WorldWideScience

Sample records for btu meters

  1. Nonintrusive ultrasonic flow measurement techniques and their applications to BTU metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, S. H.; Karvelas, D. E.; Raptis, A. C.

    1987-04-01

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art ultrasonic flow measurement techniques and assesses their potential application to BTU metering for District Heating and Cooling (DHC). The assessed techniques include Doppler, transit-time, and cross-correlation ultrasonic flowmeters which are currently available on the market. A novel modification of the flow instruments to include temperature measurement is also discussed. The modified flowmeter provides a direct measurement of heat content in hot water flow, thus, it allows one to meter the BTU consumption of a DHC system.

  2. High-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Baker, N.R.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    This evaluation provides estimates of performance and cost data for advanced technology, high-Btu, coal gasification facilities. The six processes discussed reflect the current state-of-the-art development. Because no large commercial gasification plants have yet been built in the United States, the information presented here is based only on pilot-plant experience. Performance characteristics that were investigated include unit efficiencies, product output, and pollution aspects. Total installed plant costs and operating costs are tabulated for the various processes. The information supplied here will assist in selecting energy conversion units for an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES).

  3. Morgantown low-Btu gasifier simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    This project's overall purpose is to develop a Morgantown low-Btu gasifier system simulation program. The gasifier system consists of a moving bed gasifier and a gas clean-up system, and the present report concerns steady-state simulation of the gasifier. Since the gasifier output controls the performance of the gas clean-up system, it is necessary to investigate the effects of steam/coal and oxygen/coal ratios and of feed temperature on the gasifier output. Simulation of the gasifier performance, therefore, was undertaken to gain quantitative understanding of these effects. This gasifier simulation program will be coupled with a gas clean-up system simulation program now under development. Simulation of the entire gasifier system will serve as a guideline in planning experiments to enable its optimum overall operation.

  4. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  5. Technology characterization: high Btu gas transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    A technology characterization for high Btu gas transmission was prepared. The scope of work was confined to a literature review. The work was divided into four specific areas as follows: (1) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental report of the Great Lakes Gas Company for a 365-mile high pressure pipeline serving American Natural Gas Company's proposed lignite gasification plant in North Dakota; (2) statistical information concerning the operation of the existing United States natural gas transmission pipeline network; (3) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental impact statement of the United States Department of Interior for the proposed 1,619-mile Northern Border Pipeline from Morgan, Montana to Delmont, Pennsylvania; and (4) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental impact statement of the Federal Power Commission for a proposed El Paso Natural Gas Company 418-mile pipeline within the State of Texas which was to be constructed in response to the displacement of natural gas by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) importation on the East Coast.

  6. Low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    Coal gasifiers, for the production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gases, come in a wide variety of designs and capacities. For single gasifier vessels gas energy production rates range from about 1 to 18 billion Btu/day. The key characteristics of gasifiers that would be of importance for their application as an energy source in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated here. The types of gasifiers considered here are single- and two-stage, fixed-bed units; fluidized-bed units; and entrained-bed units, as producers of both low-Btu (less than 200 Btu/SCF and medium-Btu (200 to 400 Btu/SCF) gases. The gasifiers are discussed with respect to maximum and minimum capacity, the effect of feed coal parameters, product characteristics, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, reliability, and cost. Some of the most recent development work in this area of coal conversion, and use of these gas products also is considered. Except in small plant installations (< 10/sup 9/ Btu/day) the annual operating costs for the various gasifier types are approximately the same. This is somewhat surprising in view of the personnel requirements, efficiencies, utility requirements, heating value of the product gas, and operating characteristics associated with each. Operating costs tend to increase with a power function exponent of 0.92 (i.e., a doubling in plant capacity increases the operating cost by about 1.9).

  7. BTU convergence spawning gas market opportunities in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called BTU convergence of US electric power and natural gas sectors is spawning a boom in market opportunities in the US Northeast that ensures the region will be North America's fastest growing gas market. That's the view of Catherine Good Abbott, CEO of Columbia Gas Transmission Corp., who told a Ziff Energy conference in Calgary that US Northeast gas demand is expected to increase to almost 10 bcfd in 2000 and more than 12 bcfd in 2010 from about 8 bcfd in 1995 and only 3 bcfd in 1985. The fastest growth will be in the US Northeast's electrical sector, where demand for gas is expected to double to 4 bcfd in 2010 from about 2 bcfd in 1995. In other presentations at the Ziff Energy conference, speakers voiced concerns about the complexity and speed of the BTU convergence phenomenon and offered assurances about the adequacy of gas supplies in North American to meet demand growth propelled by the BTU convergence boom. The paper discusses the gas demand being driven by power utilities, the BTU convergence outlook, electric power demand, Canadian production and supply, and the US overview

  8. Saturation meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  9. Capacitance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  10. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  11. The Escherichia coli BtuE protein functions as a resistance determinant against reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A Arenas

    Full Text Available This work shows that the recently described Escherichia coli BtuE peroxidase protects the bacterium against oxidative stress that is generated by tellurite and by other reactive oxygen species elicitors (ROS. Cells lacking btuE (ΔbtuE displayed higher sensitivity to K(2TeO(3 and other oxidative stress-generating agents than did the isogenic, parental, wild-type strain. They also exhibited increased levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, oxidized proteins, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipoperoxides. E. coli ΔbtuE that was exposed to tellurite or H(2O(2 did not show growth changes relative to wild type cells either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the elimination of btuE from cells deficient in catalases/peroxidases (Hpx(- resulted in impaired growth and resistance to these toxicants only in aerobic conditions, suggesting that BtuE is involved in the defense against oxidative damage. Genetic complementation of E. coli ΔbtuE restored toxicant resistance to levels exhibited by the wild type strain. As expected, btuE overexpression resulted in decreased amounts of oxidative damage products as well as in lower transcriptional levels of the oxidative stress-induced genes ibpA, soxS and katG.

  12. Repression of btuB gene transcription in Escherichia coli by the GadX protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Wensi S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BtuB (B twelve uptake is an outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli, it serves as a receptor for cobalamines uptake or bactericidal toxin entry. A decrease in the production of the BtuB protein would cause E. coli to become resistant to colicins. The production of BtuB has been shown to be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. The secondary structure switch of 5' untranslated region of butB and the intracellular concentration of adenosylcobalamin (Ado-Cbl would affect the translation efficiency and RNA stability of btuB. The transcriptional regulation of btuB expression is still unclear. Results To determine whether the btuB gene is also transcriptionally controlled by trans-acting factors, a genomic library was screened for clones that enable E. coli to grow in the presence of colicin E7, and a plasmid carrying gadX and gadY genes was isolated. The lacZ reporter gene assay revealed that these two genes decreased the btuB promoter activity by approximately 50%, and the production of the BtuB protein was reduced by approximately 90% in the presence of a plasmid carrying both gadX and gadY genes in E. coli as determined by Western blotting. Results of electrophoretic mobility assay and DNase I footprinting indicated that the GadX protein binds to the 5' untranslated region of the btuB gene. Since gadX and gadY genes are more highly expressed under acidic conditions, the transcriptional level of btuB in cells cultured in pH 7.4 or pH 5.5 medium was examined by quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the effect of GadX. The results showed the transcription of gadX with 1.4-fold increase but the level of btuB was reduced to 57%. Conclusions Through biological and biochemical analysis, we have demonstrated the GadX can directly interact with btuB promoter and affect the expression of btuB. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that the expression of btuB gene is transcriptionally repressed by the acid

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of the transmembrane subunit of BtuCD in the lipid bilayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the crystal structure of the vitamin B12 transporter protein of Escherichia coli(BtuCD) a system consisting of the BtuCD transmembrane domain(BtuC) and the palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine(POPC) lipid bilayer was constructed in silica,and a more-than-57-nanosecond molecular dynamics(MD) simulation was performed on it to reveal the intrinsic functional motions of BtuC.The results showed that a stable protein-lipid bilayer was obtained and the POPC lipid bilayer was able to adjust its thickness to match the embedded BtuC which underwent relatively complicated motions.These results may help to understand the mechanism of transmembrane substrate transport at the atomic level.

  14. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  15. Smart Meter and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ATİÇ, Serdal; Parlakyıldız, Şakir; İlcihan, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are developed measurement devices that provide much more information to the consumers and that provide the intervention opportunity compared to the conventional energy meters. A smart meter design is dependent on the requirements of the electricity distribution company and the customers. In this study, various features and technologies that can be integrated with the smart meters are explained. Summary information on various problems that can be encountered including design of sm...

  16. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  17. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  18. Integrated metering products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last 10 years the U.K. in particular has become increasingly interested in the introduction of solid state products within the metering market. Whilst this trend has not been seen in the rest of Europe, the U.K. market has made great strides within the domestic single phase metering area. Of course polyphase precision meters have been with us for many years although it must be stated that the high manufacturing cost of these products have not made them attractive for general use. Today, the solid state domestic meter makes up some 40% of the total U.K. market and it is anticipated that this growth will continue for many years to come. Indeed some electricity companies will now only purchase solid state domestic metering products. It is clear that the major benefits which accrue from solid state metering and in particular from integrated metering products ensure that the trend outlined will continue. The two major benefits which are worth considering are cost and additional functionality. (author)

  19. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems...

  20. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  1. Computer Interfaced Gauss Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Steven; Lai, Alan; Dao, Christine; Hung Vu, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Goal: Gauss Meter Model X01.  Gauss meter model X01 is the hand-held device designed to meet the needs of magnetic industry to measure magnetic fields accurately, provided high-end functionality and performance in an affordable laptop instrument. Magnet testing and sorting have never been easier. Additional features including calculating magnetic field intensity versus time and displaying magnetic field direction on a Graphical User Interface on Computer.  Introduction/Background:  Magnetic f...

  2. BURNER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL FROM LOW-BTU GAS COMBUSTION: VOLUME II. ELEVATED FUEL TEMPERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a program to provide quantitative data on combustion emissions from high-temperature low-Btu gas. It complements a recently completed EPA project that evaluated emissions resulting from the burning of ambient-temperature low-Btu gas. The experimental r...

  3. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  4. Metering electricity usage in Bill Gates' mansion: automatic meter reading system gives better visibility on energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chari, K.

    2002-01-01

    The electric power consumption measurement system installed in Bill Gates' newly-built 45,000 sq.ft. residence on Lake Washington, near Seattle, is described. The 'out-of-this-world' system involved work by over 100 electricians, requiring many miles of communication cable, largely fibre-optic, to connect computer services throughout the structure. The system has no visible electrical outlets and is full of futuristic electronic gadgetry, outfitted with sophisticated computerized automated systems to monitor, control and report on everything from opening the gate to authorized individuals, through setting the preferred room temperature, visual art, television programs and movies, to the temperature of the swimming pool. All floors, driveways, and walkways are heated. Automated security systems and hidden cameras cover every inch of the grounds and the 10-car subterranean garage can be transformed into a basketball court by electronic means. The electricity bill is about $30,000 per month, commensurate with the unique and complex demands for energy. The submetering hardware consist of a multiple meter unit (MMU-12) housing eight E-MON D-MON sub-meters and a single I-MON computer interface module that digitizes the sub-metered electrical readings for use by the CE-MON Windows-compatible AMR software. The system is capable of accepting an unlimited number of meters and could be expanded to accept inputs from water, gas, BTU and other pulse-output devices. 2 figs.

  5. Low-Btu gasifer emissions toxicology status report, December 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J M [ed.

    1982-03-01

    The goal is to assess inhalation hazards to plant workers and the general population that may be associated with low Btu coal gasification. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to characterize the potential toxicants in liquid and solid process and waste streams. To these ends, the experimental low Btu gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been sampled to determine aerosol components in gaseous process streams and to assess potential toxicants in liquid and solid effluent streams. The most recent sampling efforts were in September 1980 and June 1981. This report concentrates on results obtained from December 1, 1980 to June 1, 1981 and does not include results of the June 1981 sampling trip.

  6. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  7. BURNER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL FROM LOW-BTU GAS COMBUSTION. VOLUME I. AMBIENT FUEL TEMPERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a research program initiated to characterize problems associated with retrofitting existing utility boilers with low- and medium-Btu gases produced using commercially available coal conversion processes. All experimental results were gathered from a pi...

  8. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  9. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  10. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Hoenkamp; G.B. Huitema

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental co

  11. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  12. Direct reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  13. Domain based metering

    OpenAIRE

    Párhonyi, Robert; Beijnum, van, Bert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the last two years, there is a gaining interest in usage based accounting for the Internet. One of the driving forces for this growing interest is the progress being made in providing some form of quality assurance in IP packet forwarding. One of the key processes in an accounting system is metering, gathering of network usage parameters on which the accounting is or can be based. In this paper are addressed issues that are potentially of interest in Internet accounting. One of these issue...

  14. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  15. A kissing loop is important for btuB riboswitch ligand sensing and regulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Antony; Bastet, Laurène; Chauvier, Adrien; Lafontaine, Daniel A

    2015-10-30

    RNA-based genetic regulation is exemplified by metabolite-binding riboswitches that modulate gene expression through conformational changes. Crystal structures show that the Escherichia coli btuB riboswitch contains a kissing loop interaction that is in close proximity to the bound ligand. To analyze the role of the kissing loop interaction in the riboswitch regulatory mechanism, we used RNase H cleavage assays to probe the structure of nascent riboswitch transcripts produced by the E. coli RNA polymerase. By monitoring the folding of the aptamer, kissing loop, and riboswitch expression platform, we established the conformation of each structural component in the absence or presence of bound adenosylcobalamin. We found that the kissing loop interaction is not essential for ligand binding. However, we showed that kissing loop formation improves ligand binding efficiency and is required to couple ligand binding to the riboswitch conformational changes involved in regulating gene expression. These results support a mechanism by which the btuB riboswitch modulates the formation of a tertiary structure to perform metabolite sensing and regulate gene expression. PMID:26370077

  16. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  17. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  18. Revenue Recovery Through Meter Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Devan J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have identified water meter inaccuracy at low flow rates as a significant source of non-revenue flow for water systems; however a lack of available data makes it difficult to include low flow accuracy degradation in meter replacement plans. This thesis examines results from an extensive accuracy test program carried out at the Utah Water Research Laboratory on small water meters over a wide range of flow rates and at various levels of throughput. The study compares expected a...

  19. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  20. A more intelligent meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1996-09-01

    A utility systems analyst viewing a multicolor graph on a computer screen sees something awry in a customer`s home. The furnace is running in the midst of summer. The customer is notified and finds the problem, an air conditioner vent blowing on a thermostat. Next the analyst finds a refrigerator using excessive amounts of electricity. This time it was a leaky gasket and clogged heat exchanger fins. Later a flooded basement is avoided by discovering a faulty sump pump. The analyst was using the Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS). As the name implies, NIALMS allows utilities to learn more about where and when customers use electrical power and how much without entering their homes to install monitoring devices on each appliance. It was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with assistance from Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp., New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Consolidated Edison Co. and Rochester Gas & Electric Co. The meter is described.

  1. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  2. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  3. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  4. Economic Evaluation of Multiphase Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI; Joseph. A. AJIENKA

    2007-01-01

    When operators must decide between a traditional approach to the production facilities and one including multiphase flow meters (MPFM), they must compare the capital and operating expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) of each solution. In order to achieve this, CAPEX and OPEX for the same brand of test separator and multiphase flow meter were obtained.A deterministic economic model was developed for evaluating the economics of MPFM and Test Separators. Two cases were considered. Case A considered whe...

  5. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  6. Field proving liquid ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Bernardo de Castro [Emerson Process Management, Houston, TX (United States). Daniel Measurement and Control Division

    2009-07-01

    Field proving liquid ultrasonic flowmeters is not a straightforward task since these meters are designed for large volumes and flowrates transfers and provers capacities are limited. Some techniques to overcome these issues are provided on API MPMS. Pulse interpolation, master metering, a large number of proving runs are some of these techniques. This works intents to present these procedures and practices in order to give the operators a briefly view of the techniques which will lead to better proving results. (author)

  7. Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of SRC, AFBC, and low-Btu coal gasification in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.A.; Brown, C.D.; Hamilton, R.W.; Habegger, L.J.

    1978-10-01

    The decreasing availability of oil and natural gas has stimulated the search for industrial coal-utilization methods that are alternatives to conventional coal combustion. Three such alternative methods discussed in this report are solvent refined coal (SRC-I), atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), and low-Btu coal gasification. Clean low-Btu gas and SRC may have several nonboiler industrial applications. In contrast to conventional coal combustion, use of these fuels has the potential for reduced environmental impact at the industrial plant site, although the impact of coal mining and transportation will be higher. The impact of coal gasification and liquefaction on occupational health and safety will cause the greatest concern.

  8. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  9. Transmembrane gate movements in the type II ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importer BtuCD-F during nucleotide cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Benesh; Jeschke, Gunnar; Goetz, Birke A; Locher, Kaspar P; Bordignon, Enrica

    2011-11-25

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that translocate substrates across cell membranes. The alternating access of their transmembrane domains to opposite sides of the membrane powered by the closure and reopening of the nucleotide binding domains is proposed to drive the translocation events. Despite clear structural similarities, evidence for considerable mechanistic diversity starts to accumulate within the importers subfamily. We present here a detailed study of the gating mechanism of a type II ABC importer, the BtuCD-F vitamin B(12) importer from Escherichia coli, elucidated by EPR spectroscopy. Distance changes at key positions in the translocation gates in the nucleotide-free, ATP- and ADP-bound conformations of the transporter were measured in detergent micelles and liposomes. The translocation gates of the BtuCD-F complex undergo conformational changes in line with a "two-state" alternating access model. We provide the first direct evidence that binding of ATP drives the gates to an inward-facing conformation, in contrast to type I importers specific for maltose, molybdate, or methionine. Following ATP hydrolysis, the translocation gates restore to an apo-like conformation. In the presence of ATP, an excess of vitamin B(12) promotes the reopening of the gates toward the periplasm and the dislodgment of BtuF from the transporter. The EPR data allow a productive translocation cycle of the vitamin B(12) transporter to be modeled.

  10. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  11. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results will be...

  12. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  13. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  14. Direct-reading inductance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  15. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. A color sensor wavelength meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  17. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  18. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  19. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... challenge specification to spur the development of new, low cost wireless electric metering devices. In... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wireless Metering Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... (EERE) requests comments on the draft version of the Wireless Power Meter Challenge Specification....

  20. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

  1. Microfabricated BTU monitoring device for system-wide natural gas monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2005-11-01

    The natural gas industry seeks inexpensive sensors and instrumentation to rapidly measure gas heating value in widely distributed locations. For gas pipelines, this will improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and will expedite accurate financial accounting. Industrial endusers will benefit through continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a natural gas heating value monitoring instrument using existing and modified microfabricated components. The instrument consists of a silicon micro-fabricated gas chromatography column in conjunction with a catalytic micro-calorimeter sensor. A reference thermal conductivity sensor provides diagnostics and surety. This combination allows for continuous calorimetric determination with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This system will find application at remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. Microfabrication techniques will allow the analytical components to be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost.

  2. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  3. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  4. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  5. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  6. Mass Flow Meter Analysis for Reliable Measuring

    OpenAIRE

    Kupanovac, Tihomir; Špoljarić, Željko; Valter, Zdravko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how to analyze and correctly chose measuring device specially applied on mass flow meter based on Coriolis principle. In the beginning short description of Coriolis based mass flow meter is given. Furthermore, comparison analysis of two flow meters shows where are the problems of wrongly applied method in slurry fluid measurement in production of powder detergents plant. Analysis is made using RS Logix 500 program. In given diagrams which show causes of wrong ...

  7. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  8. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  9. Comparison of Selected Differential Producing, Ultrasonic, and Magnetic Flow Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Prettyman, Johnny B.

    2014-01-01

    Flow meters are used to measure flow accurately. There are many different flow meters and it is necessary to know which will function best for specific situations. A wide variety of flow meters were selected for the study to assist in showing that each flow meter has its tradeoffs. The selected meters include: three types of Venturi meters, a wedge meter, a V-cone meter, an electromagnetic flow meter, and an ultrasonic flow meter. The characteristics researched in this study are discharge coe...

  10. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  11. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  12. Period meter output during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from an ionization chamber may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury digital computer programme. Details of the programme are given. The type of period meter considered is the one for which the input time constant is determined by the input capacity and the logarithmic element. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is taken of the power dependent time constant associated with the logarithmic element and of the differentiating and integrating time constants in the period meter. The programme may be used by period meter designers to assess the performance of their instruments and may also be used by those carrying out safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  13. 甲型副伤寒沙门菌外膜BtuB蛋白的原核表达、纯化及其免疫保护性%Prokaryotic expression, purification and immune protection of outer membrane protein BtuB of Salmonella paratyphi A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 李娜; 董晓宇; 梁昊宇; 陈翠萍; 陈薇; 曾明

    2012-01-01

    目的 原核表达、纯化甲型副伤寒沙门菌外膜BtuB蛋白,并检测其免疫原性和免疫保护性.方法 采用PCR从甲型副伤寒沙门菌( CMCC 50973)基因组DNA中扩增btuB基因,插入原核表达载体pET-30a中,转化大肠杆菌BL21( DE3),IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组蛋白经分子筛和亲和层析纯化后,免疫BALB/c小鼠,ELISA法检测小鼠血清中抗BtuB IgG抗体效价,并用最小绝对致死剂量活菌攻毒,计算小鼠的保护率.结果 重组原核表达质粒pET-30a-btuB经双酶切和测序证实构建正确;重组蛋白的相对分子质量约为67 000,表达量约为菌体总蛋白的25%,主要以包涵体形式表达;纯化的重组蛋白纯度大于90%,可与鼠抗His-Tag单抗特异性结合;纯化的重组蛋白免疫BALB/c小鼠可获得高效价的抗BtuB IgG抗体,且可获得60%的保护率.结论 成功原核表达并纯化了甲型副伤寒沙门菌外膜BtuB蛋白,重组蛋白免疫原性良好,并能够为小鼠提供一定的保护作用.%Objective To express the outer membrane protein BtuB of Salmonella paratyphi A in prokaryotic cells,purify the expressed product and determine its immunogenicity and immune protection. Methods From the genomic DNA of S. paratyphi A (CMCC 50973),btuB gene was amplified by PCR and inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a. The constructed recom-binant plasmid pET-30a-btuB was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression under induction of IPTG. The expressed recom-binant protein was purified by molecular sieve and affinity chromatography,with which BALB/c mice were immunized and determined for anti-BtuB IgG liter in sera by ELISA,then challenged with live S. paratyphi A at the minimum lethal dose to calculate the protection rate. Results Restriction analysis and sequencing proved that recombinant plasmid pET-30a-btuB was constructed correctly. The expressed recombinant protein,with a relative molecular mass of about 67 000,mainly existed in a form

  14. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  15. Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

    1995-08-01

    Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

  16. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 10000F (427 and 5380C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  17. Water metering in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  18. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  19. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network......Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  20. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  1. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  2. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  3. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  4. Diagnostic flow metering using ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an accurate flow metering without considering the influences of flow control devices such as valves and elbows in closed conduits, velocity distribution in the cross-sectional area must be integrated. However, most flow meters, including multi-path ultrasonic, electromagnetic or Coriolis mass flow meters, require assumptions on the fully-developed turbulent flows to calculate flow rates from physical quantities of their own concern. Therefore, a long straight pipe has been a necessary element for accurate flow metering because the straight pipe can reduce flow disturbances caused by flow control devices. To reduce costs due to the installation of long straight pipes, another flow metering technique is required. For example, flow rates can be estimated by integrating velocity distributions in the cross section of conduits. In the present study, ultrasound tomography was used to find the velocity distribution in the cross-section of a closed conduit where flow was disturbed by a Coriolis mass flow meter or a butterfly valve. A commercial multi-path ultrasonic flow meter was installed in the pipeline to measure the line-averaged velocity distribution in the pipe flow. The ultrasonic flow meter was rotated 180 .deg. at intervals of 10 .deg. to construct line-averaged velocity distributions in Radon space. Flow images were reconstructed by using a backprojection algorithm (inverse Radon transform). Flow diagnostic parameters were defined by calculating statistical moments, i.e., average, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, based on the normalized velocity distribution. The flow diagnostic parameters were applied to flow images to find whether the parameters could discern flow disturbances in the reconstructed velocity distribution

  5. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  6. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Nency Takara; Gualberto Ruas; Bruna Varanda Pessoa; Luciana Kawakami Jamami; Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo; Mauricio Jamami

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value record...

  7. Privacy-Preserving Energy-Reading for Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino, Gianpiero; Martinelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Smart Meters belong to the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and allow customers to monitor locally and remotely the current usage of energy. Providers query Smart Meters for billing purpose or to establish the amount of energy needed by houses. However, reading details sent from smart meters to the energy provider can be used to violate customers? privacy. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold: first, we present an architecture to turn traditional energy meters into Smart Meters, ...

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  9. Computation of flow through Venturi meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattery, J.A.; Reader-Harris, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work on Venturi meters reported in this paper was part of a large project for Shell Exploration and Production to investigate the application of Venturi meters to gas flow measurement. The majority of the experimental findings were reported in 'Unpredicted behaviour of Venturi flowmeters in gas at high Reynolds numbers' presented in the 1996 North Sea Flow Metering Workshop. CFD has been used to model the flow through Venturi tubes and thereby gain understanding of how the discharge coefficient is affected by the vital parameters of diameter ratio, pipe Reynolds number and roughness. It has also been used to calculate the effect of manufacturing tolerance. The discharge coefficients obtained from the calibration of Venturi meters have been used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD results have also been compared with experimental results from the 1950s and 1960s with surprisingly good agreement. This work forms the basis of further possible research using CFD on the effect of upstream and Venturi surface roughness on the performance of these meters. The knowledge gained on the effect of surface roughness may also be applicable to ultrasonic flowmeters. (author)

  10. Improving the operation of the metering section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The metering section of the coal preparation division at OKhMK (Orsk-Khali-lovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) has 18 silos each with volume of 780 tons, situated in two rows. Each silo is equipped with a type LDA-100 automatic metering device, consisting of an electromagnetic vibratory feeder and a scale belt conveyor. At a capacity of the charge supply system of 400-450 ton/hr and operation on a 4-component charge practically all the silos are in operation. The absence of reserve capacity and the impossibility of shutdown of any metering device for maintenance created certain difficulties in maintaining an uninterrupted supply of coal charge to the coking division. Stabilizing the operation of the metering section posed the problem of increasing the capacity of the existing metering devices. For this purpose a number of changes were made in their design. A new reducer was installed on the drive of the scale belt conveyor with a more powerful electric motor; the rotation speed of the drive drum rose to 35-40 rpm (the diameter of the drive drum was also increased from 220 to 272 mm). This, in turn, permitted an increase in the belt speed by a factor of 1.5-2.0 times, without a change in its active length.

  11. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  12. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  13. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung

    2010-06-01

    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  14. Field intercomparisons of electromagnetic current meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guza, R. T.; Clifton, M. C.; Rezvani, F.

    1988-08-01

    In order to assess the performance of current meters within and near the surf zone, data from biaxial electromagnetic current meters with spherical and open frame probe geometries were intercompared. One bottom-mounted flow meter of each type was deployed in a mean depth of 7.0 m for 17 days, and two sensors of each type were deployed in a mean depth of 2.0 m for 5 days. Sensors in the shallow deployment were frequently in the surf zone. Hourly averaged mean flows measured by different sensor types are highly correlated, averaging above 0.98. The largest difference between measured mean flows is a constant bias, typically about 3.0 cm/s, which is roughly equal to the estimated accuracy of the sensor offset calibrations. Root-mean-square deviations from this constant bias are less than 2.0 cm/s, and are contributed to by errors in both gain calibration and sensor orientation. Comparisons of measured (surface gravity wave) oscillatory currents were made both between current meter types and with velocities inferred from the application of linear theory to pressure sensor data. Correlations between time series of UTrms (the rms total oscillatory velocity for a 1-hour record) were all above 0.99 in 7.0-m depth and averaged 0.95 for the shallow deployment. The average UTrms ratio (over all hour-long records) was within 1.0 ±0.07 for all current meter pairs in both deployments, which is consistent with the estimated 5% uncertainties in the flow meter gain calibration. Typical fluctuations of the UTrms ratio of any spherical and open frame sensor pair about its mean ratio, indicative of flow meter gain distortions probably associated with variations in the hydrodynamic environment, were less than 0.04 for any one deployment. Ratios of UTrms from both deployments taken together suggest that the open frame sensor overresponds, relative to the spherical probe, by about 5% at low (about 10.0 cm/s) total (mean + UTrms) speeds, and underresponds by about 5% at higher total

  15. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  16. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias;

    2014-01-01

    multivariable control strategies for SMISMO control of a single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder, when not taking other measures to improve performance. The paper first presents an experimentally verified model of the system considered, from which a linear model is derived. Based on the model......In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  17. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  18. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  19. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  20. A comparative study on the metering accuracy for given installation conditions of metering facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Ha, Young Cheol; Ahn, Seung Hee; Lee, Cheol Gu [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co., (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve metering facilities of Korea Gas Corporation(KOGAS) metering station which are being operated in unfavorable straight pipe length condition (metropolitan area). For experiment, a test facilities was modeled based on Dogsan metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) which has the most unfavorable conditions in metropolitan area. The test facilities was set up in Jungdong metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) supplying natural gas to a power plant and city gas companies. The tests were performed with flowconditioner which was installed in the former straight pipe of a turbine meter and an Orifice meter, and the tests keep going with changing both diameter ratio({beta} = d/D) and flowrate(Q{sub v}). In other words, the tests were performed according to flowrate change for fixed diameter ratio. After the test was completed, the diameter ratio was increased by 0.1 and the same procedures were conducted again. The test was conducted for diameter ratio from 0.3 to 0.7. For Orifice meter, the error showed 0.4 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and 0.8 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. For Turbine meter, the error showed -0.5 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and -0.1 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. 44 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  2. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  3. KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter is intended for rapid analysis of technological samples in shop and works laboratories and for the automatic continuous determination of Ta or Nb concenration in flow technological solutions. The analysis time is less than 30 min, including sample preparation and processing of measurement results. The instrument is bases on absorption jump X-ray analysis

  4. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  5. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  6. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  7. Recent advances in meter proving technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, R. [Flow Calibration Services, Ltd., Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper will address some of the problems that can arise when a Meter Prover generally of the Small Volume Piston (SVP) or Compact type is manufactured in the USA and has to be re-verified in the UK for a fiscal related application. The topics discussed will include the lack of specific instructions in the working standards regarding the actual manufacture of volumetric measures. Consideration will be given to the merits of the Metrology Route to determine the traceability of a SVP as distinct from the Mass Route, which uses the Volumetric Measure as the Primary Transfer Standard. Allied to the problems relating to the establishment of the base volume of the prover, are the problems associated with the determination of the {open_quote}K{close_quote} factor of the flowmeter on test to a high degree of resolution from a low accumulated pulse count. The concept of a Diagnostic Pulse Count system (MDPC) to determine the meter {open_quote}K{close_quote} factor as {open_quote}Volume per Meter Revolution{close_quote} rather than the {open_quote}Pulses per Gallon{close_quote} format is also introduced. The paper will describe some of the major design considerations of the CALMETA - MAURER bi-directional piston prover recently installed on the LPG metering skid on the Ninian Field-N.Sea - UK.

  8. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aravind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  9. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  10. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  11. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  12. Laser displacement meter application for milling diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Oleg; Mori, Kazuo; Kasashima, Nagayoshi

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the application of a laser displacement meter for direct multi-purpose sensing of milling tool conditions. Using a laser displacement meter, a laser beam is projected onto the cutting tool and subsequently reflected. The intensity as well as the angle of the reflected beam are measured. The signals are interpreted for identification of tool geometry, tool whirling, or vibration. Signal processing and analysis depend on the application. A prototype system has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of various applications, namely (1) tool setting evaluation, (2) in-process measurement of milling cutter geometry and detection of tool failure, (3) continuous monitoring of milling cutter deterioration, (4) detection and measurement of chatter in milling, (5) measurement of milling tool bending and (6) thermal expansion.

  13. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  14. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  15. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  16. Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.

  17. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  18. Definition and Verification of Shape Meter Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two experimental methods were adopted to verify the correctness and practicability of the shape meter method: one is to roll aluminum plate, calculate the shape stiffness of mill and rolled piece, and then measure aluminum plate crown to verify shape stiffness equation; the other is to calculate the measured off-line data of hot continuous roll and verify the shape mathematical model for measuring and controlling by self-adaptation method.

  19. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Skidmore, Warren; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G. C; Dickinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most dist...

  20. A study of the Lute Metering Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, James W.

    1992-12-01

    Two Metering Structure configurations were investigated. The first case was the traditional style metering structure which is larger than the outside diameter of the primary mirror. The second case investigated was the center support concept in which the outside diameter of the structure is less than the inside diameter of the primary mirror. Beryllium was used as the baseline material for this study. Four other materials were considered as candidates for the metering structure. These materials are: Graphite Epoxy, Aluminum, Titanium, and Invar. The loading conditions used for this study were estimated to be: Quasi Static: 6.0 G (all three directions); and Random Vibration: 30.0 G (applied 1 axis at a time). Taking advantage of symmetry, it was necessary to apply the lateral loading to only one axis. These loads were applied to both concepts and to all material configurations. The loadings as described above were based on the best available information and is felt to be adequate for this study since it was consistently used for all configurations. A load factor 2.00 was applied to both quasi static and random vibration loads. The allowable stresses are conservatively based yield strength of the material, except for the struts which are controlled by elastic stability. The stresses determined from each individual loading direction were conservatively combined by the absolute sum method.

  1. Effluent metering and liquid gas ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Howell, K. [Intricate Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Industry Measurement Group (IMG) launched a 2 year initiative in 2007 focused on creating technically based regulations to improve the economics on low pressure, low liquid gas plays in western Canada. The IMG is the liaison between the petroleum industry and regulatory agencies in the development of industry accepted standards for measuring activities. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) supported the IMG's initiative, which led to a joint CAPP/IMG review of effluent metering applications and the associated testing requirements for gas wells in British Columbia and Alberta. The primary objectives of the joint CAPP/IMG review were to bring all parties together to form a common framework for effluent metering application and testing expectations, based on a risk and volumetric approach; and to support an economical approach to the continued development of unconventional gas resource plays in Alberta and British Columbia, with a focus on well-site infrastructure and operational cost optimization. This paper focused primarily on the well testing requirements and discussed the benefits of creating technically based, pragmatic regulations. Existing regulations were used to help the CAPP/IMG project team to develop a new practical and pragmatic regulatory framework and policy for effluent metering and well testing. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  3. Intravenous fluid flow meter concept for zero gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measuring chamber, included in infusion-set tubing, and peristaltic flow meter concept can be incorporated into flow meter that measures fluid flow rates between 100 and 600 cu cm per hour and at the same time maintains sterilization.

  4. An Incentive Mechanism for Decentralized Water Metering Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Chambouleyron

    2002-01-01

    Metering water consumption has been long advocated by economists in developing countries as a way to curb waste and prevent resource depletion. However, very few of these economists have studied the inefficiencies brought about by universal metering or the conditions under which decentralized water metering decisions are optimal. The decision where to install water meters generally rests on either the consumer or the company providing the service. This paper shows that if left unregulated, bo...

  5. The Effects of Pipewall Offsets on Water Meter Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Jesse M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate flow measurement is essential for the management of any type of fluid system. In order for a meter to accurately measure the flow, some installation requirements must be met. These installation requirements are meant to produce a condition where there are limited flow disturbances as the fluid enters the meter. If flow disturbances do occur, the meter may produce inaccurate measurements. This research investigated the effect on accuracy that different types of 12-inch flow meters ...

  6. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saheer S. S; *, Mrs. Shimi S. L

    2014-01-01

    Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD) tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during ...

  7. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  8. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  9. Measurement of stray light and glare: comparison of Nyktotest, Mesotest, stray light meter, and computer implemented stray light meter

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, L J; Nischler, C.; Gamer, D; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G; Kaper, R; Vonhoff, D; Grabner, G; Wilhelm, H.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; van den Berg, T. J T P

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the properties of devices for measuring stray light and glare: the Nyktotest, Mesotest, “conventional” stray light meter and a new, computer implemented version of the stray light meter.

  10. Temperature Stability of the Sky Quality Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C.M. Kyba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQMwas tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable lightfield in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated withtemperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperaturerange of -15 °C to 35 °C, and during temperature changes of -33 °C/h and +70 °C/h.This is smaller than the manufacturer’s quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%,indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions.

  11. Temperature stability of the sky quality meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitt, Sabrina; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Hölker, Franz; Kyba, Christopher C M

    2013-01-01

    The stability of radiance measurements taken by the Sky Quality Meter (SQM)was tested under rapidly changing temperature conditions during exposure to a stable light field in the laboratory. The reported radiance was found to be negatively correlated with temperature, but remained within 7% of the initial reported radiance over a temperature range of -15 °C to 35 °C, and during temperature changes of -33 °C/h and +70 °C/h.This is smaller than the manufacturer's quoted unit-to-unit systematic uncertainty of 10%,indicating that the temperature compensation of the SQM is adequate under expected outdoor operating conditions. PMID:24030682

  12. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  13. On Calibration of pH Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Da-Ming Zhu; Cheng, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes, buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basic concepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH, as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. The emergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with a conducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH bu...

  14. Smart metering: strategy and implementation in Germany; Smart-Metering: Strategie und Umsetzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Torsten [Logica Deutschland (Germany). Energy and Utilities; Energie-Service-Alliance (ENSEA e.V.) (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    While a number of publications and lectures on smart metering have already provided detailed coverage of the legal requirements, this is not the case for its implementation strategies. Coherent concepts for this task are still virtually inexistent. Any promising strategy to this end must take account of the fact that there are motives and interests involved which go far beyond the views currently prevailing in the sector. Despite the national differences, experiences gained in other European countries can offer important insights for the implementation of smart metering in Germany.

  15. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM) to have following objectives a) to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) architecture for using both the sensors, b) improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c) detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved character...

  16. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  17. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Safety assurance study of high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants and process development units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Chen, R.G.; Coyle, D.A.; Ethridge, T.R.; Hubbard, D.A.; Scales, D.; Senules, E.A.; Shah, K.V.; Singer, D.L.; Smith, M.R.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risks and provide suggestions to improve and assure the safety of the high BTU coal gasification units (pilot plants and process development units) currently in the joint US Department of Energy and The Gas Research Institute (DOE/GRI) program. This was accomplished by performing a systematic detailed investigation of the gasifiers for each of the processes to identify operating conditions or equipment deficiences that could lead to potential hazards. This report documents the potential hazards identified to date. It is expected that the study will contribute to the improved safety aspect of larger scale production units by providing descriptions of the lessons learned. This safety assurance study involved a detailed systematic investigation of the gasifier area and related equipment of six different gasification units: Bell Aerosopace, BI-GAS, Exxon, Hygas, Rockwell and Westinghouse.

  18. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  19. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  20. Smart metering in the gas sector. A field report; Smart Metering im Gassektor. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smejkal, Gerhard [WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Smart metering is a much-discussed concept in the power industry. Although most of the discussions focus on electric power supply and smart grids, the WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH has been investigating the technology for its gas grid for more than three years now. The positive results of a field test are reported. (orig.)

  1. Topside and subsea experience with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkildsen, B.H.; Helmers, P.B.; Kanstad, S.K. [Framo Engineering A/S, (Norway); Letton, W.

    1997-07-01

    Multiphase flow meters have been in regular service onshore and offshore for several years, and operators are achieving some level of comfort with the technology. A significant amount of experience has been gained with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter both topside and subsea. Typical applications are well testing, well management and allocation metering. For topside applications, the principal advantage of the meter remains the elimination of the test separator and all its associated hardware and maintenance. For subsea applications, the advantage is even greater as separate test lines and in some cases even entire platforms can be eliminated. The Framo Multiphase Flow Meter concept which combines the Framo Flow Mixer with a Multi Energy Gamma Meter and a Venturi Meter offer the optimum in precise estimation of oil, water and gas flow rates and has at the same time proved to be a particular robust concept. True reproducibility and high accuracy combined with built-in features such as simple calibration and a separate gas and liquid sampling arrangement solve many of the operational problems that are encountered with alternative methods. Operational experience with Framo Multiphase Flow Meters installed around the world, both topside and subsea, will be reviewed. Special attention will be paid to the difficult issues peculiar to subsea meters, such as their remote installation, retrieval, calibration, and maintenance. Finally, future trends in multiphase metering will be explored, particular will the challenges of introducing this technology into more routine applications be addressed. (author)

  2. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID:23799502

  3. The dynamic response of Coriolis mass flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.; Belhadj, A.; Hou, Y. Y.

    2003-09-01

    The speed of response of commercial Coriolis meters to a step change in mass flow rate corresponds to a time constant which may range from 0.1s to several seconds. This response is a result both of the dynamic response of the physical components of the meter and of the electronics and the computational algorithms used to convert that dynamic response into an estimate of the mass flow rate. A comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response is presented with a view to establishing the ultimate limits of the overall meter response. Attention is initially concentrated on a simple straight tube meter and analytical solutions are presented for the response to a step change in flow rate both for an undamped meter and for a meter with internal damping. These results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same meter and then the finite element modelling is extended to geometries typical of commercial meters. Finally, representative results are presented from an experimental study of the response of commercial meters to step changes in flow rate. A study of the essential components of the algorithm used in a meter leads to the conclusion that the time constant cannot be less than the period of one cycle of the meter drive. The analytical, finite element and experimental results all combine to show that the meters all respond in the period of one drive cycle but that the flow step induces fluctuations in the meter output which decay under the influence of the flow tube damping. It is the additional damping introduced in the signal processing to overcome these fluctuations which is responsible for the large observed time constants. Possible alternative approaches are discussed.

  4. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  5. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  6. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  7. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  8. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  9. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  10. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  11. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  12. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  13. An Agent Based Simulation Of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang,Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis...

  14. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  15. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  16. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  17. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  18. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saheer S. S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during peak hours can be alleviated indirectly.

  19. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  20. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  1. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    The physical background for the so-called Coriolis mass flow meter is described. The vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment are analyzed. These modes deviate in shape from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: the pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure. The analysis shows how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. The precise role of the Coriolis force is considered. The improvements of the used approximation are discussed.

  2. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims at a detailed description of the physical background for the so called Coriolis mass flow meter. It presents essentially an analysis of the (free) vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment. Due to the inertial effects of the flowing fluid, mainly the Coriolis force, these modes deviate in shape (and in frequency) from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may, therefore, be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: The pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. This approximation leaves the fluid with only one degree of freedom, connected with its mean velocity, and eliminates an infinity of degrees of freedom of the pipe. Yet it keeps the essential features of the phenomenon. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure, wherein the small (perturbation) parameter is related to the fluid velocity. The analysis shows, as main result, how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. Other aspects of the problem, like the precise role of the Coriolis force, are considered. The possible improvement of the used approximation is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of MDA instant working level meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the Mine Safety and Health Administration have evaluated, for accuracy and reliability, a commercially available Instant Working Level Meter (IWLM) used by the mining industry to measure short-lived 222Rn-progeny concentrations. Six evaluation parameters were determined experimentally. These included two alpha and two beta detector efficiencies for the short-lived 222Rn progeny and two internal conversion factors. The experimental procedure detailing the evaluation technique is described in the paper. The measuring accuracy of 13 instruments is as follows: average inherent uncertainty (at least 68% confidence interval) is +/- 18%; for counting statistics and rounding at 0.10 WL (2.1 microJ m-3), coefficients of variation range from +/- 15% at low gamma flux backgrounds to +/- 50% at gamma flux backgrounds of 0.39 microC kg-1 h-1 (1.5 mR h-1). All parameters were derived theoretically and measured experimentally. All tests were conducted at a sample flow rate of 2.5 L min-1. A sample air flow rate of 7.5 L min-1 can lower the counting statistics to more acceptable levels at 0.1 WL (2.1 microJ m-3)

  4. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W

    1987-02-01

    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  5. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm

  6. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  7. Lightning Location Using Electric Field Change Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, P. M.; Christian, H.; Burchfield, J.

    2010-12-01

    Briefly introduced last year, the Huntsville Alabama Field Change Array (HAFCA) is a collection of electric field change meters deployed in and around Huntsville. Armed with accurate GPS timing, the array is able to sample electric field changes due to lightning strokes simultaneously at several locations. For the first time, different components of the lightning flash can be located in three dimensions using only electric field change records. In particular, this research will show spacetime locations throughout entire lightning strokes, from preliminary breakdown pulses to the return stroke and later processes that may be related to charge neutralization. To find the spacetime locations, standard time of arrival methods will be used: finding the parameters that best fit the model using the Marquardt method. However, we will also discuss using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods which yield a better estimation of errors. With this information, we will discuss selected cases from the array to date. In particular, we will discuss the inter-comparison of HAFCA with two other well known lightning location arrays, NLDN and NALMA. Specifically, we will explore the relationship between the first LMA pulse in a lightning stroke and the locations of preliminary breakdown pulses and the implications on lightning initiation. Further, the return stroke locations will be shown to agree reasonably well with NLDN locations. We will also locate compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) and compare with NLDN locations.

  8. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  9. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  10. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust... involve a laminar flow element or a thermal-mass meter. Note that your overall system for measuring raw... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter....

  11. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  12. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  13. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking...

  14. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  15. Application of availability engineering to coal gasification systems. A study of a Woodall/Duckham low-btu gasifier system for the Erie Mining Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Wang, P.Y.; Chopra, P.S.

    1979-07-01

    The Erie Mining Company, Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota and the Department of Energy have studied construction of a demonstration coal gasification system utilizing Woodall/Duckham technology. The system would convert approximately 460 tons/day of either eastern or western coal to produce 45 MM SCF of fuel gas with a heating value of 176 Btu (HHV)/SCF as well as a coal tar and oil product that could be used as a back-up fuel. This report applies reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) engineering methods to this system. RMA methods make it possible to assess areas of system operation such as criticality of subsystems, unit availability, analysis of the net system availability, cost advantages of various configurations, lost production costs, and capital versus maintenance cost-trade-offs. This study indicates that the annual fuel production goal will be met if the contribution of the tar and oil product heating value is credited together with the fuel gas. This study was conducted for the US Department of Energy in support of the Office of Initial Operations and Materials, Division of Fossil Demonstration Plants.

  16. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  17. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  18. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m∕s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g∕s (0.29 to 2.99 m∕s; Re = 2688 to 26,876). PMID:22380141

  19. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m/s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g/s (0.29 to 2.99 m/s; Re = 2688 to 26 876).

  20. The Effect of Flow Pulsations on Coriolis Mass Flow Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.

    1998-11-01

    It has been reported that the accuracy of Coriolis mass flow meters can be adversely affected by the presence of pulsations (at particular frequencies) in the flow. A full analysis of the transient performance of a commercial Coriolis meter is only possible using finite element techniques. However, this is a transient, nonlinear problem in which the space and time variables are not (strictly) separable and the finite element techniques for tackling such problems make it desirable to have an analytical solution for a simplified meter, against which the finite element solution can be compared. This paper reports such a solution. The solution will also provide guidance for experiments. Existing analytical solutions for the performance of Coriolis meters in steady flow (a complex eigenvalue problem) are not easily extended to the transient flow case. The paper thus begins with the presentation of an alternative solution for steady flow through a simple, straight tube, Coriolis meter and it is notable that this solution gives a simple analytical expression for the experimentally observed small change in the resonant frequency of the meter, with flow rate, as well as an analytical expression for the meter sensitivity. The analysis is extended to the transient case, using classical, forced vibration, modal decomposition techniques. The solution shows that, unlike the steady flow case where the detector signals contain components at the drive frequency and the second mode frequency (Coriolis frequency), for pulsatile flow the detector signals will in general contain components involving at least four frequencies. It is demonstrated that the meter error depends on the algorithm used to estimate the phase difference from the detector signals. The particular flow pulsation frequencies which could possibly lead to large meter errors are identified.

  1. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  2. Embedded Control System for a High Precision Flow Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This degree project has been conducted to study flow meters and develop firmware for EC Instrument’s Reciflow. Flow rate is the volume of a fluid or mass of a substance which passes through a surface per time unit. Conversion can be made between volumetric and mass flow rate if the gas density is known. A market survey showed that Coriolis and thermal mass flow meters and positive displacement (volumetric) flow meters, as the Reciflow, are the most common kinds. The Reciflow consist of a syst...

  3. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  4. Numerical study of impurity distribution in ultrasonic heat meter body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石硕; 孙建亭; 杜广生; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    Based on a discrete phase model, the numerical simulation is carried out for the flow fields of different size calcium carbo- nate suspensions in the ultrasonic heat meter body. The flow characteristics and the impurity distribution in the ultrasonic heat meter body are analyzed. The errors of the ultrasonic heat meter in measuring calcium carbonate suspensions of particles of 10 micrometers and the causes are analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show the effects of the impurities on the value of the k coeffi- cient and the sound attenuation on the reflection path due to the particle distribution are the two main factors that influence the mea- surement accuracy.

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  6. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  7. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  10. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  13. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  16. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  17. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED...

  18. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen;

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision-making....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  20. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which...

  1. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  2. Application of function generator for checking reactivity meter accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of reactivity meters is usually checked with a reactor kinetic simulator operating to an accuracy exceeding the expected accuracy of the measuring device. The present report describes a method to evaluate accuracy by comparing the response R(t) of the reactivity meter to a given function n(t) with the value of the reactivity function r(t) calculated from the same input function instead of using the input reference signal r(t) to the simulator with the output signal R(t) from the reactivity meter. This method has been successfully used by applying sawtooth and exponential input signals for the determination of the accuracy of reactivity meters developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics. (author)

  3. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  4. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  5. Performance Evaluations on UAV-Aided Automated Meter Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkan Tuna

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for automated meter reading (AMR) applications in rural areas where there are a few consumers scattered across a wide area. Compared to traditional meter reading systems, the use of UAVs for AMR brings several advantages, such as low cost operation, flexibility and online system management. In this paper, the advantages of integrating an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver...

  6. The Program of Getting the Data from the Vacuum Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYang; CHENLiaoyuan; LIQiang

    2003-01-01

    In HL-2A tokamak, a program to get the data from the vacuum meter has been developed in 2003. The program is used to read and record the data of the neutral gas pressure during the experiment. So how to communicate between a local computer and the vacuum meter via serial-port communication is introduced in this paper. The architecture of the system is shown in Fig. 1.

  7. Advances in Metered Dose Inhaler Technology: Hardware Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Stephen W.; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P. David; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering ...

  8. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ramteke K.H.; Gunjal S.S; Sharma Y.P

    2012-01-01

    The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. ...

  9. Forecasting Electricity Smart Meter Data Using Conditional Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Siddharth; Taylor, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of smart meters has led to large micro-level datasets. For the first time, the electricity consumption at individual sites is available on a near real-time basis. Efficient management of energy resources, electric utilities, and transmission grids, can be greatly facilitated by harnessing the potential of this data. The aim of this study is to generate probability density estimates for consumption recorded by individual smart meters. Such estimates can assist decision making...

  10. Laboratory and bedside evaluation of portable glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J H; Howard, C; Loman, K; Miller, C; Nyberg, D; Chan, D W

    1995-02-01

    A two-phase, laboratory and bedside, evaluation of blood glucose meters was conducted in this study. Four meters, the AccuData Easy (Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN), HemoCue Glucose (HemoCue, Mission Viejo, CA), LifeScan One Touch II (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA), and Miles Encore QA (Miles, Elkhart, IN) systems, were compared to the Nova Stat Profile 5 (Nova, Waltham, MA) as the laboratory reference. Precision, linearity, correlation to the laboratory method, interference from hematocrit, data management, and operator preference were examined. None of the meters were found to satisfy all of the study's evaluation criteria. Therefore, institutions must weigh which criteria are most important to their individual settings. Although the HemoCue Glucose was found to be technically superior, this meter had no data management capabilities. The Encore QA had greater variance and low bias, whereas the AccuData Easy had bias affected by hematocrit and glucose concentration, and the One Touch II had a negative hematocrit bias and limited linear range when compared to the Nova. Only meters meeting both minimal analytical performance and computerization requirements, the One Touch II and AccuData Easy, were selected for further evaluation. At the bedside, the One Touch II demonstrated performance consistent with the lab evaluation, whereas the AccuData Easy showed greater imprecision in the low glucose range and a correlation that varied with sample type: capillary, venous, or arterial blood. This evaluation indicates that the clinician must interpret near-patient glucose results with respect to meter limitations. FDA approval and marketing statistics, alone, are insufficient to judge the performance of the meters in routine institutional use. Independent method validation, under actual operating conditions, is a better means of predicting future performance of the meters. PMID:7856571

  11. Design and Development of SMS Prepaid Energy Meter

    OpenAIRE

    KESHINRO K. K; AKINLEYE A. O; S. O. Salami; SARUMI A. J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a prepaid energy meter to facilitate energy consumption measurement and to know consumer’s maximum demand. The prepaid energy meter concept is shown by Proteus 8 software simulation. The major components are AVR microcontroller, Voltage and Current transformer, LCD, Relay and a load. Electricity has become one of the basic requirements for people and widely used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The energy billing system used nowadays are l...

  12. Using Coriolis Mass Flowmeter for Wet Gas Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Y. F.; Yeung, Hoi; Cao, Yi; Xing, L. C.; Zhu, H; Drahm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Established wet gas metering techniques are typically based on differential pressure devices, and their measurement accuracy is still unsatisfactory to natural gas industry. Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) is the most superior flow measurement technology at now, it can provide mass flowrate and density output simultaneously. Putting CMF into wet gas metering may be a reasonable and high accuracy solution to natural gas industry demands. The problems and advantages of CMF in ga...

  13. The Efficiency of the Smoke Meter at Characterizing Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Jonathan D.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of a smoke meter's ability to characterize the particulate emissions of a jet fuel combustor was evaluated using the University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (UMR-MASS). A burner simulating an advanced jet engine combustor design was used to generate typical combustion particulates, which were then analyzed by the smoke meter. The same particulates were then size discriminated to ascertain the effective impact of aerosol diameter on smoke number readings.

  14. Implementing Project-based Learning in making a weight meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliawan, W.; Nahar, W. S.; Sebastian, C. E.; Yuliza, E.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an activity, which can be done individually or in groups, that goes on over a period of time and its objective can be a product, presentation, or performance. It can make students develop their skills and become more engaged in learning because they can solve problems that are met in real life through a project. The project was a weight meter using a d.c. deflection-type bridge circuit and a VU meter, which was realized by a group of three students (the first three authors). We were of the 2nd year of undergraduate physics program that are taking the Measurement and Data Processing Techniques course in the period of January to April 2015. We worked together with our lecturer and tutor as our advisers. In making the weight meter, we have done the following roles in PjBL: 1. Planning the project and setting a timeline, 2. Doing research, 3. Creating first draft, 4. Rewriting the project report, and 5. Submitting the project. Under the guidance of timeline, the project has been completed timely. A force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor was employed to convert a body mass to resistance of the bridge circuit and the VU meter was modified to be a display of the weight meter. The weight meter could be used to measure a body mass up to 5 kg.

  15. [Accuracy of MiniWright peak expiratory flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, P A; Ruchkys, V C; Dias, R M; Sakurai, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Mini-Wright (Clement Clarke International Ltd.) peak-flow meters. METHODS: Twenty of those meters were checked by use of electronic calibration syringe (Jones Flow-Volume Calibrator(R)). Nine of them had an old scale, with values displayed equidistantly, and eleven had a new mechanical scale with non-equidistant values. Each device was connected in series to the calibration syringe to perform eight hand-driven volume injections, with flows ranging from 100 to 700 l/min. Absolute and relative differences between meters and syringe were calculated, the syringe values taken as standard. The accuracy of the twenty Mini-Wright devices was validated by the American Thoracic Society criteria (-/+ 10% or -/+ 20 l/min), and/or European Respiratory Society criteria (-/+ 5% or -/+ 5 l/ min). RESULTS: New scale instruments were more accurate than old scale meters (p < 0.001), by both ATS and ERS criteria. Every meter was rechecked after 600 measurements. Both the old, and the new scale instruments maintained the same level of performance after this evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that new scale meters were accurate and can be safely used in clinical practice. The authors strongly recommend that they are rechecked regularly to ensure that they are within the ATS and ERS variation limits. PMID:14647633

  16. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology

    2000-09-01

    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  17. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  18. An assessment of the Italian smart gas metering program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of smart metering is one of the core elements in recent European policies targeting environmental sustainability and competitiveness of energy markets. Following the roll-out of smart electricity meters, in 2008 the Italian regulator designed an ambitious deployment program also for smart gas meters, that was recently modified in both scope and timing. This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans, with a specific focus on the results of its cost–benefit analysis. In light of the evidence derived from the literature, we observe that the case for the roll-out of smart gas meters in Italy was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings but rather focused on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market; in this respect, we argue that options other than smart gas metering should also be considered. Moreover the Italian cost–benefit analysis, which mostly dealt with the potential cost savings for distributors and suppliers, led to ambiguous results in terms of net present values; thus, we believe that an updated assessment would be extremely useful. Finally, in terms of technological choices, our analysis positively evaluates the regulator's recent proposal to consider a dual-fuel solution for the mass market deployment. - Highlights: • This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans for smart gas meters. • The plan was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings. • A focus on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market appears only partly justifiable. • The business case for adopting smart gas meters should be updated. • Our analysis positively evaluates the a dual-fuel solution for the mass market

  19. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  20. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eObermeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from 19th and 20th German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted in a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  1. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hidehito, E-mail: hidehito@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kanayama, Masaya; Sato, Nobuhiro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, Sentaro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with {sup 36}Cl-, {sup 60}Co-, {sup 137}Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters. - highlights: • Undoped poly (ether sulfone) (PES) can be used as a scintillation material in radiation survey meters. • Large PES plates with treated surfaces were characterized. • Surface roughening of the plates increased light collection efficiency. • Plates with a combination of mirrored/scattering surfaces work best. • A significant amount of light generated by radiation remains in the PES plates.

  2. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  3. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  4. An analysis of a QND speed-meter interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Purdue, P

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a {\\it speed meter interferometer} that accomplishes this -- a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show (in accord with the speed being a Quantum Nondemolition [QND] observable) that {\\it in principle} the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filt...

  5. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  6. Plug-in privacy for Smart Metering billing

    CERN Document Server

    Jawurek, Marek; Kerschbaum, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Smart Metering is a concept that allows to collect fine-grained consumption profiles from customers by replacing traditional electricity meters with Smart Meters in customers' households. The recorded consumption profile is the basis for the calculation of time-dependent tariffs but also allows deduction of the inhabitant's personal schedules and habits. The current reporting of such consumption profiles only protects this data from 3rd parties but falls short to protect the customer's privacy from illegitimate abuse by the supplier itself. We propose a privacy-preserving profile reporting protocol that enables billing for time-dependent tariffs without disclosing the actual data of the consumption profile to the supplier. Our approach relies on a zero-knowledge proof based on Pedersen Commitments performed by a plug-in privacy component that is put into the communication link between Smart Meter and supplier's back-end systems and requires no change to Smart Meter hardware and only little change to the softw...

  7. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  8. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Performance Evaluations on UAV-Aided Automated Meter Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan Tuna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for automated meter reading (AMR applications in rural areas where there are a few consumers scattered across a wide area. Compared to traditional meter reading systems, the use of UAVs for AMR brings several advantages, such as low cost operation, flexibility and online system management. In this paper, the advantages of integrating an Inertial Navigation System (INS and a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver for a robust localization and navigation system for automated meter reading applications are investigated. In addition, the results of field tests related to the proposed navigation and localization system, and experimental studies on sensor node lifetime, are given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed system. The proposed system can be used by utility providers to extend or improve their services.

  10. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    is a very important concern to take real advantage of this technology. In this paper, first we analyze the security threats faced by AMI components and then propose the countermeasures to tackle them. The aim is to visualize the possible threats in the context of confidentiality, integrity and availability......The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... channels. AMI is also featuring to communicate control functions from utility to the smart meters. So, both the consumption data and control data needs to be securely transmitted to their ends. Any leak and tempering may produce the dire effects to both utility and consumers. Hence security of AMI...

  11. Advanced Smart Metering Infrastructure for Future Smart Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi;

    2015-01-01

    Smart buildings and homes are becoming a key player in the future green and sustainable energy grid, due to the integration of distributed energy sources and the demand control capabilities. Advanced smart metering systems are required for the operation of the future smart grid. Smart metering......-intrusive load monitoring, can be applied for this purpose. This paper shows an advanced smart metering infrastructure for integration in future smart homes, where not only the electrical consumption is monitored, but also the gas, water, and heating. Therefore, by monitoring all energy systems in the building...... systems allow to monitor the energy consumption of end-users, while provides useful information regarding power quality. The information provided by these systems is used by the system operator to enhance the energy supply, and several techniques, as load scheduling, demand side management, non...

  12. A Randomized Response Model For Privacy Preserving Smart Metering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Cui, Lijuan; Que, Jialan; Choi, Dae-Hyun; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel; Xie, Le

    2012-09-01

    The adoption of smart meters may bring new privacy concerns to the general public. Given the fact that metering data of individual homes/factories is accumulated every 15 minutes, it is possible to infer the pattern of electricity consumption of individual users. In order to protect the privacy of users in a completely de-centralized setting (i.e., individuals do not communicate with one another), we propose a novel protocol, which allows individual meters to report the true electricity consumption reading with a pre-determinted probability. Load serving entities (LSE) can reconstruct the total electricity consumption of a region or a district through inference algorithm, but their ability of identifying individual users' energy consumption pattern is significantly reduced. Using simulated data, we verify the feasibility of the proposed method and demonstrate performance advantages over existing approaches. PMID:23243488

  13. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  14. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  15. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaarni, Shankar

    2014-08-11

    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  16. Practical speed meter designs for QND gravitational-wave interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Purdue, P; Purdue, Patricia; Chen, Yanbei

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g., LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. A previous paper analyzed a straightforward but impractical design for a {\\it speed-meter interferometer} that accomplishes this. This paper describes some practical variants of speed-meter interferometers. Like the original interferometric speed meter, these designs {\\it in principle} can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies. These variants essentially consist of a Michelson interferometer plus an extra "sloshing" cavity that sends the signal back into the interferometer with opposite phase shift, thereby cancelling the position information and leaving a net phase shift proportional to the relative velocity. {\\it In practice}, the sensitivity of...

  17. Development and Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Groundwater Seepage Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R. J.; Smith, C. F.; O'Rourke, D.; Wong, T.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2001-05-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a groundwater seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flow meter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve groundwater discharges on the order of 0.1 μ m/s, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine groundwater discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology. This meter has also been deployed as part of an international groundwater seepage intercomparison experiment with Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) / Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Working Group 112. Results are in good agreement with other methodologies developed to quantify submarine groundwater discharge.

  18. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  19. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  20. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon, which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining systematic and randomerrors of distance meters and for accuracy of distance meters at short distances commonin engineering surveying for purposes of mechanical engineering.

  1. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  2. A New Method for Optimal Harmonic Meter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is proposed to solve the problem of optimal placement of meters for static estimation of harmonic sources in a power system. Also, the Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA is used to solve the problem of optimization. IEEE 14-bus test system is provided to validate the measurement placement algorithm. It has been observed that the quality of estimation is improved and the Number of Observable Variable (NOV is increased. Moreover, the BGA-based meter placement strategy yields the same solution as obtained from the complete enumeration technique but in shorter time.

  3. Entropy Meters and the Entropy of Non-extensive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Elliott H

    2014-01-01

    In our derivation of the second law of thermodynamics from the relation of adiabatic accessibility of equilibrium states we stressed the importance of being able to scale a system's size without changing its intrinsic properties. This leaves open the question of defining the entropy of macroscopic, but unscalable systems, such as gravitating bodies or systems where surface effects are important. We show here how the problem can be overcome, in principle, with the aid of an `entropy meter'. An entropy meter can also be used to determine entropy functions for non-equilibrium states and mesoscopic systems.

  4. Thin-film power-density meter for millimeter wavelengths

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Karen A.; Guo, Yong; Stimson, Philip A.; Potter, Kent A.; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A quasi-optical power density meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths has been developed. The device is a 2-cm^2 thin-film bismuth bolometer deposited on a mylar membrane. The resistance responsivity is 150 Ω/W, and the time constant is 1 min. The meter is calibrated at DC. The bolometer is much thinner than a wavelength, and can thus be modeled as a lumped resistance in a transmission-line equivalent circuit. The absorption coefficient is 0.5 for 189-Ω/square film. The power-dens...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Daminov Ildar; Tarasova Ekaterina; Andreeva Tatyana; Avazov Artur

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  7. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1997 to 31 August 1998 (NODC Accession 9800144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1997 to 31 August 1998. Data...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from 12 June 1992 - 20 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from June 12, 1992 to June 20, 1994. Data were submitted...

  10. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  11. Travel Time Variability After A Shock: The Case Of The Twin Cities Ramp Meter Shut Off

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2001-01-01

    Ramp meters in the Twin Cities were turned off for 8 weeks in the Fall of 2000. This paper analyzes travel time variability with and without ramp metering for several representative freeways during the afternoon peak period. Travel time variability is generally reduced with metering. However, it is found that ramp meters are particularly helpful for long trips relative to short trips. The benefits from reducing travel time variability with meters are on the order of 37% of the benefits from r...

  12. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  13. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  14. A Smart Wireless Electronic Energy Meter Reading Using Embedded Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Male,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMR (Automatic Meter Reading system is a system used for reading energy consumption remotely. This wireless AMR system is based on wireless network and embedded technology to solve the problems in existing AMR system. This paper presents the simple low cost wireless GSM energy meter and it has remote access of existing meter. It saves huge human labour. A GSM based wireless module for communication is integrated with electronic energy meter and it has remote access over the usage of electricity. Authentication is provided to users for accessing the developed web pages details from anywhere in the world. So GSM based wireless AMR system is more effective approach for convention of billing system. This system also provide authority to electricity companies to take actions against lenient customers who have outstanding dues, otherwise company has right to disconnect the power supply and also it can reconnect power supply after deposition of dues. The complete monthly usage of electricity and due bill is messaged back to the customer after processing these data. We finally thought of building such a system that will do the above process automatically.

  15. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, van de Lubbert

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A flu

  16. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 30 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This 30 Meter DEM is a copy of the USGS 1:24,000 scale Level 2 DEMs for the State. There are three quadrangles known be be Level 1 DEM data: Town Line Lake (q1925),...

  17. A novel metered dose transdermal spray formulation for oxybutynin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose spray formulation for transdermal delivery of oxybutynin and to carry out the in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation. Oxybutynin release from a series of ethanol/acetone/methylal based formulations was assessed in vitro and the developed formulation was used for delivery from a metered dose spray. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, particle size distribution, pH, evaporation time, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, content per spray and content uniformity were evaluated. The different film forming agents were assessed and carbopol (0.5% and lutrol (0.1% were found to give good clarity of solution, evaporation rate, spray pattern and tackiness of the film. Diffusion studies of the optimized formulations through the semipermeable membrane showed the release of drug to the extent of almost 50% over a period of 24 h. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidelines and indicated that formulations were stable. Skin irritation studies were performed using rabbit as an animal model. The results obtained show that the metered dose transdermal spray formulation can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the transdermal administration of oxybutynin.

  18. High-sensitivity turbidity meter; Kokando dakudokei (Meiaquas LTB-1000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    A high-sensitivity turbidity meter developed by Meidensha Corporation is described. The corporation completed a high-sensitivity turbidity meter (Meiaquas LTB-1000), which applies laser nephelometric analysis, for water supply in response to Ministry of Health and Welfare`s interim guidelines for Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst, and started its sale in April, 1998. Although the new turbidity meter operates on the same principle as the conventional type, it uses a laser beam source for the achievement of enhanced sensitivity. Among those actually using the turbidity meter are the water supply division of Zama City and the water supply bureau of Ota City. The instrument is characterized in that it stays stable for a prolonged period thanks to the laser beam source free of stray light, that it is not affected by the specimen water flow speed, that it employs an integrated emitter/receiver constitution which facilitates the removal of soil and the like deposited thereon, that it can be calibrated by the user, and that it does not require zero standard liquid. (NEDO)

  19. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flow meter calibration calculations. 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow...

  20. Field Evaluation of Seepage Meters in the Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J. E.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Cable, P. H.

    1997-09-01

    The response of seepage meters was evaluated in a nearshore marine environment where water motion effects are more pronounced than in lake settings, where these meters have been used traditionally. Temporal and spatial variations of seepage, as well as potential artifacts, were evaluated using empty and 1000-ml pre-filled bag measurements. Time-series measurements confirmed earlier observations that anomalously high fluxes occur during the early stages (≤10 min) of collection. As deployment times increased (30-60 min), measured flow rates stabilized at a level thought to represent the actual seepage flux. Pre-filling the plastic measurement bags effectively alleviated this anomalous, short-term influx. Reliable seepage measurements required deployment times sufficient to allow a net volume of at least 150 ml into the collection bag. Control experiments, designed by placing seepage meters inside sand-filled plastic swimming pools, served as indicators of external effects on these measurements, i.e. they served as seepage meter blanks. When winds were under 15 knots, little evidence was found that water motion caused artifacts in the seepage measurements. Tidal cycle influences on seepage rates were negligible in the present study area, but long-term temporal variations (weeks to months) proved substantial. Observed long-term changes in groundwater flux into the Gulf of Mexico correlated with water table elevation at a nearby monitoring well.

  1. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a... their places of business. Authorized providers, who operate CMRS services, are known as resetting... before resetting a Postage Evidencing System or the provider may opt to provide a funds advance...

  2. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reading expenses. 367.9020 Section 367.9020 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading expenses. (a) This account must include the cost of labor, materials used and expenses incurred in...

  3. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  4. A Meter Classification System for Spoken Persian Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamidi & Farbod Razzazi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a meter classification system has been proposed for Persian poems based onfeatures that are extracted from uttered poem. In the first stage, the utterance has beensegmented into syllables using three features, pitch frequency and modified energy of each frameof the utterance and its temporal variations. In the second stage, each syllable is classified intolong syllable and short syllable classes which is a historically convenient categorization in Persianliterature. In this stage, the classifier is an SVM classifier with radial basis function kernel. Theemployed features are the syllable temporal duration, zero crossing rate and PARCORcoefficients of each syllable. The sequence of extracted syllables classes is then softly comparedwith classic Persian meter styles using dynamic time warping, to make the system robust againstsyllables insertion, deletion or classification and poems authorities. The system has beenevaluated on 136 poetries utterances from 12 Persian meter styles gathered from 8 speakers,using k-fold evaluation strategy. The results show 91% accuracy in three top meter style choicesof the system.

  5. Continuous flow measurements using ultrasonic velocity meters - an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Rick

    1995-01-01

    An article in the summer 1993 Newsletter described USGS work to continously monitor tidal flows in the delta using ultrasonic velocity meters.  This article updates progress since 1993, including new installations, results of data analysis, damage during this year's high flows, and the status of each site.

  6. Comparison Test and its Evaluation of Flowmeters for Heat Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Man; Choi, Yong-Moon; Yoon, Byung-Ro

    2010-06-01

    This study selected a total of 24 heat flowmeters consisting of three types: impeller, electromagnetic and ultrasonic, 8 meters each. The diameter was 0.05 m (9 meters), 0.08 m (9 meters), and 0.15 m (6 meters). In accordance with the OIML R 75 testing method accuracy, installation position, external environment, and durability were tested, and the flowmeter property field test was conducted in the field where of heat supply from winter to summer in order to select the type of heat flowmeter best suited for the circumstances in Korea. According to the test result, all 3 types of flowmeters met the OIML Recommendation, but the result of the field test showed that the electromagnetic flowmeters displayed a deviation at the low flow rate during summer. The impeller flowmeters showed accuracy suggested by the OIML Recommendation, but the ultrasonic flowmeter, a next-generation flowmeter, which is strong against contamination, low in maintenance-rate, and high in accuracy as it has no moving part, was found to be the best choice.

  7. Industrial Medium-Btu Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Technical support report: combustion system data. Part 2. Burner conversion survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study was limited to an analysis of the feasibility of burning the IFG in the existing burners and combustion chambers among a group of prospective IFG customers. The results of this study indicate that the great majority of burner and equipment manufacturers recommend that the IFG can be utilized with their equipment. This is especially true with the boilers which make up the largest part of the load among the potential users of the IFG. A small number of burners representing a small part of the total potential load will probably have to be replaced. This study did not address the changes that would be required with respect to the fuel distribution piping within each facility. At a minimum of the existing regulators, flow meters, and control valves designed for the natural gas flow rates would have to be replaced to accommodate the higher fuel flow rates requiring with the IFG. In many facilities, the fuel distribution piping would have to be replaced. No changes, however, are requied for the combustion air fans or flues and stacks.

  8. GARUSO - Version 1.0. Uncertainty model for multipath ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Froeysa, Kjell-Eivind; Vestrheim, Magne

    1997-09-01

    This report describes an uncertainty model for ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters configured with parallel chords, and a PC program, GARUSO Version 1.0, implemented for calculation of the meter`s relative expanded uncertainty. The program, which is based on the theoretical uncertainty model, is used to carry out a simplified and limited uncertainty analysis for a 12`` 4-path meter, where examples of input and output uncertainties are given. The model predicts a relative expanded uncertainty for the meter at a level which further justifies today`s increasing tendency to use this type of instruments for fiscal metering of natural gas. 52 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove. PMID:26973489

  10. Path to meter class single crystal silicon (SCSi) space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Douglas R.

    2012-03-01

    With the global financial crisis affecting funding for space systems development, customers are calling for lower cost systems. Yet, at the same time, these lower cost systems must have increased thermal response to operational environments and load survivability. We submit that single crystal silicon (SCSi) meets both of these requirements. This paper will highlight some key SCSi material properties, discuss the opportunities that led to the development of McCarter processing methods, and present the latest steps in the manufacturing path of McCarter Mirrors using SCSi, GFB (glass frit bonding) and MSF (McCarter super finish), including the concept drawing of a one meter SCSi lightweight mirror, which together sets up the last step toward a lower cost, high performing one meter SCSi space optic.

  11. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  12. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially groove and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  13. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a 10-Meter Solar Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chris G.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    In July 2004, a 10-meter solar sail structure developed by L Garde, Inc. was tested in vacuum at the NASA Glenn 30-meter Plum Brook Space Power Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The three main objections of the test were to demonstrate unattended deployment from a stowed configuration, to measure the deployed shape of the sail at both ambient and cryogenic room temperatures, and to measure the deployed structural dynamic characteristics (vibration modes). This paper summarizes the work conducted to fulfill the second test objective. The deployed shape was measured photogrammetrically in vacuum conditions with four 2-megapixel digital video cameras contained in custom made pressurized canisters. The canisters included high-intensity LED ring lights to illuminate a grid of retroreflective targets distributed on the solar sail. The test results closely matched pre-test photogrammetry numerical simulations and compare well with ABAQUS finite-element model predictions.

  14. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  15. A FPGA Based Digital Reactivity Meter for THOR Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field programmable gate array (FPGA) based real-time reactivity-meter for Tsing-Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) has been developed. The reactivity meter can operate online with real time calculation. According to the inverse point reactor dynamics model, reactivity was estimated from the measured power data. In order to improve the accuracy on the estimation, sensitivity studies have been made to determine a proper sample time interval to reduce the fluctuation of the measured power data. Two sets of ADC were used to extend the dynamic range of the monitoring system. Compared with the existing analog system, the digital system has a wider dynamic range, less noise in low power range, and a comparable system response time. (authors)

  16. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  17. Apparent transducer non-reciprocity in an ultrasonic flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, Jan; Delsing, Jerker

    2002-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of non-identical ultrasonic transducers on reciprocity and zero-flow calibration in transit time flow meters. According to the theorem of reciprocity, there should not be any difference between the up- and downstream acoustic times of flight in a zero-flow situation. This would thus eliminate zero-flow estimation drifts. The flow meter is modeled as a one dimensional system with equivalent electrical circuits and simulated with simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis. The work shows that variations between the two transducers cause false estimates of flow and indicate which parameters have the largest influence. It indicates that reciprocity holds only for identical transducers. PMID:12159974

  18. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...... data processing, and using the machine learning toolkit, MADlib, for doing in-database data analytics in PostgreSQL database. This paper evaluates the key technologies of the proposed ICT-solution, and the results show the effectiveness and efficiency of using the system for both batch and online...

  19. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially “groove” and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove. PMID:26973489

  20. Adaptive Optics for the 8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Jacques; Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2013-12-01

    Solar ELTs enable diffraction limited imaging of the basic structure of the solar atmosphere. Magneto-hydrodynamic considerations limit their size to about 0.03 arcsec. To observe them in the near-infrared 8-meter class telescopes are needed. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, or CGST, is such a NIR solar ELT. It is a Ring Telescope with 8-meter outer diameter and a central clear aperture of about 6-meter diameter. At present various options for such a Gregorian type telescope are under study like a continuous ring made of segments or a multiple aperture ring made of 7 off-axis telescopes. The advantages of such a ring telescope is that its MTF covers all spatial frequencies out to those corresponding to its outer diameter, that its circular symmetry makes it polarization neutral, and that its large central hole helps thermal control and provides ample space for MCAO and Gregorian instrumentation. We present the current status of the design of the CGST. Our thinking is guided by the outstanding performance of the 1-meter vacuum solar telescope of the Yunnan Solar Observatory which like the CGST uses both AO and image reconstruction. Using it with a ring-shape aperture mask the imaging techniques for the CGST are being explored. The CGST will have Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). The peculiarities of Atmospheric Wavefront Tomography for Ring Telescopes are aided by the ample availability of guide stars on the Sun. IR MCAO-aided diffraction limited imaging offers the advantage of a large FOV, and high solar magnetic field sensitivity. Site testing is proceeding in western China, (e.g. northern Yunnan Province and Tibet). The CGST is a Chinese solar community project originated by the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, the National Astronomical Observatories, the Purple Mountain Observatory, the Nanjing University, the Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology and the Beijing Normal University.

  1. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xinxin Fan; Guang Gong

    2013-01-01

    The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Depl...

  2. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially “groove” and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many...

  3. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  4. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  5. Development of geo-electrical meter based on networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan-wei; ZHAO Jia-liu

    2008-01-01

    Further development of earthquake equipments is closely associated with that of computer technology. Because Embedded PC104 module has the equivalent functions of PC, it has been widely used in recent years, and can provide a new and flexible hardware design environment, but its applications in observation instruments of earthquake precursor are rare. The present paper introduces in detail the realization of a networked geo-electrical meter by applying the low price, high reliability embedded PC 104 industrial computer.

  6. Clustering Time-Series Energy Data from Smart Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Lavin, Alexander; Klabjan, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Investigations have been performed into using clustering methods in data mining time-series data from smart meters. The problem is to identify patterns and trends in energy usage profiles of commercial and industrial customers over 24-hour periods, and group similar profiles. We tested our method on energy usage data provided by several U.S. power utilities. The results show accurate grouping of accounts similar in their energy usage patterns, and potential for the method to be utilized in en...

  7. Usage Metering for Service-Oriented Grid Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar; Neeran Karnik; Vikas Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the grid computing community is undergoing a paradigm shift from the traditional resource-centric model to a service-oriented one. The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) from the Global Grid Forum proposes that Web service-like abstractions be used to encapsulate shared grid resources for service-oriented grid computing. An important management component of such an infrastructure which is essential for its success in enterprise environments, is the metering and accounting for g...

  8. Review of Scattering Corrections for Calibration of Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the calibration factors of the several neutron survey meters obtained by both the shadow-cone method and semi-empirical method. Generally and theoretically, the calibration factors obtained by the methods given in ISO 8529-2 have the similar values. However we found that the calibration factors obtained by two methods have the different values. The calibration factors were obtained by two calibration method and the validity of the 'shadow-cone method' was proven by the MCNPX calculation. The total scattering correction of the conventional true scatter effects in the 'shadow-cone method' was under-estimated by 4.0.8.1% rather than the scatter correction in the 'semi-empirical method'. This lower calibration factor than that of the 'semi-empirical method' is owing to the under-response of the neutron survey meters in the thermal neutron field. These results are elucidated from that most of single-moderator-based survey meters excluding tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) have an under-response in the thermal neutron field. It is concluded that a great care is needed while calibrating a survey meter using a shadow-cone calibration method and in interpreting the readouts. ISO 8529-2 (the International Organization for Standardization) recommends four different approaches to the problem of correcting for scatter effects. The first three methods, denoted as the shadow-cone method, the generalized fit method, and the semi-empirical method, usually involve an initial set of careful measurements as a function of the distance between neutron source and detector

  9. Gamma radiation methods for clamp-on multiphase flow metering

    OpenAIRE

    Blaney, S

    2008-01-01

    The development of a cost-effective multiphase flow meter to determine the individual phase flow rates of oil, water and gas was investigated through the exploitation of a single clamp-on gamma densitometer and signal processing techniques. A fast-sampling (250 Hz) gamma densitometer was installed at the top of the 10.5 m high, 108.2 mm internal diameter, stainless steel catenary riser in the Cranfield University multiphase flow test facility. Gamma radiation attenuation data w...

  10. Analysis and Prediction of Electricity Consumption Using Smart Meter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sauhats, A; Varfolomejeva, R; Linkevičs, O; Petričenko, R; Kuņickis, M; Balodis, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is considering application of smart meter data to predict electricity consumption of household consumers. The availability and amount of data is suitable for in- depth statistical analysis of electricity consumption profiles and the study of consumer’s behavior. Prediction of electricity consumption is very important for electricity traders to balance their electricity purchase and sales portfolio, as well as to prepare optimal price products (offers) for their clients. Electricity...

  11. Analyzing China Smart Water Meter Industry Cluster Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development has always been a top issue nowadays. The smart water management is one of the methods to achieve the sustainable development. This paper aims to focus on analyzing the competitiveness of industrial clusters (Guangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai) in China specifically to the smart water meter industry. It is part of the CEMIS sourcing work package under the KVTELIOS project with Mr. Al Natsheh Anas, and is supervised by Ms. Komulainen Ruey. Porter Diamond Theory is used ...

  12. The student activity meter for awareness and self-reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Govaerts, Sten; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik; Abelardo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of user actions can be used in Technology Enhanced Learning to increase awareness for learners and teachers and to support self-reflection. In this paper, we present our Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner actions. We present four design iterations and results of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies in real-world settings that assess the usability, use and usefulness of different visualizations. Results indicate that our tool is useful for a variety of...

  13. Deriving knowledge of household behaviour from domestic electricity usage metering

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The electricity market in the UK is undergoing dramatic changes and requires a transformation of existing practices to meet the current and forthcoming challenges. One aspect of the solution is the deployment of demand side management (DSM) programmes to influence domestic behaviour patterns for the benefit of the overall network. Effective deployment of DSM requires segmentation of the population into a small number of groupings. Using a database of electricity meter data collected at a f...

  14. The functionality of canoeists specializing in competitive distance 200 meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Penchen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of reactive properties to realize the potential of canoeist of south-east Asia specializing in the 200 meters established on a specialized focus of the training process sprinter. The parameters of functionality of athletes based on integrated aerobic and anaerobic ensure competitive distance of 200 m. They are based on assessing level of aerobic power and capacity of energy supply and properties of the cardiorespiratory system in actively increasing metabolic acidosis.

  15. Current meter observations in the Irish Sea, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from ten current meter moorings deployed in the eastern Irish Sea during 1986, as part of a field programme investigating local sediment dynamics. The main aim of the moorings was to provide long-term estimates of residual current flow, for use in a numerical box model which will simulate the distribution and behaviour of radionuclides with a high affinity for sediments, such as plutonium. (author)

  16. Gas mass-flow meters: Principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Arlindo Amador de Matos; Viviana da Silva Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Gas mass-flow meters (GMFM) for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) applications are presently found in a relatively easy and cheap way. GMFM may be applied in a number of different situations but technical formation concerning its principles of measurement and applications are still misleading. In this paper, the principles of GMFM measurement are discussed and the operating parameters are clarified. A concept of gas mass-flow response factor is introduced and further used ...

  17. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    OpenAIRE

    Kunicina N.; Zabasta A.; Kondratjevs K.; Asmanis G.

    2015-01-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks...

  18. Field evaluation of an electromagnetic current meter based vertical profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, P. F.; Marmoush, Y. M. R.; Boyce, F. M.; Smith, A. A.

    1987-10-01

    A current profiler consisting of a vertical array of three electromagnetic current meters has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the three sensors, with reference to nearby current and wave data and by comparison to recent laboratory performance tests (Aubrey and Trowbridge, 1985). Mean flow estimates are too uncertain and variable to allow bottom boundary layer shear stress to be estimated by the conventional logarithmic law method. As well as unexplained sudden shifts in the mean speed response, the comparison with vector-averaged current meter data indicates possible long-term reduction in response due to fouling of the sensors by biological growth. The directional response was less sensitive to fouling effects. The oscillatory response on one occasion after field deployment for 17 days indicates a reduction in response from 41 to 45% at a period of oscillation of 3 s in a combined steady and oscillatory flow field. This study demonstrates that despite careful laboratory calibration, electromagnetic current meters are not at present suitable for quantitative study of dynamics of sediment resuspension in near-bottom shallow-water environments.

  19. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  20. Comprehensive Flow Meter for All Materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-15

    The electromagnetic flowmeter is obstructionless and insensitive to the metered stuff's constitutive properties. For low zero-point drift, EM flowmeters employ a low frequency alternating induction, usually with square waveshape. With conventional signal conditioning, high frequency induction leads to excessive zero-point drift for the instrument. The conventional instrument is usable with electrically conductive fluids, where there is no triboelectric noise. Nonconductive fluids have substantial triboelectric noise, with spectral density experimentally measured to be f{sup {minus}2.6}. Here we use an electromagnet and signal conditioner that allows high frequency induction, where the noise is low, but eliminates the heretofore excessive drift--such that the EM flowmeter can be used to meter any stuff, whether conductive or insulating, that can be pumped, blown or extruded through a pipe. Designs and test hardware are shown. An injury occurred, with slow recovery: the principal investigator could not do all the flow test stand work desired. As an option, the flow testing has been simulated on a computer. Using characteristics of transformer oil as the metered fluid, the new signal conditioner has produced: (1) signal/noise/drift behavior experienced in prior published work, and (2) signal--without noise and drift--with performance of today's commercial EM flowmeters.

  1. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Mosiychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.

  2. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  3. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  4. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter's working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real-time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications.

  5. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  6. Miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Meghna

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a new type of miniature, high efficiency transducer for use in ultrasonic flow meters. The proposed transducer consists of a thin plate of a suitable piezoelectric material on which an inter-digital transducer is fabricated for the generation and detection of plate acoustic waves. When immersed in a fluid medium, this device can convert energy from plate acoustic waves (PAWs) into bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) and vice versa. It is shown that this mode coupling principle can be used to realize efficient transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. This transducer can be mounted flush with the walls of the pipe through which fluid is flowing, resulting in minimal disturbance of fluid flow. A prototype flow cell using these transducers has been designed and fabricated. The characteristics of this device have been measured over water flow rates varying from 0 to 7.5 liters per minute and found to be in good agreement with theory. Another attractive property of the new transducers is that they can be used to realize remotely read, passive, wireless flow meters. Details of methods that can be used to develop this wireless capability are described. The research carried out in this thesis has applications in several other areas such as ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), noncontact or air coupled ultrasonics, and for developing wireless capability in a variety of other acoustic wave sensors.

  7. PROCESS VALIDATION OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gaganpreet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present an introduction and general overview on process validation of Metered dose inhaler.The word validation simply means, “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The most common dosage form for inhalation is the metered-dose inhaler (MDI, by which the drug is delivered from a pressurized container using a liquefied gas propellant.Inhalation is the convenient way to deliver drugs to respiratory tract in treatment of respiratory disease like ASTHMA.The process validation process parameters are derived from the specifications for the device, component or other entity to be produced by the process. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. A manufacturer can assure through careful design of the device, processes, process controls and packaging that all manufactured units will meet specifications and have uniform quality. However, in-process and finished product testing still play an important role in assuring that products meet specifications Validation is defined as a collection and evaluation of data , from the process design stage through commercial production, which establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. MDI is pocket-sized, hand-held, pressurise multiple-dose inhalation delivery system. It delivers small, precisely measured therapeutic doses, greatly minimizing the risk of adverse side effects. A metered dose inhaler (MDI is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is inhaled by the patient. Three consecutive batches of metered dose inhaler shall be taken up for process validation. Based on the results of all the 3 batches, suitable conclusions will be drawn

  8. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm;

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally most mobile hydraulic systems are fitted with over centre valves for safety measures. However, it is a well known that over centre valves in combination with flow control valves may lead to oscillatory and unstable system behaviour if not designed correctly. There are several means...... to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  9. The smart meter and a smarter consumer: quantifying the benefits of smart meter implementation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brendan; Gazzano, Jerrome; Gunay, Zeynep; Hiller, Lucas; Mahajan, Sakshi; Taskan, Aynur; Vilogorac, Samra

    2012-01-01

    The electric grid in the United States has been suffering from underinvestment for years, and now faces pressing challenges from rising demand and deteriorating infrastructure. High congestion levels in transmission lines are greatly reducing the efficiency of electricity generation and distribution. In this paper, we assess the faults of the current electric grid and quantify the costs of maintaining the current system into the future. While the proposed "smart grid" contains many proposals to upgrade the ailing infrastructure of the electric grid, we argue that smart meter installation in each U.S. household will offer a significant reduction in peak demand on the current system. A smart meter is a device which monitors a household's electricity consumption in real-time, and has the ability to display real-time pricing in each household. We conclude that these devices will provide short-term and long-term benefits to utilities and consumers. The smart meter will enable utilities to closely monitor electricity consumption in real-time, while also allowing households to adjust electricity consumption in response to real-time price adjustments. PMID:22540990

  10. The smart meter and a smarter consumer: quantifying the benefits of smart meter implementation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Brendan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electric grid in the United States has been suffering from underinvestment for years, and now faces pressing challenges from rising demand and deteriorating infrastructure. High congestion levels in transmission lines are greatly reducing the efficiency of electricity generation and distribution. In this paper, we assess the faults of the current electric grid and quantify the costs of maintaining the current system into the future. While the proposed “smart grid” contains many proposals to upgrade the ailing infrastructure of the electric grid, we argue that smart meter installation in each U.S. household will offer a significant reduction in peak demand on the current system. A smart meter is a device which monitors a household’s electricity consumption in real-time, and has the ability to display real-time pricing in each household. We conclude that these devices will provide short-term and long-term benefits to utilities and consumers. The smart meter will enable utilities to closely monitor electricity consumption in real-time, while also allowing households to adjust electricity consumption in response to real-time price adjustments.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  12. Smart Metering in public utilities at Celle; In Celle spielt die (Zukunfts-) Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Ingo; Gottschling, Florian; Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Public utilities at Celle have start-up a pilot project to introduce Smart Metering. Presented is the system Meterus of EVB Energie AG by which meter data of power meters can be registered automatically during short time intervals and transmitted via the power grid. It is possible to integrate four meters in the system by the RF system ''M-bus RF receiver E''. (GL)

  13. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  14. 49 CFR 192.355 - Customer meters and regulators: Protection from damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Protection from... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.355 Customer meters and regulators: Protection...

  15. Metering Plan: Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2012-07-25

    This Plan presents progress toward the metering goals shared by all national laboratories and discusses PNNL's contemporary approach to the installation of new meters. In addition, the Plan discusses the data analysis techniques with which PNNL is working to mature using endless data streams made available as a result of increased meter deployment.

  16. Voltage Harmonics Monitoring in a Microgrid Based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the main part of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and are usually able to provide detailed information on customers’ energy consumptions, voltage variations and interruptions. In addition, these meters are potentially able to provide more information about power quality (PQ...

  17. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...) Clinical accuracy for blood glucose meters, (2) tight glycemic control in clinical settings, and (3... allow for better glycemic control by diabetics than in the past. Glucose meters are not only used by... evaluated by FDA. For example, glucose meters are increasingly being used to achieve tight glycemic...

  18. FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF ROTARY WING HEAT METER WITH SINGLE-CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Guang-sheng; Liu Zheng-gang; LI Li; LIU Yong-hui; MA Yong-kun; MENG Liang

    2008-01-01

    Fluid characteristics of a rotary wing heat meter with single-channel were studied through theretical analysis, numerical simulation and experiments. The obtained results show that the number of vanes can obviously influence the heat meter, but the water temperature seldom influence the meter , and the optimal number of vane is 6-8.

  19. Ramp Metering by Limitation of Density and Queue Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Boumediene; Benasser, Amar; Jolly, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    As shown by many works and studies, the control of traffic flow remains the best and the efficient solution of the congestion problems. The ramp metering is a means to reduce congestion effects, it has shown his effectiveness to improve the flow and consequently to reduce the total time spent (TTS) by the vehicles in the network. In Kamel et al. [2008] the concept of flatness-based control was applied to regulate the flow at the mainline section of the road on the traffic flow model LWR. This work was preceded by Abouaïssa et al. [2006]. In this article we have proceeded the same way to set the flat output for a second order model METANET. Unfortunately we were unable to prove that the system is flat and therefore define density as flat output, but we manage to define the control laws in order to respect constraints on density and queue length at the on-ramp. The idea is to express the control variable (the outflow of the on-ramp) according to the output (density or queue length at the on-ramp), then inject it in the system. We use this control method in the ramp metering case. The first aim of the control is to keep the density in the segment where the on-ramp is connected below a density (called the target density YT) for which we have the lowest TTS, and the second aim is to keep the queue length at the on-ramp below a maximum value. In order to evaluate the controller's efficiency and applicability, a comparison is made with traditional ALINEA based controller. We illustrate this approach by comparing the cases 'no control' and 'ramp metering' for a simple network.

  20. Performance of Virtual Current Meters in Hydroelectric Turbine Intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, Samuel F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group

    2016-04-30

    Standards provide recommendations for the best practices in the installation of current meters for measuring fluid flow in closed conduits. These include PTC-18 and IEC-41 . Both of these standards refer to the requirements of the ISO Standard 3354 for cases where the velocity distribution is assumed to be regular and the flow steady. Due to the nature of the short converging intakes of Kaplan hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to characterize turbine flows. In this study, we examine a combination of measurement guidelines from both ISO standards by means of virtual current meters (VCM) set up over a simulated hydroturbine flow field. To this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to model the velocity field of a short converging intake of the Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River, in the State of Washington. The detailed geometry and resulting wake of the submersible traveling screen (STS) at the first gate slot was of particular interest in the development of the CFD model using a detached eddy simulation (DES) turbulence solution. An array of virtual point velocity measurements were extracted from the resulting velocity field to simulate VCM at two virtual measurement (VM) locations at different distances downstream of the STS. The discharge through each bay was calculated from the VM using the graphical integration solution to the velocity-area method. This method of representing practical velocimetry techniques in a numerical flow field has been successfully used in a range of marine and conventional hydropower applications. A sensitivity analysis was performed to observe the effect of the VCM array resolution on the discharge error. The downstream VM section required 11–33% less VCM in the array than the upstream VM location to achieve a given discharge error. In general, more instruments were required to quantify the discharge at high levels of accuracy when the STS was

  1. Laser Coherence Meter Based on Nanostructured Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anczykowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the method for coherence length measurement using coherence meter based on hybrid liquid crystal structures doped with gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the method is able to determine the coherence length of coherent light sources with precision of 0.01 m at wavelength range from 200 to 800 nm for wide range of initial beam powers starting from 1 mW. Given the increasing use of laser technology in industry, military, or medicine, our research may open up a possible route for the development of improved techniques of coherent diagnostic light sources.

  2. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  3. Operating experience using venturi flow meters at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences using commercial venturi to measure single phase helium flow near 4 K (degree Kelvin) for cooling superconducting magnets have been presented. The mass flow rate was calculated from the differential pressure and the helium density evaluated from measured pressure and temperature. The venturi flow meter, with a full range of 290 g/s (0.29 Kg/s) at design conditions, has been found to be reliable and accurate. The flow measurements have been used, with great success, for evaluating the performance of a cold centrifugal compressor, the thermal acoustic heat load of a cryogenic system and the cooling of a superconducting magnet after quench

  4. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  5. Extraction of electron plasma energy distribution function using distortion meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    A new method for direct evaluation of the electron energy distribution function in plasmas is suggested, which involves the use of audio frequencies distortion factor meters. The amount of distortion suffered by a Langmuir probe AC current produced by superimposing a clean AC voltage on the DC probe voltage is measured. Although such distortions are proportional to the second derivative of the probe characteristic at any point when its neighborhood can be approximated by a second-degree polynomial, the instrument function is always sharper than that of harmonic differentiation. The method is analyzed theoretically, and tested experimentally. It is also shown that distortion additionally provides a direct measure of the electron temperature.

  6. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    OpenAIRE

    Ridder, de, J.

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A fluid-flow in the vibrating tube induces Coriolis forces, which are proportional to the mass-flow, and affect the tube motion. Measuring the tube displacement in such a way that the change of its mode...

  7. High-Temperature Superconducting Level Meter for Liquid Argon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bueno, A; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Ruiz, A G

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive devices are customarily used as probes to measure the level of noble liquids in detectors operated for neutrino studies and dark matter searches. In this work we describe the use of a high-temperature superconducting material as an alternative to control the level of a cryogenic noble liquid. Lab measurements indicate that the superconductor shows a linear behaviour, a high degree of stability and offers a very accurate determination of the liquid volume. This device is therefore a competitive instrument and shows several advantages over conventional level meters.

  8. A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.

  9. Compound-taper feedhorn for the DSN 70-meter antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshadi, F.; Hartop, R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel X-band feedhorn was designed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antennas. The feedhorn is a compound-taper structure consisting of a corrugated flared section and a corrugated straight section. This feedhorn is designed to closely initiate the characteristics of the standard feedhorn, while providing the proper phase center location, without adding any significant loss to the system. The use of the existing feedhorn and the ease of manufacturing the corrugated straight section have resulted in major overall cost savings.

  10. OTIS Flow Meter for Offshore Detection of Silent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, A. L.; Brown, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) is a new marine flow meter developed for the novel application of measuring fluid flow rates sensitive to transient pore pressure gradients and volumetric strain. These meters are designed with the potential to detect aseismic deformation in the offshore environment. Upcoming empirical results from subduction zone studies in Cascadia and Costa Rica are to be processed with dislocation modeling. Knowing the role of fluids in aseismic and seismic events will help to characterize the earthquake cycle: what fraction of built up stress is released in the form of earthquakes vs. silent creep events, and in what sequence these events occur. While bore hole studies give significant insight to subsurface spatial and temporal pressure gradients, they are difficult to execute and costly. On the other hand, monitoring fluid flux at natural focused flow seep sites on the seafloor as an indicator of strain, like monitoring water level changes in well bore studies, is a cost efficient alternative. Coupled to the seafloor, the OTIS optically senses, and electronically logs, the concentration of injected fluorescent rhodamine tracer from which the rate of fluids flowing through the sediment water interface can be determined. It has been developed to detect a large range of flow rates at the sediment water interface, 0.01 to 500+ m/yr, at 5-30 minute temporal resolution. The OTIS is deployed in conjunction with an osmotic sampler for post-recovery chemical analyses of pore fluids expelled at seep sites. Initial instrument tests at cold seeps in Monterey Bay coincided with Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter results and confirm improved temporal resolution, and low sensitivity to ocean currents. Presently, an OTIS is placed at the toe of the Cascadia forearc at the triple junction with the Nootka transform fault as part of a modem package for uplink of real time data to a surface buoy. In conjunction with land based seismic and geodetic

  11. The Coldest Cubic Meter in the Known Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellet, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    CUORE is a 741 kg array of TeO2 bolometers that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, where it will begin taking data in 2015. The CUORE cryostat will cool several metric tonnes of material to below 1 K and the CUORE detector itself will operate at a typical temperature of 10 mK. At this temperature, the CUORE detector will be the coldest contiguous cubic meter in the known Universe.

  12. Photogrammetry measurement of the AMiBA 6-meter platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yau De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ming-Tang; Altamirano, Pablo; Oshiro, Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the photogrammetry method as a mean to measure the deformation of the 6-meter carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) Platform of the AMiBA interferometric array telescope installed at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The Platform was surveyed at a series of elevation, azimuth and polarization angles. Photogrammetry demonstrates that the deformation of the Platform is not only gravity-induced but also due to the Hexapod mount actuator. The measurement results verify the predictions of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

  13. Smart Metering. Between technical challenge and societal acceptance - Interdisciplinary status quo; Smart Metering. Zwischen technischer Herausforderung und gesellschaftlicher Akzeptanz - Interdisziplinaerer Status Quo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, Dirk; Doering, Nicola; Bretschneider, Peter (eds.)

    2013-04-01

    The international research project RESIDENS (more efficient energy utilization by means of system technical integration of the private ultimate consumer) investigates the technology of smart metering that is the utilization of intelligent smart meters in private households. The interdisciplinary character of the RESIDENS project becomes visible by different sub-projects examining different formulations of a question from perspectives of different scientific disciplines: First of all, chapter 2 of the contribution under consideration follows up the question, what impact the media coverage on smart metering has on the perception of this technology in the population at large. Chapter 3 reports on the state of the art of the smart metering. Chapter 4 illustrates how a load control of private consumers can be performed by means of the smart meter technology. Chapter 5 reports on the impacts of the smart metering on the procurement of energy in the liberalised energy market. Chapter 6 investigates the smart metering from the customer's point of view. Concretely, the user-friendliness of an internet portal is evaluated by which the customers may follow up their consumption of electricity by means of an intelligent smart meter continuously. Chapter 7 illustrates legal aspects of smart metering from the perspective of the customer, electricity suppliers and distribution system operators. Chapter 8 presents the conception and implementation of an online gaming operation for the promotion of competency of private power customers: In line with this game, the participants may learn to handle smart metering and flexible electricity tariffs in an entertaining manner. Finally, chapter 9 reports on an expert interview in which the smart metering technology is evaluated by public utilities being involved in this project.

  14. Effects of network pressure on under-registration of multi-jet water meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanazza, Chiara M.; Frenia, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to experimentally investigate metering error in a attempt to find a direct link between meter age, network pressure and apparent losses caused by the inability of the meter to accurately register the volume passing though it at low flow rates. The study was performed through laboratory experiments in which worn-out water meters were tested. The results of the laboratory experiments show that ageing and pressure are both relevant parameters for determining meter starting flow. These results were then applied to assess the effects on apparent losses of the age of the meter, varying pressure values upstream of the meter and different patterns of flow rates passing through the device.

  15. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  16. Metering research facility design. Topical report, July 1987-December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.E.; Bowles, E.B.; Buckingham, J.C.; Harrell, J.P.; McKee, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) Metering Research Facility (MRF) has been designed to provide two independent natural gas recirculation flow loops: a Low Pressure Loop (LPL) and High Pressure Loop (HPL). Initially, these loops can accommodate meter sizes of 1 to 6 inches and 6 to 16 inches respectively. Requirements were established for the MRF complex which consists of both loops and a building with a control room, calibration labs, and work areas. All major mechanical and electrical components were specified and engineering designs completed in sufficient detail to provide for construction and fabrication drawings. Construction of the MRF has been proposed in a staged process where each succeeding stage provides new or expanded capabilities. The report primarily concentrates on the design of Stage I of the MRF. Operating ranges for the Stage I LPL are pressures up to 200 psia, temperatures from 40 F to 120 F, flow rates to 6MMSCFD, and Reynolds number to 1.1 million. Corresponding operating ranges for the Stage I HPL are pressures to 1440 psig, temperatures from 20 F to 120 F, flow rates to 165MMSCFD, and Reynolds number in excess of 14 million. In the LPL, a state-of-the-art gyroscopic balance and computer-controlled fast acting flow diversion system provide primary mass flow measurement within an accuracy of better than 0.25%. A similar primary calibration system is planned for Stage II of the HPL.

  17. The Thirty-Meter Telescope project design and development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Strom, Stephen E.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. National Observatories have responded to the call of the astronomy decadal survey committee to develop a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope by forming the AURA New Initiatives Office. Drawing on the engineering and scientific staffs of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Gemini Observatory, NIO has for the past 30 months carried out studies aimed at: understanding the key science drivers for a thirty-meter telescope; developing a feasible point design that is responsive to the science goals; and identifying key technical issues that must be solved in order to successfully build such a telescope. In parallel, NIO has followed the charge of the decadal survey to identify potential private and international partners to fulfill the committee vision of a public-private partnership to build and operate this facility. NIO has now joined with two other groups -- the CELT Development Corporation (a partnership between the University of California and the California Institute of Technology) and the Association of Canadian Unviersities for Research In Astronomy (ACURA) -- to initiate the next step, the design & development (D & D) phase of a joint project that is being called the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) Project. This paper reviews the plans for the TMT D & D phase, including the organizational structure, science requirements, and plans for conceptual design studies, technology development, and site selection.

  18. The 15-meter antenna performance optimization using an interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, William L.; Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, Marion C.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1988-05-01

    A 15-meter diameter deployable antenna has been built and is being used as an experimental test system with which to develop interdisciplinary controls, structures, and electromagnetics technology for large space antennas. The program objective is to study interdisciplinary issues important in optimizing large space antenna performance for a variety of potential users. The 15-meter antenna utilizes a hoop column structural concept with a gold-plated molybdenum mesh reflector. One feature of the design is the use of adjustable control cables to improve the paraboloid reflector shape. Manual adjustment of the cords after initial deployment improved surface smoothness relative to the build accuracy from 0.140 in. RMS to 0.070 in. Preliminary structural dynamics tests and near-field electromagnetic tests were made. The antenna is now being modified for further testing. Modifications include addition of a precise motorized control cord adjustment system to make the reflector surface smoother and an adaptive feed for electronic compensation of reflector surface distortions. Although the previous test results show good agreement between calculated and measured values, additional work is needed to study modelling limits for each discipline, evaluate the potential of adaptive feed compensation, and study closed-loop control performance in a dynamic environment.

  19. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramteke K.H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. In general, MDI formulations can take the form of either suspensions or solutions. Traditionally the preferred route has been to formulate a suspension of the micronized drug substance in the liquid propellant (CFC or HFA. In some cases, additional excipients (e.g., surfactants and/or co- solvents have been added to improve the quality of the dispersion. Quality control testing of MDI batches is applied to the individual inhaler components prior to manufacture, as in-process controls during the manufacturing, and to the finished product. An exhaustive search for new propellants was made at the time of the switch away from CFCs, and it is unlikely that new ones will be found with the necessary physicochemical properties combined with an excellent safety profile.

  20. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  1. The magnetic flywheel flow meter: Theoretical and experimental contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, D., E-mail: d.buchenau@hzdr.de; Galindo, V.; Eckert, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-06-02

    The development of contactless flow meters is an important issue for monitoring and controlling of processes in different application fields, like metallurgy, liquid metal casting, or cooling systems for nuclear reactors and transmutation machines. Shercliff described in his book “The Theory of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement, Cambridge University Press, 1962” a simple and robust device for contact-less measurements of liquid metal flow rates which is known as magnetic flywheel. The sensor consists of several permanent magnets attached on a rotatable soft iron plate. This arrangement will be placed closely to the liquid metal flow to be measured, so that the field of the permanent magnets penetrates into the fluid volume. The flywheel will be accelerated by a Lorentz force arising from the interaction between the magnetic field and the moving liquid. Steady rotation rates of the flywheel can be taken as a measure for the mean flow rate inside the fluid channel. The present paper provides a detailed theoretical description of the sensor in order to gain a better insight into the functional principle of the magnetic flywheel. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by corresponding laboratory experiments. For that purpose, a laboratory model of such a flow meter was built and tested on a GaInSn-loop under various test conditions.

  2. Direct access and customer choice : the meter and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J. [MC2 International Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Energy Service Providers (ESPs) and electric utilities have a fierce challenge ahead of them to find new customers and to retain existing ones. All ESPs looking to the future realize that they will be competing not only on the basis of price alone. New metering technology which provides more information on everything from consumption patterns to power quality data, and software that makes the information relevant to the end user, are some of the means used in meeting the challenges. Load management systems driven by real time price signals, and additional services such as security monitoring and home automation, (Internet access, environment sensing, appliance monitoring and even local telephone service) are some of the others. This state of affairs forces many ESPs and utilities to make commitments to private and public networks based primarily on wireless and telephone-based technology, which creates unprecedented opportunities for communications companies. For example, in California where the Independent System Operator requires hourly reads of meter values, as many as 15 million transactions per day are expected. It is suggested that given these developments, it will be only a matter of time before the databases maintained by utilities and ESPs will be worth more than their transmission wires.

  3. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  4. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  5. KFM: a homemade yet accurate and dependable fallout meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of +-25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM are presented. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM

  6. Excitation signal's influence on ultrasonic transit time flow meter's performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilainis, L.; Kabisius, P.; Aleksandrovas, A.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter performance was analyzed. Ultrasound transit time was used for flow rate estimation. Time of flight was measured using cross correlation processing. Simultaneous channels excitation was used. Ultrasonic signals were excited using low voltage (4V pp) signal generator, received signals were amplified 30 dB and simultaneously acquired by 100 Ms/s 10 bit analog-to-digit converters. Subsample delay estimation was used. Flow rate was varied from 10 l/h to 200 l/h. Measurement channel diameter 8 mm was used. It is complicated to obtain the unbiased reference signal for correlation processing. Various combinations of signals travelling in measurement channel were used for cross-correlation processing. Performance of correlation function and time of flight estimator variance were studied. Variable gain amplifier usually is used for signal dynamic range matching to A/D converter input. Gain influence on time of flight was a subject to study. It has been concluded that gain control introduces systematic errors in time of flight estimator. Influence of the temperature of electronics (pulser, receiver, A/D converter, reference clock etc.) and ultrasonic transducers on the delay estimator was studied. It was concluded that the major temperature-related systematic error comes from the pulser. Performance of the meter was studied when narrowband and spread spectrum signals were used for ultrasound excitation across temperature and flow rate range. It has been concluded that spread spectrum signal allows for better zero flow stability over temperature and lower time of flight variation.

  7. Direct access and customer choice : the meter and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Service Providers (ESPs) and electric utilities have a fierce challenge ahead of them to find new customers and to retain existing ones. All ESPs looking to the future realize that they will be competing not only on the basis of price alone. New metering technology which provides more information on everything from consumption patterns to power quality data, and software that makes the information relevant to the end user, are some of the means used in meeting the challenges. Load management systems driven by real time price signals, and additional services such as security monitoring and home automation, (Internet access, environment sensing, appliance monitoring and even local telephone service) are some of the others. This state of affairs forces many ESPs and utilities to make commitments to private and public networks based primarily on wireless and telephone-based technology, which creates unprecedented opportunities for communications companies. For example, in California where the Independent System Operator requires hourly reads of meter values, as many as 15 million transactions per day are expected. It is suggested that given these developments, it will be only a matter of time before the databases maintained by utilities and ESPs will be worth more than their transmission wires

  8. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  9. A Novel Parameter for Ramp Metering and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Yuanhua; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Feng; Ao, Guchang

    Real and scientific traffic flow parameter are the basis to make efficient traffic control strategy and establish control function and this will leads to an appropriate and impartial reflection to efficiency and equity of control property. Intelligent control is a new development where the control problem is to find the combination of control measures that result in the best road performance and control effectiveness. The problems of intelligent metering evaluation for local ramp are considered. In this paper, a novel ramp queuing parameter-the reduplicated waiting time was posed using the queuing theory. With in-situ traffic flow data, comparison between the novel and previous parameters are made to clarify the advantages of the novel parameter.

  10. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  11. Recent Developments and Qualification of Cryogenic Helium Flow Meters

    CERN Document Server

    Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Serio, L

    2002-01-01

    Flow measurement of cryogenic fluids is a useful diagnostic tool not only to assess thermal performance of superconducting devices and related components but also for early diagnosis of faulty components/systems and to assure the correct sharing of cryogenic power. It is mainly performed on the recovery at room temperature of vapor from liquid boil-off due to lack of commercially available robust and precise cryogenic mass flow meters. When high-accuracy or fast-time response is needed, or individual gas recovery at room temperature is not available, it is necessary to measure directly the fluid feed at cryogenic temperature. The results of extensive testing of industrially available and in-house developed flowmeters outlining characteristics and advantages of each measuring method are presented.

  12. Quantum Metrology: Towards an alternative definition for the meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, Ioannis P.

    2016-08-01

    The motivation for this work came from an attempt to give an alternative definition for the meter, the SI unit for measuring length. As a starting point towards this goal we present the underlying theory behind our approach which uses ideas from quantum field theory and non-commutative geometry, in particular the notion of an odd K-cycle which is based on the Dirac operator (and its inverse, the Dirac propagator). Using physics terminology, the key point in our strategy is this: instead of measuring ordinary length in space-time we measure the “algebraic (or spectral) length” in the space of quantum states of some fermion acted upon by the Dirac propagator.

  13. Astrometry in the Galactic Center with the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yelda, Sylvana; Ghez, Andrea; Do, Tuan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the expected astrometric performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope's InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) as determined using simulated images of the Galactic center. This region of the Galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole and a dense nuclear stellar cluster, thus providing an ideal laboratory for testing crowded-field astrometry with the IRIS imager. Understanding the sources of astrometric error is also important for making precision measurements of the short-period stars orbiting the supermassive black hole in order to probe the curvature of space-time as predicted by General Relativity. Various sources of error are investigated, including read-out and photon noise, spatially variable point spread functions, confusion, static distortion for the IRIS imager, and the quadratic probe arm distortion. Optical distortion is the limiting source of error for bright stars (K < 15), while fainter sources will be limited by the effects of source confusion. A detailed astrometric error budget for t...

  14. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  15. Feasibility of a 30-meter space based laser transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, R. R.; Lenertz, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the application of large expandable mirror structures in future space missions to establish the feasibility and define the potential of high power laser systems for such applications as propulsion and power transmission. Application of these concepts requires a 30-meter diameter, diffraction limited mirror for transmission of the laser energy. Three concepts for the transmitter are presented. These concepts include consideration of continuous as well as segmented mirror surfaces and the major stow-deployment categories of inflatable, variable geometry and assembled-in-space structures. The mirror surface for each concept would be actively monitored and controlled to maintain diffraction limited performance at 10.6 microns during operation. The proposed mirror configurations are based on existing aerospace state-of-the-art technology. The assembled-in-space concept appears to be the most feasible, at this time.

  16. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis......, and compare with other similar works. This paper will provide a proof of concept for building the data management system expanding from the data management of energy sector to the entire sectors of smart cities....

  17. Development of an intelligent adapter for metered dose inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To better coordinate the interaction of inhalation and aerosol release, an intelligent adapter (IA was developed for metered dose inhalers (MDIs. The adapter included three main units: a signal acquisition device, a micro-control-unit (MCU, and an actuation mechanism. To fully study the effectiveness of the intelligent adapter, an inhalation simulation experiment was done, and two bands of MDI were used for the experiment. The results indicated that, when inhalation, the intelligent adapter can press down the MDI automatically; moreover, this intelligent adapter could achieve an aerosol-release time Tr of 0.4 s for MDI A and 0.60 s for MDI B, which compares very well with the existing pure mechanical systems at 0.8 s and 1.0 s.

  18. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber

  19. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come. PMID:24357110

  20. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Cooper, B.W [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, KS (United States); Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ugorowski, P.; McGregor, D.S; Shultis, J.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare {sup 252}Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates.

  1. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    In ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs), the flow direction, the flow velocity and the sound velocity are estimated from the measured up- and downstream transit times. At no-flow conditions, the up- and downstream transit times of such meters should ideally be the same, or the difference should be negligible. This may not be the case unless special precautions are made. In order to reduce the possibility of the meter to detect a false flow at no-flow conditions, USMs are typically ''dry calibrated'' before being installed in the field. ''Dry calibration'' (which may be made in different ways), in general involves measurement of (a) the time delays due to electronics, cables and transducers, (b) the so called ''{delta}t-correction'' (for each acoustic path, also denoted ''zero flow offset factor''), and (c) geometrical parameters. Various {delta}t-correction approaches may be used by different manufacturers, but these are basically similar and have the same purpose: to reduce the false flow detection and improve the accuracy at low and no-flow conditions (''zero flow adjustment''), without significantly affecting the accuracy at the high velocity measurements. The AGA-9 report and the API MPMS Ch. 5.8 standard both prescribe need for ''zero flow verification test (zero test)'' or ''zeroing the meter'', for gas and liquid USMs, respectively. Advances in USM technology based on the electro acoustic reciprocity principle have provided methods for reduction or even neglect ion of the need for ''{delta} t-correction'' of USMs. That means, if the USM measurement system is reciprocal, and operated in a ''sufficiently reciprocal'' way, the ''{delta}t-correction'' may be negligibly small over the operational range of pressure and temperature, and

  2. What Can Wireless Cellular Technologies Do about the Upcoming Smart Metering Traffic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madueño, Germán Corrales; Pratas, Nuno;

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of smart electricity meters with cellular radio interface puts an additional load on the wireless cellular networks. Currently, these meters are designed for low duty cycle billing and occasional system check, which generates a low-rate sporadic traffic. As the number of...... higher rates per device. In this paper, we characterize the current traffic generated by smart electricity meters and supplement it with the potential traffic requirements brought by introducing enhanced Smart Meters, i.e., meters with PMU-like capabilities. Our study shows how GSM/GPRS and LTE cellular...... system performance behaves with the current and next generation smart meters traffic, where it is clearly seen that the PMU data will seriously challenge these wireless systems. We conclude by highlighting the possible solutions for upgrading the cellular standards, in order to cope with the upcoming...

  3. The Research on Metrological Characteristics of House Water Meters during Transitional Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Briliūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the influence of transitional flow regimes on inlet water meters. Four construction types of mechanical inlet water meters (each capacity Q = 10 m3/h were investigated. The biggest additional volume 0,12–0,26% when Q = 0,2…2 m3/h shows single-jet vane wheel meter. This additional volume is less 0,06–0,13% for the multi-jet concentric water meter. The minimum influence of transitional flow regimes was for turbine water meters till 0,1% for all flow range. The volumetric meters are not sensitive for this effect.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Vision and Strategy for India’s Electricity Metering Infrastructure of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeeta H. Relan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the country like India with over millions of kilometers of transmission lines and billions of consumers, task of collecting information related to energy consumption of every consumer is a critical job. The meter reader has to travel a long distance and take reading manually to collect the data. This reading is then feed in a central database. Then the bill gets generated later with help of software. This project intends to reduce this tedious work by automating the process of collecting data from consumer’s electricity meter. This would be done by implementing Advanced Metering Infrastructure that unites all the various metering devices of a building in one network and provides the metering data in real-time, locally and from remote. Here, AMI uses ZigBee to build up high-rise building area network of connected metering devices.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT DESIGN PARAMETERS AND WORKING CONDITIONS ON CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAT METERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-hui; DU Guang-sheng; LIU Zheng-gang; WANG You-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the UDF technology in Fluent software is used to simulate three-dimensional flow fields and to obtain various flow parameters. The standard k-ε model and the RNG k-εmodel are both used to calculate the inner flow field of the basal meter, and a comparison of the calculated results between two models shows that RNG k-εmodel is more effective for calculations of the inner flow of rotary wing mechanism. The influence of tip clearance on the characteristics of the basal meter is studied. The influence of the bottom ribs on the heat meter is evaluated by the numerical simulation method. This article also simulates the flow of disturbance located at the inlet of the basal meter, and shows that a swirl located at the front of the basal meter can affect the stability of the heat meter.

  6. Privacy for the Smart Grid: Evaluating and enhancing Vehicle-to-Grid and Smart Metering approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelmann, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Smart Grid is the envisioned next generation power grid. Key to a Smart Grid are its components with bidirectional communication capabilities such as Smart Meters and electric vehicles. Smart Meters enable a fine-grained monitoring and management of the energy flows from and to customer premises. Customers can use Smart Meter readings to learn their individual energy use patterns. Service providers such as grid operators, in turn, can use them to optimise the grid’s operation. The energy ...

  7. Simulation a Disposable mass flow meter by an advanced FSI Modeling and Finite Element Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    zadeh, Siavash Hooshmand

    2014-01-01

    Abstract -In this thesis a design of a Coriolis mass flow-meter is chosen by considering all advantages and disadvantages and the project requirements. The chosen geometry is imported into COMSOL, because modelling is implemented by FEM and two different physics should be coupled. To consider both applications of the device include measuring density and flow rate, modeling is divided into two parts: Coriolis density meter and Coriolis mass flow-meter. Both applications are based on Fluid Stru...

  8. Theory of errors in Coriolis flowmeter readings due to compressibility of the fluid being metered

    OpenAIRE

    Kutin, Jože; Hemp, John

    2015-01-01

    The compressibility of fluids in a Coriolis mass flowmeter can cause errors in the meter's measurements of density and mass flow rate. These errors may be better described as errors due to the finite speed of sound in the fluid being metered, or due to the finite wavelength of sound at the operating frequency of the meter. In this paper, they are investigated theoretically and calculated to a first approximation (small degree of compressibility). The investigation is limited to straight beam-...

  9. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOUD Z. ISKANDARANI

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter i...

  10. Rem—meter correction factor for measuring high energy neutrons outside concrete shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiGui-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Correction factors of both Rem-meters,the 10 inch diameter sigle-sphere Remmeter and the standard A-B Rem-meter,were estimated for measuring high energy neutron dose equivalent outside a concrete shielding wall and the effects that the emitted neutron spectra become remarkably"Harder" peneetrated through a concrete shielding wall,and the energy response of the Rem-meter were taken in account.The estimated results could be applied in the measurement of neutron dose equivalent for the intermediate energy heavy ion reactions to avoid the difficulty induced by the energy response of the Rem-meters.

  11. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto;

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...... through of the meter data management system (MDMS), and so forming the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) stage of smart grids. We consider a multi-hop system, where information is routed through several nodes which act as DAP. Wireless mesh networks are known to extend coverage and increase...

  12. STUDY ON MECHANISM OF HYDRODYNAMIC OSCILLATION IN VORTEX PRECESSION METER USING LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the anti-jamming performance of a vortex precession meter, the disciplinarian of the vortex precession and the mechanism of hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter are numerically investigated by using the large eddy simulation. The results show that the periodical eccentric motion of the vortexes initiates a hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter. The visualized time dependent flow fields indicate that the pressures at axisymmetric points oscillate with a same intensity and frequency but 180° phase shift. By using differential sensing technique,a new prototype of double-sensor vortex precession meter,aimed to improve measurement accuracy, is developed.

  13. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  14. Development of an Advanced Flow Meter using the Averaging Bi-directional Flow Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced flow meter using the concept of averaging bi-directional flow tube was developed. To find characteristics of flow meter and derive theory of measurement in the single and two phase flow condition, some basic tests were attempted using flow meters with diameters of 27, 80 and 200 mm. The CFD(computational fluid dynamics) calculation was also performed to find the effects of temperature and pressure, and to optimize design of a prototypic flow meter. Following this procedure, prototypical flow meters with diameters of 200 and 500 mm were designed and manufactured. It is aimed to use in the region in which calibration constant was unchanged. The stress analysis showed that the proposed flow meter of H-beam shape is inherently strong against the bending force induced by flow. The flow computer was developed for the flow rate calculation from the measured pressure difference. In this study, the performance test using this prototype flow meter was carried out. The developed flow meter can be applied in the wide range of pressure and temperature. The basic tests showed that the lineality of the proposed flow meter is ± 0.5 % of full scale and flow turn down ratio is 1:20 where the Reynolds number is larger than 10,000

  15. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter is a database and method of communication to obtain the required measurements and to program the meter for any additional needed values. Flexibility is added to such meters by using wireless communication circuits and protocols, which will enable reading of multi-devices from the same source point. Approach: To collect data, critical quality of service and carry out analysis, wireless flow meter reading system is designed, tested and implemented. The hardware and software in the designed system work together, to wirelessly receive readings from meters and then process it in order to obtain an accurate reading for the measured flow. The system makes use of modern communication algorithms and techniques. Also, the system allows for history tracing and analysis. The interfacing hardware uses two-way wireless optical interface to flow meter device. Results: The Hardware and Communication Protocol tested successfully and provided sufficient and accurate data for flow measurements analysis, presented in this research. Conclusion: Such hardware-software arrangement is considered a core for mobile meter reading and control with possibility to add intelligent security algorithms.

  16. 关口电能表计量稳定性研究%The Research of Metering Stability on Gateway Electrical Energy Meters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国学; 李俊文; 苏宇华; 赵言涛

    2014-01-01

    关口电能表在电网电能计量中承担着重要责任,其计量稳定性是关口电能表最重要的指标之一。本文从电压电流采样电路分析、计量关键元器件验证、生产工艺、计量稳定性验证几个方面给出关口电能表计量设计思想。%The gataway electrical energy meters undertake the important responsibility in the electrical energy measurement of electrical grid,also the metering stability is one of the most important indicator mark of gateway electrical energy meter.This paper put forward its designing scheme based on the voltage and current sampling circuit analysis, metrological verification key components,production process and metering stability verification.

  17. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and

  18. Smart meters as an opportunity to motivate households for energy savings? Designing innovative policy instruments based on the coupling of smart meters and non-financial incentives.

    OpenAIRE

    Joachain, Hélène; Klopfert, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The process of deploying smart meters in EU’s households is following its course. Cost-benefit analyses are being carried out in Member States and new Directives are replacing the one that gave the initial impulse. However, throughout this process, smart meters are always presented as a way to reduce customer energy consumption. This makes potential energy savings in households a crucial element in the debate. But what is the rationale to expect energy savings in households and how are those ...

  19. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  20. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  1. Optimized Information Transmission Scheduling Strategy Oriented to Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is considered to be the first step in constructing smart grid. AMI allows customers to make real-time choices about power utilization and enables power utilities to increase the effectiveness of the regional power grids by managing demand load during peak times and reducing unneeded power generation. These initiatives rely heavily on the prompt information transmission inside AMI. Aiming at the information transmission problem, this paper researches the communication scheduling strategy in AMI at a macroscopic view. First, the information flow of AMI is analyzed, and the power users are classified into several grades by their importance. Then, the defect of conventional information transmission scheduling strategy is analyzed. On this basis, two optimized scheduling strategies are proposed. In the wide area, an optimized scheduling strategy based on user importance and time critical is proposed to guarantee the important power users’ information transmission being handled promptly. In the local area, an optimized scheduling strategy based on device and information importance and time critical is proposed to guarantee the important devices and information in AMI user end system being handled promptly. At last, the two optimized scheduling strategies are simulated. The simulation results show that they can effectively improve the real-time performance and reliability of AMI information transmission.

  2. Electricity Submetering on the Cheap: Stick-on Electricity Meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Lorek, Michael; Pister, Kristofer

    2014-08-17

    We demonstrate a low-cost, 21 x 12 mm prototype Stick-on Electricity Meter (SEM) to replace traditional in-circuit-breaker-panel current and voltage sensors for building submetering. A SEM sensor is installed on the external face of a circuit breaker to generate voltage and current signals. This allows for the computation of real and apparent power as well as capturing harmonics created by non-linear loads. The prototype sensor is built using commercially available components, resulting in a production cost of under $10 per SEM. With no highvoltage install work requiring an electrician, home owners or other individuals can install the system in a few minutes with no safety implications. This leads to an installed system cost that is much lower than traditional submetering technology.. Measurement results from lab characterization as well as a real-world residential dwelling installation are presented, verifying the operation of our proposed SEM sensor. The SEM sensor can resolve breaker power levels below 10W, and it can be used to provide data for non-intrusive load monitoring systems at full sample rate.

  3. Size aspects of metered-dose inhaler aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C S; Trujillo, D; Sackner, M A

    1985-07-01

    The aerodynamic size distribution of several bronchodilator and corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols was estimated in both dry and humid (90% RH) air environments with a six-stage cascade impactor. The distribution of aerosol size that penetrated into a simulated lung model were also measured. The size distributions were approximately log-normal and ranged from 2.4 to 5.5 micron in mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.7 to 2.5 in a dry environment. In humid air, MMAD increased from 1 to 26% above the dry air state, but GSD remained unchanged. The size of aerosol delivered by MDI that penetrated into a simulated lung model fell to 2.4 to 2.8 micron in MMAD (GSD, 1.9 to 2.2). In contrast to aerosols produced by MDI, MMAD of an aerosol of cromolyn sodium powder dispersed by a Spinhaler increased rapidly with increasing humidity, 5.6 +/- 0.3 micron in dry air and 10.1 +/- 0.8 micron in 90% RH air. Finally, the factors influencing size of MDI-delivered aerosols, including formulation, canister pressure, physicochemical properties of propellants, and design of the valve and actuator orifices are discussed. Effective delivery of MDI-generated aerosols into the lung is highly dependent on particle dynamics and jet flow, and no single parameter can produce a unique particle size and jet pattern.

  4. Demand response, behind-the-meter generation and air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyue; Zhang, K Max

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the implications of behind-the-meter (BTM) generation participating in demand response (DR) programs. Specifically, we evaluated the impacts of NOx emissions from BTM generators enrolled in the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO)'s reliability-based DR programs. Through analyzing the DR program enrollment data, DR event records, ozone air quality monitoring data, and emission characteristics of the generators, we found that the emissions from BTM generators very likely contribute to exceedingly high ozone concentrations in the Northeast Corridor region, and very likely account for a substantial fraction of total NOx emissions from electricity generation. In addition, a companion study showed that the emissions from BTM generators could also form near-source particulate matter (PM) hotspots. The important policy implications are that the absence of up-to-date regulations on BTM generators may offset the current efforts to reduce the emissions from peaking power plants, and that there is a need to quantify the environmental impacts of DR programs in designing sound policies related to demand-side resources. Furthermore, we proposed the concept of "Green" DR resources, referring to those that not only provide power systems reliability services, but also have verifiable environmental benefits or minimal negative environmental impacts. We argue that Green DR resources that are able to maintain resource adequacy and reduce emissions at the same time are key to achieving the cobenefits of power system reliability and protecting public health during periods with peak electricity demand.

  5. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception. PMID:26284995

  6. Extreme Adaptive Optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    Direct detection of extrasolar Jovian planets is a major scientific motivation for the construction of future extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Such detection will require dedicated high-contrast AO systems. Since the properties of Jovian planets and their parent stars vary enormously between different populations, the instrument must be designed to meet specific scientific needs rather than a simple metric such as maximum Strehl ratio. We present a design for such an instrument, the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) for TMT. It has four key science missions. The first is the study of newly-formed planets on 5-10 AU scales in regions such as Taurus and Ophiucus--this requires very small inner working distances that are only possible with a 30m or larger telescope. The second is a robust census of extrasolar giant planets orbiting mature nearby stars. The third is detailed spectral characterization of the brightest extrasolar planets. The final targets are circumstellar dust disks, including Zodiacal light analogs in the inner parts of other solar systems. To achieve these, PFI combines advanced wavefront sensors, high-order MEMS deformable mirrors, a coronagraph optimized for a finely-segmented primary mirror, and an integral field spectrograph.

  7. Tuning a 2.4-meter telescope... blindfolded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanclos, Kyle; Peck, Michael; Saylor, Michael; Kibrick, Robert I.; Allen, Steve L.

    2014-07-01

    Just as the 2.4 meter Automated Planet Finder (APF) commenced its final shakedown, three significant events occurred: uncontrolled telescope oscillations while tracking, liquidation of the telescope vendor's primary facility, and the expiration of the vendor warranty. Left with scant documentation, few external resources to draw upon, and limited direct local expertise, University of California Observatories (UCO) embarked on an initiative to stabilize the telescope control system at a minimal internal cost. This paper covers the problems encountered, our solutions, and the compromises made when the budget could not support a complete remedy. Specific topics include: measurement and alignment of linear encoder signals, and custom electronics developed to enable precise alignment of the read heads and adjustment of the interpolation electronics; the use of sensitive accelerometers to isolate and diagnose sources of vibration, and to provide immediate feedback on the stability of the servo tuning; procedures used to adjust the servo control loop, and the observable effects of parameter adjustments; assessment and validation of the performance on-sky.

  8. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Els, S G; Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Seguel, J; Bustos, E; Walker, D

    2009-01-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Martir in Mexico, the 13 North site on Mauna Kea and three mountains in northern Chile Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones and Cerro Tolonchar, MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers - SODARs - were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500m, with 13N showing the weakest 16km turbulence, being responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed...

  9. Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.D.P.Kothari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

  10. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  11. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatzen, Morten; Søndergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Lervad Andersen, Niels; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-11-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results.

  12. A reference radiance-meter system for thermodynamic temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. G. R.; Briaudeau, S.; Bourson, F.; Rougié, B.; Truong, D.; Kozlova, O.; Coutin, J.-M.; Sadli, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the radiometric performance of a radiance-meter system which has been built at the LNE-Cnam to determine the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature fixed points. The work comes as an integral part of the ‘implementing the new Kelvin’ (INK) project in which nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) strive to assign the thermodynamic temperatures to the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points with the lowest possible uncertainty. The method used in this research is based on the radiance approach. It exploits a system based on a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source whose radiance is absolutely measured by a trap detector through a well-defined geometry. The trap detector is calibrated traceable to the LNE-Cnam’s cryogenic radiometer. Once the radiance of the sphere is defined, a single grating-based spectroradiometer is used to measure the radiance of the fixed point source at the laser wavelength through direct comparison with the sphere radiance. This allows the thermodynamic temperature of the fixed point to be determined using Planck’s radiation law. The work provides a thorough evaluation of the system along with a detailed study of all related systematic effects and their corresponding uncertainties.

  13. PELATIHAN RENANG GAYA DADA 8 KALI 25 METER 4 SET LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN RENANG 100 METER GAYA DADA DARIPADA 4 KALI 50 METER 4 SET PADA RENANG PEMULA PUTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suarta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports pool in Indonesia are well known to the public, which is reduced when driving (after the end of the recovery to begin hand pull another hand, the breaststroke is the style of the most interesting because it does not quickly tiring when compared with other styles, because the process of respiration take place with ease, making them easier use in long-distance swim, at the start to affect the pace to continue this next movement needs to get training and a variety of training models, especially at students aged 10-12 years. Training pool 8 times 25 times 50 meters and 4 meters is one of the training methods that can speed up travel time. The best training model has not been encountered in the data. So do the research to find a model training 25 meter pool 8 times and 4 times 4 sets of 50 meters. The study was conducted with pretest-postes group design. Samples taken from the novice swimmer Toya Ening on Dalung Badung, as many as 26 people were randomly selected simple. Samples were divided into 2 groups each group totaled 13 people. Both groups were equally give training in the first group to pool 8 by 25 feet 4 sets, and 4 times the second group of 4 sets of 50 meters. 0.05 ab. Differences in results were analyzed statistically with  The data analyzed were age, height, weight, leg length and physical fitness.  13.49 seconds.± 107.69, and 126.38 ±The mean test results of the final 100 meter breaststroke swimming in a row 12.14 seconds  F count the results obtained respectively by 0.95 seconds with p = 0.59 and 0.93 seconds with a value of p = 0.34. Data showed significant differences significant (p> 0.05. These results indicate that the training of swimming the breaststroke 8 by 25 feet 4 sets is better than 4 times in 4 sets of 50 meter speed up travel time 100-meter breaststroke swimming novice men (p <0.05. Suggested the use of breaststroke swimming training method 8 by 25 feet 4 sets to be intensified to provide training pool at 100

  14. Smart meter adoption and deployment strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Limited consumer awareness of smart meters contributes to skepticism. • Data obtained from a survey of energy users are analyzed using SEM. • A CAP index is developed via SEM results to measure consumer propensity for adopting smart meters. • The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors. • Concrete strategies are proposed to help policy makers and utility companies. - Abstract: For countries pursuing sustainable development and energy efficiency, the use of smart meters is considered a first step in allowing residential consumers to remotely control their energy consumption, and a promising technology for conserving limited energy resources. However, despite the growing interest in smart meters, limited consumer awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these devices contributes to skepticism. This study thus developed an index to measure consumer propensity to adopt smart meters in residential buildings. Data obtained from a survey of energy use by Indonesian households were analyzed using structural equation modeling to determine the interacting factors in consumer acceptance of smart meters. Consumer perceptions, expectations, and intentions regarding the potential use of smart meters in Indonesia were also discussed. The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors, and can help decision makers and energy utility companies develop policies and strategies for a “one-size-fits-all” program related to smart meter applications in future residential buildings

  15. Pilot project SPINOZA - branch-integrated metering; Pilotprojekt SPINOZA - spartenintegrierte Zaehlerauslesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Werner [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe Netze GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ruoff, Erwin [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Public utilities Karlsruhe GmbH has started in August 2008 the Smart Meter Pilot project SPINOZA (field integrated on-line metering). The aim is to collect experiences for the utilization of advanced technologies, which are required up to 2010 at least for power and gas supply. (orig./GL)

  16. Agreement of Power Measures between Garmin Vector and SRM Cycle Power Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Andrew R.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if the Garmin Vector (Schaffhausen, Switzerland) power meter produced acceptable measures when compared with the Schoberer Rad Messetechnik (SRM; Julich, Germany) power meter across a range of high-intensity efforts. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists completed power profiles (seven maximal mean efforts between 5 and…

  17. BH5047 type depth sand moisture-meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new depth neutron moisture meter BH5047 has been developed. BH5047 neutron moisture meter is characterised by it is high sensitivity and used for sand water content measurement at concrete mixer. Calibration function is obtained by the Method of Least Squares. Linear correlation efficiency is as good as 0.9977

  18. Acceptance of Privacy-Sensitive Technologies: Smart Metering Case in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabdulkarim, L.O.; Lukszo, Z.; Fens, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years there have been several initiatives around the world that aim to roll out smart metering systems, especially within North America and member states of the European Union. Smart metering systems, giving essential conditions for smart grids in the energy sector, can offer services ai

  19. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  20. 21 CFR 868.1860 - Peak-flow meter for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peak-flow meter for spirometry. 868.1860 Section 868.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spirometry. (a) Identification. A peak-flow meter for spirometry is a device used to measure a...

  1. Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering with Authentication in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Beom Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to the supplier or utility from each smart meter at short intervals has an advantage for the electricity supplier’s planning and management purposes, it threatens user privacy by disclosing fine-grained consumption data and usage behavior to utility providers. In this study, we propose a distributed incremental data aggregation scheme where all smart meters on an aggregation path are involved in routing the data from the source meter to the collection unit. User privacy is preserved by symmetric homomorphic encryption, which allows smart meters to participate in the aggregation without seeing any intermediate or final result. Aggregated data is further integrated with an aggregate signature to achieve data integrity and smart meter authentication in such a way that dishonest or fake smart meters cannot falsify data en route. Only the collection unit can obtain the aggregated data and verify its integrity while the individual plain data are not exposed to the collection unit. Therefore, user privacy and security are improved for the smart metering in a smart grid network.

  2. Effects of Swirling Flow Components on Discharge Coefficients of Elbow Flow Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Mitsukiyo; Kito, Osami; キトウ, オサミ; 鬼頭, 修己

    1980-01-01

    Change of discharge coefficient of elbow flow meters due to swirling flow component was analyzed. The theory based on a potential flow model shows that even a weak swirling flow component which will be found in the flow in actual pipe lines has a considerable effect on the discharge coefficients of elbow flow meters. Experimental verification for this result is also given.

  3. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography.

  4. Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%); however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry. (author)

  5. Design and Implementation of an Ultrasonic Heat Meter Based on MSP430F437

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; HE Yu-zhu; ZHOU Hai-li; CHEN Gong; ZHANG Qingrong

    2011-01-01

    Flowing with the reform of the hot water heating method in China, heat meter will enter into households in the near future. A portable ultrasonic heat meter is designed in this paper. The meter uses chip microprocessor MSP430F437 as the data process core, and uses ultrasonic flow sensor to measure flow rate of the hot water, and capture input and output temperatures of the hot water using the thermal resistance sensor Ptl000, and then household energy consumption is calculated via temperature difference between input temperature and output temperature of the hot water multiplied by volume of hot water that is calculated though flow rate integration of hot water. In order to test the performance of the proposed heat meter, experiments is carried out. Both the temperature and flow measurement results satisfy the requirements of accuracy and the heat meter is effective in the heat measurement.

  6. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of standards laboratory, Q0, to any beam quality, Q, in the clinic. Alternatively, beam quality corrections are measured with an energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography. PMID:26743261

  7. Study on Negative-pressure Precision Millet Seed-metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional millet drilling method has a problem of labor-intensive artificial thinning-out, so a negative-pressure precision millet seed-metering device was designed to realize millet precision dibble seeding. Single factor experiment researches effect of rotational speed and air-chamber vacuum of seed-metering device on its seed-metering passing rate, repeat-sowing rate and leak-sowing rate. By means of orthogonal experiment method, optimal parameters of seed-metering device were defined, which was 20 r/min rotational speed, 4 mm bore diameter, 1.5 KPa air-chamber vacuum and 55 mm air cut valve arc length. The field test result shows that the seed-metering device meets completely standards of “Single-seed (Precise Seeder Technological Requirements” and agronomic requirements.

  8. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  9. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  10. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  11. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  12. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lance; Etemad, Shahrokh; Karim, Hasan; Pfefferle, William C.

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  13. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Florida Atlantic Coastal Transport Study (FACTS) project 07 March 1984 - 01 September 1985 (NODC Accession 8600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from March 7, 1984 to September 1, 1985. Data were...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon as part of the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal project from 13 August 1979 - 27 September 1984 (NODC Accession 9500016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon from August 13, 1979 to September 27, 1984....

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 21 March 1979 - 02 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000032)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from March 21, 1979 to November 2, 1979. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 16 September 1975 - 01 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from September 16, 1975 to April 1, 1976. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 25 February 1976 - 01 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 25, 1976 to September 1, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 17 June 1977 - 01 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from June 17, 1977 to August 1, 1977. Data were submitted by University of the...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 19 December 1977 - 29 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from December 19, 1977 to October 29, 1978. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 23 February 1977 - 11 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7900307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 23, 1977 to December 11, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 14 December 1977 - 19 April 1978 (NODC Accession 8000053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from December 14, 1977 to April 19, 1978. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  3. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 05 November 1976 - 01 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from November 5, 1976 to February 1, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  5. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 02 August 1979 - 09 April 1980 (NODC Accession 9600006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from August 2, 1979 to April 9, 1980. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 29 November 1983 - 01 August 1984 (NODC Accession 8800119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from November 29, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  7. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska/Brit.Colum. as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 15 March 1983 - 01 November 1983 (NODC Accession 8600321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of SE Alaska/Brit.Colum. from March 15, 1983 to November 1, 1983. Data were...

  8. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 20 January 1979 to 26 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 December 1980 - 26 June 1986 (NODC Accession 9400011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from December 27, 1980 to June 26, 1986. Data were...

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 23 September 1980 - 01 December 1980 (NODC Accession 8100469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of Hawaii from September 23, 1980 to December 1, 1980. Data were submitted...

  11. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  12. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Marginal Ice Zone EXperiment (MIZEX) project from 22 October 1982 - 01 May 1983 (NODC Accession 8400014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from October 22, 1982 to May 1, 1983. Data were submitted by Science...

  13. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 01 January 1992 - 17 February 1993 (NODC Accession 9600019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from January 1, 1992 to...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 18 October 1977-10-18 to 1979-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8000284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from October 18, 1977 to June 1, 1979. Data were submitted by Atlantic...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 27 September 1979 - 01 December 1979 (NODC Accession 8100607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from September 27, 1979 to December 1, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) project from 15 February 1979 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8100608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Caribbean Sea from February 15, 1979 to February 1, 1980. Data were submitted by...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 03 November 1992 - 05 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9600018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from November 3, 1992 to...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 13 February 1976 - 01 May 1976 (NODC Accession 7601638)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 13, 1976 to May 1, 1976. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 15 April 1976 - 01 June 1976 (NODC Accession 7601843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from April 15, 1976 to June 1, 1976. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Ocean Prediction Through Observation Modeling and Analysis (OPTOMA) project, 26 September 1984 - 16 July 1985 (NODC Accession 9600075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from September 26, 1984 to July 16, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  1. Development of the Liquid Level Meters for the PandaX Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, J; Lin, Q; Ni, K; Tan, A; Wei, Y; Xiao, M; Xiao, X; Zhao, L

    2013-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few...

  2. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Gong, Hao-Wei; Lin, Qing; Ni, Kai-Xuan; Tan, An-Di; Wei, Yue-Huan; Xiao, Meng-Jiao; Xiao, Xiang; Zhao, Li

    2014-05-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation.

  3. Doses monitoring in radiology: calibration of air kerma-area product (PKA meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Terini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The authors have sought to study the calibration of a clinical PKA meter (Diamentor E2 and a calibrator for clinical meters (PDC in the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology at Instituto de Energia e Ambiente - Universidade de São Paulo. Materials and Methods Different qualities of both incident and transmitted beams were utilized in conditions similar to a clinical setting, analyzing the influence from the reference dosimeter, from the distance between meters, from the filtration and from the average beam energy. Calibrations were performed directly against a standard 30 cm3 cylindrical chamber or a parallel-plate monitor chamber, and indirectly against the PDC meter. Results The lowest energy dependence was observed for transmitted beams. The cross calibration between the Diamentor E2 and the PDC meters, and the PDC presented the greatest propagation of uncertainties. Conclusion The calibration coefficient of the PDC meter showed to be more stable with voltage, while the Diamentor E2 calibration coefficient was more variable. On the other hand, the PDC meter presented greater uncertainty in readings (5.0% than with the use of the monitor chamber (3.5% as a reference.

  4. Making the connection: The relationship between fuel poverty, electricity disconnection, and prepayment metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel poverty, or inability to afford adequate heating for a reasonable outlay of expenditure, is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. The connection between fuel poverty, and electricity disconnection or 'self-disconnection' is analysed for four cities using prepayment metering to pay for electricity. A price comparison analysis on a government-sponsored website showed that prepayment metering was more expensive than other payment options. This website analysis was supplemented by qualitative data from older people with chronic respiratory disease expressing their views about electricity disconnection and prepayment metering. We show that prepayment metering for electricity is more expensive than other payment methods in New Zealand and that older people's insights provide valuable context to these issues. Under the present payment schedule, the use of prepayment metering to pay for electricity is not a suitable policy instrument to address fuel poverty, which remains problematic. The deregulated electricity market continues to lead to increases in the real price of residential electricity and in the number of people in fuel poverty. We offer policy suggestions for reducing fuel poverty in New Zealand. - Research highlights: → Fuel poverty is a significant and under-researched problem in New Zealand. → Prepayment metering is more expensive than other electricity payment options in NZ. → Older people express fear of disconnection and find using prepayment stressful. → Prepayment metering, as currently used in New Zealand, may contribute to fuel poverty. → Better regulation of domestic pricing structures could reduce fuel poverty in NZ.

  5. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms presented in three conditions: 1 Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone, 2 Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3 Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85% when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90% when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%. Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%, as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%, demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses.

  6. Measuring high frequency valve noise to evaluate interference with ultrasonic flow meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. Adin; Fagerlund, Allen; Depenning, Charles; Catron, Fred

    2005-09-01

    Ultrasonic flow meters are installed in lines with particular concern on the location of flow noise sources, such as valves and other geometry changes and restrictions in a piping system. The ultrasonic flow meter operates with a tone burst, typically in the range of 100 to 300 kHz. While this frequency range is far above the typical range for noise control in piping systems, there is good evidence that the flow noise sources generate sound in the operating frequency range of the ultrasonic flow meter. The goal of the work was to establish a procedure to measure the noise generated by piping elements in the frequency range of the ultrasonic flow meter operation. The flow disturbance is placed upstream of the ultrasonic flow meter. The internal noise spectrum are measured at three locations: one upstream of the flow disturbance, one between the flow disturbance and the flow meter, and one downstream of the flow meter. Some available results in the literature will be reviewed along with presenting the experimental setup and preliminary results. The results will show the capabilities of the measurements in this frequency range.

  7. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  8. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L. F.; Abercromby, K. J.; Kervin, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA - Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of gigabytes of image data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Ascension Island offers numerous advantages. As a British overseas territory with a US Air Force base presence, the necessary infrastructure and support already exists. It is located mid-way between Brazil and Africa at 7.93S latitude and 14.37 W longitude. With the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) asset in Moron, Spain shutting down, this presents access to the sky from a unique latitude

  9. The NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Anz-Meador, P.; Barker, E.; Stansbery, G.; Kervin, P.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has relied on using various ground-based telescopes in Chile to acquire statistical survey data as well as photometric and spectroscopic data of orbital debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The statistical survey data have been used to supply the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v.3.0 with debris detections in GEO to better model the environment at altitudes where radar detections are limited. The data produced for the statistical survey ranged from 30 to 40 nights per year, which only accounted for 10% of the possible observing time. Data collection was restricted by ODPO resources and weather conditions. In order to improve the statistical sampling in GEO, as well as observe and sample other orbits, NASA's ODPO with support from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has constructed a new observatory dedicated to orbital debris - the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. This location provides MCAT with the unique ability to access targets orbiting at an altitude of less than 1,000 km and low inclinations (< 20 deg). This orbital regime currently has little to no coverage by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Unlike previous ODPO optical assets, the ability to operate autonomously will allow rapid response observations of break-up events, an observing mode that was only available via radar tasking prior to MCAT's deployment. The primary goal of MCAT is to statistically characterize GEO via daily tasking files uploaded from ODPO. These tasking files define which operating mode to follow, providing the field center, rates, and/or targets to observe over the entire observing period. The system is also capable of tracking fast-moving targets in low Earth orbit (LEO), middle Earth orbit (MEO), as well as highly eccentric orbits like geostationary transfer orbits. On 25 August 2015, MCAT successfully acquired scientific first light, imaging the Bug Nebula and

  10. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  11. DREAM: DiffeRentially privatE smArt Metering

    CERN Document Server

    Acs, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new privacy-preserving smart metering system. Our scheme is private under the differential privacy model and therefore provides strong and provable guarantees. With our scheme, an (electricity) supplier can periodically collect data from smart meters and derive aggregated statistics while learning only limited information about the activities of individual households. For example, a supplier cannot tell from a user's trace when he watched TV or turned on heating. Our scheme is simple, efficient and practical. Processing cost is very limited: smart meters only have to add noise to their data and encrypt the results with an efficient stream cipher.

  12. Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K.

    2014-01-22

    This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 °C and 60 °C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

  13. Development of the Liquid Level Meters for the PandaX Dark Matter Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, J.; Gong, H; Lin, Q; Ni, K.; Tan, A; Wei, Y.; Xiao, M.; Xiao, X; Zhao, L.

    2013-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used...

  14. A Framework for Reliable Reception of Wireless Metering Data using Protocol Side Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    the deterministic protocol structure to obtain side information and group the packets from the same meter. We derive the probability of falsely pairing packets from different senders in the simple case of no channel errors, and show through simulation and data from an experimental deployment the probability...... of false pairing with channel errors. The pairing is an essential step towards recovery of metering data from as many as possible meters under harsh channel conditions. From the experiment we find that more than 15% of all conducted pairings are between two erroneous packets, which sets an upper bound...

  15. The Effect that Non-Recommended Condition Have on Residential Water Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Colton F.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, clean, readily available water becomes more and more scarce. Metering water usage is a way to make users more aware of how much water they use, which in turn will increase the desire to conserve water and to reduce their water bill. When meters are tested in their new condition, it is normally performed under ideal laboratory conditions at constant flow rates. Then when the meters are installed in the field, they often are installed in or experience non-recommended conditions that...

  16. Output of the type 4051 and 4061 period meters during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a digital computer programme for the Ferranti Mercury computer. With this programme startup transients for the recently developed period meters Types 4051 and 4061 may be computed. The reactivity disturbances considered are steps and terminated ramps of reactivity. Due allowance is taken of the variable time constant which is a feature of these period meters. The reactor may be critical or subcritical initially as desired and the initial input time constant of the period meter may be zero or finite. Some representative transients obtained with the programme are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Smart Meter (Gateways). Attacks and implementation of a cost effective security solution; Smart Meter (Gateways). Angriffe und Umsetzung einer kostenguenstigen Sicherheitsloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Christoph [Fraunhofer Research Institution AISEC, Garching (Germany); Sigl, Georg [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Stumpf, Frederic

    2012-07-01

    Smart Meter (Gateways) are a central component of future Smart Grids and their secure operation must be ensured. In this paper, we first present several attacks on actual smart meter and gateway systems. Next, we describe a possible security solution which meets the requirements of the protection profile specified by the German Federal Office for Information Security (BIS) as far as possible with current available technology and includes additional security mechanisms. To realize a cost-efficient solution, we use off-the-shelf hardware for the mandatory Hardware Security Module (HSM) in form of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM). Finally, we give a brief overview on alternative approaches. (orig.)

  18. Is beat induction innate or learned? Probing emergent meter perception in adults and newborns using event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia; Háden, Gábor P; Winkler, István

    2009-07-01

    Meter is considered an important structuring mechanism in the perception and experience of rhythm in music. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological measures, in the present study we investigate whether meter is more likely a learned phenomenon, possibly a result of musical expertise, or whether sensitivity to meter is also active in adult nonmusicians and newborn infants. The results provide evidence that meter induction is active in adult nonmusicians and that beat induction is already functional right after birth.

  19. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  20. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of the conterminous United States, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States,...

  6. Capacitive level meters for cryogenic liquids with continuous read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkov, I. V.; Drobin, V. M.

    The operation of a variety of liquid level meters is briefly considered. Currently used continuous read-out level meters, whose operation is based on the difference between the dielectric constants of the gas and the liquid measured, are compared. The requirements for cryogenic application of these level meters are discussed. An electronic circuit for capacitance measurements with high stability and resolution better than 20 ppm is described along with construction details of capacitance transducers both for liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The parameters of two particular level meters are reported as follows. For liquid nitrogen: measuring length 50 cm; overall error < 1% at full scale deviation (FSD); short time instabilities < 0.01% FSD; resolution better than 0.05 mm. For liquid helium: measuring length 60 cm; overall error < 5% FSD; short time instabilities < 0.2% FSD; resolution better than 1 mm.

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Land/Water Mask of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Land/Water Mask is a 100-meter resolution image of Alaska, with separate values for oceans and for land areas of the United States, Canada, and Russia.

  8. A deployable 4-meter 180 to 680 GHz antenna for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Build and test a full size (4x2 meter aperture) breadboard antenna for SMLS. Demonstrate critical azimuth scanning capability of a 4m SMLS antenna and its...

  9. EnviroAtlas -- Fresno, California -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas One-Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated via supervised classification of combined aerial photography and LiDAR data. The air...

  10. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The New York, NY EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated by the University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory (SAL) under the...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The...

  12. Southern Ocean JGOFS Time Series CTD and Current Meters (NODC Accession 9900167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and current meter data sets were collected in the Southern Oceans from ROGER REVILLE and moored CTD. Data were collected from 30 October 1997 to 16 March 1998...

  13. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii 201301 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  16. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  17. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  18. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2011 and 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cleveland, OH EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,737 km2 around the city of Cleveland and portions of surrounding counties. The...

  1. EnviroAtlas -- Green Bay, Wisconsin -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI one meter-scale urban land cover (LC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  2. EnviroAtlas -- Des Moines, IA -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Des Moines, IA EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Data were generated from the High Resolution Land Cover (HRLC) product created by the Iowa Department of...

  3. EnviroAtlas -- Austin, TX -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Austin, TX EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, New Jersey - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Paterson, New Jersey EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover Web Service comprises approximately 66 km2 around the city of Paterson. The land cover data...

  5. EnviroAtlas -- Paterson, New Jersey -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Paterson, New Jersey EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover data comprises approximately 66 km2 around the city of Paterson. The land cover data were...

  6. Nissan North America: How Sub-Metering Changed the Way a Plant Does Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-30

    Case study - For Nissan, sub-metering data now drives decision-making and has empowered plant staff, helped senior leadership understand the bottom-line impact of proposed projects, and produced meaningful energy savings.

  7. The effect of distorted waveforms on a class 2 sampling electronic polyphase meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until quite recently the electromechanical Ferraris meter has been the principal device for the measurement of electrical energy consumption. The increasing use of electronic load and speed control techniques, and the connection of various non linear loads is contributing to increased distortion of electricity supply waveforms. This is being recognised by Manufacturers, Supply Authorities and Regulatory bodies who are attempting to define performance criteria for electronic energy meters under various conditions of supply voltage and load current distortion. Whilst there may be little scope for improving the performance of a Ferraris meter under such conditions there is every opportunity for electronic meters to be designed with an appropriate balance between cost and performance. (author)

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  10. Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Wiegerink

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for the conterminous United States, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree...

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii 201301 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived...

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  14. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED...

  15. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  16. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED...

  17. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution, Albers projection - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  18. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-09-27

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. EnviroAtlas -- Memphis, TN (2012) -- One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas One Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 2,733 km2 around the city of Memphis, surrounding towns, and rural areas....

  20. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...