string theory, and the three-string interaction vertex in light-cone string field theory carefully. We find that the three-string interaction vertex can reproduce some of the most important OPEs satisfied by the twist field.

  19. Is the universe really made of tiny rubber bands? a kid's exploration of string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Shaun-Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the fascinating world of string theory and quantum physics from a kid’s perspective. Originally published as an interactive text, it soon became an international best seller on Apple’s iBooks store and has been number one in the category of string theory on iTunes for the past two years. It is now available for the first time in print form. Fully illustrated and annotated. This is the black and white version.

  20. RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories (5/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    9.30-10.30 B. Pioline Black Hole Degeneracies, Topological Strings and Quantum Attractor Flow (4/4) 10.30-11.30 M. Grana Flux Compactifications and Generalized Geometry (4/4) 12.15-13.15 S. Minwalla Large N Thermal Phase Transitions (4/4) Organiser(s): CERN and Neuchâtel UniversityMore information: http://www.unine.ch/phys/string/rtn-school/index.php

  1. Entanglement Entropy of AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Melis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in understanding the entanglement entropy of gravitational configurations for anti-de Sitter gravity in two and three spacetime dimensions using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive simple expressions for the entanglement entropy of two- and three-dimensional black holes. In both cases, the leading term of the entanglement entropy in the large black hole mass expansion reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, whereas the subleading term behaves logarithmically. In particular, for the BTZ black hole the leading term of the entanglement entropy can be obtained from the large temperature expansion of the partition function of a broad class of 2D CFTs on the torus.

  2. Oriented open-closed string theory revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.

    1998-01-01

    String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc

  3. Conformal techniques in string theory and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    The application of some conformal and Riemann surface techniques to string theory and string field theory is described. First a brief review of Riemann surface techniques and of the Polyakov approach to string theory is presented. This is followed by a discussion of some features of string field theory and of its Feynman rules. Specifically, it is shown that the Feynman diagrams for Witten's string field theory respect modular invariance, and in particular give a triangulation of moduli space. The Polyakov formalism is then used to derive the Feynman rules that should follow from this theory upon gauge-fixing. It should also be possible to apply this derivation to deduce the Feynman rules for other gauge-fixed string field theories. Following this, Riemann surface techniques are turned to the problem of proving the equivalence of the Polyakov and light-cone formalisms. It is first shown that the light-cone diagrams triangulate moduli space. Then the Polyakov measure is worked out for these diagrams, and shown to equal that deduced from the light-cone gauge fixed formalism. Also presented is a short description of the comparison of physical states in the two formalisms. The equivalence of the two formalisms in particular constitutes a proof of the unitarity of the Polyakov framework for the closed bosonic string

  4. Can one hear the Riemann zeros in black hole ringing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Bugini, Fabrizzio; Diaz, Danilo E.

    2016-05-01

    We elaborate on an entry of the AdS/CFT dictionary relating functional determinants: the determinant of the one-loop contribution to the effective gravitational action by bulk scalars in an asymptotically locally AdS background X, and the determinant of the two-point function of the dual operator (a.k.a. scattering matrix) at the conformal boundary M. The formula originates from AdS/CFT heuristics that map a quantum contribution in the bulk gravitational partition function to a subleading large-N contribution in the boundary CFT partition function: The formula applies to quotients of AdS as well [1]. In the particular case of the BTZ black hole, a closed expression can be worked out in terms of an associated Patterson-Selberg zeta function ZBTZ (λ) [2]. The determinants can then be thought of as regularized products of either zeta zeros, scattering resonances or quasinormal frequencies [3]. In this sense, one could say that the zeros of ZBTZ (λ) can be heard in the spectrum of quasinormal modes of the BTZ black hole. The question we want to pose is whether a similar situation might exist for the celebrated zeros of the Riemann zeta function.

  5. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ......, we show how to preprocess S in O(n) (deterministic) time and space O(n) such that given a packed pattern string of length m we can support queries in (deterministic) time O (m/α + log m + log log σ), where α = w/log σ is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = θ(log n). Our query time...

  6. Extensions of string theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1993-06-01

    With the motivation that critical dimensions D[ne]4 might be suggeting that string theories have not been completely formulated, we study more general alternatives. We first consider a direct extension in the world-sheet formulation with N[sub B] bosons and N[sub F] fermions and analyze the conditions for canceling the anomaly in all possible combinations of N[sub B], N[sub F] and D. Later on we incorporate degrees of freedom of antisymmetric tensors to the previous model. The only possibility to cancel the anomaly in this case is with N[sub B]=N[sub F]=1 and the our everyday spacetime dimension D=4. (orig.).

  7. Fingerprints in compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed into a context-free grammar of size n that supports efficient Karp–Rabin fingerprint queries to any substring of S. That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S......[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(log⁡N) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(log⁡log⁡N) query time...

  8. Field theory and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonara, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, P.; Rinaldi, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well-known that type I and heterotic superstring theories have a zero mass spectrum which correspond to the field content of N=1 supergravity theory coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 10-D. The authors study the field theory ''per se'', in the hope that simple consistency requirements will determine the theory completely once one knows the field content inherited from string theory. The simplest consistency requirements are: N=1 supersymmetry; and absence of chiral anomalies. This is what the authors discuss in this paper here leaving undetermined the question of the range of validity of the resulting field theory. As is known, a model of N=1 supergravity (SUGRA) coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory was known in the form given by Chapline and Manton. The coupling of SUGRA to SYM was determined by the definition of the ''field strength'' 3-form H in this paper

  9. On the Classical String Solutions and String/Field Theory Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrova, D.; Bozhilov, P.

    2003-01-01

    We classify almost all classical string configurations, considered in the framework of the semi-classical limit of the string/gauge theory duality. Then, we describe a procedure for obtaining the conserved quantities and the exact classical string solutions in general string theory backgrounds, when the string embedding coordinates depend non-linearly on the worldsheet time parameter.

  10. String Formatting Considered Harmful for Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael C.; Jadud, Matthew C.; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2010-01-01

    In Java, "System.out.printf" and "String.format" consume a specialised kind of string commonly known as a format string. In our study of first-year students at the Ateneo de Manila University, we discovered that format strings present a substantial challenge for novice programmers. Focusing on their first laboratory we found…

  11. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a detailed analysis of the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of cosmic strings in different situations using the Hamilton–Jacobi (H–J) formalism. We have discussed the trajectories near static cosmic string, cosmic string in Brans–Dicke theory and cosmic string in dilaton gravity.

  12. Interaction of cosmic strings with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Garfinkle, D.

    1990-01-01

    We find solutions of Einstein's equation representing a gravitational wave interacting with a cosmic-string traveling wave. The motion of test cosmic strings in the gravitational field of a cosmic-string traveling wave is also examined. A solution representing traveling waves on several parallel cosmic strings is also found

  13. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  14. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  15. STRING v9.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, A.; Simonovic, M.; Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    data is desirable, including lower-quality data and/or computational predictions. The STRING database (http://string-db.org/) aims to provide such a global perspective for as many organisms as feasible. Known and predicted associations are scored and integrated, resulting in comprehensive protein...... networks covering >1100 organisms. Here, we describe the update to version 9.1 of STRING, introducing several improvements: (i) we extend the automated mining of scientific texts for interaction information, to now also include full-text articles; (ii) we entirely re-designed the algorithm for transferring...

  16. Spin chain for quantum strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, N.

    2005-01-01

    We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Covariant N-string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Sciuto, S.; Nakayama, R.; Petersen, J.L.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    The BRST-invariant N-Reggeon vertex (for the bosonic string) previously given by us in the operator formulation is considered in more detail. In particular we present a direct derivation from the string path integral. Several crucial symmetry properties found a posteriori before, become a priori clearer in this formulation. A number of delicate points related to zero modes, cut off procedures and normal ordering prescriptions are treated in some detail. The old technique of letting the string field acquire a small dimension ε/2 → 0 + is found especially elegant. (orig.)

  18. Plucked Strings and the Harpsichord

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIORDANO, N.; WINANS, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    The excitation of a harpsichord string when it is set into motion, i.e., plucked, by a plectrum is studied. We find that the amplitude of the resulting string vibration is approximately independent of the velocity with which the key is depressed. This result is in accord with conventional wisdom, but at odds with a recent theoretical model. A more realistic theoretical treatment of the plucking process is then described, and shown to be consistent with our measurements. The experiments reveal several other interesting aspects of the plectrum-string interaction.

  19. Nonassociative gravity in string theory?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Plauschinn, E, E-mail: ralph.blumenhagen@mpp.mpg.d, E-mail: e.plauschinn@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-01-07

    In an on-shell conformal field theory approach, we find indications of a three-bracket structure for target space coordinates in general closed string backgrounds. This generalizes the appearance of noncommutative gauge theories for open strings in two-form backgrounds to a putative noncommutative/nonassociative gravity theory for closed strings probing curved backgrounds with non-vanishing three-form flux. Several aspects and consequences of the three-bracket structure are discussed and a new type of generalized uncertainty principle is proposed.

  20. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated

  1. M-strings, Elliptic Genera and N=4 String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenegger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study mass-deformed N=2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of R^4 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T^2, which we calculate explicitly.

  2. M-strings, elliptic genera and N = 4 string amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohenegger, S.; Iqbal, A.

    2014-01-01

    We study mass-deformed N = 2 gauge theories from various points of view. Their partition functions can be computed via three dual approaches: firstly, (p,q)-brane webs in type II string theory using Nekrasov's instanton calculus, secondly, the (refined) topological string using the topological vertex formalism and thirdly, M theory via the elliptic genus of certain M-strings configurations. We argue for a large class of theories that these approaches yield the same gauge theory partition function which we study in detail. To make their modular properties more tangible, we consider a fourth approach by connecting the partition function to the equivariant elliptic genus of C 2 through a (singular) theta-transform. This form appears naturally as a specific class of one-loop scattering amplitudes in type II string theory on T 2 , which we calculate explicitly. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  4. Charting the landscape of supercritical string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian

    2007-10-26

    Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories.

  5. Charting the Landscape of Supercritical String Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories

  6. Matrix string theory on pp-waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, Giulio

    2003-06-21

    After a brief review on matrix string theory on flat backgrounds, we formulate matrix string models on different pp-wave backgrounds. This will be done both in the cases of constant and variable RR background flux for certain exact string geometries. We exhibit the non-perturbative representation of string interaction and show how the eigenvalue tunnelling drives the WKB expansion to give the usual perturbative string interaction also in supersymmetric pp-wave background cases.

  7. Extremal vanishing horizon Kerr-AdS black holes at ultraspinning limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, S. M.; Vahidinia, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    By utilizing the ultraspinning limit we generate a new class of extremal vanishing horizon (EVH) black holes in odd dimensions ( d ≥ 5). Starting from the general multi-spinning Kerr-AdS metrics, we show the EVH limit commutes with the ultraspinning limit,in which the resulting solutions possess a non-compact but finite area manifold for all ( t, r ≠ r +) = const . slices. We also demonstrate the near horizon geometries of obtained ultraspinning EVH solutions contain an AdS3 throats, where it would be a BTZ black hole in the near EVH cases. The commutativity of the ultraspinning and near horizon limits for EVH solutions is confirmed as well. Furthermore, we discuss only five-dimensional case near the EVH point can be viewed as a super-entropic black hole. We also show that the thermodynamics of the obtained solutions agree with the BTZ black hole. Moreover we investigate the EVH/CFT proposal, demonstrating the entropy of 2d dual CFT and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy are equivalent.

  8. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  9. Cache-oblivious string dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    We present static cache-oblivious dictionary structures for strings which provide analogues of tries and suffix trees in the cache-oblivious model. Our construction takes as input either a set of strings to store, a single string for which all suffixes are to be stored, a trie, a compressed trie......, or a suffix tree, and creates a cache-oblivious data structure which performs prefix queries in O(logB n + |P|/B) I/Os, where n is the number of leaves in the trie, P is the query string, and B is the block size. This query cost is optimal for unbounded alphabets. The data structure uses linear space....

  10. String and Sticky Tape Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how to demonstrate the fundamentals of one dimensional kinematics such as Newton's third law of motion, and collision between bodies, using simple materials of marbles, strings, sticky tape, drinking straws, and rubber bands. (GA)

  11. Spin chains and string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczenski, Martin

    2004-10-15

    Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.

  12. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  13. String moduli inflation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Quevedo, Fernando

    2011-06-01

    We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the η-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)

  14. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments, which are our concern in this review [ru

  15. On Field Theory of Open Strings, Tachyon Condensation and Closed Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Shatashvili, Samson L.

    2001-01-01

    I review the physical properties of different vacua in the background independent open string field theory. Talk presented at Strings 2001, Mumbai, India, http://theory.theory.tifr.res.in/strings/Proceedings/#sha-s.

  16. RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    9.30-10.30 A. Dabholkar Black Holes Entropy and Microstate Counting (1/4) 10.30-11.30 M. Grana Flux Compactifications and Generalized Geometry (1/4) 12.15-13.15 B. Craps Big Bang Models in String Theory (1/4) 14.30-15.30 A. Dabholkar Black Holes Entropy and Microstate Counting (2/4) 15.30-16.30 S. Minwalla Large N Thermal Phase Transitions (1/4) 17.00 Discussion Organiser(s): CERN and Neuchâtel UniversityMore information: http://www.unine.ch/phys/string/rtn-school/index.php

  17. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  18. Semiclassical Strings in Supergravity PFT

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Aritra; Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2014-01-01

    Puff field theory (PFT) is an example of a non-local field theory which arises from a novel embedding of D-branes in a Melvin universe. We study several rotating and pulsating string solutions of the F-string equations of motion in the supergravity dual of the PFT. Further, we find a PP-wave geometry from this non-local spacetime by applying a Penrose limit and comment on its similarity with the maximally supersymmetric PP-wave background.

  19. Lifshitz black holes in IIA supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barclay, Luke; Gregory, Ruth; Parameswaran, Susha; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Zavala, Ivonne

    We compute string theoretic black hole solutions having Lifshitz asymptotics with a general dynamical exponent z > 1. We start by constructing solutions in a flux compactification of six dimensional supergravity, then uplift them to massive type HA supergravity. Alongside the Lifshitz black holes we

  20. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation presents recent discoveries on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view within string theory and M-theory. The results are applied to two central research topics in modern theoretical physics, namely (1) the correspondence between the physics (including gravity) within an Anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, and (2) the relation between black holes and topological strings.

  1. Dynamics of strings between walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke

    2009-01-01

    Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1) N gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

  2. String theory on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorlacius, L.

    1989-01-01

    Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors

  3. Experimental observation of Bethe strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Jianda; Yang, Wang; Bera, Anup Kumar; Kamenskyi, Dmytro; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Xu, Shenglong; Law, Joseph Matthew; Lake, Bella; Wu, Congjun; Loidl, Alois

    2018-02-01

    Almost a century ago, string states—complex bound states of magnetic excitations—were predicted to exist in one-dimensional quantum magnets. However, despite many theoretical studies, the experimental realization and identification of string states in a condensed-matter system have yet to be achieved. Here we use high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy to resolve string states in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg-Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields. In the field-induced quantum-critical regime, we identify strings and fractional magnetic excitations that are accurately described by the Bethe ansatz. Close to quantum criticality, the string excitations govern the quantum spin dynamics, whereas the fractional excitations, which are dominant at low energies, reflect the antiferromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Today, Bethe’s result is important not only in the field of quantum magnetism but also more broadly, including in the study of cold atoms and in string theory; hence, we anticipate that our work will shed light on the study of complex many-body systems in general.

  4. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  5. Chern-Simons couplings for dielectric F-strings in matrix string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda

    2002-01-01

    We compute the non-abelian couplings in the Chern-Simons action for a set of coinciding fundamental strings in both the type IIA and type IIB Matrix string theories. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. Further dualities give a type IIB Matrix string theory and a type IIA theory of Matrix strings with winding. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. New expressions for string loop amplitudes leading to an ultra-simple conception of string dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun; Bordes, J.; Nellen, L.

    1990-11-01

    New expressions are derived for string loop amplitudes as overlap integrals of string wave functionals. They are shown to take the form of exchange terms coming from the Bose-Einstein symmetrisation between string segments. One is thus led to the ultra-simple conception that string theory is basically free, and that 'string interactions' are due merely to the fact that strings are composite objects with Bose-Einstein segments as constituents. (author)

  7. Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-Nc gauge theories arising within holographic models.

  8. Gravity from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1987-01-01

    We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)

  9. On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighat, Babak

    2010-06-15

    String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the veri cation of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)

  10. On topological string theory with Calabi-Yau backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighat, Babak

    2009-10-29

    String theory represents a unifying framework for quantum field theory as well as for general relativity combining them into a theory of quantum gravity. The topological string is a subsector of the full string theory capturing physical amplitudes which only depend on the topology of the compactification manifold. Starting with a review of the physical applications of topological string theory we go on to give a detailed description of its theoretical framework and mathematical principles. Having this way provided the grounding for concrete calculations we proceed to solve the theory on three major types of Calabi-Yau manifolds, namely Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds, local Calabi-Yau manifolds, and K3 fibrations. Our method of solution is the integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations and fixing the holomorphic ambiguity by physical boundary conditions. We determine the correct parameterization of the ambiguity and new boundary conditions at various singularity loci in moduli space. Among the main results of this thesis are the tables of degeneracies of BPS states in the appendices and the verification of the correct microscopic entropy interpretation for five dimensional extremal black holes arising from compactifications on Grassmannian Calabi-Yau manifolds. (orig.)

  11. Stationary Configurations and Geodesic Description of Supersymmetric Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Käppeli, Jürg

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains a detailed study of various properties of supersymmetric black holes. In chapter I an overview over some of the fascinating aspects of black hole physics is provided. In particular, the string theory approach to black hole entropy is discussed. One of the consequences of the

  12. Conformal supergravity in twistor-string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, Nathan [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nberkovi@ift.unesp.br; Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Conformal supergravity arises in presently known formulations of twistor-string theory either via closed strings or via gauge-singlet open strings. We explore this sector of twistor-string theory, relating the relevant string modes to the particles and fields of conformal supergravity. We use the twistor-string theory to compute some tree level scattering amplitudes with supergravitons. Since the supergravitons interact with the same coupling constant as the Yang-Mills fields, conformal supergravity states will contribute to loop amplitudes of Yang-Mills gluons in these theories. Those loop amplitudes will therefore not coincide with the loop amplitudes of pure super Yang-Mills theory. (author)

  13. Gravitational Lensing Signatures of Long Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    De Laix, A A; Vachaspati, T; Laix, Andrew A. de; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    1997-01-01

    The gravitational lensing by long, wiggly cosmic strings is shown to produce a large number of lensed images of a background source. In addition to pairs of images on either side of the string, a number of small images outline the string due to small-scale structure on the string. This image pattern could provide a highly distinctive signature of cosmic strings. Since the optical depth for multiple imaging of distant quasar sources by long strings may be comparable to that by galaxies, these image patterns should be clearly observable in the next generation of redshift surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  14. String defects connecting pairs of half-integer disclinations and tilting transition of a langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, E; Fischer, Th M

    2005-02-24

    The static and dynamic string defect textures connecting pairs of half-integer disclinations have been observed by Brewster angle microscopy in the solid phase of pentacosadiynoic acid Langmuir monolayers. The static string defect structures have appeared coexisting with two kinds of point disclinations that have four and two black brushes. The use of local laser heating has allowed one to observe kinetics of creation and annihilation of string defects connecting the two-half-integer disclinations in the splitting process of an s = 1 point disclination into fractional disclinations. These kinetics have been analyzed by studying the competition between the orientational elasticity of the molecules and the line tension of the string and the drag force of the disclinations.

  15. Ureteric stent placement with extraction string: no strings attached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholt, Nathan A; Wild, Trevor T; Gupta, Amit; Tracy, Chad R

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Of patients treated with an indwelling ureteric stent 80-90% experience lower urinary tract symptoms that are a hindrance to health-related quality of life. The prevalence of the extraction/retrieval string after ureteroscopy for stone disease and stent placement varies significantly between surgeons and published series, but the benefits of eliminating the need for a secondary procedure such as cystoscopy and stent removal, as well as the decrease in cost to the patient are well established. Published reports have not addressed the prevalence of post-procedure related events (PREs) in patients who have received an indwelling ureteric stent with the extraction/retrieval string still intact after ureteroscopy for stone disease. By analysing PREs (Emergency Room visits, unscheduled clinic visits, and telephone calls) related to their stent or procedure for patients with and without an extraction/retrieval string, the feasibility of the extraction string can be validated and the misconceptions about their use can be alleviated. • To review a retrospective ureteric stent cohort with and without extraction string to compare post-procedure related events (PRE), as ureteric stent placement after endoscopic management of urolithiasis is common, but data regarding the potential benefits or disadvantages of ureteric stent placement with extraction string are sparse. • Between June 2009 and June 2010, 293 patients underwent ureteroscopy with or without lithotripsy for stone disease. • In all, 181 patients had a unilateral procedure and underwent stent placement postoperatively. • Records were retrospectively reviewed for operative data and PRE occurring within the first 6 weeks after surgery, defined as unscheduled clinic or Emergency Room visits, or adverse event telephone calls. • Of 181 patients who underwent ureteric stent placement, 43 (23

  16. An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields

  17. Higher spin black holes with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-10-21

    We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.

  18. Topological strings from quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematique; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2014-12-15

    We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P{sup 2}, local P{sup 1} x P{sup 1} and local F{sub 1}. In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.

  19. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, it is assumed that each machine word can accommodate up to α characters, thus an n-character string occupies n/α memory words.(a) We extend the Crochemore–Perrin constant-space O(n)-time string-matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/α) time and even in real......-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...

  20. Differential geometry in string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, O.

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold

  1. Topological strings from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized θ function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P 2 , local P 1 x P 1 and local F 1 . In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.

  2. String theory or field theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshakov, Andrei V

    2002-01-01

    The status of string theory is reviewed, and major recent developments - especially those in going beyond perturbation theory in the string theory and quantum field theory frameworks - are analyzed. This analysis helps better understand the role and place of string theory in the modern picture of the physical world. Even though quantum field theory describes a wide range of experimental phenomena, it is emphasized that there are some insurmountable problems inherent in it - notably the impossibility to formulate the quantum theory of gravity on its basis - which prevent it from being a fundamental physical theory of the world of microscopic distances. It is this task, the creation of such a theory, which string theory, currently far from completion, is expected to solve. In spite of its somewhat vague current form, string theory has already led to a number of serious results and greatly contributed to progress in the understanding of quantum field theory. It is these developments which are our concern in this review. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. String Resonances at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale M_s is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (3000 fb^{-1}) with \\sqrt{s} = 14 TeV, and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at \\sqrt{s} = 33 and 100 TeV, respectively. In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and \\gamma + jet are completely independent of the details of compactification, and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV), lowest massive Regge exc...

  4. String Theory Volume 1: An Introduction to the Bosonic String and Volume 2: Superstring Theory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    , it could easily be missed-but these are minor drawbacks. Readers will find clear answers to many 'frequently asked questions.' Are D-branes really necessary? Polchinski begins with T-duality for the closed string, and shows that the extension to open strings requires the existence of D-branes. How does string theory incorporate gravity? The two standard answers are that string theory contains a massless spin two 'graviton' and that consistent string propagation in a curved background requires that the background metric satisfy the Einstein field equations; Polchinski links the two, showing that the background metric can be viewed as a coherent state of the spin two excitations. Volume II, Superstring Theory and Beyond, extends Volume I to superstring theory, and then proceeds to treat a range of more advanced subjects: effective actions for branes, dualities and equivalences among string theories, M theory, stringy black holes, compactifications and four-dimensional field theories, and the like. The tone of this volume changes a bit-it is not as self-contained, and reads less like a textbook and more like an extended review article. I suspect, for example, that few students without a strong background in field theory will follow the discussion of anomalies in chapter 12. The change can be largely attributed to the content: the superstring is inherently more difficult than the bosonic string, and the newer material is not as deeply understood. But there are a few weaknesses in presentation as well: for instance, a discussion in chapter 11 of the relationship between symmetries and constraints omits any explanation of how one decides whether a transformation generates a symmetry or a constraint. Any two-volume book on string theory is necessarily incomplete. In his introduction, Polchinski cites the lack of a more thorough treatment of compactifications on curved manifolds. I would personally have liked to see more about noncritical strings and

  5. The black hole interior and a curious sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Troost, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the Euclidean geometry near non-extremal NS5-branes in string theory, including regions beyond the horizon and beyond the singularity of the black brane. The various regions have an exact description in string theory, in terms of cigar, trumpet and negative level minimal model conformal field theories. We study the worldsheet elliptic genera of these three superconformal theories, and show that their sum vanishes. We speculate on the significance of this curious sum rule for black hole physics

  6. Large N Field Theories, String Theory and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aharony, O; Maldacena, J M; Ooguri, H; Oz, Y

    2000-01-01

    We review the holographic correspondence between field theories and string/M theory, focusing on the relation between compactifications of string/M theory on Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. We review the background for this correspondence and discuss its motivations and the evidence for its correctness. We describe the main results that have been derived from the correspondence in the regime that the field theory is approximated by classical or semiclassical gravity. We focus on the case of the N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory in four dimensions, but we discuss also field theories in other dimensions, conformal and non-conformal, with or without supersymmetry, and in particular the relation to QCD. We also discuss some implications for black hole physics.

  7. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  8. Quantum Inhomogeneities in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Buonanno, A; Ungarelli, C; Veneziano, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Within two specific string cosmology scenarios --differing in the way the pre- and post-big bang phases are joined-- we compute the size and spectral slope of various types of cosmologically amplified quantum fluctuations that arise in generic compactifications of heterotic string theory. By further imposing that these perturbations become the dominant source of energy at the onset of the radiation era, we obtain physical bounds on the background's moduli, and discuss the conditions under which both a (quasi-) scale-invariant spectrum of axionic perturbations and sufficiently large seeds for the galactic magnetic fields are generated. We also point out a potential problem with achieving the exit to the radiation era when the string coupling is near its present value.

  9. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  10. The STRING database in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Franceschini, Andrea; Kuhn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    and computational prediction techniques. However, public efforts to collect and present protein interaction information have struggled to keep up with the pace of interaction discovery, partly because protein-protein interaction information can be error-prone and require considerable effort to annotate. Here, we...... present an update on the online database resource Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING); it provides uniquely comprehensive coverage and ease of access to both experimental as well as predicted interaction information. Interactions in STRING are provided with a confidence score......, and accessory information such as protein domains and 3D structures is made available, all within a stable and consistent identifier space. New features in STRING include an interactive network viewer that can cluster networks on demand, updated on-screen previews of structural information including homology...

  11. O(6,22) BPS configurations of the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Kallosh, R.

    1996-01-01

    We present a static multicenter magnetic solution of toroidally compactified heterotic string theory, which is T-duality covariant. The space-time geometry depends on the mass M and on the O(6,22) norm N of the magnetic charges. For a different range of parameters the (M,N) solution includes (1) two-independent-positive-parameter extremal magnetic black holes with a nonsingular geometry in a stringy frame (a=1 black holes included), (2) a=√3 extremal black holes, and (3) singular massive and massless magnetic white holes (repulsons). The electric multicenter solution is also given in an O(6,22)-symmetric form. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. General relativity, strings, and mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Porrati, Massimo

    1999-01-01

    We give a historical review of some aspects of string theory relevant to our present understanding of general relativity, and connected with Einstein's unification program. We also point out to various mathematical fallouts of $9 string theory. (31 refs).

  13. On the string equation at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Toshio.

    1994-07-01

    The analogue of the string equation which specifies the partition function of c=1 string with a compactification radius β is an element of Z ≥1 is described in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. (author)

  14. Quantum black holes as holograms in Ads braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using the AdS/CFT correspondence to study quantum black hole physics. The black holes on a brane in an AdS D+1 braneworld that solve the classical bulk equations are interpreted as duals of quantum-corrected D-dimensional black holes, rather than classical ones, of a conformal field theory coupled to gravity. We check this explicitly in D=3 and D=4. In D=3 we reinterpret the existing exact solutions on a flat membrane as states of the dual 2+1 CFT. We show that states with a sufficiently large mass really are 2+1 black holes where the quantum corrections dress the classical conical singularity with a horizon and censor it from the outside. On a negatively curved membrane, we reinterpret the classical bulk solutions as quantum-corrected BTZ black holes. In D=4 we argue that the bulk solution for the brane black hole should include a radiation component in order to describe a quantum-corrected black hole in the 3+1 dual. Hawking radiation of the conformal field is then dual to classical gravitational bremsstrahlung in the AdS 5 bulk. (author)

  15. On the connection between quantum mechanics and the geometry of two-dimensional strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of an area-preserving symmetry in the phase space of a one-dimensional matrix model - believed to describe two-dimensional string theory in a black-hole background which also allows for space-time foam - we give a geometric interpretation of the fact that two-dimensional stringy black holes are consistent with conventional quantum mechanics due to the infinite gauged `W-hair' property that characterises them.

  16. Introduction to field theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    The field theory of bosonic string is reviewed. First, theory is treated in a light-cone gauge. After a brief survey of the first quantized theory of free string, the second quantization is discussed. All possible interactions of strings are introduced based on a smoothness condition of work sheets swept out by strings. Perturbation theory is developed. Finally a possible way to the manifest covariant formalism is discussed

  17. The STRING database in 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Morris, John H; Cook, Helen

    2017-01-01

    A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number of organi......A system-wide understanding of cellular function requires knowledge of all functional interactions between the expressed proteins. The STRING database aims to collect and integrate this information, by consolidating known and predicted protein-protein association data for a large number...

  18. Semiclassical strings in supergravity PFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Physics, Kharagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    Puff field theory (PFT) is an example of a non-local field theory which arises from a novel embedding of D-branes in a Melvin universe. We study several rotating and pulsating string solutions of the F-string equations of motion in the supergravity dual of the PFT. Further, we find a PP-wave geometry from this non-local spacetime by applying a Penrose limit and comment on its similarity with the maximally supersymmetric PP-wave background. (orig.)

  19. Cosmic string in gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Davood; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Myrzakulov, Yerlan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the various cylindrical solutions (cosmic strings) in gravity's rainbow scenario. In particular, we calculate the gravitational field equations corresponding to energy-dependent background. Further, we discuss the possible Kasner, quasi-Kasner and non-Kasner exact solutions of the field equations. In this framework, we find that quasi-Kasner solutions cannot be realized in gravity's rainbow. Assuming only time-dependent metric functions, we also analyse the time-dependent vacuum cosmic strings in gravity's rainbow, which are completely different than the other GR solutions.

  20. The Physics of "String Passing through Ice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    One of the oldest yet interesting experiments related to heat and thermodynamics is placing a string on a block of ice and hanging two masses from the ends of the string. Sometime later, it is discovered that the string has passed through the ice without cutting it in half. A simple explanation of this effect is that the pressure caused by the…

  1. The Illusive Sound of a Bundengan String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.; Kusumaningtyas, Indraswari

    2017-01-01

    The acoustics of a vibrating string is frequently used as a simple example of how physics can be applied in the field of art. In this paper we describe a simple experiment and analysis using a clipped string. This experiment can generate scientific curiosity among students because the sound generated by the string seem surprising to our senses.…

  2. How Do String Majors Become Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This study was motivated by the desire to understand how to support the development of competent and confident string instrument teachers. This research investigates early-career string instrument teachers' experiences of pre-service tertiary education and induction, and how these experiences impacted early-career string teachers' competence to…

  3. The Picture Brightens (Slightly) for String Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2010-01-01

    It may not be the best of times for the school's string and orchestra programs, but things certainly are looking up. This article focuses on a recent report which cites the numerous positives, including an increase in the number of districts offering strings classes, a greater variety in the racial mix of strings students, and a less drastic…

  4. String solitons and T-duality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    We construct for arbitrary dimensions a universal T-duality covariant expression for the Wess-Zumino terms of supersymmetric String Solitons in toroidally compactified string theories with 32 supercharges. The worldvolume fields occurring in the effective action of these String Solitons form either

  5. Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory

  6. Glueballs as rotating folded closed strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin

    2015-12-01

    In previous papers [1, 2] we argued that mesons and baryons can be described as rotating open strings in holographic backgrounds. Now we turn to closed strings, which should be the duals of glueballs. We look at the rotating folded closed string in both flat and curved backgrounds.

  7. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  8. Open bosonic string in background electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The classical and quantum dynamics of an open string propagating in the D-dimensional space-time in the presence of a background electromagnetic field is investigated. An important point in this consideration is the use of the generalized light-like gauge. There are considered the strings of two types; the neutral strings with charges at their ends obeying the condition q 1 +q 2 =0 and the charged strings having a net charge q 1 +q 2 ≠ 0. The consistency of theory demands that the background electric field does not exceed its critical value. The distance between the mass levels of the neutral open string decreases (1-e 2 ) times in comparison with the free string, where e is the dimensionless strength of the electric field. The magnetic field does not affect this distance. It is shown that at a classical level the squared mass of the neutral open string has a tachyonic contribution due to the motion of the string as a whole in transverse directions. The tachyonic term disappears if one considers, instead of M 2 , the string energy in a special reference frame where the projection of the total canonical momentum of the string onto the electric field vanishes. The contributions due to zero point fluctuations to the energy spectrum of the neutral string and to the Virasoro operators in the theory of charged string are found

  9. String duality and novel theories without gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachru, Shamit

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory

  10. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  11. Architectures and representations for string transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    String transduction problems are ubiquitous in natural language processing: they include transliteration, grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, text normalization and translation. String transduction can be reduced to the simpler problems of sequence labeling by expressing the target string as a sequence

  12. The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1989-12-01

    We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach

  13. General relativity invariance and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Volovich, I.V.

    1987-04-01

    The general covariance principle in the string field theory is considered. The algebraic properties of the string Lie derivative are discussed. The string vielbein and spin connection are introduced and an action invariant under general co-ordinate transformation is proposed. (author). 18 refs

  14. String loop divergences and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-01-01

    We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)

  15. Test particle trajectories near cosmic strings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gauge strings have their energy concentrated in a very thin tube, the radius of which is of the order of the symmetry- breaking scale whereas the global strings are such that their energy extends to regions far beyond the central core. Strings have an important astrophysical consequence, namely, the double quasar problem ...

  16. Introduction to the theory of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1985-10-01

    These lectures present, from an introductory perspective, some basic aspects of the quantum theory of strings. They treat (1) the kinematics, spectrum, and scattering amplitude of the bosonic string, (2) the spectrum and supersymmetry of Green-Schwarz superstring, and (3) the identification of the underlying gauge invariances of the string theory. 43 refs

  17. Black hole entropy and quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, M J

    2006-01-01

    We review some recently established connections between the mathematics of black hole entropy in string theory and that of multipartite entanglement in quantum information theory. In the case of N=2 black holes and the entanglement of three qubits, the quartic [SL(2)]^3 invariant, Cayley's hyperdeterminant, provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of tripartite entanglement. In the case of N=8 black holes and the entanglement of seven qubits, the quartic E_7 invariant of Cartan provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of a particular tripartite entanglement encoded in the Fano plane.

  18. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By making use of Letelier's form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic field equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi's equation of state whereas a class ...

  19. Defect branes as Alice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2015-01-01

    There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.

  20. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  1. Monads, strings, and M theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, C.; Park, J.-S.

    1997-01-01

    The recent developmen ts in string theory suggest that the space-time coordinates should be generalized to non-comm uting matrices. P ostulating this suggestion as the fun- damen tal geometrical principle, w e form ulate a candidate for covariant second quantized RNS superstrings as a topological

  2. Topological strings and quantum curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollands, L.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents several new insights on the interface between mathematics and theoretical physics, with a central role for Riemann surfaces. First of all, the duality between Vafa-Witten theory and WZW models is embedded in string theory. Secondly, this model is generalized to a web of

  3. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  4. Genus g temperature string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.; Sen, S.

    1989-01-01

    The geometric approach to bosonic temperature string theory for genus g is formulated in the operator approach of Vafa. It is shown that the Hagedorn temperature exists for all genus g and a conjectured genus g expression for superstring theories with temperature is constructed. (orig.)

  5. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  6. String theory in the bathtub

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the surrounding medium makes their dynamics dramatically different from those of ordinary string-like objects propagating in empty space, leading to quite peculiar phenomena, observed in experiments and simulations. I will argue that the effective theory provides an optimal theoretical framework to understand such phenomena, and to make precise quantitative predictions about them.

  7. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-07-01

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  8. Modified Steiner functional string action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, C.F.; Johnston, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been suggested by Ambartzumian et al. that the modified Steiner functional has desirable properties as an action for random surfaces and hence string world sheets. We perform a simulation of this action on a dynamically triangulated random surface to investigate this claim and find that the surfaces are in a flat phase

  9. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if a proper initial condition, viz., inflation is imposed on the very early universe. Various types of inflationary cosmologies are being considered and the string cosmology is one. It is generally believed that the very early universe underwent phase transitions, which gave rise to topologically stable structures; of particular ...

  10. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  11. String Theory Volume 1: An Introduction to the Bosonic String and Volume 2: Superstring Theory and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S

    2006-01-01

    -but these are minor drawbacks. Readers will find clear answers to many 'frequently asked questions.' Are D-branes really necessary? Polchinski begins with T-duality for the closed string, and shows that the extension to open strings requires the existence of D-branes. How does string theory incorporate gravity? The two standard answers are that string theory contains a massless spin two 'graviton' and that consistent string propagation in a curved background requires that the background metric satisfy the Einstein field equations; Polchinski links the two, showing that the background metric can be viewed as a coherent state of the spin two excitations. Volume II, Superstring Theory and Beyond, extends Volume I to superstring theory, and then proceeds to treat a range of more advanced subjects: effective actions for branes, dualities and equivalences among string theories, M theory, stringy black holes, compactifications and four-dimensional field theories, and the like. The tone of this volume changes a bit-it is not as self-contained, and reads less like a textbook and more like an extended review article. I suspect, for example, that few students without a strong background in field theory will follow the discussion of anomalies in chapter 12. The change can be largely attributed to the content: the superstring is inherently more difficult than the bosonic string, and the newer material is not as deeply understood. But there are a few weaknesses in presentation as well: for instance, a discussion in chapter 11 of the relationship between symmetries and constraints omits any explanation of how one decides whether a transformation generates a symmetry or a constraint. Any two-volume book on string theory is necessarily incomplete. In his introduction, Polchinski cites the lack of a more thorough treatment of compactifications on curved manifolds. I would personally have liked to see more about noncritical strings and Liouville theory and about the Green-Schwarz superstring

  12. How to create a two-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.; Hendy, S.; Larsen, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of a cosmic string with a four-dimensional stationary black hole is considered. If a part of an infinitely long string passes close to a black hole it can be captured. The final stationary configurations of such captured strings are investigated. It is shown that the minimal 2D surface Σ describing a captured stationary string coincides with a principal Killing surface, i.e., a surface formed by Killing trajectories passing through a principal null ray of the Kerr-Newman geometry. A uniqueness theorem is proved, namely, it is shown that the principal Killing surfaces are the only stationary solutions of the string equations which enter the ergosphere and remain timelike and regular at the static limit surface. Geometrical properties of principal Killing surfaces are investigated and it is shown that the internal geometry of Σ coincides with the geometry of a 2D black or white hole (string hole). The equations for propagation of string perturbations are shown to be identical with the equations for a coupled pair of scalar fields open-quote open-quote living close-quote close-quote in the spacetime of a 2D string hole. Some interesting features of the physics of 2D string holes are described. In particular, it is shown that the existence of the extra dimensions of the surrounding spacetime makes interaction possible between the interior and exterior of a string black hole; from the point of view of the 2D geometry this interaction is acausal. Possible application of this result to the information loss puzzle is briefly discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Ultrasensitive string-based temperature sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Gronberg, L.

    2011-01-01

    microstrings was measured. The relative change in resonant frequency per temperature change of -1.74 +/- 0.04%/ degrees C of the aluminum strings is more than one order of magnitude higher than of the silicon nitride strings and of comparable state-of-the-art AuPd strings.......Resonant strings are a promising concept for ultra sensitive temperature detection. We present an analytical model for the sensitivity with which we optimize the temperature response of resonant strings by varying geometry and material. The temperature sensitivity of silicon nitride and aluminum...

  14. Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....

  15. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  16. String theory as a Lilliputian world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjørn, J., E-mail: ambjorn@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); IMAPP, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Makeenko, Y., E-mail: makeenko@nbi.dk [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-10

    Lattice regularizations of the bosonic string do not allow us to probe the tachyon. This has often been viewed as the reason why these theories have never managed to make any contact to standard continuum string theories when the dimension of spacetime is larger than two. We study the continuum string theory in large spacetime dimensions where simple mean field theory is reliable. By keeping carefully the cutoff we show that precisely the existence of a tachyon makes it possible to take a scaling limit which reproduces the lattice-string results. We compare this scaling limit with another scaling limit which reproduces standard continuum-string results. If the people working with lattice regularizations of string theories are akin to Gulliver they will view the standard string-world as a Lilliputian world no larger than a few lattice spacings.

  17. Dynamical AdS strings across horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takaaki [University of Colorado,390 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Murata, Keiju [Keio University,4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8521 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    We examine the nonlinear classical dynamics of a fundamental string in anti-de Sitter spacetime. The string is dual to the flux tube between an external quark-antiquark pair in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We perturb the string by shaking the endpoints and compute its time evolution numerically. We find that with sufficiently strong perturbations the string continues extending and plunges into the Poincaré horizon. In the evolution, effective horizons are also dynamically created on the string worldsheet. The quark and antiquark are thus causally disconnected, and the string transitions to two straight strings. The forces acting on the endpoints vanish with a power law whose slope depends on the perturbations. The condition for this transition to occur is that energy injection exceeds the static energy between the quark-antiquark pair.

  18. Some Global Aspects of Duality is String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Barbón, José L F; Lozano, Y

    1994-01-01

    We explore some of the global aspects of duality transformations in String Theory and Field Theory. We analyze in some detail the equivalence of dual models corresponding to different topologies at the level of the partition function and in terms of the operator correspondence for abelian duality. We analyze the behavior of the cosmological constant under these transformations. We also explore several examples of non-abelian duality where the classical background interpretation can be maintained for the original and the dual theories. In particular we construct a non-abelian dual of $SL(2,R)$ which turns out to be a three-dimensional black hole

  19. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  20. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (2/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  1. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  2. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  3. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (5/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  4. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  5. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  6. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  7. Proceedings of the 14. Claude Itzykson Meeting-2009 recent advances in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, O.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Becker, K.; Berkovits, N.; Bern, Z.; De Boer, J.; Emparan, R.; Green, M.; Hartnoll, S.; Heckman, J.; Kachru, S.; Lambert, N.; Louis, J.; Marino, M.; Mathur, S.; McAllister, L.; McGreevy, J.; Polchinski, J.; Sen, A.; Weigand, T.

    2009-01-01

    This document is made up of the slides of the presentations. The titles of the 20 presentations are the following: 1) On d=3 Yang-Mills Chern-Simons theories with 'fractional branes' and their gravity duals; 2) Holography and the S-Matrix; 3) Torsional heterotic geometries; 4) Spin chains from the topological AdS 5 xS 5 string; 5) Harmony of Scattering Amplitudes: from N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory to N=8 Supergravity; 6) Quantum aspects of black holes; 7) Black-folds; 8) Supersymmetric String and Field Theory Scattering Amplitudes; 9) Quantum bosons for holographic superconductors; 10) The Point of E8 in F-theory GUTs; 11) Gauge/gravity duality and particle physics; 12) Coupling M2-branes to Background Fields; 13) Compactifications and Generalized Geometries; 14) Nonperturbative aspects of the topological string; 15) Lessons from the information paradox: 16) Inflation in String Theory; 17) Holographic descriptions of quantum liquids; 18) Holography from CFT; 19) Black hole hair removal; and 20) Type IIB GUT vacua and their F-theory uplift

  8. Remarks on entanglement entropy in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Parrikar, Onkar

    2018-03-01

    Entanglement entropy for spatial subregions is difficult to define in string theory because of the extended nature of strings. Here we propose a definition for bosonic open strings using the framework of string field theory. The key difference (compared to ordinary quantum field theory) is that the subregion is chosen inside a Cauchy surface in the "space of open string configurations." We first present a simple calculation of this entanglement entropy in free light-cone string field theory, ignoring subtleties related to the factorization of the Hilbert space. We reproduce the answer expected from an effective field theory point of view, namely a sum over the one-loop entanglement entropies corresponding to all the particle-excitations of the string, and further show that the full string theory regulates ultraviolet divergences in the entanglement entropy. We then revisit the question of factorization of the Hilbert space by analyzing the covariant phase-space associated with a subregion in Witten's covariant string field theory. We show that the pure gauge (i.e., BRST exact) modes in the string field become dynamical at the entanglement cut. Thus, a proper definition of the entropy must involve an extended Hilbert space, with new stringy edge modes localized at the entanglement cut.

  9. Matrix strings in weakly curved background fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiappa, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    We investigate further the recent proposal for the form of the Matrix theory action in weak background fields. We perform DVV reduction to the multiple D0-brane action in order to find the Matrix string theory action for multiple fundamental strings in curved but weak NSNS and RR backgrounds. This matrix sigma model gives a definite prescription on how to deal with RR fields with an explicit spacetime dependence in Type II string theory. We do this both via the 9-11 flip and the chain of T and S dualities, and further check on their equivalence explicitly. In order to do so, we also discuss the implementation of S-duality in the operators of the 2-dimensional worldvolume supersymmetric gauge theory describing the Type IIB D-string. We compare the result to the known Green-Schwarz sigma model action (for one string), and use this comparison in order to discuss about possible, non-linear background curvature corrections to the Matrix string action (involving many strings), and therefore to the Matrix theory action. We illustrate the nonabelian character of our action with an example involving multiple fundamental strings in a nontrivial RR flux, where the strings are polarized into a noncommutative configuration. This corresponds to a dielectric type of effect on fundamental strings

  10. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  11. On noncommutative open string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, J.G.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate new compactifications of OM theory giving rise to a 3+1 dimensional open string theory with noncommutative x 0 -x 1 and x 2 -x 3 coordinates. The theory can be directly obtained by starting with a D3 brane with parallel (near critical) electric and magnetic field components, in the presence of a RR scalar field. The magnetic parameter permits to interpolate continuously between the x 0 -x 1 noncommutative open string theory and the x 2 -x 3 spatial noncommutative U(N) super Yang-Mills theory. We discuss SL(2, Z) transformations of this theory. Using the supergravity description of the large N limit, we also compute corrections to the quark-antiquark Coulomb potential arising in the NCOS theory. (author)

  12. Electric drill-string telemetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, J M

    2003-01-01

    We design a numerical algorithm for simulation of low-frequency electric-signal transmission through a drill string. This is represented by a transmission line with varying geometrical and electromagnetic properties versus depth, depending on the characteristics of the drill-string/formation system. These properties are implicitly modeled by the series impedance and the shunt admittance of the transmission line. The differential equations are parabolic, since at low frequencies the wave field is diffusive. We use an explicit scheme for the solution of parabolic problems, based on a Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator and the Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. The results are verified by comparison to analytical solutions obtained for the initial-value problem with a voltage source.

  13. Wrapping rules (in) string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we show that the number of all 1/2-BPS branes in string theory compactified on a torus can be derived by universal wrapping rules whose formulation we present. These rules even apply to branes in less than ten dimensions whose ten-dimensional origin is an exotic brane. In that case the wrapping rules contain an additional combinatorial factor that is related to the highest dimension in which the ten-dimensional exotic brane, after compactification, can be realized as a standard brane. We show that the wrapping rules also apply to cases with less supersymmetry. As a specific example, we discuss the compactification of IIA/IIB string theory on ( T 4/ ℤ 2) × T n .

  14. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    , including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language......We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision....

  15. LHC magnet string in 1994

    CERN Multimedia

    1994-01-01

    On 6-7 December 1994, a string of powerful superconducting magnets for CERN's next particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), ran successfully at 8.36 tesla for 24 hours. This magnetic field is 100 000 times that of the Earth and is required to keep beams of protons travelling on the correct circular path over 27 km at 7 TeV in the new LHC accelerator.

  16. Algebras, lattices and strings 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation of the string theory of unified elementary particle interactions in terms of operators in a Fock space is now seen to relate to the representation theory of certain infinite dimensional algebras. This insight has enhanced the understanding of the physical and mathematical theories involved and furthermore has led to applications in other branches of theoretical physics. A brief account of the new results is given here. (orig.)

  17. Acoustical properties of drill strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The recovery of petrochemical and geothermal resources requires extensive drilling of wells to increasingly greater depths. Real-time collection and telemetry of data about the drilling process while it occurs thousands of feet below the surface is an effective way of improving the efficiency of drilling operations. Unfortunately, due to hostile down-hole environments, telemetry of this data is an extremely difficult problem. Currently, commercial systems transmit data to the surface by producing pressure pulses within the portion of the drilling mud enclosed in the hollow steel drill string. Transmission rates are between two and four data bits per second. Any system capable of raising data rates without increasing the complexity of the drilling process will have significant economic impact. One alternative system is based upon acoustical carrier waves generated within the drill string itself. If developed, this method would accommodate data rates up to 100 bits per second. Unfortunately, the drill string is a periodic structure of pipe and threaded tool joints, the transmission characteristics are very complex and exhibit a banded and dispersive structure. Over the past forty years, attempts to field systems based upon this transmission method have resulted in little success. This paper examines this acoustical transmission problem in great detail. The basic principles of acoustic wave propagation in the periodic structure of the drill string are examined through theory, laboratory experiment, and field test. The results indicate the existence of frequency bands which are virtually free of attenuation and suitable for data transmission at high bit rates. 9 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bosonization methods in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.

    1988-02-01

    The use of bosonization/fermionization techniques to convert non-linear operators of the dual, is discussed. Non abelian bosonization to the case where the central charge of the Kac-Moody algebra is not unity, is generalized. In particular, using this generalization of non-abelian bosonization, the bosonic string vertex of the compactified theory; turns out to be fundamental field of thre fermionic theory, or bound states of it thus permiting explicit computations easily. (author) [pt

  19. Apparatus and method for vibrating a casing string during cementing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.E.; Rankin, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cementing a string of casing in a well. It comprises: securing a vibrating device into the string of casing near the lower end of the string of casing; lowering the string of casing into the well to the desired depth; pumping a cement slurry down the string of casing; causing a portion of the cement slurry being pumped down the string of casing to vibrate the vibrating device; and wherein the vibrating device is secured in the string of casing by cementing the vibrating device within a sub, then securing the sub into the string of casing prior to lowering the string of casing into the well

  20. Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Marco [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter {alpha}, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in {alpha}, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q{sub s}un {approx_equal} 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M{sub s}un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)

  1. Cosmological Consequences of String Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, Ben

    2005-12-15

    Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.

  2. A different kind of string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco; Pellegrini, Roberto; Vadacchino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov’s solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c=1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU(N) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.

  3. Braiding knots with topological strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jie

    2015-08-01

    For an arbitrary knot in a three-sphere, the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture associates to it a unique stack of branes in type A topological string on the resolved conifold, and relates the colored HOMFLY invariants of the knot to the free energies on the branes. For torus knots, we use a modified version of the topological recursion developed by Eynard and Orantin to compute the free energies on the branes from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of the branes, and find they are consistent with the known colored HOMFLY knot invariants a la the Ooguri-Vafa conjecture. In addition our modified topological recursion can reproduce the correct closed string free energies, which encode the information of the background geometry. We conjecture the modified topological recursion is applicable for branes associated to hyperbolic knots as well, encouraged by the observation that the modified topological recursion yields the correct planar closed string free energy from the Aganagic-Vafa spectral curves of hyperbolic knots. This has implications for the knot theory concerning distinguishing mutant knots with colored HOMFLY invariants. Furthermore, for hyperbolic knots, we present methods to compute colored HOMFLY invariants in nonsymmetric representations of U(N). The key step in this computation is computing quantum 6j-symbols in the quantum group U q (sl N ).

  4. A different kind of string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco; Pellegrini, Roberto; Vadacchino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov's solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c = 1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU( N ) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.

  5. A different kind of string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Panero, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Instituto de Física Téorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pellegrini, Roberto [Physics Department, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Vadacchino, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Torino and INFN - Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-20

    In U(1) lattice gauge theory in three spacetime dimensions, the problem of confinement can be studied analytically in a semi-classical approach, in terms of a gas of monopoles with Coulomb-like interactions. In addition, this theory can be mapped to a spin model via an exact duality transformation, which allows one to perform high-precision numerical studies of the confining potential. Taking advantage of these properties, we carried out an accurate investigation of the effective string describing the low-energy properties of flux tubes in this confining gauge theory. We found striking deviations from the expected Nambu-Goto-like behavior, and, for the first time, evidence for contributions that can be described by a term proportional to the extrinsic curvature of the effective string worldsheet. Such term is allowed by Lorentz invariance, and its presence in the infrared regime of the U(1) model was indeed predicted by Polyakov several years ago. Our results show that this term scales as expected according to Polyakov’s solution, and becomes the dominant contribution to the effective string action in the continuum limit. We also demonstrate analytically that the corrections to the confining potential induced by the extrinsic curvature term can be related to the partition function of the massive perturbation of a c=1 bosonic conformal field theory. The implications of our results for SU(N) Yang-Mills theories in three and in four spacetime dimensions are discussed.

  6. Resumming the string perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Alba; Mariño, Marcos; Zakany, Szabolcs [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève, Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-07

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that, in these examples, Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, due to non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local ℙ{sup 1}×ℙ{sup 1}, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.

  7. Informing New String Programmes: Lessons Learned from an Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Fintan; Rickard, Nikki; Gill, Anneliese; Grimmett, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many examples of notable string programmes there has been relatively little comparative analysis of these programmes. This paper examines three benchmark string programmes (The University of Illinois String Project, The Tower Hamlets String Teaching Project and Colourstrings) alongside Music4All, an innovative string programme…

  8. A novel string field theory solving string theory by liberating left and right movers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2014-01-01

    We put forward ideas to a novel string field theory based on making some “objects” that essentially describe “liberated” left- and right- mover fields X L μ (τ+σ) and X R μ (τ−σ) on the string. Our novel string field theory is completely definitely different from any other string theory in as far as a “null set” of information in the string field theory Fock space has been removed relatively, to the usual string field theories. So our theory is definitely new. The main progress is that we manage to make our novel string field theory provide the correct mass square spectrum for the string. We finally suggest how to obtain the Veneziano amplitude in our model

  9. Micro string resonators as temperature sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Schmid, S.; Boisen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The resonance frequency of strings is highly sensitive to temperature. In this work we have investigated the applicability of micro string resonators as temperature sensors. The resonance frequency of strings is a function of the tensile stress which is coupled to temperature by the thermal...... to the low thermal mass of the strings. A temperature resolution of 2.5×10-4 °C has been achieved with silicon nitride strings. The theoretical limit for the temperature resolution of 8×10-8 °C has not been reached yet and requires further improvement of the sensor....... expansion of the string and the frame clamping it. The sensitivity improves when the length and pre-stress are reduced and the difference in thermal expansion, Young's modulus and resonant mode are increased. At low tensile stress, the sensitivity becomes highly dependent on temperature. The investigation...

  10. Primordial black hole evaporation and spontaneous dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    Several different approaches to quantum gravity suggest the effective dimension of spacetime reduces from four to two near the Planck scale. In light of such evidence, this Letter re-examines the thermodynamics of primordial black holes (PBHs) in specific lower-dimensional gravitational models. Unlike in four dimensions, (1+1)-D black holes radiate with power P˜MBH2, while it is known no (2+1)-D (BTZ) black holes can exist in a non-anti-de Sitter universe. This has important relevance to the PBH population size and distribution, and consequently on cosmological evolution scenarios. The number of PBHs that have evaporated to present day is estimated, assuming they account for all dark matter. Entropy conservation during dimensional transition imposes additional constraints. If the cosmological constant is non-negative, no black holes can exist in the (2+1)-dimensional epoch, and consequently a (1+1)-dimensional black hole will evolve to become a new type of remnant. Although these results are conjectural and likely model-dependent, they open new questions about the viability of PBHs as dark matter candidates.

  11. Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Elena Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.

  12. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints.

  13. String and M-theory cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    In these lectures we review recent advances in string cosmology. Starting with the Dilaton-Moduli Cosmology (known also as the Pre Big Bang), we go on to include the effects of axion fields and address the thorny issue of the Graceful Exit in String Cosmology. This is followed by a review of density perturbations arising in string cosmology and we finish with a brief introduction to the impact moving of five branes on the Dilaton-Moduli cosmological solutions

  14. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  15. Time dependent viscous string cloud cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S. K.; Nayak, S. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Routray, T. R.

    2009-09-01

    Bianchi type-I string cosmological models are studied in Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation when the source for the energy momentum tensor is a viscous string cloud coupled to gravitational field. The bulk viscosity is assumed to vary with time and is related to the scalar expansion. The relationship between the proper energy density ρ and string tension density λ are investigated from two different cosmological models.

  16. Quantum corrections to the string Bethe ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, R; Hernandez, Rafael; Lopez, Esperanza

    2006-01-01

    One-loop corrections to the energy of semiclassical rotating strings contain both analytic and non-analytic terms in the 't Hooft coupling. Analytic contributions agree with the prediction from the string Bethe ansatz based on the classical S-matrix, but in order to include non-analytic contributions quantum corrections are required. We find a general expression for the first quantum correction to the string Bethe ansatz.

  17. Parameterized String Matching Algorithms with Application to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the parameterized string matching problem, a given pattern P is said to match with a sub-string t of the text T, if there exist a bijection from the symbols of P to the symbols of t. Salmela and Tarhio solve the parameterized string matching problem in sub-linear time by applying the concept of q-gram in the Horspool algorithm ...

  18. p-adic string theories provide lattice Discretization to the ordinary string worldsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Debashis

    2006-10-13

    A class of models called p-adic strings is useful in understanding the tachyonic instability of string theory. These are found to be empirically related to the ordinary strings in the p-->1 limit. We propose that these models provide discretization for the string worldsheet and argue that the limit is naturally thought of as a continuum limit in the sense of the renormalization group.

  19. Matrix string models for exact (2,2) string theories in RR backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, Giulio E-mail: gbonelli@ulb.ac.be

    2003-01-20

    We formulate matrix string models on a class of exact string backgrounds with non-constant RR-flux parameterized by a holomorphic prepotential function and with manifest (2,2) supersymmetry. This lifts these string theories to M-theory exposing the non-perturbative string interaction which is studied by generalizing the instanton asymptotic expansion, well established in the flat background case, to this more general case. We obtain also a companion matrix model with four manifest supersymmetries in eleven dimensions.

  20. Entropy of the Kerr–Sen black hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the entropy of Kerr–Sen black hole of heterotic string theory beyond semiclassical approximations. Applying the properties of exact differentials for three variables to the first law of thermodynamics, we derive the corrections to the entropy of the black hole. The leading (logarithmic) and non-leading corrections to ...