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Sample records for btb protein mediates

  1. NAC1, a POZ/BTB protein present in the adult mammalian brain, triggers apoptosis after adenovirus-mediated overexpression in PC-12 cells.

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    Korutla, Laxminarayana; Neustadter, Jason H; Fournier, Keith M; Mackler, Scott A

    2003-05-01

    POZ/BTB proteins influence cellular development and in some examples act as oncoproteins. However, several POZ/BTB transcription factors have been found in terminally differentiated neurons, where their functions remain unknown. One example is NAC1, a constitutively-expressed protein that can regulate behaviors associated with cocaine use. The present study represents an initial attempt to understand the actions of NAC1 within neurons by using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell survival in PC-12 cells overexpressing NAC1 was greatly reduced compared with cells infected by a control Ad-GFP. The morphological appearance of the dying cells was consistent with programmed cell death. Fragmentation of genomic DNA occurred in PC-12 cells infected with adenoviruses encoding NAC1 but not control viruses. NAC1 over expression was followed by the down regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-2-xl. Concurrently, levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 increased following NAC1 overexpression. These observations suggest that NAC1expression in PC-12 cells induces apoptosis by altering the expression of these upstream mediators of the execution phase of programmed cell death. These findings raise the possibility that aberrantly regulated NAC1 expression in the mammalian brain may contribute to programmed cell death.

  2. NAC1, a POZ/BTB protein that functions as a corepressor.

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    Korutla, Laxminarayana; Wang, Peijie; Jackson, Trevor G; Mackler, Scott A

    2009-01-01

    We now demonstrate that NAC1 acts as a corepressor for other POZ/BTB proteins. NAC1 is a POZ/BTB motif containing transcriptional repressor protein. In a mammalian two hybrid assay in neuronal (N2A) cells and non-neuronal (HEK 293T) cells, VP16 activation domain tagged NAC1 resulted in significant reversal of transcriptional inhibition with the Gal4-ZID, Gal4-BCL6, Gal4-ZF5, and kelch proteins Gal4-MAYVEN and Gal4-NRP/B fusion proteins. We also observed similar results with another corepressor, BCoR Gal4 fusion protein. NAC1 potentiated ZF5 mediated repression in Gal4-DBD fusion transient assays. GST pulldown assays further confirmed protein-protein interactions between these proteins and NAC1. Both the NAC1 isoforms demonstrated selective interaction through the POZ/BTB domain but not with the non-POZ/BTB region. Endogenous NAC1 and BCL6 physically associated in CNS regions. Strikingly, NAC1 did not interact with the pro-myelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF), another POZ/BTB protein that is not found in the adult brain. Therefore, we conclude that NAC1 functions as a corepressor for POZ/BTB proteins expressed in the mature CNS.

  3. NAC1, a cocaine-regulated POZ/BTB protein interacts with CoREST.

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    Korutla, Laxminarayana; Degnan, Ryan; Wang, Peijie; Mackler, Scott A

    2007-05-01

    In this report, CoREST was identified as a protein that interacts with NAC1. NAC1 is a cocaine-regulated Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex (POZ/BTB) repressor protein, which mediates interactions among several other transcriptional regulators. In the present study, an interaction between NAC1 and CoREST was detected in neuro-2A cells and HEK293T cells. We found that the POZ/BTB domain is necessary and sufficient for interaction with CoREST. Surprisingly, only one of five mutations in the POZ/BTB domain that disrupts homodimer assembly interfered with NAC1 and CoREST interactions. These results indicate that POZ/BTB homodimer formation is not required for NAC1-CoREST interaction. CoREST demonstrated protein-protein interactions with both isoforms of NAC1, sNAC1, and lNAC1. Coimmunoprecipitation studies show that NAC1 and CoREST are physically bound together. To further support the results, a direct interaction was demonstrated in glutathione-S-transferase pull down assays. siRNA directed against NAC1 mRNA significantly reduced NAC1 protein expression and resulted in reversal of CoREST-mediated repression in cells. This interaction between NAC1 and CoREST was not found for other POZ/BTB proteins tested. Endogenous interaction was demonstrated in lysates from rat brain samples. This is the first report to demonstrate that a POZ/BTB protein interacts with CoREST. Taken together, the results indicate that CoREST may be part of the NAC1 repressor mechanism.

  4. THE ROLE OF MATH/BTB PROTEINS IN EGG CELL AND AT THE ONSET OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. EMBRYOGENESIS

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    Dunja Leljak-Levanić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conserved BTB and MATH domains are presented in a variety of proteins as a single copy domain, together or in combination with other types of domains. Different functional roles have been identified for BTB proteins such as transcription repression, cytoskeleton regulation as well as protein ubiquitination/degradation in which amino-terminal MATH domain is responsible for substrate specificity. Although the function of MATH/BTB proteins is not clear, distribution of these proteins from yeast to human and domain conservation suggest that they are critical in some cellular functions. In wheat we have identified existence of at least three MATH/BTB domain proteins encoding genes (TaMATH/BTB, TaMATH/BTB-Ec, TaMATH/BTB-2c which expression was analyzed in different vegetative tissues, egg cells, zygotes and during embryo development. TaMATH/BTB was found to be expressed ubiquitously, while transcript of TaMATH/BTB-Ec is presented only in the egg cell. TaMATH/BTB-2c is induced after fertilization, with the highest expression level in 2-celled stage proembryo. Subcellular localization of TaMATH/BTB-2c was analyzed after generating GFP-fusion proteins. Besides the complete coding region, deletions of either MATH or BTB domain were fused to GFP. Expression and subcellular localization indicates a putative role of TaMATH/BTB-2c in cell polarity.

  5. Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

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    Daojun Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm.

  6. EOR-2 is an obligate binding partner of the BTB-zinc finger protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Howell, Kelly; Arur, Swathi; Schedl, Tim; Sundaram, Meera V

    2010-04-01

    BTB-zinc finger transcription factors play many important roles in metazoan development. In these proteins, the BTB domain is critical for dimerization and for recruiting cofactors to target genes. Identification of these cofactors is important for understanding how BTB-zinc finger proteins influence transcription. Here we show that the novel but conserved protein EOR-2 is an obligate binding partner of the BTB-zinc finger protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. EOR-1 and EOR-2 function together to promote multiple Ras/ERK-dependent cell fates during development, and we show that EOR-1 is a robust substrate of ERK in vitro. A point mutation (L81F) in the EOR-1 BTB domain reduces both ERK phosphorylation and EOR-2 binding and eliminates all detectable biological function without affecting EOR-1 expression levels, localization, or dimerization. This point mutation lies near the predicted charged pocket region of the EOR-1 BTB dimer, a region that, in other BTB-zinc finger proteins, has been proposed to interact with corepressors or coactivators. We also show that a conserved zinc finger-like motif in EOR-2 is required for binding to EOR-1, that the interaction between EOR-1 and EOR-2 is direct, and that EOR-2 can bind to the human BTB-zinc finger protein PLZF. We propose that EOR-2 defines a new family of cofactors for BTB-zinc finger transcription factors that may have conserved roles in other organisms.

  7. The POZ/BTB protein NAC1 interacts with two different histone deacetylases in neuronal-like cultures.

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    Korutla, L; Wang, P J; Mackler, S A

    2005-08-01

    NAC1 is a cocaine-regulated POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex) protein. NAC1 is increased by cocaine selectively in the nucleus accumbens, a CNS region important for drug addiction. NAC1's role in the cell, however, is not known. Each of the two NAC1 isoforms, sNAC1 (short NAC1) and lNAC1 (long NAC1), may serve as corepressors for other POZ/BTB proteins. This study investigated whether sNAC1 and lNAC1 demonstrated protein-protein interactions with other corepressors. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition reversed sNAC1 and lNAC1 repression of Gal4 luciferase, but only in neuronal-like cultures. Because these inhibitors do not distinguish among histone deacetylases, two histone deacetylases were selected for further study. HDAC 3 and 4 both demonstrated protein-protein interactions with sNAC1 and lNAC1. This was shown using coimmunoprecipitations, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pulldowns and mammalian two-hybrids. Importantly, either the POZ domain or NAC1 without the POZ domain can bind these two HDACs. Other corepressors, specifically NCoR (nuclear receptor corepressor), SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor) and mSin3a, do not exhibit protein-protein interactions with sNAC1 and lNAC1. None showed protein-protein interactions in GST pulldowns or mammalian two-hybrids. Taken together, the results of these experiments indicate sNAC1 and lNAC1 recruit histone deacetylases for transcriptional repression, further enhancing POZ/BTB protein mediated repression.

  8. ABAP1 is a novel plant Armadillo BTB protein involved in DNA replication and transcription

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    Masuda,Hana Paula; Cabral, Luiz Mors; De Veylder, Lieven; Tanurdzic, Milos; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Geelen, Danny; Inzé, Dirk; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2008-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, organogenesis requires a tight control of the balance between cell division and cell differentiation. Distinct signalling pathways that connect both cellular processes with developmental cues might have evolved to suit different developmental plans. Here, we identified and characterized a novel protein that interacts with pre-replication complex (pre-RC) subunits, designated Armadillo BTB Arabidopsis protein 1 (ABAP1). Overexpression of ABAP1 in plants limited mito...

  9. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

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    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  10. NAC1, A POZ/BTB protein interacts with Parkin and may contribute to Parkinson's disease.

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    Korutla, L; Furlong, H A; Mackler, S A

    2014-01-17

    Loss-of-function in the Parkin protein is thought to play a part in causing neuronal cell death in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study explores the effect of Parkin degradation, via the overexpression of nucleus accumbens 1 (NAC1), on cell viability. It was found that NAC1 and Parkin are co-localized within the cell and interact with one another, leading to a decrease in Parkin levels. Moreover, NAC1 down-regulates Parkin by presenting it for ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation, which causes a decrease in proteasomal activity in neuronal cells. Consequently, this decrease in proteasomal activity leads to an increase in the cells' susceptibility to proteasome inhibition-induced toxicity. It was also found that Parkin and NAC1 are key proteins found to be present mainly in the cytoplasm and are co-localized in neurons of Parkinson's disease patients. Interestingly, mutation in the POZ/BTB domain (Q23L) of NAC1 disrupts the co-localization and interaction of NAC1 with Parkin and it further abrogates the proteasome inhibition-induced toxicity. We further observed that co-transfection of the mutant form of NAC1 with Parkin reversed the proteasome activity and 20S proteasome protein levels. These results indicate a novel interaction between NAC1 and Parkin that leads to neuronal cell death, a main characteristic in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Requirement for the POZ/BTB protein NAC1 in acute but not chronic psychomotor stimulant response.

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    Mackler, Scott; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Degnan, Ryan; Homan, Ying; Conti, Alana C; Kalivas, Peter; Blendy, Julie A

    2008-02-11

    NAC1 is a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex) but varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif, suggesting a novel role. We have employed constitutive gene deletion to elucidate the role of NAC1 in vivo. Nac1 mutant mice are viable with no obvious developmental or physiological impairments. Previous studies suggest a role for NAC1 in cocaine-mediated behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated a variety of behaviors associated with psychomotor stimulant effects in Nac1 mutant mice. Acute locomotor activating effects of cocaine or amphetamine are absent in Nac1 mutant mice, however longer exposure to these psychomotor stimulants result in the development of behavioral sensitization. Acute rewarding properties of cocaine and amphetamine are also blunted in mutant mice, yet repeated exposure resulted in conditioned place preference similar to that observed in wild-type mice. Lastly, increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which accompany acute cocaine administration, are blunted in mutant mice, but following chronic cocaine extracellular dopamine levels are increased to the same extent as in wild-type mice. Together these data indicate involvement of NAC1 in the acute behavioral and neurochemical responses to psychomotor stimulants.

  12. COP9 limits dendritic branching via Cullin3-dependent degradation of the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch.

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    Inna Djagaeva

    Full Text Available Components of the COP9 signalosome (CSN, a key member of the conserved 26S proteasome degradation pathway, have been detected to be altered in patients of several debilitating syndromes. These findings suggest that CSN acts in neural circuits, but the exact function of CSN in brain remains unidentified. Previously, using Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS as a model system, we determined that CSN is a critical regulator of dendritic morphogenesis. We found that defects in CSN led to the strikingly contrast phenotype of either reducing or stimulating dendritic branching. In particular, we have reported that CSN stimulates dendritic branching via Cullin1-mediated proteolysis. Here we describe that CSN inhibits dendritic arborization in PNS neurons acting via control of Cullin3 function: loss of Cullin3 causes excessive dendritic branching. We also identified a downstream target for Cullin3-dependent degradation in neurons--the actin-crosslinking BTB-domain protein Kelch. Inappropriate accumulation of Kelch, either due to the impaired Cullin3-dependent turnover, or ectopic expression of Kelch, leads to uncontrolled dendritic branching. These findings indicate that the CSN pathway modulates neuronal network in a multilayer manner, providing the foundation for new insight into the CSN role in human mental retardation disorders and neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Two Homologous POZ/BTB Domains of KCTD Proteins Characterized by a Different Oligomeric Organization

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    Luciano Pirone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available POZ/BTB domains are widespread modules detected in a variety of different biological contexts. Here, we report a biophysical characterization of the POZ/BTB of KCTD6, a protein that is involved in the turnover of the muscle small ankyrin-1 isoform 5 and, in combination with KCTD11, in the ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC1. The analyses show that the domain is a tetramer made up by subunits with the expected α/ structure. A detailed investigation of its stability, carried out in comparison with the homologous pentameric POZ/BTB domain isolated from KCTD5, highlights a number of interesting features, which are shared by the two domains despite their different organization. Their thermal/chemical denaturation curves are characterized by a single and sharp inflection point, suggesting that the denaturation of the two domains is a cooperative two-state process. Furthermore, both domains present a significant content of secondary structure in their denatured state and a reversible denaturation process. We suggest that the ability of these domains to fold and unfold reversibly, a property that is somewhat unexpected for these oligomeric assemblies, may have important implications for their biological function. Indeed, these properties likely favor the formation of heteromeric associations that may be essential for the intricate regulation of the processes in which these proteins are involved.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the kelch-repeat superfamily reveals an expansion of BTB/kelch proteins in animals

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    Adams Josephine C

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kelch motif is an ancient and evolutionarily-widespread sequence motif of 44–56 amino acids in length. It occurs as five to seven repeats that form a β-propeller tertiary structure. Over 28 kelch-repeat proteins have been sequenced and functionally characterised from diverse organisms spanning from viruses, plants and fungi to mammals and it is evident from expressed sequence tag, domain and genome databases that many additional hypothetical proteins contain kelch-repeats. In general, kelch-repeat β-propellers are involved in protein-protein interactions, however the modest sequence identity between kelch motifs, the diversity of domain architectures, and the partial information on this protein family in any single species, all present difficulties to developing a coherent view of the kelch-repeat domain and the kelch-repeat protein superfamily. To understand the complexity of this superfamily of proteins, we have analysed by bioinformatics the complement of kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome and have made comparisons to the kelch-repeat proteins encoded in other sequenced genomes. Results We identified 71 kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome, whereas 5 or 8 members were identified in yeasts and around 18 in C. elegans, D. melanogaster and A. gambiae. Multiple domain architectures were identified in each organism, including previously unrecognised forms. The vast majority of kelch-repeat domains are predicted to form six-bladed β-propellers. The most prevalent domain architecture in the metazoan animal genomes studied was the BTB/kelch domain organisation and we uncovered 3 subgroups of human BTB/kelch proteins. Sequence analysis of the kelch-repeat domains of the most robustly-related subgroups identified differences in β-propeller organisation that could provide direction for experimental study of protein-binding characteristics. Conclusion The kelch-repeat superfamily constitutes a

  15. BTB-BACK Domain Protein POB1 Suppresses Immune Cell Death by Targeting Ubiquitin E3 ligase PUB17 for Degradation

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    Mesmar, Joelle; McLellan, Hazel; Yang, Chengwei; Craig, Adam; Zhang, Cunjin; Moore, Jonathan David; Tian, Zhendong; Birch, Paul R. J.; Sadanandom, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitive response programmed cell death (HR-PCD) is a critical feature in plant immunity required for pathogen restriction and prevention of disease development. The precise control of this process is paramount to cell survival and an effective immune response. The discovery of new components that function to suppress HR-PCD will be instrumental in understanding the regulation of this fundamental mechanism. Here we report the identification and characterisation of a BTB domain E3 ligase protein, POB1, that functions to suppress HR-PCD triggered by evolutionarily diverse pathogens. Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco plants with reduced POB1 activity show accelerated HR-PCD whilst those with increased POB1 levels show attenuated HR-PCD. We demonstrate that POB1 dimerization and nuclear localization are vital for its function in HR-PCD suppression. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we identify the Plant U-Box E3 ligase PUB17, a well established positive regulator of plant innate immunity, as a target for POB1-mediated proteasomal degradation. Using confocal imaging and in planta immunoprecipitation assays we show that POB1 interacts with PUB17 in the nucleus and stimulates its degradation. Mutated versions of POB1 that show reduced interaction with PUB17 fail to suppress HR-PCD, indicating that POB1-mediated degradation of PUB17 U-box E3 ligase is an important step for negative regulation of specific immune pathways in plants. Our data reveals a new mechanism for BTB domain proteins in suppressing HR-PCD in plant innate immune responses. PMID:28056034

  16. Structure of the BTB domain of Keap1 and its interaction with the triterpenoid antagonist CDDO.

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    Anne Cleasby

    Full Text Available The protein Keap1 is central to the regulation of the Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective response, and is increasingly recognized as an important target for therapeutic intervention in a range of diseases involving excessive oxidative stress and inflammation. The BTB domain of Keap1 plays key roles in sensing environmental electrophiles and in mediating interactions with the Cul3/Rbx1 E3 ubiquitin ligase system, and is believed to be the target for several small molecule covalent activators of the Nrf2 pathway. However, despite structural information being available for several BTB domains from related proteins, there have been no reported crystal structures of Keap1 BTB, and this has precluded a detailed understanding of its mechanism of action and interaction with antagonists. We report here the first structure of the BTB domain of Keap1, which is thought to contain the key cysteine residue responsible for interaction with electrophiles, as well as structures of the covalent complex with the antagonist CDDO/bardoxolone, and of the constitutively inactive C151W BTB mutant. In addition to providing the first structural confirmation of antagonist binding to Keap1 BTB, we also present biochemical evidence that adduction of Cys 151 by CDDO is capable of inhibiting the binding of Cul3 to Keap1, and discuss how this class of compound might exert Nrf2 activation through disruption of the BTB-Cul3 interface.

  17. CIBZ, a novel BTB domain-containing protein, is involved in mouse spinal cord injury via mitochondrial pathway independent of p53 gene.

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    Yafei Cai

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces both primary uncontrollable mechanical injury and secondary controllable degeneration, which further results in the activation of cell death cascades that mediate delayed tissue damage. To alleviate its impairments and seek for an effective remedy, mRNA differential display was used to investigate gene mRNA expression profiling in mice following SCI. A specific Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein, CIBZ, was discovered to implicate in the SCI process for the first time. Further researches indicated that CIBZ was extensively distributed in various tissues, and the expression level was highest in muscle, followed by spinal cord, large intestine, kidney, spleen, thymus, lung, cerebrum, stomach, ovary and heart, respectively. After injury, the CIBZ expression decreased dramatically and reached the lowest level at 8 h, but it gradually increased to the maximal level at 7 d. Caspase-3 and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP, two CIBZ-related proteins, showed similar tendency. Interestingly, p53 expression remained constant in all groups. Via flow cytometry (FCM analysis, it was found that the cell death rate in SCI group markedly increased and reached the highest value 1 d after surgery and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm at 1 d was the lowest in all groups. Taken together, it is suggested that: (i in the presence of CtBP, CIBZ gene is involved in secondary injury process and trigger the activation of apoptotic caspase-3 and bax genes independent of p53; (ii abrupt down-regulation of CtBP at 8 h is a sign of mitochondria dysfunction and the onset of cell death; (iii it could be used as an inhibitor or target drug of caspase-3 gene to improve spinal cord function.

  18. Human Nanog Interacts with the BTB/POZ Protein NAC1%人干细胞转录因子Nanog和BTB/POZ家族蛋白NAC1的相互作用

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    韩正滨; 林艳丽; 熊福银; 田利源; 周艳荣; 邓继先; 陈红星

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究人干细胞转录因子Nanog和BTB/POZ家族蛋白NAC1的相互作用,并初步确定作用区域.方法:应用免疫共沉淀、GST pull-down实验验证人Nanog与NAC1的相互作用.结果:人Nanog与NAC1能够相互作用,且NAC1的BTB/POZ结构域对于二者相互作用是必需的.结论:人Nanog和NAC1在体内、外均能形成复合物,二者的相互作用对于人胚胎干细胞的自我更新及肿瘤的发生可能具有重要的作用.

  19. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

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    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  20. Cullin3-BTB interface: a novel target for stapled peptides.

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    Ivan de Paola

    Full Text Available Cullin3 (Cul3, a key factor of protein ubiquitination, is able to interact with dozens of different proteins containing a BTB (Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack and Broad Complex domain. We here targeted the Cul3-BTB interface by using the intriguing approach of stabilizing the α-helical conformation of Cul3-based peptides through the "stapling" with a hydrocarbon cross-linker. In particular, by combining theoretical and experimental techniques, we designed and characterized stapled Cul3-based peptides embedding the helix 2 of the protein (residues 49-68. Intriguingly, CD and NMR experiments demonstrate that these stapled peptides were able to adopt the helical structure that the fragment assumes in the parent protein. We also show that some of these peptides were able to bind to the BTB of the tetrameric KCTD11, a substrate adaptor involved in HDAC1 degradation, with high affinity (~ 300-600 nM. Cul3-derived staple peptides are also able to bind the BTB of the pentameric KCTD5. Interestingly, the affinity of these peptides is of the same order of magnitude of that reported for the interaction of full-length Cul3 with some BTB containing proteins. Moreover, present data indicate that stapling endows these peptides with an increased serum stability. Altogether, these findings indicate that the designed stapled peptides can efficiently mimic protein-protein interactions and are potentially able to modulate fundamental biological processes involving Cul3.

  1. Insights into Strand Exchange in BTB Domain Dimers from the Crystal Structures of FAZF and Miz1

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    Stogios, Peter J.; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose Antonio; Chen, Lu; Pomroy, Neil C.; Privé, Gilbert G. (Toronto); (OCI)

    2010-09-22

    The BTB domain is a widely distributed protein-protein interaction motif that is often found at the N-terminus of zinc finger transcription factors. Previous crystal structures of BTB domains have revealed tightly interwound homodimers, with the N-terminus from one chain forming a two-stranded anti-parallel {beta}-sheet with a strand from the other chain. We have solved the crystal structures of the BTB domains from Fanconi anemia zinc finger (FAZF) and Miz1 (Myc-interacting zinc finger 1) to resolutions of 2.0 {angstrom} and 2.6 {angstrom}, respectively. Unlike previous examples of BTB domain structures, the FAZF BTB domain is a nonswapped dimer, with each N-terminal {beta}-strand associated with its own chain. As a result, the dimerization interface in the FAZF BTB domain is about half as large as in the domain-swapped dimers. The Miz1 BTB domain resembles a typical swapped BTB dimer, although it has a shorter N-terminus that is not able to form the interchain sheet. Using cysteine cross-linking, we confirmed that the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) BTB dimer is strand exchanged in solution, while the FAZF BTB dimer is not. A phylogenic tree of the BTB fold based on both sequence and structural features shows that the common ancestor of the BTB domain in BTB-ZF (bric a brac, tramtrack, broad-complex zinc finger) proteins was a domain-swapped dimer. The differences in the N-termini seen in the FAZF and Miz1 BTB domains appear to be more recent developments in the structural evolution of the domain.

  2. Identification of KLHL41 Mutations Implicates BTB-Kelch-Mediated Ubiquitination as an Alternate Pathway to Myofibrillar Disruption in Nemaline Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vandana A; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Shaheen, Ranad; Todd, Emily J; Swanson, Lindsay C; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Hsu, Cynthia; Clarke, Nigel F; Darras, Basil T; Farrar, Michelle A; Hashem, Amal; Manton, Nicholas D; Muntoni, Francesco; North, Kathryn N; Sandaradura, Sarah A; Nishino, Ichizo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Sewry, Caroline A; Thompson, Elizabeth M; Yau, Kyle S; Brownstein, Catherine A; Yu, Timothy W; Allcock, Richard J N; Davis, Mark R; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Laing, Nigel G; Beggs, Alan H

    2013-12-05

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital muscle disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscles that results in neonatal death in severe cases as a result of associated respiratory insufficiency. NM is thought to be a disease of sarcomeric thin filaments as six of eight known genes whose mutation can cause NM encode components of that structure, however, recent discoveries of mutations in non-thin filament genes has called this model in question. We performed whole-exome sequencing and have identified recessive small deletions and missense changes in the Kelch-like family member 41 gene (KLHL41) in four individuals from unrelated NM families. Sanger sequencing of 116 unrelated individuals with NM identified compound heterozygous changes in KLHL41 in a fifth family. Mutations in KLHL41 showed a clear phenotype-genotype correlation: Frameshift mutations resulted in severe phenotypes with neonatal death, whereas missense changes resulted in impaired motor function with survival into late childhood and/or early adulthood. Functional studies in zebrafish showed that loss of Klhl41 results in highly diminished motor function and myofibrillar disorganization, with nemaline body formation, the pathological hallmark of NM. These studies expand the genetic heterogeneity of NM and implicate a critical role of BTB-Kelch family members in maintenance of sarcomeric integrity in NM. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential effects of c-Src and c-Yes on the endocytic vesicle-mediated trafficking events at the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Wong, Elissa W P; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu; Wong, Chris K C; Cheng, C Yan

    2014-10-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. However, it undergoes cyclic restructuring during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis in which the "old" BTB located above the preleptotene spermatocytes being transported across the immunological barrier is "disassembled," whereas the "new" BTB found behind these germ cells is rapidly "reassembled," i.e., mediated by endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events. Thus, the immunological barrier is maintained when preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones via intercellular bridges are transported across the BTB. Yet the underlying mechanism(s) in particular the involving regulatory molecules that coordinate these events remains unknown. We hypothesized that c-Src and c-Yes might work in contrasting roles in endocytic vesicle-mediated trafficking, serving as molecular switches, to effectively disassemble and reassemble the old and the new BTB, respectively, to facilitate preleptotene spermatocyte transport across the BTB. Following siRNA-mediated specific knockdown of c-Src or c-Yes in Sertoli cells, we utilized biochemical assays to assess the changes in protein endocytosis, recycling, degradation and phagocytosis. c-Yes was found to promote endocytosed integral membrane BTB proteins to the pathway of transcytosis and recycling so that internalized proteins could be effectively used to assemble new BTB from the disassembling old BTB, whereas c-Src promotes endocytosed Sertoli cell BTB proteins to endosome-mediated protein degradation for the degeneration of the old BTB. By using fluorescence beads mimicking apoptotic germ cells, Sertoli cells were found to engulf beads via c-Src-mediated phagocytosis. A hypothetical model that serves as the framework for future investigation is thus proposed.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the expansion of the MATH-BTB gene family in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1-3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the expansion of the MATH-BTB gene family in the grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1–3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses. PMID:24614623

  6. Sexual orientation in Drosophila is altered by the satori mutation in the sex-determination gene fruitless that encodes a zinc finger protein with a BTB domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H; Fujitani, K; Usui, K; Shimizu-Nishikawa, K; Tanaka, S; Yamamoto, D

    1996-09-03

    We have isolated a new Drosophila mutant, satori (sat), the males of which do not court or copulate with female flies. The sat mutation comaps with fruitless (fru) at 91B and does not rescue the bisexual phenotype of fru, indicating that sat is allelic to fru (fru(sat)). The fru(sat) adult males lack a male-specific muscle, the muscle of Lawrence, as do adult males with other fru alleles. Molecular cloning and analyses of the genomic and complementary DNAs indicated that transcription of the fru locus yields several different transcripts. The sequence of fru cDNA clones revealed a long open reading frame that potentially encodes a putative transcription regulator with a BTB domain and two zinc finger motifs. In the 5' noncoding region, three putative transformer binding sites were identified in the female transcript but not in male transcripts. The fru gene is expressed in a population of brain cells, including those in the antennal lobe, that have been suggested to be involved in determination of male sexual orientation. We suggest that fru functions downstream of tra in the sex-determination cascade in some neural cells and that inappropriate sexual development of these cells in the fru mutants results in altered sexual orientation of the fly.

  7. BTB-Zinc Finger Oncogenes Are Required for Ras and Notch-Driven Tumorigenesis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Doggett

    Full Text Available During tumorigenesis, pathways that promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT can both facilitate metastasis and endow tumor cells with cancer stem cell properties. To gain a greater understanding of how these properties are interlinked in cancers we used Drosophila epithelial tumor models, which are driven by orthologues of human oncogenes (activated alleles of Ras and Notch in cooperation with the loss of the cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib. Within these tumors, both invasive, mesenchymal-like cell morphology and continual tumor overgrowth, are dependent upon Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activity. To identify JNK-dependent changes within the tumors we used a comparative microarray analysis to define a JNK gene signature common to both Ras and Notch-driven tumors. Amongst the JNK-dependent changes was a significant enrichment for BTB-Zinc Finger (ZF domain genes, including chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (chinmo. chinmo was upregulated by JNK within the tumors, and overexpression of chinmo with either RasV12 or Nintra was sufficient to promote JNK-independent epithelial tumor formation in the eye/antennal disc, and, in cooperation with RasV12, promote tumor formation in the adult midgut epithelium. Chinmo primes cells for oncogene-mediated transformation through blocking differentiation in the eye disc, and promoting an escargot-expressing stem or enteroblast cell state in the adult midgut. BTB-ZF genes are also required for Ras and Notch-driven overgrowth of scrib mutant tissue, since, although loss of chinmo alone did not significantly impede tumor development, when loss of chinmo was combined with loss of a functionally related BTB-ZF gene, abrupt, tumor overgrowth was significantly reduced. abrupt is not a JNK-induced gene, however, Abrupt is present in JNK-positive tumor cells, consistent with a JNK-associated oncogenic role. As some mammalian BTB-ZF proteins are also highly oncogenic, our work suggests that

  8. The BTB/POZ zinc finger protein Broad-Z3 promotes dendritic outgrowth during metamorphic remodeling of the peripheral stretch receptor dbd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Janet A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various members of the family of BTB/POZ zinc-finger transcription factors influence patterns of dendritic branching. One such member, Broad, is notable because its BrZ3 isoform is widely expressed in Drosophila in immature neurons around the time of arbor outgrowth. We used the metamorphic remodeling of an identified sensory neuron, the dorsal bipolar dendrite sensory neuron (dbd, to examine the effects of BrZ3 expression on the extent and pattern of dendrite growth during metamorphosis. Results Using live imaging of dbd in Drosophila pupae, we followed its normal development during metamorphosis and the effect of ectopic expression of BrZ3 on this development. After migration of its cell body, dbd extends a growth-cone that grows between two muscle bands followed by branching and turning back on itself to form a compact dendritic bundle. The ectopic expression of the BrZ3 isoform, using the GAL4/UAS system, caused dbd's dendritic tree to transform from its normal, compact, fasciculated form into a comb-like arbor that spread over on the body wall. Time-lapse analysis revealed that the expression of BrZ3 caused the premature extension of the primary dendrite onto immature myoblasts, ectopic growth past the muscle target region, and subsequent elaboration onto the epidermis. To control the timing of expression of BrZ3, we used a temperature-sensitive GAL80 mutant. When BrZ3 expression was delayed until after the extension of the primary dendrite, then a normal arbor was formed. By contrast, when BrZ3 expression was confined to only the early outgrowth phase, then ectopic arbors were subsequently formed and maintained on the epidermis despite the subsequent absence of BrZ3. Conclusions The adult arbor of dbd is a highly branched arbor whose branches self-fasciculate to form a compact dendritic bundle. The ectopic expression of BrZ3 in this cell causes a premature extension of its growth-cone, resulting in dendrites that extend

  9. Cullin 3 Recognition Is Not a Universal Property among KCTD Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Smaldone

    Full Text Available Cullin 3 (Cul3 recognition by BTB domains is a key process in protein ubiquitination. Among Cul3 binders, a great attention is currently devoted to KCTD proteins, which are implicated in fundamental biological processes. On the basis of the high similarity of BTB domains of these proteins, it has been suggested that the ability to bind Cul3 could be a general property among all KCTDs. In order to gain new insights into KCTD functionality, we here evaluated and/or quantified the binding of Cul3 to the BTB of KCTD proteins, which are known to be involved either in cullin-independent (KCTD12 and KCTD15 or in cullin-mediated (KCTD6 and KCTD11 activities. Our data indicate that KCTD6(BTB and KCTD11(BTB bind Cul3 with high affinity forming stable complexes with 4:4 stoichiometries. Conversely, KCTD12(BTB and KCTD15(BTB do not interact with Cul3, despite the high level of sequence identity with the BTB domains of cullin binding KCTDs. Intriguingly, comparative sequence analyses indicate that the capability of KCTD proteins to recognize Cul3 has been lost more than once in distinct events along the evolution. Present findings also provide interesting clues on the structural determinants of Cul3-KCTD recognition. Indeed, the characterization of a chimeric variant of KCTD11 demonstrates that the swapping of α2β3 loop between KCTD11(BTB and KCTD12(BTB is sufficient to abolish the ability of KCTD11(BTB to bind Cul3. Finally, present findings, along with previous literature data, provide a virtually complete coverage of Cul3 binding ability of the members of the entire KCTD family.

  10. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  11. Dose dependent role of Emodin and BTB14431 in suspension colon cancer model in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalla, Stephan; Pohlenz, Jana; Garcia, Vanessa; Koplin, Gerold; Fuehrer, Kirsten; Lun, Andreas; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Geier, Caroline F.; Braumann, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background. An “In Silico 2D/3D Conformer Screening” for structural similar antitumor substances to Curcumin was carried out and the novel antrachinone BTB14431 was found. Emodin, contained in several Chinese medical plants and BTB14431 are known to be potential inhibitors of the COP9-signalosome - stabilizing the tumor suppressor protein p53. The aim of this study was to analyze the suppressing effects on colorectal cancer in a standardized rat model (WAG/Rij). Methods. A suspension of C...

  12. Characterization of two novel nuclear BTB/POZ domain zinc finger isoforms. Association with differentiation of hippocampal neurons, cerebellar granule cells, and macroglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Kjaerulff, Karen M; Pedersen, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    BTB/POZ (broad complex tramtrack bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger) zinc finger factors are a class of nuclear DNA-binding proteins involved in development, chromatin remodeling, and cancer. However, BTB/POZ domain zinc finger factors linked to development of the mammalian cerebral cortex......, cerebellum, and macroglia have not been described previously. We report here the isolation and characterization of two novel nuclear BTB/POZ domain zinc finger isoforms, designated HOF(L) and HOF(S), that are specifically expressed in early hippocampal neurons, cerebellar granule cells, and gliogenic...

  13. [Studies on growth of Pasteurella multocida on BTB agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashima, Y; Iguthi, K; Kawabata, M; Kumasaka, K; Okuyama, K; Kawano, K

    1989-02-01

    It has been reported that the Pasteurella multocida does not grow on the BTB agar. Therefore, this medium has been used as selective and differential medium for Pasteurella multocida. However, we have experienced that some of the Pasteurella multocida from the patient's materials grew on the BTB agar. Here, we will report on the studies of the growth of the Pasteurella multocida strain on the BTB agar. Ten strains of Pasteurella multocida from humans and animals were used as the test strains. Those were adjusted to McFarland No. 5 by the sterilized physiological saline and inoculated on the agars. We compared commercially prepared BTB agars from 3 companies and BTB agars prepared by our-self from dehydrated culture medium. Blood, Chocolate, Nutrient and MacConkey agar were also used in this study. As for the growth of the Pasteurella multocida, we checked the pH of each agar and the temperature during the cultivation. The results are as follows: 1) Pasteurella multocida was confirmed to grow on all of the BTB agar. 2) Pasteurella multocida grew most heavily at 37 degrees C and pH of 7.4 to 8.2. 3) The difference of the growth on each agar was considered to be the difference of the pH and nutritional condition of the agar.

  14. Hippocampus-like corticoneurogenesis induced by two isoforms of the BTB-zinc finger gene Zbtb20 in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Nielsen, Flemming H; Ismail, Rola

    2007-01-01

    Hippocampus-associated genes that orchestrate the formation of the compact stratum pyramidale are largely unknown. The BTB (broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac)-zinc finger gene Zbtb20 (also known as HOF, Znf288, Zfp288) encodes two protein isoforms, designated Zbtb20(S) and Zbtb20(L), which...

  15. Dominant mutations in KBTBD13, a member of the BTB/Kelch family, cause nemaline myopathy with cores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambuughin, N.; Yau, K.S.; Olive, M.; Duff, R.M.; Bayarsaikhan, M.; Lu, S.; Gonzalez-Mera, L.; Sivadorai, P.; Nowak, K.J.; Ravenscroft, G.; Mastaglia, F.L.; North, K.N.; Ilkovski, B.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Fabian, V.; Lamont, P.; Davis, M.R.; Laing, N.G.; Goldfarb, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a member of the BTB/Kelch protein family that is mutated in nemaline myopathy type 6 (NEM6), an autosomal-dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by the presence of nemaline rods and core lesions in the skeletal myofibers. Analysis of affected families allowed narrowing of the

  16. Effective Delivery of Male Contraceptives Behind the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) - Lesson from Adjudin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Xia, Weiliang; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, Chuen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubule, the functional unit of the testis, where spermatogenesis takes place, into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Functionally, the BTB provides a unique microenvironment for meiosis I/II and post-meiotic spermatid development which take place exclusively in the apical compartment, away from the host immune system, and it contributes to the immune privilege status of testis. However, the BTB also poses major obstacles in developing male contraceptives (e.g., adjudin) that exert their effects on germ cells in the apical compartment, such as by disrupting spermatid adhesion to the Sertoli cell, causing germ cell exfoliation from the testis. Besides the tight junction (TJ) between adjacent Sertoli cells at the BTB that restricts the entry of contraceptives from the microvessels in the interstitium to the adluminal compartment, drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), are also present that actively pump drugs out of the testis, limiting drug bioavailability. Recent advances in drug formulations, such as drug particle micronization (contraceptives via considerable increase in solubility. Herein, we discuss development in drug formulations using adjudin as an example. We also put emphasis on the possible use of nanotechnology to deliver adjudin to the apical compartment with multidrug magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. These advances in technology will significantly enhance our ability to develop effective non-hormonal male contraceptives for men.

  17. [ACL reconstruction with BTB graft--unusual evolution of knee arthrofibrosis case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Z; Stevanović, V; Radulović, N

    2005-01-01

    Knee arthrofibrosis, which usually occurs after trauma or surgery, can inhibit joint biomechanics. An elaborated interaction of growth factors and other inflammatory mediators initiates and coordinates this deleterious tissue proliferation. Knowledge of risk factors can aid clinicians in helping patients avoid knee arthrofibrosis. Once the condition is present, a history and examination are imperative to institute the most appropriate treatment regimen. Nonoperative measures can be used as therapy, though surgery is often necessary for optimal results. We have analyzed problems in patient with uncommon evolution of knee arthrofibrosis following ACL recontruction with BTB autograft.

  18. Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) inhibits the methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation and potentiates its reversing activity in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate inhibitory activity of methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated protein glycation and ability to potentiate its reversing activity and range of antioxidant properties of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea. Methods: Freeze dried black tea brew (BTB) was used as the sample in this study. Anti-glycation and glycation reversing activity was studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-MGO model. Antioxidant properties were studied using total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and ferric reducing antioxidant power in vitro antioxidant assays. Results: The results demonstrated significant (P Conclusions: The novel properties observed for Sri Lankan orange pekoe grade black tea indicate its usefulness as a supplementary beverage in managing MGO and advanced glycation end products related diseases and ailments.

  19. 也玩一张皮 adidas BTB Print

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEXXXXXY

    2009-01-01

    2008至2009年adidas众多复古鞋型中有以NBA为主题核心的Shooting Star,也有从潮流考虑的adidas Courtside.adidas素以复古鞋闻名.如今2009年的8月最新推出的BTB Print将再次掀起复古潮流鞋风暴。

  20. Nucleus Accumbens 1, a Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad protein binds to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 and has a potential role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, M D; Korutla, L; Jackson, T G; Kalivas, P W; Mackler, S A

    2012-12-27

    Protein degradation is a critical component of cellular maintenance. The intracellular translocation and targeting of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) differentially coordinates a protein's half-life and thereby its function. Nucleus Accumbens 1 (NAC1), a member of the Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex (POZ/BTB) family of proteins, participates in the coordinated proteolysis of synaptic proteins by mediating recruitment of the UPS to dendritic spines. Here we report a novel interaction between NAC1 and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a protein identified as the primary component of ubiquitinated protein aggregates found in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In vitro translated full-length TDP-43 associated with both the POZ/BTB domain and the non-POZ/BTB domain of NAC1 in GST pulldown assays. Other POZ/BTB proteins (including zinc finger POZ/BTB proteins and atypical POZ/BTB proteins) showed weak interactions with TDP-43. In addition, NAC1 and TDP-43 were present in the same immunocomplexes in different regions of mouse brain and spinal cord. In primary spinal cord cultures, TDP-43 expression was mainly nuclear, whereas NAC1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. In order to mimic ALS-like toxicity in the spinal cord culture system, we elevated extracellular glutamate levels resulting in the selective loss of motor neurons. Using this model, it was found that glutamate toxicity elicited a dose-dependent translocation of TDP-43 out of the nucleus of cholinergic neurons and increased the co-localization of NAC1 and TDP-43. These findings suggest that NAC1 may function to link TDP-43 to the proteasome; thereby, facilitating the post-translational modifications of TDP-43 that lead to the development of ALS.

  1. Calcium-dependent potassium channels as a target protein for modulation of the blood-brain tumor barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningaraj, Nagendra S; Rao, Mamatha; Black, Keith L

    2003-06-01

    Even though the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) is more permeable than the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BTB still significantly restricts the delivery of anticancer drugs to brain tumors. Brain tumor capillaries that form the BTB, however, express certain unique protein markers that are absent or barely detectable in normal brain capillaries. We were able to biochemically modulate one such protein marker, the calcium-dependent potassium (K(Ca)) channel, by using a specific K(Ca) channel agonist, NS-1619, to obtain sustained enhancement of selective drug delivery, including molecules of varying sizes, to tumors in rat syngeneic and xenograft brain tumor models. Immunolocalization and potentiometric studies showed increased K(Ca) channel distribution on tumor cells compared with normal cells, suggesting that tumor cell-specific signals might induce overexpression of K(Ca) channels in capillary endothelial cells, leading to increased BTB permeability. We also demonstrated that the cellular mechanism for K(Ca) channel-mediated BTB permeability increase is due to accelerated formation of pinocytotic vesicles, which can transport therapeutic molecules across the BTB. This concept was investigated by using NS-1619 to facilitate increased delivery of carboplatin to brain tumor leading to enhanced survival in rats with brain tumors. Additionally, we showed that K(Ca) channel modulation resulted in enhanced permeability to macromolecules, including Her-2 monoclonal antibody and green fluorescent protein-adenoviral vectors, in a human, primary brain-tumor xenograft model. Therefore, K(Ca) channels are a potential, promising target for biochemical modulation of BTB permeability to increase antineoplastic drug delivery selectively to brain tumors.

  2. EOR-2 Is an Obligate Binding Partner of the BTB–Zinc Finger Protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Kelly; Arur, Swathi; Schedl, Tim; Sundaram, Meera V.

    2010-01-01

    BTB-zinc finger transcription factors play many important roles in metazoan development. In these proteins, the BTB domain is critical for dimerization and for recruiting cofactors to target genes. Identification of these cofactors is important for understanding how BTB-zinc finger proteins influence transcription. Here we show that the novel but conserved protein EOR-2 is an obligate binding partner of the BTB-zinc finger protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. EOR-1 and EOR-2 function toge...

  3. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the

  4. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β3 regulates cell junction restructuring via MAPK-mediated mRNA destabilization and Smad-dependent protein degradation of junctional adhesion molecule B (JAM-B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2015-06-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-B (JAM-B) is found between Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) as well as between Sertoli and germ cells at the apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) in the testis. The expression of JAM-B is tightly regulated to modulate the passage of spermatocytes across the BTB as well as the release of mature spermatozoa from the seminiferous epithelium. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family is implicated in the regulation of testicular cell junction dynamics during spermatogenesis. This study aims to investigate the effects of TGF-β3 on the expression of JAM-B as well as the underlying mechanisms on how TGF-β3 regulates JAM-B expression to facilitate the disassembly of the BTB and apical ES. Our results revealed that TGF-β3 suppresses JAM-B at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor, siRNA knockdown and co-immunoprecipitation have shown that TGF-β3 induces JAM-B protein degradation via ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Immunofluorescence staining further confirmed that blockage of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could abrogate TGF-β3-induced loss of JAM-B at the cell-cell interface. siRNA knockdown and immunofluorescence staining also demonstrated that activation of Smad signaling is required for TGF-β3-induced JAM-B protein degradation. In addition, TGF-β3 reduces JAM-B mRNA levels, at least in part, via post-transcriptional regulation. mRNA stability assay has confirmed that TGF-β3 promotes the degradation of JAM-B transcript and TGF-β3-mediated mRNA destabilization requires the activation of ERK1/2 and p54 JNK signal cascades. Taken together, TGF-β3 significantly downregulates JAM-B expression via post-transcriptional and post-translational modulation and results in the disruption of BTB and apical ES.

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357123379 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :497 PREDICTED: BTB/POZ and MATH domain-containing protein 2-like Brachypodium distachyon MEKDCKSITNVARWVKLLKIDGYCAAKTMGNEDC...PSPEKSVSCIFNRSWISRCLEMCSPFVNEDCSLPVCLKSTGELAASGYLRNDSFTVQCTITVLKEDVPAARIPVKEVSVSSPSLQHHLAELLHNKTGTDVTFLVSGKS

  7. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  8. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  9. High performance hydrogen storage from Be-BTB metal-organic framework at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Xian; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M; Hill, Matthew R

    2013-07-09

    The metal-organic framework beryllium benzene tribenzoate (Be-BTB) has recently been reported to have one of the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptakes at room temperature. Storage at room temperature is one of the key requirements for the practical viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Be-BTB has an exceptional 298 K storage capacity of 2.3 wt % hydrogen. This result is surprising given that the low adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ mol(-1). In this work, a combination of atomistic simulation and continuum modeling reveals that the beryllium rings contribute strongly to the hydrogen interaction with the framework. These simulations are extended with a thermodynamic energy optimization (TEO) model to compare the performance of Be-BTB to a compressed H2 tank and benchmark materials MOF-5 and MOF-177 in a MOF-based fuel cell. Our investigation shows that none of the MOF-filled tanks satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE) storage targets within the required operating temperatures and pressures. However, the Be-BTB tank delivers the most energy per volume and mass compared to the other material-based storage tanks. The pore size and the framework mass are shown to be contributing factors responsible for the superior room temperature hydrogen adsorption of Be-BTB.

  10. Cell polarity proteins and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Mruk, Dolores; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-11-01

    When the cross-section of a seminiferous tubule from an adult rat testes is examined microscopically, Sertoli cells and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium are notably polarized cells. For instance, Sertoli cell nuclei are found near the basement membrane. On the other hand, tight junction (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specialization (basal ES, a testis-specific actin-rich anchoring junction), gap junction (GJ) and desmosome that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) are also located near the basement membrane. The BTB, in turn, divides the epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartments. Within the epithelium, undifferentiated spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes restrictively reside in the basal compartment whereas spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids reside in the adluminal compartment. Furthermore, the heads of elongating/elongated spermatids point toward the basement membrane with their elongating tails toward the tubule lumen. However, the involvement of polarity proteins in this unique cellular organization, in particular the underlying molecular mechanism(s) by which polarity proteins confer cellular polarity in the seminiferous epithelium is virtually unknown until recent years. Herein, we discuss latest findings regarding the role of different polarity protein complexes or modules and how these protein complexes are working in concert to modulate Sertoli cell and spermatid polarity. These findings also illustrate polarity proteins exert their effects through the actin-based cytoskeleton mediated by actin binding and regulatory proteins, which in turn modulate adhesion protein complexes at the cell-cell interface since TJ, basal ES and GJ utilize F-actin for attachment. We also propose a hypothetical model which illustrates the antagonistic effects of these polarity proteins. This in turn provides a unique mechanism to modulate junction remodeling in the testis to support germ cell transport across the epithelium in

  11. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R

    1997-01-01

    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  12. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  13. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  14. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sabarinathan; K Aishwarya; R Sarani; M Kirti Vaishnavi; K Sekar

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that water molecules play an indispensable role in the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The water-mediated ionic interactions between the charged residues provide stability and plasticity and in turn address the function of the protein structures. Thus, this study specifically addresses the number of possible water-mediated ionic interactions, their occurrence, distribution and nature found in 90% non-redundant protein chains. Further, it provides a statistical report of different charged residue pairs that are mediated by surface or buried water molecules to form the interactions. Also, it discusses its contributions in stabilizing various secondary structural elements of the protein. Thus, the present study shows the ubiquitous nature of the interactions that imparts plasticity and flexibility to a protein molecule.

  15. A Power-Aware Branch Predictor by Accessing the BTB Selectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheol Hong Kim; Sung Woo Chung; Chu Shik Jhon

    2005-01-01

    Microarchitects should consider power consumption, together with accuracy, when designing a branch predictor,especially in embedded processors. This paper proposes a power-aware branch predictor, which is based on the gshare predictor, by accessing the BTB (Branch Target Buffer) selectively. To enable the selective access to the BTB, the PHT (Pattern History Table) in the proposed branch predictor is accessed one cycle earlier than the traditional PHT if the program is executed sequentially without branch instructions. As a side effect, two predictions from the PHT are obtained through one access to the PHT, resulting in more power savings. In the proposed branch predictor, if the previous instruction was not a branch and the prediction from the PHT is untaken, the BTB is not accessed to reduce power consumption. If the previous instruction was a branch, the BTB is always accessed, regardless of the prediction from the PHT, to prevent the additional delay/accuracy decrease. The proposed branch predictorreduces the power consumption with little hardware overhead, not incurring additional delay and never harming prediction accuracy. The simulation results show that the proposed branch predictor reduces the power consumption by 29-47%.

  16. Sortase A-mediated multi-functionalization of protein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Sun, Qing; Molino, Nicholas M; Wang, Szu-Wen; Boder, Eric T; Chen, Wilfred

    2015-08-01

    We report here a new strategy to enable fast, covalent, and site-directed functionalization of protein nanoparticles using Sortase A-mediated ligation using functional proteins ranging from monomeric to large tetrameric structures. Easy purification of the modified E2 nanoparticles is achieved by functionalization with a thermo-responsive elastin-like-peptide. The resulting protein nanoparticles remained intact and active even after repeated phase transitions, suggesting their use in biocatalysis, biosensing, and imaging applications.

  17. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    in humans)-a conserved gene family that includes ORMDL3, which has recently been identified as a potential risk factor for childhood asthma. Starting from an unbiased functional genomic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identify Orm proteins as negative regulators of sphingolipid synthesis that form...... a conserved complex with serine palmitoyltransferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid production. We also define a regulatory pathway in which phosphorylation of Orm proteins relieves their inhibitory activity when sphingolipid production is disrupted. Changes in ORM gene expression...

  18. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Kahraman, Osman; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology al...

  19. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Folate is an essential vitamin involved in a number of biological processes. High affinity folate binding proteins (FBPs) exist both as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked, membrane associated folate binding proteins and as soluble FBPs in plasma and some secretory fluids such as milk, saliva...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...

  20. Plant LysM proteins: modules mediating symbiosis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Andrea A; Willmann, Roland; Desaki, Yoshitake; Grabherr, Heini M; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2012-08-01

    Microbial glycans, such as bacterial peptidoglycans, fungal chitin or rhizobacterial Nod factors (NFs), are important signatures for plant immune activation or for the establishment of beneficial symbioses. Plant lysin motif (LysM) domain proteins serve as modules mediating recognition of these different N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-containing ligands, suggesting that this class of proteins evolved from an ancient sensor for GlcNAc. During early plant evolution, these glycans probably served as immunogenic patterns activating LysM protein receptor-mediated plant immunity and stopping microbial infection. The biochemical potential of plant LysM proteins for sensing microbial GlcNAc-containing glycans has probably since favored the evolution of receptors facilitating microbial infection and symbiosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction.

  2. Protein-mediated energy-dissipating pathways in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Anatoly A

    2006-10-27

    Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a well-established fact of fundamental importance to aging and etiology of many pathologies with serious public health implications. The ROS production is an innate property of mitochondrial biochemistry inseparable from the oxidative metabolism. Recent discoveries indicate that in addition to several ROS-detoxifying enzyme systems, which remove ROS, mitochondria may also be able to limit their ROS production by the mechanism comprising several protein-mediated energy-dissipating ("uncoupling") pathways. Although the physiological significance and in vivo modus operandi of these pathways remain to be elucidated, several proteins potentially capable of energy dissipation are known. This mini-review addresses the identity of mitochondrial protein-mediated energy-dissipating pathways and the experimental evidence to their role in controlling ROS production.

  3. EOR-2 Is an Obligate Binding Partner of the BTB–Zinc Finger Protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell , Kelly; Arur , Swathi; Schedl , Tim; Sundaram , Meera V.

    2010-01-01

    BTB-zinc finger transcription factors play many important roles in metazoan development. In these proteins, the BTB domain is critical for dimerization and for recruiting cofactors to target genes. Identification of these cofactors is important for understanding how BTB-zinc finger proteins influence transcription. Here we show that the novel but conserved protein EOR-2 is an obligate binding partner of the BTB-zinc finger protein EOR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. EOR-1 and EOR-2 function together to promote multiple Ras/ERK-dependent cell fates during development, and we show that EOR-1 is a robust substrate of ERK in vitro. A point mutation (L81F) in the EOR-1 BTB domain reduces both ERK phosphorylation and EOR-2 binding and eliminates all detectable biological function without affecting EOR-1 expression levels, localization, or dimerization. This point mutation lies near the predicted charged pocket region of the EOR-1 BTB dimer, a region that, in other BTB-zinc finger proteins, has been proposed to interact with corepressors or coactivators. We also show that a conserved zinc finger-like motif in EOR-2 is required for binding to EOR-1, that the interaction between EOR-1 and EOR-2 is direct, and that EOR-2 can bind to the human BTB-zinc finger protein PLZF. We propose that EOR-2 defines a new family of cofactors for BTB-zinc finger transcription factors that may have conserved roles in other organisms. PMID:20065070

  4. Role of protein-protein interactions in cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sylvie E; Lampe, Jed N

    2014-09-15

    Through their unique oxidative chemistry, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) catalyze the elimination of most drugs and toxins from the human body. Protein-protein interactions play a critical role in this process. Historically, the study of CYP-protein interactions has focused on their electron transfer partners and allosteric mediators, cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. However, CYPs can bind other proteins that also affect CYP function. Some examples include the progesterone receptor membrane component 1, damage resistance protein 1, human and bovine serum albumin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in addition to other CYP isoforms. Furthermore, disruption of these interactions can lead to altered paths of metabolism and the production of toxic metabolites. In this review, we summarize the available evidence for CYP protein-protein interactions from the literature and offer a discussion of the potential impact of future studies aimed at characterizing noncanonical protein-protein interactions with CYP enzymes.

  5. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  6. Efficient isolation and elution of cellular proteins using aptamer-mediated protein precipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiseok; Lee, SeungJin; Ryu, Sungho; Han, Dongil

    2014-05-23

    Protein precipitation is one of the most widely used methods for antigen detection and purification in biological research. We developed a reproducible aptamer-mediated magnetic protein precipitation method that is able to efficiently capture, purify and isolate the target proteins. We discovered DNA aptamers having individually high affinity and specificity against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human insulin receptor (INSR). Using aptamers and magnetic beads, we showed it is highly efficient technique to enrich endogenous proteins complex and is applicable to identify physiologically relevant protein-protein interactions with minimized nonspecific binding of proteins. The results presented here indicate that aptamers would be applicable as a useful and cost-effective tool to identify the presence of the particular target protein with their specific protein partners.

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Protein Quality Control in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A correct three-dimensional structure is crucial for the physiological functions of a protein, yet the folding of proteins to acquire native conformation is a fundamentally error-prone process. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-mediated protein quality control (ERQC mechanism to monitor folding processes of secretory and membrane proteins, allowing export of only correctly folded proteins to their physiological destinations, retaining incompletely/mis-folded ones in the ER for additional folding attempts, marking and removing terminally-misfolded ones via a unique multiple-step degradation process known as ER-associate degradation (ERAD. Most of our current knowledge on ERQC and ERAD came from genetic and biochemical investigations in yeast and mammalian cells. Recent studies in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovered homologous components and similar mechanisms in plants for monitoring protein folding and for retaining, repairing, and removing misfolded proteins. These studies also revealed critical roles of the plant ERQC/ERAD systems in regulating important biochemical/physiological processes, such as abiotic stress tolerance and plant defense. In this review, we discuss our current understanding about the molecular components and biochemical mechanisms of the plant ERQC/ERAD system in comparison to yeast and mammalian systems.

  8. Semisynthesis of Ribonuclease A using Intein-Mediated Protein Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-natural amino acid residues or modules into proteins provides a new means to explore the basis for conformational stability, folding/unfolding behavior, or biological function. We exploited intein-mediated protein ligation to produce a semisynthetic ribonuclease A. Of the 124 residues of RNase A, residues 1–94 were linked to an intein. After expression of the fusion protein and thiol-induced cleavage, the RNase A(1–94 fragment possessed a C-terminal thioester. A peptide identical to the C-terminal residues 95–124 of RNase A (with residue 95 being cysteine was successfully ligated to that thioester thereby reconstituting full-length wild-type RNase A. In mass spectrometry, this semisynthetic RNase A proved to be undistinguishable from the control protein, namely recombinant wild-type RNase A. Recombinant wild-type RNase A was obtained by expression of RNase A(1–124–intein fusion protein followed by thiol-induced cleavage and hydrolysis of the thioester. Both proteins showed thermal stabilities (Tm and catalytic activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme, indicating that both proteins folded properly. These results might serve as basis for the semisynthesis of RNase A variants containing non-natural modules in the aforementioned peptide.

  9. Morphology, biophysical properties and protein-mediated fusion of archaeosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vid Šuštar

    Full Text Available As variance from standard phospholipids of eubacteria and eukaryotes, archaebacterial diether phospholipids contain branched alcohol chains (phytanol linked to glycerol exclusively with ether bonds. Giant vesicles (GVs constituted of different species of archaebacterial diether phospholipids and glycolipids (archaeosomes were prepared by electroformation and observed under a phase contrast and/or fluorescence microscope. Archaebacterial lipids and different mixtures of archaebacterial and standard lipids formed GVs which were analysed for size, yield and ability to adhere to each other due to the mediating effects of certain plasma proteins. GVs constituted of different proportions of archaeal or standard phosphatidylcholine were compared. In nonarchaebacterial GVs (in form of multilamellar lipid vesicles, MLVs the main transition was detected at T(m = 34. 2°C with an enthalpy of ΔH = 0.68 kcal/mol, whereas in archaebacterial GVs (MLVs we did not observe the main phase transition in the range between 10 and 70°C. GVs constituted of archaebacterial lipids were subject to attractive interaction mediated by beta 2 glycoprotein I and by heparin. The adhesion constant of beta 2 glycoprotein I-mediated adhesion determined from adhesion angle between adhered GVs was in the range of 10(-8 J/m(2. In the course of protein mediated adhesion, lateral segregation of the membrane components and presence of thin tubular membranous structures were observed. The ability of archaebacterial diether lipids to combine with standard lipids in bilayers and their compatibility with adhesion-mediating molecules offer further evidence that archaebacterial lipids are appropriate for the design of drug carriers.

  10. Contextual specificity in peptide-mediated protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Stein

    Full Text Available Most biological processes are regulated through complex networks of transient protein interactions where a globular domain in one protein recognizes a linear peptide from another, creating a relatively small contact interface. Although sufficient to ensure binding, these linear motifs alone are usually too short to achieve the high specificity observed, and additional contacts are often encoded in the residues surrounding the motif (i.e. the context. Here, we systematically identified all instances of peptide-mediated protein interactions of known three-dimensional structure and used them to investigate the individual contribution of motif and context to the global binding energy. We found that, on average, the context is responsible for roughly 20% of the binding and plays a crucial role in determining interaction specificity, by either improving the affinity with the native partner or impeding non-native interactions. We also studied and quantified the topological and energetic variability of interaction interfaces, finding a much higher heterogeneity in the context residues than in the consensus binding motifs. Our analysis partially reveals the molecular mechanisms responsible for the dynamic nature of peptide-mediated interactions, and suggests a global evolutionary mechanism to maximise the binding specificity. Finally, we investigated the viability of non-native interactions and highlight cases of potential cross-reaction that might compensate for individual protein failure and establish backup circuits to increase the robustness of cell networks.

  11. Infectious Keratitis: Secreted Bacterial Proteins That Mediate Corneal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Marquart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular bacterial infections are universally treated with antibiotics, which can eliminate the organism but cannot reverse the damage caused by bacterial products already present. The three very common causes of bacterial keratitis—Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae—all produce proteins that directly or indirectly cause damage to the cornea that can result in reduced vision despite antibiotic treatment. Most, but not all, of these proteins are secreted toxins and enzymes that mediate host cell death, degradation of stromal collagen, cleavage of host cell surface molecules, or induction of a damaging inflammatory response. Studies of these bacterial pathogens have determined the proteins of interest that could be targets for future therapeutic options for decreasing corneal damage.

  12. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein SIT Inhibits TCR-Mediated Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Börge; Krieger, Tina; Kalinski, Thomas; Thielitz, Anja; Reinhold, Dirk; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) organize signaling complexes at the plasma membrane, and thus function as critical linkers and integrators of signaling cascades downstream of antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT regulates the threshold for thymocyte selection. Moreover, T cells from SIT-deficient mice are hyperresponsive to CD3 stimulation and undergo enhanced lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation, thus indicating that SIT inhibits TCR-mediated signaling. Here, we have further addressed how SIT regulates signaling cascades in T cells. We demonstrate that the loss of SIT enhances TCR-mediated Akt activation and increased phosphorylation/inactivation of Foxo1, a transcription factor of the Forkhead family that inhibits cell cycle progression and regulates T-cell homeostasis. We have also shown that CD4+ T cells from SIT-deficient mice display increased CD69 and CD40L expression indicating an altered activation status. Additional biochemical analyses further revealed that suppression of SIT expression by RNAi in human T cells resulted in an enhanced proximal TCR signaling. In summary, the data identify SIT as an important modulator of TCR-mediated signaling that regulates T-cell activation, homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:21957439

  13. Cubilin and amnionless mediate protein reabsorption in Drosophila nephrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujian; Zhao, Ying; Chao, Yufang; Muir, Katherine; Han, Zhe

    2013-02-01

    The insect nephrocyte and the mammalian glomerular podocyte are similar with regard to filtration, but it remains unclear whether there is an organ or cell type in flies that reabsorbs proteins. Here, we show that the Drosophila nephrocyte has molecular, structural, and functional similarities to the renal proximal tubule cell. We screened for genes required for nephrocyte function and identified two Drosophila genes encoding orthologs of mammalian cubilin and amnionless (AMN), two major receptors for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In Drosophila, expression of dCubilin and dAMN is specific to nephrocytes, where they function as co-receptors for protein uptake. Targeted expression of human AMN in Drosophila nephrocytes was sufficient to rescue defective protein uptake induced by dAMN knockdown, suggesting evolutionary conservation of Cubilin/AMN co-receptors function from flies to humans. Furthermore, we found that Cubilin/AMN-mediated protein reabsorption is required for the maintenance of nephrocyte ultrastructure and fly survival under conditions of toxic stress. In conclusion, the insect nephrocyte combines filtration with protein reabsorption, using evolutionarily conserved genes and subcellular structures, suggesting that it can serve as a simplified model for both podocytes and the renal proximal tubule.

  14. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Protein BAG3 Negatively Regulates Ebola and Marburg VP40-Mediated Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Sagum, Cari A.; Bedford, Mark T.; Sudol, Marius; Han, Ziying

    2017-01-01

    Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins. Using this unbiased approach, we identified BCL2 Associated Athanogene 3 (BAG3), a member of the BAG family of molecular chaperone proteins, as a specific VP40 PPxY interactor. Here, we demonstrate that the WW-domain of BAG3 interacts with the PPxY motif of both EBOV and MARV VP40 and, unexpectedly, inhibits budding of both eVP40 and mVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as infectious VSV-EBOV recombinants. BAG3 is a stress induced protein that regulates cellular protein homeostasis and cell survival through chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Interestingly, our results show that BAG3 alters the intracellular localization of VP40 by sequestering VP40 away from the plasma membrane. As BAG3 is the first WW-domain interactor identified that negatively regulates budding of VP40 VLPs and infectious virus, we propose that the chaperone-mediated autophagy function of BAG3 represents a specific host defense strategy to counteract the function of VP40 in promoting efficient egress and spread of virus particles. PMID:28076420

  15. Revisiting Apoplastic Auxin Signaling Mediated by AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingxiao; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) functions as an apoplastic auxin receptor, and is known to be involved in the post-transcriptional process, and largely independent of the already well-known SKP-cullin-F-box-transport inhibitor response (TIR1) /auxin signaling F-box (AFB) (SCF(TIR1/AFB)) pathway. In the past 10 years, several key components downstream of ABP1 have been reported. After perceiving the auxin signal, ABP1 interacts, directly or indirectly, with plasma membrane (PM)-localized transmembrane proteins, transmembrane kinase (TMK) or SPIKE1 (SPK1), or other unidentified proteins, which transfer the signal into the cell to the Rho of plants (ROP). ROPs interact with their effectors, such as the ROP interactive CRIB motif-containing protein (RIC), to regulate the endocytosis/exocytosis of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins to mediate polar auxin transport across the PM. Additionally, ABP1 is a negative regulator of the traditional SCF(TIR1/AFB) auxin signaling pathway. However, Gao et al. (2015) very recently reported that ABP1 is not a key component in auxin signaling, and the famous abp1-1 and abp1-5 mutant Arabidopsis lines are being called into question because of possible additional mutantion sites, making it necessary to reevaluate ABP1. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the history of ABP1 research.

  16. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins.

  17. Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epel, Boris; Slutter, Claire S; Neese, Frank

    2002-01-01

    High field (W-band, 95 GHz) pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements were carried out on a number of proteins that contain the mixed-valence, binuclear electron-mediating Cu(A) center. These include nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), the recombinant water-soluble fragment...... of subunit II of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c oxidase (COX) ba(3) (M160T9), its M160QT0 mutant, where the weak axial methionine ligand has been replaced by a glutamine, and the engineered "purple" azurin (purpAz). The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of these proteins, apart from the mutant, are known......-D structures and compared with the experimental spectra. It was found that the width of the powder patterns of the weakly coupled protons recorded at g(perpendicular) is mainly determined by the histidine H(epsilon)(1) protons. Furthermore, the splitting in the outer wings of these powder patterns...

  18. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  19. Standard Operating Procedures, ethical and legal regulations in BTB (Brain/Tissue/Bio) banking: what is still missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Rivka

    2008-09-01

    The use of human biological specimens in scientific research is the focus of current international public and professional concern and a major issue in bioethics in general. Brain/Tissue/Bio banks (BTB-banks) are a rapid developing sector; each of these banks acts locally as a steering unit for the establishment of the local Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the legal regulations and ethical guidelines to be followed in the procurement and dissemination of research specimens. An appropriat Code of Conduct is crucial to a successful operation of the banks and the research application they handle. What are we still missing ? (1) Adequate funding for research BTB-banks. (2) Standard evaluation protocls for audit of BTB-bank performance. (3) Internationally accepted SOP's which will facilitate exchange and sharing of specimens and data with the scientific community. (4) Internationally accepted Code of Conduct. In the present paper we review the most pressing organizational, methodological, medico-legal and ethical issues involved in BTB-banking; funding, auditing, procurement, management/handling, dissemination and sharing of specimens, confidentiality and data protection, genetic testing, "financial gain" and safety measures. Taking into consideration the huge variety of the specimens stored in different repositories and the enormous differences in medico-legal systems and ethics regulations in different countries it is strongly recommend that the health-care systems and institutions who host BTB-Banks will put more efforts in getting adequate funding for the infrastructure and daily activities. The BTB-banks should define evaluation protocols, SOPs and their Code of Conduct. This in turn will enable the banks to share the collected specimens and data with the largest possible number of researchers and aim at a maximal scientific spin-off and advance in public health research.

  20. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  1. Lipid-mediated protein functionalization of electrospun polycaprolactone fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cohn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL fibers are plasma-treated and chemically conjugated with cholesteryl succinyl silane (CSS. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, an immobilization study of DiO as a fluorescent probe of lipid membranes provides evidence supporting the CSS coating of plasma-treated PCL fibers. Further, anti-CD20 antibodies are used as a model protein to evaluate the potential of lipid-mediated protein immobilization as a mechanism to functionalize the CSS-PCL fiber scaffolds. Upon anti-CD20 functionalization, the CSS-PCL fiber scaffolds capture Granta-22 cells 2.4 times more than the PCL control does, although the two fiber scaffolds immobilize a comparable amount of anti-CD20. Taken together, results from the present study demonstrate that the CSS coating and CSS-mediated antibody immobilization offers an appealing strategy to functionalize electrospun synthetic polymer fibers and confer cell-specific functions on the fiber scaffolds, which can be mechanically robust but often lack biological functions.

  2. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Catrina M; Bialas, Nathan J; Dekkers, Martijn P J; Walker, Denise S; Grundy, Laura J; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Leroux, Michel R

    2016-07-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-associated ciliary components. Roles for protofilament ribbon-associated proteins in nonmotile cilia and cellular signaling have not been investigated. We show that PACRG localizes to a small subset of nonmotile cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting an evolutionary adaptation for mediating specific sensory/signaling functions. We find that it influences a learning behavior known as gustatory plasticity, in which it is functionally coupled to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. We also demonstrate that PACRG promotes longevity in C. elegans by acting upstream of the lifespan-promoting FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and likely upstream of insulin/IGF signaling. Our findings establish previously unrecognized sensory/signaling functions for PACRG and point to a role for this protein in promoting longevity. Furthermore, our work suggests additional ciliary motility-signaling connections, since EFHC1 (EF-hand containing 1), a potential PACRG interaction partner similarly associated with the protofilament ribbon and ciliary motility, also positively regulates lifespan.

  3. 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts: Key mediator in Rett syndrome oxinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Carlo; Hayek, Joussef

    2017-01-05

    In the last 15 years a strong correlation between oxidative stress (OxS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder known to be caused in 95% of the cases, by a mutation in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, has been well documented. Here, we revised, summarized and discussed the current knowledge on the role of lipid peroxidation byproducts, with special emphasis on 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), in RTT pathophysiology. The posttranslational modifications of proteins via 4HNE, known as 4HNE protein adducts (4NHE-PAs), causing detrimental effects on protein functions, appear to contribute to the clinical severity of the syndrome, since their levels increase significantly during the subsequent 4 clinical stages, reaching the maximum degree at stage 4, represented by a late motor deterioration. In addition, 4HNE-PA are only partially removed due to the compromised functionality of the proteasome activity, contributing therefore to the cellular damage in RTT. All this will lead to a characteristic subclinical inflammation, defined "OxInflammation", derived by a positive feedback loop between OxS byproducts and inflammatory mediators that in a long run further aggravates the clinical features of RTT patients. Therefore, in a pathology completely orphan of any therapy, aiming 4HNE as a therapeutic target could represent a coadjuvant treatment with some beneficial impact in these patients.‬‬‬.

  4. In Vitro Effects of Aminoalcohol-carbazole Compound BTB3 against Echinococcus granulosus%氨基醇咔唑化合物BTB3体外抗细粒棘球蚴效果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丛珊; 张皓冰; 薛剑; 陶奕; 胡薇

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察氨基醇咔唑化合物BTB3体外抗细粒棘球蚴的效果. 方法 体外培养羊源细粒棘球蚴原头节和继发感染小鼠来源的生发层细胞,用浓度为1、2、4、8、10和20-μg/ml的BTB3作用3d后,分别采用美兰染色法和CCK-8法检测原头节和生发层细胞的活性.用扫描电镜观察10μg/ml BTB3对生发层细胞造成的损伤.体外培养细粒棘球蚴囊,用浓度为1、5和10 μg/ml的BTB3作用2周后,观察其对囊的影响,并用扫描电镜观察囊内部结构的变化. 结果 10μg/ml和20 μg/ml BTB3组原头节的死亡率分别为(100.0±0.0)%和(85.2±7.2)%.但当浓度降低后,原头节死亡率均低于10%.生发层细胞经8、10和20 μg/ml BTB3作用后,其细胞活性抑制率均达100%,其余低浓度BTB3组的抑制率随浓度的降低而降低.扫描电镜观察发现,BTB3可使生发层细胞发生脱落、皱缩以及空腔化.10μg/ml BTB3作用于棘球蚴囊14 d后,全部囊均出现塌陷.其超微结构显示,BTB3作用后棘球蚴内囊中出现了细胞脱落和不均匀的现象. 结论 BTB3对体外培养的细粒棘球蚴原头节、生发层细胞和棘球蚴囊均有较强的作用,是一种潜在的抗棘球蚴药物.

  5. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein oxidation: its possible biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskalski, Jerzy W; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Drozdz, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Oxidation of proteins occurs both as a side-effect of aerobic energy metabolism and as an effect of specific metabolism of phagocytic polymorphonuclear granulocytes producing O2- and H2O2. In contrast to other cells, which control their H2O2 level by degrading it to O2 and H2O, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) use H2O2 as a substrate for oxidizing chloride ions to HOCl which rapidly react with all neighboring thiol, disulfide and amino residues. Chloramines, which are the most abundant HOCl reaction products, react with proteins, modifying only certain exposed methionine and cysteine residues. This may account for selective inactivation of a number of enzymes, carrier proteins and peptide mediators, including the alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor. Inactivaton of plasma proteinase inhibitors protects PMN elastase, collagenase, cathepsin G and other serine proteases in the inflammatory foci. This promotes proteolytic degradation of damaged tissue, removal of bacterial debris and wound healing, as well as tissue remodeling related to the inflammatory processes. Oxidative control of protease-anti-protease balance affects the development of the inflammatory processes. Moreover, inactivation of plasma proteinase inhibitors facilitates primary antigen processing, upregulates lymphocyte proliferative response and activates the local immune response. Oxidation produces a specific protein tagging which attracts and stimulates immune active cells. Therefore, humoral response against oxidatively modified proteins occurs more effectively than that of the native proteins. The effect is dose-dependent with respect to the amount of oxidant employed. Glycol aldehyde, which is the serine chloramine spontaneous decay product, in mice immunized with glycol aldehyde-modified egg-white albumin, yields specific IgG production manifold higher than that in mice immunized with native albumin. Immunopotentiation is produced

  6. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2013-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII–IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research. PMID:23169788

  7. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-15

    During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII-IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research.

  8. Calpain-mediated cleavage of collapsin response mediator protein-2 drives acute axonal degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Nan; Michel, Uwe; Lenz, Christof; Friedel, Caroline C.; Köster, Sarah; d’Hedouville, Zara; Tönges, Lars; Urlaub, Henning; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul; Koch, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a key initiating event in many neurological diseases. Focal lesions to axons result in a rapid disintegration of the perilesional axon by acute axonal degeneration (AAD) within several hours. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of AAD are only incompletely understood. Here, we studied AAD in vivo through live-imaging of the rat optic nerve and in vitro in primary rat cortical neurons in microfluidic chambers. We found that calpain is activated early during AAD of the optic nerve and that calpain inhibition completely inhibits axonal fragmentation on the proximal side of the crush while it attenuates AAD on the distal side. A screening of calpain targets revealed that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) is a main downstream target of calpain activation in AAD. CRMP2-overexpression delayed bulb formation and rescued impairment of axonal mitochondrial transport after axotomy in vitro. In vivo, CRMP2-overexpression effectively protected the proximal axon from fragmentation within 6 hours after crush. Finally, a proteomic analysis of the optic nerve was performed at 6 hours after crush, which identified further proteins regulated during AAD, including several interactors of CRMP2. These findings reveal CRMP2 as an important mediator of AAD and define it as a putative therapeutic target. PMID:27845394

  9. (infinity)(2)[Cu2(mu5-btb)(mu-OH)(mu-H2O)]: a two-dimensional coordination polymer built from ferromagnetically coupled Cu2 units (btb = benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hesham A; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Janiak, Christoph

    2008-09-28

    Hydrothermal reaction of Cu(NO3)(2).3H2O, Cd(OH)2 or Zn(OH)2 with benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (H3btb, hemimellitic acid) produced the 2D coordination polymer (MOF) (infinity)(2)[Cu2(mu5-btb)(mu-OH)(mu-H2O)] (1) and the 2D hydrogen-bonded complexes [Cd(H2btb)2(H2O)4].2H2O (2) and [Zn(H2O)6](H2btb)(2).4H2O (3) which are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis. Magnetic susceptibility measurements between 1.9-300 K for 1 revealed three magnetic active exchange pathways that link the copper(II) ions through a long mu-aqua bridge, an anti-syn carboxylate bridge [j2 = 0.161(1) cm(-1)], and through a mixed mu-hydroxo + syn-syn carboxylate bridge [J = 83(1) cm(-1)]. At temperatures higher than 30 K the system behaves as isolated Cu2 units with strong ferromagnetic Cu-Cu coupling through the mu-hydroxo and syn-syn carboxylate bridge. The strong ferromagnetic coupling is explained with Hoffmann's approach by means of the concept of counter-complementarity introduced by Nishida et al.[Chem. Lett., 1983, 1815-1818].

  10. Reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins of mouse oocytes mediated by integrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Limin; ZHANG Lei; HE Yaping; ZHANG Jinhu; ZHENG Jie; HE Yanfang; ZHENG Yu; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Li

    2004-01-01

    To study whether integrins on cell membrane ligate with intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and mediate their reorganization in egg activation, female mice were used for superovulation. The zona-free oocytes were incubated separately with specific ligand of integrins,an active RGD peptide, in vitro for certain period of time. RGE peptide and mouse capacitated sperm were used as controls. Freshly ovulated oocytes and those treated with different factors were immunostained with FITC-labeled anti-actin antibody, then detected with confocal microscope. The results demonstrated that freshly ovulated mouse oocytes, oocytes incubated for 2 h in vitro and those treated with control RGE peptide for 15 min showed hardly visible fluorescene or only thin fluorescence in plasma membrane region. Oocytes coincubated with sperms for 15 min and those treated with active RGD peptide for 10 min, 30 min and 2 hours respectively had strong and thick fluorescence in the plasma membrane and cortical region of oocytes, and some of them showed asymmetrically fluorescent distribution. It is proved that integrins on membrane are ligated directly with cytoskeletal protein. Integrins binding with their ligands regulate reorganization of cytoskelal protein, which may be involved in transmembrane signaling in egg activation.

  11. Reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins of mouse oocytes mediated by integrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE; Limin; ZHANG; Lei; HE; Yaping; ZHANG; Jinhu; ZHENG; Ji

    2004-01-01

    To study whether integrins on cell membrane ligate with intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and mediate their reorganization in egg activation, female mice were used for superovulation. The zona-free oocytes were incubated separately with specific ligand of integrins,an active RGD peptide, in vitro for certain period of time. RGE peptide and mouse capacitated sperm were used as controls. Freshly ovulated oocytes and those treated with different factors were immunostained with FITC-labeled anti-actin antibody, then detected with confocal microscope. The results demonstrated that freshly ovulated mouse oocytes, oocytes incubated for 2 h in vitro and those treated with control RGE peptide for 15 min showed hardly visible fluorescene or only thin fluorescence in plasma membrane region. Oocytes coincubated with sperms for 15 min and those treated with active RGD peptide for 10 min, 30 min and 2 hours respectively had strong and thick fluorescence in the plasma membrane and cortical region of oocytes, and some of them showed asymmetrically fluorescent distribution. It is proved that integrins on membrane are ligated directly with cytoskeletal protein. Integrins binding with their ligands regulate reorganization of cytoskelal protein, which may be involved in transmembrane signaling in egg activation.

  12. Effect of host diversity and species assemblage composition on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk in Ethiopian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, Dejene W; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Prins, Herbert H T; Tessema, Zewdu K; DE Boer, Willem F

    2017-05-01

    Current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. Whereas the simple term 'diversity' embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. We therefore tested the effects of species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon's diversity on bovine tuberculosis (bTB) risk in cattle in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. We also analysed the identity effect of a particular species and the effect of host habitat use overlap on bTB risk. We used the comparative intradermal tuberculin test to assess the number of bTB-infected cattle. Our results suggested a dilution effect through species evenness. We found that the identity effect of greater kudu - a maintenance host - confounded the dilution effect of species diversity on bTB risk. bTB infection was positively correlated with habitat use overlap between greater kudu and cattle. Different diversity indices have to be considered together for assessing diversity-disease relationships, for understanding the underlying causal mechanisms. We posit that unpacking diversity metrics is also relevant for formulating disease control strategies to manage cattle in ecosystems characterized by seasonally limited resources and intense wildlife-livestock interactions.

  13. Protein-spanning water networks and implications for prediction of protein-protein interactions mediated through hydrophobic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic effects, often conflated with hydrophobic forces, are implicated as major determinants in biological association and self-assembly processes. Protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways in living systems are a prime example where hydrophobic effects have profound implications. In the context of protein-protein interactions, a priori knowledge of relevant binding interfaces (i.e., clusters of residues involved directly with binding interactions) is difficult. In the case of hydrophobically mediated interactions, use of hydropathy-based methods relying on single residue hydrophobicity properties are routinely and widely used to predict propensities for such residues to be present in hydrophobic interfaces. However, recent studies suggest that consideration of hydrophobicity for single residues on a protein surface require accounting of the local environment dictated by neighboring residues and local water. In this study, we use a method derived from percolation theory to evaluate spanning water networks in the first hydration shells of a series of small proteins. We use residue-based water density and single-linkage clustering methods to predict hydrophobic regions of proteins; these regions are putatively involved in binding interactions. We find that this simple method is able to predict with sufficient accuracy and coverage the binding interface residues of a series of proteins. The approach is competitive with automated servers. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting of local environment in determining the hydrophobic nature of individual residues on protein surfaces.

  14. Hypochlorous acid-mediated protein oxidation: how important are chloramine transfer reactions and protein tertiary structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

    2007-08-28

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that occurs in numerous human pathologies. As proteins and amino acids are highly abundant in vivo and react rapidly with HOCl, they are likely to be major targets for HOCl. In this study, two small globular proteins, lysozyme and insulin, have been oxidized with increasing excesses of HOCl to determine whether the pattern of HOCl-mediated amino acid consumption is consistent with reported kinetic data for isolated amino acids and model compounds. Identical experiments have been carried out with mixtures of N-acetyl amino acids (to prevent reaction at the alpha-amino groups) that mimic the protein composition to examine the role of protein structure on reactivity. The results indicate that tertiary structure facilitates secondary chlorine transfer reactions of chloramines formed on His and Lys side chains. In light of these data, second-order rate constants for reactions of Lys side chain and Gly chloramines with Trp side chains and disulfide bonds have been determined, together with those for further oxidation of Met sulfoxide by HOCl and His side chain chloramines. Computational kinetic models incorporating these additional rate constants closely predict the experimentally observed amino acid consumption. These studies provide insight into the roles of chloramine formation and three-dimensional structure on the reactions of HOCl with isolated proteins and demonstrate that kinetic models can predict the outcome of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation.

  15. The extracellular EXO protein mediates cell expansion in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Florian; Lisso, Janina; Lange, Peggy; Müssig, Carsten

    2009-02-13

    The EXO (EXORDIUM) gene was identified as a potential mediator of brassinosteroid (BR)-promoted growth. It is part of a gene family with eight members in Arabidopsis. EXO gene expression is under control of BR, and EXO overexpression promotes shoot and root growth. In this study, the consequences of loss of EXO function are described. The exo loss of function mutant showed diminished leaf and root growth and reduced biomass production. Light and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that impaired leaf growth is due to reduced cell expansion. Epidermis, palisade, and spongy parenchyma cells were smaller in comparison to the wild-type. The exo mutant showed reduced brassinolide-induced cotyledon and hypocotyl growth. In contrast, exo roots were significantly more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of synthetic brassinolide. Apart from reduced growth, exo did not show severe morphological abnormalities. Gene expression analyses of leaf material identified genes that showed robust EXO-dependent expression. Growth-related genes such as WAK1, EXP5, and KCS1, and genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism showed weaker expression in exo than in wild-type plants. However, the vast majority of BR-regulated genes were normally expressed in exo. HA- and GFP-tagged EXO proteins were targeted to the apoplast. The EXO gene is essential for cell expansion in leaves. Gene expression patterns and growth assays suggest that EXO mediates BR-induced leaf growth. However, EXO does not control BR-levels or BR-sensitivity in the shoot. EXO presumably is involved in a signalling process which coordinates BR-responses with environmental or developmental signals. The hypersensitivity of exo roots to BR suggests that EXO plays a diverse role in the control of BR responses in the root.

  16. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knockin mice expressing non-phosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knockin mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knockin mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knockin mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knockin and wild type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knockin mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knockin mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth. PMID:25229342

  17. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins resulting from receptor mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippendorff, Ben-Fillippo; Kuester, Katharina; Kloft, Charlotte; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2009-06-01

    Receptor mediated endocytosis (RME) plays a major role in the disposition of therapeutic protein drugs in the body. It is suspected to be a major source of nonlinear pharmacokinetic behavior observed in clinical pharmacokinetic data. So far, mostly empirical or semi-mechanistic approaches have been used to represent RME. A thorough understanding of the impact of the properties of the drug and of the receptor system on the resulting nonlinear disposition is still missing, as is how to best represent RME in pharmacokinetic models. In this article, we present a detailed mechanistic model of RME that explicitly takes into account receptor binding and trafficking inside the cell and that is used to derive reduced models of RME which retain a mechanistic interpretation. We find that RME can be described by an extended Michaelis-Menten model that accounts for both the distribution and the elimination aspect of RME. If the amount of drug in the receptor system is negligible a standard Michaelis-Menten model is capable of describing the elimination by RME. Notably, a receptor system can efficiently eliminate drug from the extracellular space even if the total number of receptors is small. We find that drug elimination by RME can result in substantial nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The extent of nonlinearity is higher for drug/receptor systems with higher receptor availability at the membrane, or faster internalization and degradation of extracellular drug. Our approach is exemplified for the epidermal growth factor receptor system.

  18. The BTB-containing protein Kctd15 is SUMOylated in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria E Zarelli

    Full Text Available Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain containing 15 (Kctd15 has a role in regulating the neural crest (NC domain in the embryo. Kctd15 inhibits NC induction by antagonizing Wnt signaling and by interaction with the transcription factor AP-2α activation domain blocking its activity. Here we demonstrate that Kctd15 is SUMOylated by SUMO1 and SUMO2/3. Kctd15 contains a classical SUMO interacting motif, ψKxE, at the C-terminal end, and variants of the motif within the molecule. Kctd15 SUMOylation occurs exclusively in the C-terminal motif. Inability to be SUMOylated did not affect Kctd15's subcellular localization, or its ability to repress AP-2 transcriptional activity and to inhibit NC formation in zebrafish embryos. In contrast, a fusion of Kctd15 and SUMO had little effectiveness in AP-2 inhibition and in blocking of NC formation. These data suggest that the non-SUMOylated form of Kctd15 functions in NC development.

  19. Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Antonella; Hofer, Annette; Tundo, Federica; Wenz, Tina

    2014-11-01

    Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis.

  20. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Protein Vangl2 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization Dynamics via Its Effects on Actin Microfilaments in the Testes of Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis.

  1. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2015-03-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knock-in mice expressing nonphosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knock-in mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knock-in mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild-type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knock-in mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knock-in and wild-type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knock-in mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild-type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knock-in mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth.

  2. Translocator protein mediates the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Li, Ming-Sheng; He, Jia-Li; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Guan-Hua; Lai, Sha; Ma, Jian-Chun; Zeng, Jia; Li, Yan; Wu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) plays an important role in stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), caused by neurosteroids (e.g. allopregnanolone). The present study sought to evaluate the significance of TSPO in anxiolytic and antidepressant effects induced by midazolam. The animals were administrated midazolam (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and subjected to behavioral tests, including Vogel-type conflict test, elevated plus-maze test, forced swimming test. Midazolam produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects Vogel-type conflict test (1 mg/kg, i.p.), elevated plus-maze test (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), and forced swimming test (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.). These effects of Midazolam were totally blocked by the TSPO antagonist PK11195 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). To evaluate the role of allopregnanolone in the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of midazolam, the animals were decapitated at the end of the behavioral tests. The allopregnanolone levels of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The allopregnanolone level of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was increased by midazolam (0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the increase was reversed by PK11195 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Overall, the results indicated that the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of midazolam were mediated by TSPO, via stimulation of allopregnanolone biosynthesis.

  3. Hybrid Multistarting GA-Tabu Search Method for the Placement of BtB Converters for Korean Metropolitan Ring Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remund J. Labios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to determine the optimal locations for installing back-to-back (BtB converters in a power grid as a countermeasure to reduce fault current levels. The installation of BtB converters can be regarded as network reconfiguration. For the purpose, a hybrid multistarting GA-tabu search method was used to determine the best locations from a preselected list of candidate locations. The constraints used in determining the best locations include circuit breaker fault current limits, proximity of proposed locations, and capability of the solution to reach power flow convergence. A simple power injection model after applying line-opening on selected branches was used as a means for power flows with BtB converters. Kron reduction was also applied as a method for network reduction for fast evaluation of fault currents with a given topology. Simulations of the search method were performed on the Korean power system, particularly the Seoul metropolitan area.

  4. High mobility group box 1 protein as a late-acting mediator of acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Waldemar; Stetkiewicz, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Acute inflammatory lung injury is often a delayed complication of critical illness and is associated with increased mortality. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, in addition to its role as a transcriptional regulator factor, has been identified as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality and might be also involved in the development and progression of acute lung injury. HMGB1 protein itself can cause an acute inflammatory response manifested by increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil accumulation. The delayed kinetics of HMGB1 protein release indicate that this protein is a distal mediator of acute inflamatory lung injury. Anti-HMGB1 protein antibodies attenuated endotoxin-induced lung injury, but not the early release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that HMGB1 protein is a late mediator of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. HMGB1 protein is not released by apoptotic cells but is passively released by necrotic or damaged somatic and immune cells and it functions as a major stimulus of necrosis-induced inflammation. HMGB1 protein is also released by activated monocytes/macrophages and induces delayed and biphasic release of proinflammatory mediators from these cells. HMGB1 protein failed to stimulate cytokines release in lymphocytes, indicating that cellular stimulation is specific. We would like to suggest that HMGB1 protein may be also a primary mediator of the inflammatory responses to lung cells injury caused by toxic environmental chemicals.

  5. Spy1 Protein Mediates Phosphorylation and Degradation of SCG10 Protein in Axonal Degeneration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghua; Wang, Youhua; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Yang; Shen, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Axon loss is a destructive consequence of a wide range of neurological diseases without a clearly defined mechanism. Recent data demonstrate that SCG10 is a novel axonal maintenance factor and that rapid SCG10 loss after injury requires JNK activity; how JNK induces degradation of SCG10 is not well known. Here we showed that SCG10 was a binding partner of Spy1, a Speedy/RINGO family protein, which participated in cellular response to sciatic nerve injury. During the early stage of axonal injury, Spy1 expression was inversely correlated with SCG10. Spy1 mediated SCG10 phosphorylation and degradation partly in a JNK-dependent manner. Inhibition of Spy1 attenuated SCG10 phosphorylation and delayed injury-induced axonal degeneration. Taken together, these data suggest that Spy1 is an important regulator of SCG10 and can be targeted in future axo-protective therapeutics. PMID:25869138

  6. Emerging functions of multi-protein complex Mediator with special emphasis on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Naveen; Agarwal, Pinky; Tyagi, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently. Mediator regulates various processes related to plant development and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response. Thus, plant Mediator, like yeast and mammalian Mediator complex, is indispensable for plant growth and survival. Interaction of its multiple subunits with other regulatory proteins and their ectopic expression or knockdown in model plant like Arabidopsis and certain crop plants are paving the way to biochemical analysis and unravel molecular mechanisms of action of Mediator in plants.

  7. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work...

  8. Transition metal complexes as mediator-titrants in protein redox potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Chen, Kuan-I; Sharpe, Philip C

    2006-10-01

    A selection of nine macrocyclic Fe(III/II) and Co(III/II) transition metal complexes has been chosen to serve as a universal set of mediator-titrants in redox potentiometry of protein samples. The potential range spanned by these mediators is approximately from +300 to -700 mV vs the normal hydrogen electrode, which covers the range of most protein redox potentials accessible in aqueous solution. The complexes employed exhibit stability in both their oxidized and their reduced forms as well as pH-independent redox potentials within the range 6 < pH < 9. The mediators were also chosen on the basis of their very weak visible absorption maxima in both oxidation states, which will enable (for the first time) optical redox potentiometric titrations of proteins with relatively low extinction coefficients. This has previously been impractical with organic mediators, such as indoles, viologens and quinones, whose optical spectra interfere strongly with those of the protein.

  9. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  10. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  11. Chemotaxis to cyclic AMP and folic acid is mediated by different G proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesbeke, Fanja; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa

    1990-01-01

    Mutant Frigid A (fgdA) of Dictyostelium discoideum is defective in a functional Gα2 subunit of a G protein and is characterized by a complete blockade of the cyclic AMP-mediated sensory transduction steps, including cyclic AMP relay, chemotaxis and the cyclic GMP response. Folic acid-mediated transm

  12. Cross talk between tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein-mediated transport and L1-mediated adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Philipp; Rudge, Rachel; Hinners, Ina; Muzerelle, Aude; Martinez-Arca, Sonia; Irinopoulou, Theano; Marthiens, Veronique; Tooze, Sharon; Rathjen, Fritz; Gaspar, Patricia; Galli, Thierry

    2003-10-01

    The membrane-trafficking pathway mediated by tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) in neurons is still unknown. We show herein that TI-VAMP expression is necessary for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons in culture. TI-VAMP interacts with plasma membrane and endosomal target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, suggesting that TI-VAMP mediates a recycling pathway. L1, a cell-cell adhesion molecule involved in axonal outgrowth, colocalized with TI-VAMP in the developing brain, neurons in culture, and PC12 cells. Plasma membrane L1 was internalized into the TI-VAMP-containing compartment. Silencing of TI-VAMP resulted in reduced expression of L1 at the plasma membrane. Finally, using the extracellular domain of L1 and N-cadherin immobilized on beads, we found that the silencing of TI-VAMP led to impaired L1- but not N-cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, TI-VAMP- but not synaptobrevin 2-containing vesicles accumulated at the site of the L1 bead-cell junction. We conclude that TI-VAMP mediates the intracellular transport of L1 and that L1-mediated adhesion controls this membrane trafficking, thereby suggesting an important cross talk between membrane trafficking and cell-cell adhesion.

  13. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  14. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  15. Imaging multiple intermediates of single-virus membrane fusion mediated by distinct fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kye-Il; Tai, April; Lee, Chi-Lin; Wong, Clement; Wang, Pin

    2010-09-01

    Membrane fusion plays an essential role in the entry of enveloped viruses into target cells. The merging of viral and target cell membranes is catalyzed by viral fusion proteins, which involves multiple sequential steps in the fusion process. However, the fusion mechanisms mediated by different fusion proteins involve multiple transient intermediates that have not been well characterized. Here, we report a synthetic virus platform that allows us to better understand the different fusion mechanisms driven by the diverse types fusion proteins. The platform consists of lentiviral particles coenveloped with a surface antibody, which serves as the binding protein, along with a fusion protein derived from either influenza virus (HAmu) or Sindbis virus (SINmu). By using a single virus tracking technique, we demonstrated that both HAmu- and SINmu-bearing viruses enter cells through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but they required different endosomal trafficking routes to initiate viral fusion. Direct observation of single viral fusion events clearly showed that hemifusion mediated by SINmu upon exposure to low pH occurs faster than that mediated by HAmu. Monitoring sequential fusion processes by dual labeling the outer and inner leaflets of viral membranes also revealed that the SINmu-mediated hemifusion intermediate is relatively long-lived as compared with that mediated by HAmu. Taken together, we have demonstrated that the combination of this versatile viral platform with the techniques of single virus tracking can be a powerful tool for revealing molecular details of fusion mediated by various fusion proteins.

  16. The Sec translocon mediated protein transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denks, Kärt; Vogt, Andreas; Sachelaru, Ilie; Petriman, Narcis-Adrian; Kudva, Renuka; Koch, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Protein transport via the Sec translocon represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism for delivering cytosolically-synthesized proteins to extra-cytosolic compartments. The Sec translocon has a three-subunit core, termed Sec61 in Eukaryotes and SecYEG in Bacteria. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Eukaryotes and in the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacteria where it constitutes a channel that can be activated by multiple partner proteins. These partner proteins determine the mechanism of polypeptide movement across the channel. During SRP-dependent co-translational targeting, the ribosome threads the nascent protein directly into the Sec channel. This pathway is in Bacteria mainly dedicated for membrane proteins but in Eukaryotes also employed by secretory proteins. The alternative pathway, leading to post-translational translocation across the Sec translocon engages an ATP-dependent pushing mechanism by the motor protein SecA in Bacteria and a ratcheting mechanism by the lumenal chaperone BiP in Eukaryotes. Protein transport and biogenesis is also assisted by additional proteins at the lateral gate of SecY/Sec61α and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplasm of bacterial cells. The modular assembly enables the Sec complex to transport a vast array of substrates. In this review we summarize recent biochemical and structural information on the prokaryotic and eukaryotic Sec translocons and we describe the remarkably complex interaction network of the Sec complexes.

  17. Translocator protein-mediated pharmacology of cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Fan, Jinjiang; Campioli, Enrico; Zirkin, Barry; Midzak, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Steroidogenesis begins with cholesterol transfer into mitochondria through the transduceosome, a complex composed of cytosolic proteins that include steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (STAR), 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, and the outer mitochondrial membrane proteins Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC). TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol-binding protein found at particularly high levels in steroid synthesizing cells. Its aberrant expression has been linked to cancer, neurodegeneration, neuropsychiatric disorders and primary hypogonadism. Brain steroids serve as local regulators of neural development and excitability. Reduced levels of these steroids have been linked to depression, anxiety and neurodegeneration. Reduced serum testosterone is common among subfertile young men and aging men, and is associated with depression, metabolic syndrome and reduced sexual function. Although testosterone-replacement therapy is available, there are undesired side-effects. TSPO drug ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents to regulate steroid levels in the brain and testis.

  18. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  19. The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonKyung; Kurihara, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2006-06-20

    The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

  20. Electrocatalytic assay for monitoring methylglyoxal-mediated protein glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlikova, Marika; Zatloukalova, Martina; Ulrichova, Jitka; Dobes, Petr; Vacek, Jan

    2015-02-03

    Protein glycation is a complex process that plays an important role in diabetes mellitus, aging, and the regulation of protein function in general. As a result, current methodological research on proteins is focused on the development of novel approaches for investigating glycation and the possibility of monitoring its modulation and selective inhibition. In this paper, a first sensing strategy for protein glycation is proposed, based on protein electroactivity measurement. Concretely, the label-free method proposed is based on the application of a constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping (CPS) analysis at Hg-containing electrodes. The glycation process was monitored as the decrease in the electrocatalytic protein signal, peak H, observed at highly negative potentials at around -1.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl3 M KCl), which was previously ascribed to a catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (CHER). Using this method, a model protein bovine serum albumin was investigated over 3 days of incubation with the glycation agent methylglyoxal in the absence or presence of the glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine (pimagedine). The electrochemical methodology presented here could open up new possibilities in research on protein glycation and oxidative modification. The methodology developed also provides a new option for the analysis of protein intermolecular interactions using electrochemical sensors, which was demonstrated by the application of a silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) for monitoring the glycation process in samples of bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, and lysozyme.

  1. Signaling via G proteins mediates tumorigenic effects of GPR87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arfelt, Kristine Niss; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H.;

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning proteins that regulate multiple physiological functions. GPR87 is overexpressed in several cancers and plays a role in tumor cell survival. Here, the basal activity of GPR87 was investigated...... in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, revealing ligand-independent coupling to Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13. Furthermore, GPR87 showed a ligand-independent G protein-dependent activation of the downstream transcription factors CREB, NFκB, NFAT and SRE. In tetracycline-induced Flp-In T-Rex-293 cells, GPR87 induced...

  2. Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sanjay [Ames Laboratory; Woehl, Taylor J [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Xunpei [Iowa State University; Mallapragada, Surya K [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Tanya [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-23

    Biomineralization proteins are widely used as templating agents in biomimetic synthesis of a variety of organic–inorganic nanostructures. However, the role of the protein in controlling the nucleation and growth of biomimetic particles is not well understood, because the mechanism of the bioinspired reaction is often deduced from ex situ analysis of the resultant nanoscale mineral phase. Here we report the direct visualization of biomimetic iron oxide nanoparticle nucleation mediated by an acidic bacterial recombinant protein, Mms6, during an in situ reaction induced by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide to solution-phase Mms6 protein micelles incubated with ferric chloride. Using in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy we observe the liquid iron prenucleation phase and nascent amorphous nanoparticles forming preferentially on the surface of protein micelles. Our results provide insight into the early steps of protein-mediated biomimetic nucleation of iron oxide and point to the importance of an extended protein surface during nanoparticle formation.

  3. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    on the identification of reactive peroxide intermediates formed on Tyr, His, and Trp residues is discussed. These peroxides may be important propagating species in protein oxidation as they can initiate further oxidation via both radical and non-radical reactions. Such processes can result in the transmittal of damage......Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for oxidative damage. Two major types of processes can occur during the exposure of proteins to UV or visible light. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from...... the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated...

  4. Androgen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Michael L; Steiner, Jennifer L; Gordon, Bradley S

    2017-02-22

    Androgens significantly alter muscle mass in part by shifting protein balance in favor of net protein accretion. During various atrophic conditions, the clinical impact of decreased production or bioavailability of androgens (termed hypogonadism) is important as a loss of muscle mass is intimately linked with survival outcome. While androgen replacement therapy increases muscle mass in part by restoring protein balance, this is not a comprehensive treatment option due to potential side effects. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanisms by which androgens alter protein balance is needed for the development of androgen-independent therapies. While the data in humans suggest androgens alter protein balance (both synthesis and breakdown) in the fasted metabolic state, a predominant molecular mechanism(s) behind this observation is still lacking. This failure is likely due in part to inconsistent experimental design between studies including failure to control nutrient/feeding status, the method of altering androgens, and the model systems utilized.

  5. Endothelin and calciotropic hormones share regulatory pathways in multidrug resistance protein 2-mediated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.; Hang, X.M.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    The kidney of vertebrates plays a key role in excretion of endogenous waste products and xenobiotics. Active secretion in the proximal nephron is at the basis of this excretion, mediated by carrier proteins including multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2). We previously showed that Mrp2 function is

  6. Protein Mediated Oxidative Stress in Patients with Diabetes and its Associated Neuropathy: Correlation with Protein Carbonylation and Disease Activity Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Ebtehal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Free radicals have been implicated as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) contributors in type 2 DM and its associated Diabetes Mellitus Neuropathy (DMN). However, the potential for protein mediated oxidative stress to contribute disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Aim To investigate the status and contribution of protein mediated oxidative stress in patients with DM or DMN and to explore whether oxidative protein modification has a role in DM progression to DM associated neuropathy. Materials and Methods Sera from 42 DM and 37 DMN patients with varying levels of disease activities biomarkers (HbA1C, patients’ age or disease duration) and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated for serum levels of protein mediated oxidative stress. Results Serum analysis showed significantly higher levels of protein carbonyl contents in both DM and DMN patients compared with healthy controls. Importantly, not only was there an increased number of subjects positive for protein carbonylation, but also the levels of protein carbonyl contents were significantly higher among DM and DMN patients, whose HbA1C were ≥8.8 as compared with patients with lower HbA1C (HbA1Cdiabetes to diabetes neuropathy. Conclusion These findings support an association between protein oxidation and DM or DMN progression. The stronger response observed in patients with higher HbA1C or patients’ ages or disease durations suggests, that protein mediated oxidative stress may be useful in evaluating the progression of DM and its associated DMN and in elucidating the mechanisms of these disorders pathogenesis.

  7. On the ion-mediated interaction between protein and DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Barbi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism allowing a protein to search of a target sequence on DNA is currently described as an intermittent process composed of 3D diffusion in bulk and 1D diffusion along the DNA molecule. Due to the relevant charge of protein and DNA, electrostatic interaction should play a crucial role during this search. In this paper, we explicitly derive the mean field theory allowing for a description of the protein-DNA electrostatics in solution. This approach leads to a unified model of the search process, where 1D and 3D diffusion appear as a natural consequence of the diffusion on an extended interaction energy profile.

  8. THE REGULATORY EFFECT OF NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE ON G-PROTEIN AND G-PROTEIN MEDIATED PHOSPHOLIPASE C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德昌; 张宽仁

    1995-01-01

    The effect of nueleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) on the activity of guanine nueleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) mediated phospholipase C (PLC) and on the [35S ] GTPTτS binding of G-protein was investigated in this work in order to demonstrate the mechanism behind the regulation of G-protein and its effector PLC by NDPK. The stimulation of PLC in turkey erythrocyte membrane by both GTP and GTPτS indicated that the PLC stimulation was msdiated by G-protein, NDPK alone stimulated PLC activity, as well as the stimulation in the presence of GTP and GDP, in a dose-dependent manner. However, NDPK inhibited GTPτS-stimulated PLC, Furthermore, NDPK inhibited [35S] GTPτS binding of purified Gi-protein in a non-competitive manner. A hypothesis implying an important role of direct interaction of G-protein and NDPK in the regulation of their functions is suggested and discussed.

  9. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp) in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, M.A.; B. Evans-Bain; Santi, S. L.; Dickerson, I M

    2001-01-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-receptor component protein (RCP) is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as...

  10. Interpenetration as a mechanism for negative thermal expansion in the metal-organic framework Cu3(btb)2 (MOF-14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Peterson, Vanessa K; Luks, Emily; Darwish, Tamim A; Kepert, Cameron J

    2014-05-12

    Metal-organic framework materials (MOFs) have recently been shown in some cases to exhibit strong negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior, while framework interpenetration has been found to reduce NTE in many materials. Using powder and single-crystal diffraction methods we investigate the thermal expansion behavior of interpenetrated Cu3(btb)2 (MOF-14) and find that it exhibits an anomalously large NTE effect. Temperature-dependent structural analysis shows that, contrary to other interpenetrated materials, in MOF-14 the large positive thermal expansion of weak interactions that hold the interpenetrating networks together results in a low-energy contractive distortion of the overall framework structure, demonstrating a new mechanism for NTE.

  11. Alternatively spliced myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2s) protein inhibits TLR4-mediated lung inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Jones, Heather D.; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2s) that competitively inhibits binding of MD-2 to TLR4 in vitro. Here we investigated the protective role of MD-2s in LPS-induced acute lung injury by delivering intracheally (i.t.) an adenovirus construct that expressed MD-2s (Ad-MD-2s). After adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, MD-2s was strongly expressed in lung epithelial cells and readily detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Compared to Ad-EV control mice, Ad-MD-2s delivery resulted in significantly less LPS-induced inflammation in the lungs, including less protein leakage, cell recruitment, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, KC, and MIP-2. BALF from Ad-MD-2s mice transferred into lungs of naive mice before i.t. LPS challenge diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. As house dust mite (HDM) sensitization is dependent on TLR4 and HDM Der p 2, a structural homolog of MD-2, we also investigated the effect of MD-2s on house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. Ad-MD-2s given before HDM sensitization significantly inhibited subsequent allergic airway inflammation after HDM challenge, including reductions in eosinophils, goblet cell hyperplasia, and IL-5 levels. Our study indicates that the alternatively spliced short isoform of human MD-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat human diseases induced or exacerbated by TLR4 signaling, such as Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced lung injury and house dust mite-triggered allergic lung inflammation. PMID:25576596

  12. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorder...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorder...l inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. Authors Aksoy E, Goldman M, Willems F. Publication Int J Bioche

  13. Light-regulated stapled peptides to inhibit protein-protein interactions involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevola, Laura; Martín-Quirós, Andrés; Eckelt, Kay; Camarero, Núria; Tosi, Sébastien; Llobet, Artur; Giralt, Ernest; Gorostiza, Pau

    2013-07-22

    Control of membrane traffic: Photoswitchable inhibitors of protein-protein interactions were applied to photoregulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in living cells. Traffic light (TL) peptides acting as "stop" and "go" signals for membrane traffic can be used to dissect the role of CME in receptor internalization and in cell growth, division, and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Protein-mediated autoreduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Nivedita; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: Mukherjee.Priyabrata@mayo.edu

    2008-09-01

    Here we report for the first time that proteins can function as unique reducing agents to produce gold nanoparticles from gold salts. We demonstrate that three different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Rituximab (RIT-an anti-CD20 antibody) and Cetuximab (C225-anti-EGFR antibody), reduce gold salts to gold nanoparticles (GNP). Interestingly, among all the three proteins tested, only BSA can reduce gold salts to gold nanotriangles (GNT). BSA-induced formation of GNT can be controlled by carefully selecting the reaction condition. Heating or using excess of ascorbic acid (AA) as additional reducing agent shifts the reaction towards the formation of GNP with flower-like morphology, whereas slowing down the reaction either by cooling or by adding small amount of AA directs the synthesis towards GNT formation. GNT is formed only at pH 3; higher pHs (pH 7 and pH 10) did not produce any nanoparticles, suggesting the involvement of specific protein conformation in GNT formation. The nanomaterials formed by this method were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is an important finding that will have uses in various nanotechnological applications, particularly in the green synthesis of novel nanomaterials based on protein structure.

  15. Compartmentalization Role of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs in Mediating Protein Kinase A (PKA Signaling and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Rababa'h

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs stimulation enhances contractility through protein kinase-A (PKA substrate phosphorylation. This PKA signaling is conferred in part by PKA binding to A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs. AKAPs coordinate multi-protein signaling networks that are targeted to specific intracellular locations, resulting in the localization of enzyme activity and transmitting intracellular actions of neurotransmitters and hormones to its target substrates. In particular, mAKAP (muscle-selective AKAP has been shown to be present on the nuclear envelope of cardiomyocytes with various proteins including: PKA-regulatory subunit (RIIα, phosphodiesterase-4D3, protein phosphatase-2A, and ryanodine receptor (RyR2. Therefore, through the coordination of spatial-temporal signaling of proteins and enzymes, mAKAP controls cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels very tightly and functions as a regulator of PKA-mediated substrate phosphorylation leading to changes in calcium availability and myofilament calcium sensitivity. The goal of this review is to elucidate the critical compartmentalization role of mAKAP in mediating PKA signaling and regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by acting as a scaffolding protein. Based on our literature search and studying the structure–function relationship between AKAP scaffolding protein and its binding partners, we propose possible explanations for the mechanism by which mAKAP promotes cardiac hypertrophy.

  16. Systematic discovery of new recognition peptides mediating protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neduva, Victor; Linding, Rune; Su-Angrand, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Many aspects of cell signalling, trafficking, and targeting are governed by interactions between globular protein domains and short peptide segments. These domains often bind multiple peptides that share a common sequence pattern, or "linear motif" (e.g., SH3 binding to PxxP). Many domains are kn...

  17. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  18. Ca2+ channels as integrators of G protein-mediated signaling in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Jesse; Diversé-Pierluissi, María A

    2004-11-01

    The observations from Dunlap and Fischbach that transmitter-mediated shortening of the duration of action potentials could be caused by a decrease in calcium conductance led to numerous studies of the mechanisms of modulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. Calcium channels are well known targets for inhibition by receptor-G protein pathways, and multiple forms of inhibition have been described. Inhibition of Ca(2+) channels can be mediated by G protein betagamma-subunits or by kinases, such as protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases. In the last few years, it has been shown that integration of G protein signaling can take place at the level of the calcium channel by regulation of the interaction of the channel pore-forming subunit with different cellular proteins.

  19. Structural mechanism of nuclear transport mediated by importin β and flexible amphiphilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shige H; Kumeta, Masahiro; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2014-12-02

    Karyopherin β family proteins mediate the nuclear/cytoplasmic transport of various proteins through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), although they are substantially larger than the size limit of the NPC.To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this paradoxical function, we focused on the unique structures called HEAT repeats, which consist of repetitive amphiphilic α helices. An in vitro transport assay and FRAP analyses demonstrated that not only karyopherin β family proteins but also other proteins with HEAT repeats could pass through the NPC by themselves, and serve as transport mediators for their binding partners. Biochemical and spectroscopic analyses and molecular dynamics simulations of purified HEAT-rich proteins revealed that they interact with hydrophobic groups, including phenyl and alkyl groups, and undergo reversible conformational changes in tertiary structures, but not in secondary structures. These results show that conformational changes in the flexible amphiphilic motifs play a critical role in translocation through the NPC.

  20. Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Noboru; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Yonekura, Hisashi; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    Organelle movement is essential for efficient cellular function in eukaryotes. Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. Chloroplast movement generally is actin dependent and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins mediate chloroplast movement by regulating short actin filaments on chloroplasts (cp-actin filaments), and the chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is necessary for c...

  1. Residue 182 influences the second step of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-mediated catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Guo, X.; Møller, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp(181) (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp(181) functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts...... conclude that residue 182 can modulate the functionality of both Asp(181) and Gln(262). and therefore affect the E-P hydrolysis step of PTP-mediated catalysis....

  2. The involvement of XPC protein in the cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan WANG; Alan DOMBKOWSKI; Lynn CHUANG; Xiao Xin S XU

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of DNA damage is a critical step for DNA damage-mediated cellular response. XPC is an important DNA damage recognition protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have studied the XPC protein in cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response. Comparison of the microarray data from both normal and XPCdefective human fibroblasts identified 861 XPC-responsive genes in the cisplatin treatment (with minimum fold change≥1.5).The cell cycle and cell proliferation-related genes are the most affected genes by the XPC defect in the treatment. Many other cellular function genes, especially the DNA repair and signal transduction-related genes, were also affected by the XPC defect in the treatment. To validate the microarray data, the transcription levels of some microarray-identified genes were also determined by an RT-PCR based real time PCR assay. The real time PCR results are consistent with the microarray data for most of the tested genes, indicating the reliability of the microarray data. To further validate the microarray data, the cisplatin treatment-mediated caspase-3 activation was also determined. The Western blot hybridization results indicate that the XPC defect greatly attenuates the cisplatin treatment-mediated Caspase-3 activation. We elucidated the role of p53 protein in the XPC protein DNA damage recognition-mediated signaling process. The XPC defect reduces the cisplatin treatment-mediated p53 response. These results suggest that the XPC protein plays an important role in the cisplatin treatment-mediated cellular response. It may also suggest a possible mechanism of cancer cell drug resistance.

  3. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  4. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Loucks, Catrina M.; Bialas, Nathan J.; Dekkers, Martijn P. J.; Walker, Denise S.; Grundy, Laura J.; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P. Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Michel R Leroux

    2016-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-a...

  5. The BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) target genes are involved in the oxidative stress response and in control of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Schmidt, Dominic; Manke, Thomas; Piccini, Ilaria; Sultan, Marc; Borodina, Tatiana; Balzereit, Daniela; Wruck, Wasco; Soldatov, Alexey; Vingron, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals and metabolic imbalances is a key step in maintaining cellular homeostasis. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a heme-binding transcription factor repressing the transcription from a subset of MAF recognition elements at low intracellular heme levels. Upon heme binding, BACH1 is released from the MAF recognition elements, resulting in increased expression of antioxidant response genes. To systematically address the gene regulatory networks involving BACH1, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of BACH1 target genes in HEK 293 cells with knockdown of BACH1 using three independent types of small interfering RNAs followed by transcriptome profiling using microarrays. The 59 BACH1 target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing were found highly enriched in genes showing expression changes after BACH1 knockdown, demonstrating the impact of BACH1 repression on transcription. In addition to known and new BACH1 targets involved in heme degradation (HMOX1, FTL, FTH1, ME1, and SLC48A1) and redox regulation (GCLC, GCLM, and SLC7A11), we also discovered BACH1 target genes affecting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways (ITPR2, CALM1, SQSTM1, TFE3, EWSR1, CDK6, BCL2L11, and MAFG) as well as subcellular transport processes (CLSTN1, PSAP, MAPT, and vault RNA). The newly identified impact of BACH1 on genes involved in neurodegenerative processes and proliferation provides an interesting basis for future dissection of BACH1-mediated gene repression in neurodegeneration and virus-induced cancerogenesis.

  6. Diverse Roles of Lysin-Motif (LysM Proteins in Mediating Plant-Microbe Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinrong WAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysin-motif (LysM is a protein domain initially identified in a phage protein responsible for binding peptidoglycan, an important component of bacterial cell walls. LysM-containing proteins are distributed in diverse organisms, ranging from microbes to plants and animals (including human beings. Recent studies demonstrated that this group of proteins plays different roles in mediating plant-microbe interactions, leading to defense, symbiosis, or suppression of host defense. These roles are probably related to their potential ability to recognize and bind a specific signal molecule, such as chitooligosaccharides, peptidoglycan, nodulation factors (NFs, and mycorrhization factors (MFs.

  7. DOMMINO 2.0: integrating structurally resolved protein-, RNA-, and DNA-mediated macromolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xingyan; Dhroso, Andi; Han, Jing Ginger; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Korkin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are formed between proteins, DNA and RNA molecules. Being a principle building block in macromolecular assemblies and pathways, the interactions underlie most of cellular functions. Malfunctioning of macromolecular interactions is also linked to a number of diseases. Structural knowledge of the macromolecular interaction allows one to understand the interaction's mechanism, determine its functional implications and characterize the effects of genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, on the interaction. Unfortunately, until now the interactions mediated by different types of macromolecules, e.g. protein-protein interactions or protein-DNA interactions, are collected into individual and unrelated structural databases. This presents a significant obstacle in the analysis of macromolecular interactions. For instance, the homogeneous structural interaction databases prevent scientists from studying structural interactions of different types but occurring in the same macromolecular complex. Here, we introduce DOMMINO 2.0, a structural Database Of Macro-Molecular INteractiOns. Compared to DOMMINO 1.0, a comprehensive database on protein-protein interactions, DOMMINO 2.0 includes the interactions between all three basic types of macromolecules extracted from PDB files. DOMMINO 2.0 is automatically updated on a weekly basis. It currently includes ∼1,040,000 interactions between two polypeptide subunits (e.g. domains, peptides, termini and interdomain linkers), ∼43,000 RNA-mediated interactions, and ∼12,000 DNA-mediated interactions. All protein structures in the database are annotated using SCOP and SUPERFAMILY family annotation. As a result, protein-mediated interactions involving protein domains, interdomain linkers, C- and N- termini, and peptides are identified. Our database provides an intuitive web interface, allowing one to investigate interactions at three different resolution levels: whole subunit network

  8. Connecting G protein signaling to chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youtao; Lacal, Jesus; Firtel, Richard A; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-10-07

    The directional movement towards extracellular chemical gradients, a process called chemotaxis, is an important property of cells. Central to eukaryotic chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which chemoattractant-mediated activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces symmetry breaking in the activated downstream signaling pathways. Studies with mainly Dictyostelium and mammalian neutrophils as experimental systems have shown that chemotaxis is mediated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Recently, several labs have used extensive and efficient proteomic approaches to further unravel this dynamic signaling network. Together these studies showed the critical role of the interplay between heterotrimeric G-protein subunits and monomeric G proteins in regulating cytoskeletal rearrangements during chemotaxis. Here we highlight how these proteomic studies have provided greater insight into the mechanisms by which the heterotrimeric G protein cycle is regulated, how heterotrimeric G proteins-induced symmetry breaking is mediated through small G protein signaling, and how symmetry breaking in G protein signaling subsequently induces cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell migration.

  9. Nucleic acid-mediated intracellular protein delivery by lipid-like nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Chen, Delai; Veiseh, Omid; Pelet, Jeisa M; Yin, Hao; Dong, Yizhou; Anderson, Daniel G

    2014-08-01

    Intracellular protein delivery has potential biotechnological and therapeutic application, but remains technically challenging. In contrast, a plethora of nucleic acid carriers have been developed, with lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) among the most clinically advanced reagents for oligonucleotide delivery. Here, we validate the hypothesis that oligonucleotides can serve as packaging materials to facilitate protein entrapment within and intracellular delivery by LNPs. Using two distinct model proteins, horseradish peroxidase and NeutrAvidin, we demonstrate that LNPs can yield efficient intracellular protein delivery in vitro when one or more oligonucleotides have been conjugated to the protein cargo. Moreover, in experiments with NeutrAvidin in vivo, we show that oligonucleotide conjugation significantly enhances LNP-mediated protein uptake within various spleen cell populations, suggesting that this approach may be particularly suitable for improved delivery of protein-based vaccines to antigen-presenting cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  11. Golgi-specific DHHC Zinc Finger Protein GODZ Mediates Membrane Ca2+ Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Rochelle M.; Kang, Rujun; Goytain, Angela; Quamme, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    The Golgi-specific zinc finger protein GODZ (palmitoyl acyltransferase/DHHC-3) mediates the palmitoylation and post-translational modification of many protein substrates that regulate membrane-protein interactions. Here, we show that GODZ also mediates Ca2+ transport in expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Two-electrode voltage-clamp, fluorescence, and 45Ca2+ isotopic uptake determinations demonstrated voltage- and concentration-dependent, saturable, and substrate-inhibitable Ca2+ transport in oocytes expressing GODZ cRNA but not in oocytes injected with water alone. Moreover, we show that GODZ-mediated Ca2+ transport is regulated by palmitoylation, as the palmitoyl acyltransferase inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate or alteration of the acyltransferase DHHC motif (GODZ-DHHS) diminished GODZ-mediated Ca2+ transport by ∼80%. The GODZ mutation V61R abolished Ca2+ transport but did not affect palmitoyl acyltransferase activity. Coexpression of GODZ-V61R with GODZ-DHHS restored GODZ-DHHS-mediated Ca2+ uptake to values observed with wild-type GODZ, excluding an endogenous effect of palmitoylation. Coexpression of an independent palmitoyl acyltransferase (HIP14) with the GODZ-DHHS mutant also rescued Ca2+ transport. HIP14 did not mediate Ca2+ transport when expressed alone. Immunocytochemistry studies showed that GODZ and HIP14 co-localized to the Golgi and the same post-Golgi vesicles, suggesting that heteropalmitoylation might play a physiological role in addition to a biochemical function. We conclude that GODZ encodes a Ca2+ transport protein in addition to its ability to palmitoylate protein substrates. PMID:19955568

  12. Iron Regulatory Proteins Mediate Host Resistance to Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz, Manfred; Ferring-Appel, Dunja; Casarrubea, Daniela; Sonnweber, Thomas; Viatte, Lydie; Schroll, Andrea; Haschka, David; Fang, Ferric C; Hentze, Matthias W; Weiss, Guenter; Galy, Bruno

    2015-08-12

    Macrophages are essential for systemic iron recycling, and also control iron availability to pathogens. Iron metabolism in mammalian cells is orchestrated posttranscriptionally by iron-regulatory proteins (IRP)-1 and -2. Here, we generated mice with selective and combined ablation of both IRPs in macrophages to investigate the role of IRPs in controlling iron availability. These animals are hyperferritinemic but otherwise display normal clinical iron parameters. However, mutant mice rapidly succumb to systemic infection with Salmonella Typhimurium, a pathogenic bacterium that multiplies within macrophages, with increased bacterial burdens in liver and spleen. Ex vivo infection experiments indicate that IRP function restricts bacterial access to iron via the EntC and Feo bacterial iron-acquisition systems. Further, IRPs contain Salmonella by promoting the induction of lipocalin 2, a host antimicrobial factor that inhibits bacterial uptake of iron-laden siderophores, and by suppressing the ferritin iron pool. This work reveals the importance of the IRPs in innate immunity.

  13. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-mediated synthesis of biocompatible graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Woong Han, Jae; Kim, Eunsu; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-10-03

    Graphene is the 2D form of carbon that exists as a single layer of atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice and has attracted great interest in the last decade in view of its physical, chemical, electrical, elastic, thermal, and biocompatible properties. The objective of this study was to synthesize an environmentally friendly and simple methodology for the preparation of graphene using a recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The successful reduction of GO to graphene was confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and FT-IR. DLS and SEM were employed to demonstrate the particle size and surface morphology of GO and EGFP-rGO. The results from Raman spectroscopy suggest the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and formation of graphene with defects. The biocompatibility analysis of GO and EGFP-rGO in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells suggests that GO induces significant concentration-dependent cell toxicity in HEK cells, whereas graphene exerts no adverse effects on HEK cells even at a higher concentration (100 μg/mL). Altogether, our findings suggest that recombinant EGFP can be used as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The novelty and originality of this work is that it describes a safe, simple, and environmentally friendly method for the production of graphene using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein. Furthermore, the synthesized graphene shows excellent biocompatibility with HEK cells; therefore, biologically synthesized graphene can be used for biomedical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and novel report describing the synthesis of graphene using recombinant EGFP.

  14. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wang; Yi Liu; Ji-Min Cao

    2014-01-01

    Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G prot...

  15. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  16. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debasree; Patra, Piya; Ghosh, Abhirupa; Saha, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs), often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME) were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins—MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs). These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI modulators. PMID

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide mediated protein nitration: therapeutic implications in experimental radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jae; Kim, Tae Uk; Park, Jeong-Soo; Ra, Jong Yun

    2013-09-15

    Experimental animal study. This study investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) mediated protein nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of radiculopathy and whether the symptoms can be relieved by its suppression. It has been reported that nitration of protein mediated by NO is involved in the degenerative neurological disorders, but its involvement is not clear in the radiculopathy. Two kinds of rat models of radiculopathy were used. Radiculopathy was induced either by ligation of spinal nerve roots or transplantation of autologous nucleus pulposus. In separate groups of rats, aminoguanidine, a potent nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, was administered just before induction of radiculopathy, to suppress NO production and resultant nitration of protein. Sensation of the hind limb was evaluated by plantar stimulation test, and motor weakness was assessed by observation of gait pattern. Nitrotyrosine, product of protein nitration, was assayed quantitatively by Western immunoblotting. Mechanical allodynia was observed in both compression and nucleus pulposus groups, but motor weakness was observed only in the compression group. Preoperative administration of aminoguanidine attenuated mechanical allodynia and motor weakness. Optical densities of nitrotyrosine bands increased significantly in radiculopathy groups, but they were lowered by administration of aminoguanidine. NO mediated protein nitration contributes to the development of both types of radiculopathies. Suppression of NO production can decrease protein nitration and relieve neural dysfunctions of radiculopathy. N/A.

  18. Sulforaphane-induced autophagy flux prevents prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity through AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Jeong, J-K; Park, S-Y

    2014-10-10

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative and infectious disorders that involve accumulation of misfolded scrapie prion protein, and which are characterized by spongiform degeneration. Autophagy, a major homeostatic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components, has garnered attention as the potential target for neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease. We focused on protective effects of sulforaphane found in cruciferous vegetables on prion-mediated neurotoxicity and the mechanism of sulforaphane related to autophagy. In human neuroblastoma cells, sulforaphane protected prion protein (PrP) (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and increased autophagy flux marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II protein levels, following a decrease of p62 protein level. Pharmacological and genetical inhibition of autophagy by 3MA, wortmannin and knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) led to block the effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore we demonstrated that both sulforaphane-induced autophagy and protective effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity are dependent on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The present results indicated that sulforaphane of cruciferous vegetables enhanced autophagy flux led to the protection effects against prion-mediated neurotoxicity, which was regulated by AMPK signaling pathways in human neuron cells. Our data also suggest that sulforaphane has a potential value as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disease including prion diseases. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of trichloroethylene by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wen-Xu; Huang, Peiwu; Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Shen, Liming; Yang, Linqing; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-05-16

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Since the wide use of TCE as industrial degreasing of metals, adhesive paint and polyvinyl chloride production, TCE has turned into an environmental and occupational toxicant. Exposure to TCE could cause severe hepatotoxicity; however, the toxic mechanisms of TCE remain poorly understood. Recently, we reported that SET protein mediated TCE-induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells. Here, we further identified the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE using the techniques of DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Among the 20 differential proteins identified, 8 were found to be modulated by SET in TCE-induced cytotoxicity and three of them (cofilin-1, peroxiredoxin-2 and S100-A11) were validated by Western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that most of the identified SET-modulated proteins are apoptosis-associated proteins. These data indicated that these proteins may be involved in SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE in L-02 cells.

  20. High expression level of soluble SARS spike protein mediated by adenovirus in HEK293 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Zhong; Zhen-Yu Zhong; Shuang Liang; Xiu-Jin Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop a highly efficacious method for preparation of soluble SARS S-protein using adenovirus vector to meet the requirement for S-protein investigation.METHODS: The human adenovirus vector was used to express the soluble S-protein (corresponding to 1~1190 amino acids) fused with Myc/His tag using codon-optimized gene construct in HEK239 cells. The recombinant adenovirus bearing S-protein gene was generated by ligation method. The expressed S-protein with Myc/His tag was purified from culture medium with Ni-NTA agarose beads followed by dialysis. The S-protein was detected by Western blot and its biologic activity was analyzed by binding to Vero cells.RESULTS: Under the conditions of infection dose (MOI of 50) and expression time (48 h), the high-level expression of S-protein was obtained. The expression level was determined to be approximately 75 μg/106cells after purification. Purified soluble S-protein was readily detected by Western blot with anti-Myc antibody and showed the ability to bind to surface of Vero cells,demonstrating that the soluble S-protein could remain the biologic activity in the native molecule.CONCLUSION: The high-level expression of S-protein in HEK293 cells mediated by adenovirus can be achieved under the optimized expression conditions. The proteins possess the biologic activity, which lays a foundation for further investigation of S-protein biological function.

  1. High-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding regions mediated by intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenling; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs and IDRs) lack stable 3D structure under physiological conditions in-vitro, are common in eukaryotes, and facilitate interactions with RNA, DNA and proteins. Current methods for prediction of IDPs and IDRs do not provide insights into their functions, except for a handful of methods that address predictions of protein-binding regions. We report first-of-its-kind computational method DisoRDPbind for high-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding residues located in IDRs from protein sequences. DisoRDPbind is implemented using a runtime-efficient multi-layered design that utilizes information extracted from physiochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, putative secondary structure and disorder and sequence alignment. Empirical tests demonstrate that it provides accurate predictions that are competitive with other predictors of disorder-mediated protein binding regions and complementary to the methods that predict RNA- and DNA-binding residues annotated based on crystal structures. Application in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes reveals that RNA- and DNA-binding proteins predicted by DisoRDPbind complement and overlap with the corresponding known binding proteins collected from several sources. Also, the number of the putative protein-binding regions predicted with DisoRDPbind correlates with the promiscuity of proteins in the corresponding protein-protein interaction networks. Webserver: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/DisoRDPbind/.

  2. FAX1, a Novel Membrane Protein Mediating Plastid Fatty Acid Export

    OpenAIRE

    Roland G Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids made in chloroplasts must be exported into the rest of the cell to be converted into commercially important plant oils. A new study identifies FAX1 as a protein that mediates this crucial transport step. Read the Research Article.

  3. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...

  4. Site-specific N-terminal labeling of proteins using sortase-mediated reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theile, Christopher S.; Witte, Martin D.; Blom, Annet E. M.; Kundrat, Lenka; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Guimaraes, Carla P.

    2013-01-01

    This protocol describes the use of sortase-mediated reactions to label the N terminus of any given protein of interest. The sortase recognition sequence, LPXTG (for Streptococcus aureus sortase A) or LPXTA (for Staphylococcus pyogenes sortase A), can be appended to a variety of probes such as fluoro

  5. Adult neurogenesis requires Smad4-mediated bone morphogenic protein signaling in stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, D.; Mori, T.; Brill, M.S; Pfeifer, A.; Falk, S.; Deng, C.; Monteiro, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Sommer, L.; Gotz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis continues only in few regions of the forebrain. The molecular signals governing neurogenesis in these unique neurogenic niches, however, are still ill defined. Here, we show that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling is active in adult neural stem cel

  6. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  7. Connecting G protein signaling to chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Youtao; Lacal, Jesus; Firtel, Richard A; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    The directional movement towards extracellular chemical gradients, a process called chemotaxis, is an important property of cells. Central to eukaryotic chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which chemoattractant-mediated activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces symmetry breaking

  8. Residue 182 influences the second step of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-mediated catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Guo, X.; Møller, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp(181) (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp(181) functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts as a gene...

  9. Visualizing virulence proteins and their translocation into the host during agrobacterium-mediated transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakalis, Philippe Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The project focuses on visualizing Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation (AMT) of host cells by real time microscopy. With new visualization techniques the function of several proteins, which have recently been discovered in our lab to play a role during AMT, are studied.

  10. The ESX system in Bacillus subtilis mediates protein secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Huppert

    Full Text Available Esat-6 protein secretion systems (ESX or Ess are required for the virulence of several human pathogens, most notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. These secretion systems are defined by a conserved FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase and one or more WXG100 family secreted substrates. Gene clusters coding for ESX systems have been identified amongst many organisms including the highly tractable model system, Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we demonstrate that the B. subtilis yuk/yue locus codes for a nonessential ESX secretion system. We develop a functional secretion assay to demonstrate that each of the locus gene products is specifically required for secretion of the WXG100 virulence factor homolog, YukE. We then employ an unbiased approach to search for additional secreted substrates. By quantitative profiling of culture supernatants, we find that YukE may be the sole substrate that depends on the FtsK/SpoIIIE family ATPase for secretion. We discuss potential functional implications for secretion of a unique substrate.

  11. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev;

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present...

  12. BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) deficiency ameliorates TNBS colitis in mice: role of M2 macrophages and heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harusato, Akihito; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which plays an important role in the protection of cells and tissues against acute and chronic inflammation. However, the role of Bach1 in the gastrointestinal mucosal defense system remains little understood. HO-1 supports the suppression of experimental colitis and localizes mainly in macrophages in colonic mucosa. This study was undertaken to elucidate the Bach1/HO-1 system's effects on the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. This study used C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice in which colonic damage was induced by the administration of an enema of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Subsequently, they were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. Peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice were isolated and analyzed. Then, wild-type mice were injected with peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice. Acute colitis was induced similarly. TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited in Bach1-deficient mice. TNBS administration increased the expression of HO-1 messenger RNA and protein in colonic mucosa in Bach1-deficient mice. The expression of HO-1 mainly localized in F4/80-immunopositive and CD11b-immunopositive macrophages. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Bach1-deficient mice highly expressed HO-1 and also manifested M2 macrophage markers, such as Arginase-1, Fizz-1, Ym1, and MRC1. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited by the transfer of Bach1-deficient macrophages into wild-type mice. Deficiency of Bach1 ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Bach1-deficient macrophages played a key role in protection against colitis. Targeting of this mechanism is applicable to cell therapy for human inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. The BTB-zinc finger transcription factor abrupt acts as an epithelial oncogene in Drosophila melanogaster through maintaining a progenitor-like cell state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Turkel

    Full Text Available The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib, and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1, is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state.

  14. The BTB-zinc Finger Transcription Factor Abrupt Acts as an Epithelial Oncogene in Drosophila melanogaster through Maintaining a Progenitor-like Cell State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Nezaket; Sahota, Virender K.; Bolden, Jessica E.; Goulding, Karen R.; Doggett, Karen; Willoughby, Lee F.; Blanco, Enrique; Martin-Blanco, Enrique; Corominas, Montserrat; Ellul, Jason; Aigaki, Toshiro; Richardson, Helena E.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib), and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1), is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase) signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state. PMID:23874226

  15. Cotranslational Coat Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Potyviral RNA Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besong-Ndika, Jane; Ivanov, Konstantin I.; Hafrèn, Anders; Michon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potato virus A (PVA) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and a member of the family Potyviridae. The PVA coat protein (CP) has an intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into filamentous virus-like particles, but the mechanism responsible for the initiation of viral RNA encapsidation in vivo remains unclear. Apart from virion assembly, PVA CP is also involved in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. In this study, we show that CP inhibits PVA RNA translation in a dose-dependent manner, through a mechanism involving the CP-encoding region. Analysis of this region, however, failed to identify any RNA secondary structure(s) preferentially recognized by CP, suggesting that the inhibition depends on CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions. In agreement with this possibility, insertion of an in-frame stop codon upstream of the CP sequence led to a marked decrease in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the cotranslational interactions between excess CP accumulating in trans and CP translated from viral RNA in cis are required to initiate the translational repression. This model suggests a mechanism for how viral RNA can be sequestered from translation and specifically selected for encapsidation at the late stages of viral infection. IMPORTANCE The main functions of the CP during potyvirus infection are to protect viral RNA from degradation and to transport it locally, systemically, and from host to host. Although virion assembly is a key step in the potyviral infectious cycle, little is known about how it is initiated and how viral RNA is selected for encapsidation. The results presented here suggest that CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions are predominantly involved in the sequestration of viral RNA away from translation. We propose that the cotranslational nature of these interactions may represent a mechanism for the selection of viral RNA for encapsidation. A better understanding of the

  16. Ras protein participated in histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle control in Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoxue; LU Jun; ZHAO Yanmei; WANG Xiuli; HUANG Baiqu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that in Physarum polycephalum, a naturally synchronized slime mold, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), arrestes the cell cycle at the checkpoints of S/G2, G2/M and mitosis exit, and influences the transcription of two ras genes Ppras1 and Pprap1, as well as the Ras protein level. Antibody neutralization experiment using anti-Ras antibody treatment showed that Ras protein played an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control through regulation of the level of Cyclin B1, suggesting that Ras protein might be a key factor for histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle regulation in P. polycephalum.

  17. Genetic basis for developmental homeostasis of germline stem cell niche number: a network of Tramtrack-Group nuclear BTB factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bartoletti

    Full Text Available The potential to produce new cells during adult life depends on the number of stem cell niches and the capacity of stem cells to divide, and is therefore under the control of programs ensuring developmental homeostasis. However, it remains generally unknown how the number of stem cell niches is controlled. In the insect ovary, each germline stem cell (GSC niche is embedded in a functional unit called an ovariole. The number of ovarioles, and thus the number of GSC niches, varies widely among species. In Drosophila, morphogenesis of ovarioles starts in larvae with the formation of terminal filaments (TFs, each made of 8-10 cells that pile up and sort in stacks. TFs constitute organizers of individual germline stem cell niches during larval and early pupal development. In the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, the number of ovarioles varies interspecifically from 8 to 20. Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ovarioles in D. melanogaster. At least two different processes are differentially perturbed by reducing the function of these genes. We found that when the bab dose is reduced, sorting of TF cells into TFs was affected such that each TF contains fewer cells and more TFs are formed. In contrast, psq mutants exhibited a greater number of TF cells per ovary, with a normal number of cells per TF, thereby leading to formation of more TFs per ovary than in the wild type. Our results indicate that two parallel genetic pathways under the control of a network of nuclear BTB factors are combined in order to negatively control the number of germline stem cell niches.

  18. Genetic basis for developmental homeostasis of germline stem cell niche number: a network of Tramtrack-Group nuclear BTB factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Mathieu; Rubin, Thomas; Chalvet, Fabienne; Netter, Sophie; Dos Santos, Nicolas; Poisot, Emilie; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Cumenal, Delphine; Peronnet, Frédérique; Pret, Anne-Marie; Théodore, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The potential to produce new cells during adult life depends on the number of stem cell niches and the capacity of stem cells to divide, and is therefore under the control of programs ensuring developmental homeostasis. However, it remains generally unknown how the number of stem cell niches is controlled. In the insect ovary, each germline stem cell (GSC) niche is embedded in a functional unit called an ovariole. The number of ovarioles, and thus the number of GSC niches, varies widely among species. In Drosophila, morphogenesis of ovarioles starts in larvae with the formation of terminal filaments (TFs), each made of 8-10 cells that pile up and sort in stacks. TFs constitute organizers of individual germline stem cell niches during larval and early pupal development. In the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, the number of ovarioles varies interspecifically from 8 to 20. Here we show that pipsqueak, Trithorax-like, batman and the bric-à-brac (bab) locus, all encoding nuclear BTB/POZ factors of the Tramtrack Group, are involved in limiting the number of ovarioles in D. melanogaster. At least two different processes are differentially perturbed by reducing the function of these genes. We found that when the bab dose is reduced, sorting of TF cells into TFs was affected such that each TF contains fewer cells and more TFs are formed. In contrast, psq mutants exhibited a greater number of TF cells per ovary, with a normal number of cells per TF, thereby leading to formation of more TFs per ovary than in the wild type. Our results indicate that two parallel genetic pathways under the control of a network of nuclear BTB factors are combined in order to negatively control the number of germline stem cell niches.

  19. Protein Corona Modulates Uptake and Toxicity of Nanoceria via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Julie; Weber, Ralf J M; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Khan, Abdullah; Guggenheim, Emily; Shaw, Robert K; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2016-08-01

    Particles present in diesel exhaust have been proposed as a significant contributor to the development of acute and chronic lung diseases, including respiratory infection and allergic asthma. Nanoceria (CeO2 nanoparticles) are used to increase fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines, are present in exhaust fumes, and could affect cells of the airway. Components from the environment such as biologically derived proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids can form a dynamic layer, commonly referred to as the "protein corona" which alters cellular nanoparticle interactions and internalization. Using confocal reflectance microscopy, we quantified nanoceria uptake by lung-derived cells in the presence and absence of a serum-derived protein corona. Employing mass spectrometry, we identified components of the protein corona, and demonstrated that the interaction between transferrin in the protein corona and the transferrin receptor is involved in mediating the cellular entry of nanoceria via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, under these conditions nanoceria does not affect cell growth, viability, or metabolism, even at high concentration. Alternatively, despite the antioxidant capacity of nanoceria, in serum-free conditions these nanoparticles induce plasma membrane disruption and cause changes in cellular metabolism. Thus, our results identify a specific receptor-mediated mechanism for nanoceria entry, and provide significant insight into the potential for nanoparticle-dependent toxicity.

  20. RNA-binding proteins in microsatellite expansion disorders: mediators of RNA toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Gloria V; Cooper, Thomas A

    2012-06-26

    Although protein-mediated toxicity in neurological disease has been extensively characterized, RNA-mediated toxicity is an emerging mechanism of pathogenesis. In microsatellite expansion disorders, expansion of repeated sequences in noncoding regions gives rise to RNA that produces a toxic gain of function, while expansions in coding regions can disrupt protein function as well as produce toxic RNA. The toxic RNA typically aggregates into nuclear foci and contributes to disease pathogenesis. In many cases, toxicity of the RNA is caused by the disrupted functions of RNA-binding proteins. We will discuss evidence for RNA-mediated toxicity in microsatellite expansion disorders. Different microsatellite expansion disorders are linked with alterations in the same as well as disease-specific RNA-binding proteins. Recent studies have shown that microsatellite expansions can encode multiple repeat-containing toxic RNAs through bidirectional transcription and protein species through repeat-associated non-ATG translation. We will discuss approaches that have characterized the toxic contributions of these various factors.

  1. Reactive oxygen species-mediated unfolded protein response pathways in preimplantation embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ihsan; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Jin, Yi; Li, Zhong-Shu; Ullah, Obaid

    2017-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated responses are critical to embryonic development in the challenging in vitro environment. ROS production increases during early embryonic development with the increase in protein requirements for cell survival and growth. The ER is a multifunctional cellular organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and cellular homeostasis. ER stress is activated by a variety of factors including ROS. Such stress leads to activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores homeostasis. However, chronic stress can exceed the toleration level of the ER, resulting in cellular apoptosis. In this review, we briefly describe the generation and impact of ROS in preimplantation embryo development, the ROS-mediated activation mechanism of the UPR via the ER, and the subsequent activation of signaling pathways following ER stress in preimplantation embryos. PMID:28057903

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natarajan Palaniappan; S Anbalagan; Sujatha Narayanan

    2012-03-01

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are involved in M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytic cells are currently unknown. Exposure of THP-1 human monocytes to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra induced distinct, time-dependent, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases. The strains also differed in their usage of CD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinase, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases increases, but that inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in THP-1 human monocytes.

  3. A subset of FG-nucleoporins is necessary for efficient Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Erin M.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Clement, George W.; Rao, Sheila; Kruse, Sarah E.; Kokanovich, Kate M.; Belanger, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The transport of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus requires interactions between soluble transport receptors (karyopherins) and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domains on nuclear pore complex proteins (nucleoporins). However, the role of specific FG repeat-containing nucleoporins in nuclear protein export has not been carefully investigated. We have developed a novel kinetic assay to investigate the relative export kinetics mediated by the karyopherin Msn5/Kap142 in yeast containing specific FG-Nup mutations. Using the Msn5 substrate Crz1 as a marker for Msn5-mediated protein export, we observe that deletions of NUP100 or NUP2 result in decreased rates of Crz1 export, while nup60Δ and nup42Δ mutants do not vary significantly from wild type. The decreased Msn5 export rate in nup100Δ was confirmed using Mig1-GFP as a transport substrate. A nup100ΔGLFG mutant shows defects in nuclear export kinetics similar to a nup100Δ deletion. Removal of FG-repeats from Nsp1 also decreases export kinetics, while a loss of Nup1 FXFGs does not. To confirm that our export data reflected functional differences in protein localization, we performed Crz1 transcription activation assays using a CDRE::LacZ reporter gene that is upregulated upon increased transcription activation by Crz1 in vivo. We observe that expression from this reporter increases in nup100ΔGLFG and nsp1ΔFGΔFXFG strains that exhibit decreased Crz1 export kinetics but resembles wild-type levels in nup1ΔFXFG strains that do not exhibit export defects. These data provide evidence that the export of Msn5 is likely mediated by a specific subset of FG-Nups and that the GLFG repeat domain of Nup100 is important for Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export. PMID:23295456

  4. A subset of FG-nucleoporins is necessary for efficient Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Erin M; DeRoo, Elise P; Clement, George W; Rao, Sheila; Kruse, Sarah E; Kokanovich, Kate M; Belanger, Kenneth D

    2013-05-01

    The transport of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus requires interactions between soluble transport receptors (karyopherins) and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domains on nuclear pore complex proteins (nucleoporins). However, the role of specific FG repeat-containing nucleoporins in nuclear protein export has not been carefully investigated. We have developed a novel kinetic assay to investigate the relative export kinetics mediated by the karyopherin Msn5/Kap142 in yeast containing specific FG-Nup mutations. Using the Msn5 substrate Crz1 as a marker for Msn5-mediated protein export, we observe that deletions of NUP100 or NUP2 result in decreased rates of Crz1 export, while nup60Δ and nup42Δ mutants do not vary significantly from wild type. The decreased Msn5 export rate in nup100Δ was confirmed using Mig1-GFP as a transport substrate. A nup100ΔGLFG mutant shows defects in nuclear export kinetics similar to a nup100Δ deletion. Removal of FG-repeats from Nsp1 also decreases export kinetics, while a loss of Nup1 FXFGs does not. To confirm that our export data reflected functional differences in protein localization, we performed Crz1 transcription activation assays using a CDRE::LacZ reporter gene that is upregulated upon increased transcription activation by Crz1 in vivo. We observe that expression from this reporter increases in nup100ΔGLFG and nsp1ΔFGΔFXFG strains that exhibit decreased Crz1 export kinetics but resembles wild-type levels in nup1ΔFXFG strains that do not exhibit export defects. These data provide evidence that the export of Msn5 is likely mediated by a specific subset of FG-Nups and that the GLFG repeat domain of Nup100 is important for Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export.

  5. Surfactant protein A regulates IgG-mediated phagocytosis in inflammatory neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Jessica A; Wright, Jo Rae

    2007-12-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D have been shown to affect the functions of a variety of innate immune cells and to interact with various immune proteins such as complement and immunoglobulins. The goal of the current study is to test the hypothesis that SP-A regulates IgG-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils, which are major effector cells of the innate immune response that remove invading pathogens by phagocytosis and by extracellular killing mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen. We have previously shown that SP-A stimulates chemotaxis by inflammatory, but not peripheral, neutrophils. To evaluate the ability of SP-A to modulate IgG-mediated phagocytosis, polystyrene beads were coated with BSA and treated with anti-BSA IgG. SP-A significantly and specifically enhanced IgG-mediated phagocytosis by inflammatory neutrophils, but it had no effect on beads not treated with IgG. SP-A bound to IgG-coated beads and enhanced their uptake via direct interactions with the beads as well as direct interactions with the neutrophils. SP-A did not affect reactive oxygen production or binding of IgG to neutrophils and had modest effects on polymerization of actin. These data suggest that SP-A plays an important role in mediating the phagocytic response of neutrophils to IgG-opsonized particles.

  6. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev;

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present...... with colocalization of the full-length proteins in cells and with previous studies, we suggest that the range of relevant interactions might extend to interactions with K i = 450 µM in the in vitro assays. Within this range, we identify novel PSD-95 interactions with the chemokine receptor CXCR2, the neuropeptide Y...

  7. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoonsung [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyang-Min [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Peter I. [Department of Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, 4301 West Markham, Slot 576, Little Rock, AR 72205 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Ho [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yong [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Yeoul [Department of Physiology, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); You, Ho Jin, E-mail: hjyou@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  8. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... to these general questions by distinguishing between two concepts: mediation and mediatization. The media effects tradition generally considers the effects of the media to be a result of individuals being exposed to media content, i.e. effects are seen as an outcome of mediated communication. Mediatization...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction...

  9. Conformational flexibility and structural dynamics in GPCR-mediated G protein activation: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preininger, Anita M.; Meiler, Jens; Hamm, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Structure and dynamics of G proteins and their cognate receptors, both alone and in complex, are becoming increasingly accessible to experimental techniques. Understanding the conformational changes and timelines which govern these changes can lead to new insights into the processes of ligand binding and associated G protein activation. Experimental systems may involve the use of, or otherwise stabilize, non-native environments. This can complicate our understanding of structural and dynamical features of processes such as the ionic lock, Tryptophan toggle, and G protein flexibility. While elements in the receptor’s transmembrane helices and the C-terminal α5 helix of Gα undergo well defined structural changes, regions subject to conformational flexibility may be important in fine-tuning the interactions between activated receptors and G proteins. The pairing of computational and experimental approaches will continue to provide powerful tools to probe the conformation and dynamics of receptor-mediated G protein activation. PMID:23602809

  10. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  11. Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins in Evasion of Complement-Mediated Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Greiciely O.; Converso, Thiago R.; Politano, Walter R.; Ferraz, Lucio F. C.; Ribeiro, Marcelo L.; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Darrieux, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The complement system plays a central role in immune defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In order to evade complement attack, pneumococci have evolved a number of mechanisms that limit complement mediated opsonization and subsequent phagocytosis. This review focuses on the strategies employed by pneumococci to circumvent complement mediated immunity, both in vitro and in vivo. At last, since many of the proteins involved in interactions with complement components are vaccine candidates in different stages of validation, we explore the use of these antigens alone or in combination, as potential vaccine approaches that aim at elimination or drastic reduction in the ability of this bacterium to evade complement. PMID:28265264

  12. Ubiquitination-mediated degradation of cell cycle-related proteins by F-box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nana; Wang, Zhiwei; Wei, Wenyi

    2016-04-01

    F-box proteins, subunits of SKP1-cullin 1-F-box protein (SCF) type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, have been validated to play a crucial role in governing various cellular processes such as cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and metastasis. Recently, a wealth of evidence has emerged that F-box proteins is critically involved in tumorigenesis in part through governing the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cell cycle proteins, and dysregulation of this process leads to aberrant cell cycle progression and ultimately, tumorigenesis. Therefore, in this review, we describe the critical role of F-box proteins in the timely regulation of cell cycle. Moreover, we discuss how F-box proteins involve in tumorigenesis via targeting cell cycle-related proteins using biochemistry studies, engineered mouse models, and pathological gene alternations. We conclude that inhibitors of F-box proteins could have promising therapeutic potentials in part through controlling of aberrant cell cycle progression for cancer therapies.

  13. Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Noboru; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Yonekura, Hisashi; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-05-11

    Organelle movement is essential for efficient cellular function in eukaryotes. Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. Chloroplast movement generally is actin dependent and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins mediate chloroplast movement by regulating short actin filaments on chloroplasts (cp-actin filaments), and the chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is necessary for cp-actin filament accumulation. However, other factors involved in cp-actin filament regulation during chloroplast movement remain to be determined. Here, we report that two kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, are essential for chloroplasts to move and anchor to the plasma membrane. A kac1 mutant showed severely impaired chloroplast accumulation and slow avoidance movement. A kac1kac2 double mutant completely lacked chloroplast photorelocation movement and showed detachment of chloroplasts from the plasma membrane. KAC motor domains are similar to those of the kinesin-14 subfamily (such as Ncd and Kar3) but do not have detectable microtubule-binding activity. The C-terminal domain of KAC1 could interact with F-actin in vitro. Instead of regulating microtubules, KAC proteins mediate chloroplast movement via cp-actin filaments. We conclude that plants have evolved a unique mechanism to regulate actin-based organelle movement using kinesin-like proteins.

  14. Comparative mechanisms of protein transduction mediated by cell-penetrating peptides in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Betty Revon; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial and archaeal cell envelopes are complex multilayered barriers that serve to protect these microorganisms from their extremely harsh and often hostile environments. Import of exogenous proteins and nanoparticles into cells is important for biotechnological applications in prokaryotes. In this report, we demonstrate that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), both bacteria-expressed nona-arginine peptide (R9) and synthetic R9 (SR9), are able to deliver noncovalently associated proteins or quantum dots into four representative species of prokaryotes: cyanobacteria (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), bacteria (Escherichia coli DH5α and Arthrobacter ilicis D-50), and archaea (Thermus aquaticus). Although energy-dependent endocytosis is generally accepted as a hallmark that distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes, cellular uptake of uncomplexed green fluorescent protein (GFP) by cyanobacteria was mediated by classical endocytosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that macropinocytosis plays a critical and major role in CPP-mediated protein transduction in all four prokaryotes. Membrane damage was not observed when cyanobacterial cells were treated with R9/GFP complexes, nor was cytotoxicity detected when bacteria or archaea were treated with SR9/QD complexes in the presence of macropinocytic inhibitors. These results indicate that the uptake of protein is not due to a compromise of membrane integrity in cyanobacteria, and that CPP can be an effective and safe carrier for membrane trafficking in prokaryotic cells. Our investigation provides important new insights into the transport of exogenous proteins and nanoparticles across the complex membrane systems of prokaryotes.

  15. Heterotrimeric G-protein is involved in phytochrome A-mediated cell death of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wei; Wenbin Zhou; Guangzhen Hu; Jiamian Wei; Hongquan Yang; Jirong Huang

    2008-01-01

    The heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) has been demonstrated to mediate various signaling pathways in plants. However,its role in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling remains elusive. In this study,we discover a new phyA-mediated phenotype designated far-red irradiation (FR) preconditioned cell death,which occurs only in the hypocotyls of FR-grown seedlings following exposure to white light (WL). The cell death is mitigated in the Ga mutant gpal but aggravated in the Gβ mutant agbl in comparison with the wild type (WT),indicative of antagonistic roles of GPAI and AGB1 in the phyA-mediated cell-death pathway. Further investigation indicates that FR-induced accumulation of nonphotoconvertible protochlorophyllide (Pchlide633),which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS)on exposure to WL,is required for FR-preconditioned cell death. Moreover,ROS is mainly detected in chloroplasts using the fluorescent probe. Interestingly,the application of H2O2 to dark-grown seedlings results in a phenotype similar to FR-preconditioned cell death. This reveals that ROS is a critical mediator for the cell death. In addition,we observe that agbl is more sensitive to H2O2 than WT seedlings,indicating that the G-protein may also modify the sensitivity of the seedlings to ROS stress. Taking these results together,we infer that the G-protein may be involved in the phyA signaling pathway to regulate FR-preconditioned cell death of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.Apossible mechanism underlying the involvement of the G-protein in phyA signaling is discussed in this study.

  16. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  17. Thioflavin S (NSC71948) interferes with Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG-1)-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam; Crabb, Simon J; Johnson, Peter W M; Hague, Angela; Cutress, Ramsey; Townsend, Paul A; Ganesan, A; Packham, Graham

    2009-11-01

    The C-terminal BAG domain is thought to play a key role in BAG-1-induced survival and proliferation by mediating protein-protein interactions, for example, with heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70, and with RAF-1 kinase. Here, we have identified thioflavin S (NSC71948) as a potential small-molecule chemical inhibitor of these interactions. NSC71948 inhibited the interaction of BAG-1 and HSC70 in vitro and decreased BAG-1:HSC70 and BAG-1:HSP70 binding in intact cells. NSC71948 also reduced binding between BAG-1 and RAF-1, but had no effect on the interaction between two unrelated proteins, BIM and MCL-1. NSC71948 functionally reversed the ability of BAG-1 to promote vitamin D3 receptor-mediated transactivation, an activity of BAG-1 that depends on HSC70/HSP70 binding, and reduced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activate protein kinase. NSC71948 can be used to stain amyloid fibrils; however, structurally related compounds, thioflavin T and BTA-1, had no effect on BAG-1:HSC70 binding, suggesting that structural features important for amyloid fibril binding and inhibition of BAG-1:HSC70 binding may be separable. We demonstrated that NSC71948 inhibited the growth of BAG-1 expressing human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells and wild-type, but not BAG-1-deficient, mouse embryo fibroblasts. Taken together, these data suggest that NSC71948 may be a useful molecule to investigate the functional significance of BAG-1 C-terminal protein interactions. However, it is important to recognize that NSC71948 may exert additional "off-target" effects. Inhibition of BAG-1 function may be an attractive strategy to inhibit the growth of BAG-1-overexpressing cancers, and further screens of additional compound collections may be warranted.

  18. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-04-15

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  19. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  20. Ribosomal protein S6 associates with alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 and mediates expression from alphavirus messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephanie A; Berglund, Peter; Beard, Clayton W; Johnston, Robert E

    2006-08-01

    Although alphaviruses dramatically alter cellular function within hours of infection, interactions between alphaviruses and specific host cellular proteins are poorly understood. Although the alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is an essential component of the viral replication complex, it also has critical auxiliary functions that determine the outcome of infection in the host. To gain a better understanding of nsP2 function, we sought to identify cellular proteins with which Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2 interacted. We demonstrate here that nsP2 associates with ribosomal protein S6 (RpS6) and that nsP2 is present in the ribosome-containing fractions of a polysome gradient, suggesting that nsP2 associates with RpS6 in the context of the whole ribosome. This result was noteworthy, since viral replicase proteins have seldom been described in direct association with components of the ribosome. The association of RpS6 with nsP2 was detected throughout the course of infection, and neither the synthesis of the viral structural proteins nor the presence of the other nonstructural proteins was required for RpS6 interaction with nsP2. nsP1 also was associated with RpS6, but other nonstructural proteins were not. RpS6 phosphorylation was dramatically diminished within hours after infection with alphaviruses. Furthermore, a reduction in the level of RpS6 protein expression led to diminished expression from alphavirus subgenomic messages, whereas no dramatic diminution in cellular translation was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that alphaviruses alter the ribosome during infection and that this alteration may contribute to differential translation of host and viral messages.

  1. Use of intein-mediated phosphoprotein arrays to study substrate specificity of protein phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochinyan, Samvel; Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Barshevsky, Tanya; Xu, Jie; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic peptides incorporating various chemical moieties, for example, phosphate groups, are convenient tools for investigating protein modification enzymes, such as protein phosphatases (PPs). However, short peptides are sometimes poor substrates, and their binding to commonly used matrices is unpredictable and variable. In general, protein substrates for PPs are superior for enzymatic assays, binding to various matrices, and Western blot analysis. The preparation and characterization of phosphoproteins, however can be difficult and technically demanding. In this study, the intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) technique was used to readily generate phosphorylated protein substrates by ligating a synthetic phosphopeptide to an intein-generated carrier protein (CP) possessing a carboxyl-terminal thioester with a one-to-one stoichiometry. The ligated phosphoprotein (LPP) substrate was treated with a PP and subsequently subjected to array or Western blot analysis with a phospho-specific antibody. This approach is highly effective in producing arrays of protein substrates containing phosphorylated amino acid residues and has been applied for screening of PPs with specificity toward phosphorylated tyrosine, serine, or threonine residues, resulting in an approximately 240-fold increase in sensitivity in dot blot analysis compared with the use of synthetic peptides. The IPL technique overcomes the disadvantages of current methods and is a versatile system for the facile production of protein substrates containing well-defined structural motifs for the study of protein modification enzymes.

  2. A single peroxisomal targeting signal mediates matrix protein import in diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane bound compartments. They are thought to be present in almost all eukaryotic cells, although the bulk of our knowledge about peroxisomes has been generated from only a handful of model organisms. Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized cytosolically and posttranslationally imported into the peroxisomal matrix. The import is generally thought to be mediated by two different targeting signals. These are respectively recognized by the two import receptor proteins Pex5 and Pex7, which facilitate transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Here, we show the first in vivo localization studies of peroxisomes in a representative organism of the ecologically relevant group of diatoms using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. By expression of various homologous and heterologous fusion proteins we demonstrate that targeting of Phaeodactylum tricornutum peroxisomal matrix proteins is mediated only by PTS1 targeting signals, also for proteins that are in other systems imported via a PTS2 mode of action. Additional in silico analyses suggest this surprising finding may also apply to further diatoms. Our data suggest that loss of the PTS2 peroxisomal import signal is not reserved to Caenorhabditis elegans as a single exception, but has also occurred in evolutionary divergent organisms. Obviously, targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1 across different major eukaryotic groups might have occurred for different reasons. Thus, our findings question the widespread assumption that import of peroxisomal matrix proteins is generally mediated by two different targeting signals. Our results implicate that there apparently must have been an event causing the loss of one targeting signal even in the group of diatoms. Different possibilities are discussed that indicate multiple reasons for the detected targeting switching from PTS2 to PTS1.

  3. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  4. C-reactive protein enhances IgG-mediated phagocyte responses and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Rick; Heitink-Pollé, Katja M J; Porcelijn, Leendert; Bentlage, Arthur E H; Bruin, Marrie C A; Visser, Remco; Roos, Dirk; Schasfoort, Richard B M; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2015-03-12

    Immune-mediated platelet destruction is most frequently caused by allo- or autoantibodies via Fcγ receptor-dependent phagocytosis. Disease severity can be predicted neither by antibody isotype nor by titer, indicating that other factors play a role. Here we show that the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP), a ligand for Fc receptors on phagocytes, enhances antibody-mediated platelet destruction by human phagocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. Without antiplatelet antibodies, CRP was found to be inert toward platelets, but it bound to phosphorylcholine exposed after oxidation triggered by antiplatelet antibodies, thereby enhancing platelet phagocytosis. CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with allo- and autoantibody-mediated thrombocytopenias compared with healthy controls. Within a week, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia led to significant decrease of CRP levels, increased platelet numbers, and clinically decreased bleeding severity. Furthermore, the higher the level of CRP at diagnosis, the longer it took before stable platelet counts were reached. These data suggest that CRP amplifies antibody-mediated platelet destruction and may in part explain the aggravation of thrombocytopenia on infections. Hence, targeting CRP could offer new therapeutic opportunities for these patients.

  5. Melatonin attenuates hypochlorous acid-mediated heme destruction, free iron release, and protein aggregation in hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Dhiman; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2012-09-01

    In inflammatory diseases, where hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is elevated, iron homeostasis is disturbed, resulting in accumulation of free iron. Free iron is toxic by virtue of its ability to generate free radicals through the Fenton reaction. HOCl is generated by myeloperoxidase, (MPO) using chloride and hydrogen peroxide as substrates. Recent studies demonstrate that HOCl binds to the heme moiety of hemoglobin (Hb), which generates a transient ferric species whose formation and decay kinetics indicate it participates in protein aggregation, heme destruction, and free iron release. Here, we show that melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated Hb heme destruction and protein aggregation, using a combination of UV-vis spectrophotometry, ferrozine colorimetric assay, and in-gel heme staining. We also show that melatonin treatment prevents HOCl-mediated loss of red blood cell (RBC) viability, indicating biologic relevance of this finding. The mechanism by which melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated Hb heme destruction is by direct scavenging of HOCl and/or through the destabilization of the higher Hb oxidative states intermediates, ferryl porphyrin radical cation Hb-Fe(IV)=O(+π•) and Hb-Fe(IV)=O, which are formed through the reaction of HOCl with Hb. Our work establishes a direct mechanistic link between melatonin and its protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and as a MPO inhibitor, melatonin can also exert its protective effect by inhibiting HOCl-mediated heme destruction of hemoproteins and subsequent free iron release.

  6. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P. (Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of (3H)leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons.

  7. Evaluating the Role of Viral Proteins in HIV-Mediated Neurotoxicity Using Primary Human Neuronal Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vasudev R; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the inability of HIV-1 to infect neurons, over half of the HIV-1-infected population in the USA suffers from neurocognitive dysfunction. HIV-infected immune cells in the periphery enter the central nervous system by causing a breach in the blood-brain barrier. The damage to the neurons is mediated by viral and host toxic products released by activated and infected immune and glial cells. To evaluate the toxicity of any viral isolate, viral protein, or host inflammatory protein, we describe a protocol to assess the neuronal apoptosis and synaptic compromise in primary cultures of human neurons and astrocytes.

  8. Protein mediated synthesis of fluorescent Au-nanoclusters for metal sensory coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescent Au-nanocluster were successfully synthesized and used for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2} {sup +}. The synthesized Au-BSA-nanoclusters remain functional also after immobilization and show high thermal stability. Additionally, the transfer of the protein mediated Au-nanocluster synthesis route to S-layer proteins was achieved. (The presented work is part of the project BIONEWS dealing with long-term stable cells for the set-up and regeneration of sensor and actor materials for strategic relevant metals, in particular rare earth elements).

  9. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  10. RBAP96 Mediates Radiosensitivity of Breast Cancer Cells via Interacting with Retinoblastoma Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junling Zhang; Xiaolei Xue; Qinghui Meng; Lu Lu; Ming Cui; Saijun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify a novel retinoblastoma protein(RB)-associated protein(RBAP 96)and to explore the impact of RBAP96 on radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells.Methods An in vivo and in vitro association of RBAP96 with RB was determined by immunoprecipitation-Western blotting and GST pull-down assay.Protein expression was measured by Western blot assay.Cellular survival was evaluated by using a colony formation assay.Results In both in vitro and in vivo assays,we found that the RBAP96 and RB interaction required a 513LXCXE517 motif on the RBAP96 protein and an intact A/B binding pocket of RB.RBAP96 enhances RB-mediated transcriptional repression.Finally,enforced expression of RBAP96 caused an elevated radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells bearing wtRB,but did not affect radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells bearing mutant RB.Expression of a full-length RBAP96 with an 513LXCXE517 inactivating mutation(LXCXE→RXRXH) failed to result in any radiosensitivity alteration.Conclusion This study for the first time characterizes a novel RB-interacting protein RBAP96 and demonstrates that enforced expression of RBAP96 causes an increase of RBAP96-mediated transcription activation and radiosensitivity via a RB-interacting dependent manner.

  11. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  13. LIM and SH3 protein-1 modulates CXCR2-mediated cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanidhi Raman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemokine receptor CXCR2 plays a pivotal role in migration of neutrophils, macrophages and endothelial cells, modulating several biological responses such as angiogenesis, wound healing and acute inflammation. CXCR2 is also involved in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, sepsis and atherosclerosis. The ability of CXCR2 to associate with a variety of proteins dynamically is responsible for its effects on directed cell migration or chemotaxis. The dynamic network of such CXCR2 binding proteins is termed as "CXCR2 chemosynapse". Proteomic analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitated with CXCR2 in neutrophil-like dHL-60 cells revealed a novel protein, LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1, binds CXCR2 under both basal and ligand activated conditions. LASP-1 is an actin binding cytoskeletal protein, involved in the cell migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that CXCR2 and LASP-1 co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize at the leading edge of migrating cells. The LIM domain of LASP-1 directly binds to the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of CXCR2. Moreover, LASP-1 also directly binds the CTD of CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR4. Using a site-directed and deletion mutagenesis approach, Iso323-Leu324 of the conserved LKIL motif on CXCR2-CTD was identified as the binding site for LASP-1. Interruption of the interaction between CXCR2-CTD and LIM domain of LASP-1 by dominant negative and knock down approaches inhibited CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Analysis for the mechanism for inhibition of CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis indicated that LASP-1/CXCR2 interaction is essential for cell motility and focal adhesion turnover involving activation of Src, paxillin, PAK1, p130CAS and ERK1/2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate here for the first time that LASP-1 is a key component of the "CXCR2 chemosynapse" and LASP-1 interaction with CXCR2 is critical for CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Furthermore, LASP-1 also directly binds the CTD of CXCR1, CXCR3 and

  14. LIM and SH3 protein-1 modulates CXCR2-mediated cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Sai, Jiqing; Neel, Nicole F; Chew, Catherine S; Richmond, Ann

    2010-04-19

    The chemokine receptor CXCR2 plays a pivotal role in migration of neutrophils, macrophages and endothelial cells, modulating several biological responses such as angiogenesis, wound healing and acute inflammation. CXCR2 is also involved in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, sepsis and atherosclerosis. The ability of CXCR2 to associate with a variety of proteins dynamically is responsible for its effects on directed cell migration or chemotaxis. The dynamic network of such CXCR2 binding proteins is termed as "CXCR2 chemosynapse". Proteomic analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitated with CXCR2 in neutrophil-like dHL-60 cells revealed a novel protein, LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1), binds CXCR2 under both basal and ligand activated conditions. LASP-1 is an actin binding cytoskeletal protein, involved in the cell migration. We demonstrate that CXCR2 and LASP-1 co-immunoprecipitate and co-localize at the leading edge of migrating cells. The LIM domain of LASP-1 directly binds to the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CXCR2. Moreover, LASP-1 also directly binds the CTD of CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR4. Using a site-directed and deletion mutagenesis approach, Iso323-Leu324 of the conserved LKIL motif on CXCR2-CTD was identified as the binding site for LASP-1. Interruption of the interaction between CXCR2-CTD and LIM domain of LASP-1 by dominant negative and knock down approaches inhibited CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Analysis for the mechanism for inhibition of CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis indicated that LASP-1/CXCR2 interaction is essential for cell motility and focal adhesion turnover involving activation of Src, paxillin, PAK1, p130CAS and ERK1/2. We demonstrate here for the first time that LASP-1 is a key component of the "CXCR2 chemosynapse" and LASP-1 interaction with CXCR2 is critical for CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Furthermore, LASP-1 also directly binds the CTD of CXCR1, CXCR3 and CXCR4, suggesting that LASP-1 is a general mediator of CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis

  15. Sonic Hedgehog Guides Axons via Zipcode Binding Protein 1-Mediated Local Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepelletier, Léa; Langlois, Sébastien D; Kent, Christopher B; Welshhans, Kristy; Morin, Steves; Bassell, Gary J; Yam, Patricia T; Charron, Frédéric

    2017-02-15

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) attracts spinal cord commissural axons toward the floorplate. How Shh elicits changes in the growth cone cytoskeleton that drive growth cone turning is unknown. We find that the turning of rat commissural axons up a Shh gradient requires protein synthesis. In particular, Shh stimulation increases β-actin protein at the growth cone even when the cell bodies have been removed. Therefore, Shh induces the local translation of β-actin at the growth cone. We hypothesized that this requires zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1), an mRNA-binding protein that transports β-actin mRNA and releases it for local translation upon phosphorylation. We found that Shh stimulation increases phospho-ZBP1 levels in the growth cone. Disruption of ZBP1 phosphorylation in vitro abolished the turning of commissural axons toward a Shh gradient. Disruption of ZBP1 function in vivo in mouse and chick resulted in commissural axon guidance errors. Therefore, ZBP1 is required for Shh to guide commissural axons. This identifies ZBP1 as a new mediator of noncanonical Shh signaling in axon guidance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sonic hedgehog (Shh) guides axons via a noncanonical signaling pathway that is distinct from the canonical Hedgehog signaling pathway that specifies cell fate and morphogenesis. Axon guidance is driven by changes in the growth cone in response to gradients of guidance molecules. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of how Shh orchestrates changes in the growth cone cytoskeleton that are required for growth cone turning. Here, we show that the guidance of axons by Shh requires protein synthesis. Zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1) is an mRNA-binding protein that regulates the local translation of proteins, including actin, in the growth cone. We demonstrate that ZBP1 is required for Shh-mediated axon guidance, identifying a new member of the noncanonical Shh signaling pathway.

  16. Structural basis for cAMP-mediated allosteric control of the catabolite activator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Nataliya; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru; Tonelli, Marco; Ebright, Richard H; Kalodimos, Charalampos G

    2009-04-28

    The cAMP-mediated allosteric transition in the catabolite activator protein (CAP; also known as the cAMP receptor protein, CRP) is a textbook example of modulation of DNA-binding activity by small-molecule binding. Here we report the structure of CAP in the absence of cAMP, which, together with structures of CAP in the presence of cAMP, defines atomic details of the cAMP-mediated allosteric transition. The structural changes, and their relationship to cAMP binding and DNA binding, are remarkably clear and simple. Binding of cAMP results in a coil-to-helix transition that extends the coiled-coil dimerization interface of CAP by 3 turns of helix and concomitantly causes rotation, by approximately 60 degrees , and translation, by approximately 7 A, of the DNA-binding domains (DBDs) of CAP, positioning the recognition helices in the DBDs in the correct orientation to interact with DNA. The allosteric transition is stabilized further by expulsion of an aromatic residue from the cAMP-binding pocket upon cAMP binding. The results define the structural mechanisms that underlie allosteric control of this prototypic transcriptional regulatory factor and provide an illustrative example of how effector-mediated structural changes can control the activity of regulatory proteins.

  17. Vascular endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction requires phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guogang; Jamali, Roya; Cao, Yong-Xiao;

    2006-01-01

    RNA and protein expressions. The endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction was associated with increase in phosphorylation of extracellular regulation kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) proteins and elevated levels of intracellular calcium. The elevation curve of intracellular calcium consisted of two phases: one rapid...... and one sustained. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by SB386023 or blockage of calcium channels by nifedipine significantly reduced the endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction (P..., phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins and elevation of intracellular calcium level are required for endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction in rat mesenteric artery....

  18. The unfolded protein response mediates fibrogenesis and collagen I secretion through regulating TANGO1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiers, Jessica L; Kostallari, Enis; Mushref, Malek; deAssuncao, Thiago M; Li, Haiyang; Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Huebert, Robert C; Cao, Sheng; Malhi, Harmeet; Shah, Vijay H

    2017-03-01

    Fibrogenesis encompasses the deposition of matrix proteins, such as collagen I, by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that culminates in cirrhosis. Fibrogenic signals drive transcription of procollagen I, which enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is trafficked through the secretory pathway, and released to generate extracellular matrix. Alternatively, disruption of procollagen I ER export could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and drive HSC apoptosis. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identified Transport and Golgi organization 1 (TANGO1) as a potential participant in collagen I secretion. We investigated the role of TANGO1 in procollagen I secretion in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Depletion of TANGO1 in HSCs blocked collagen I secretion without affecting other matrix proteins. Disruption of secretion led to procollagen I retention within the ER, induction of the UPR, and HSC apoptosis. In wild-type (WT) HSCs, both TANGO1 and the UPR were induced by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). As the UPR up-regulates proteins involved in secretion, we studied whether TANGO1 was a target of the UPR. We found that UPR signaling is responsible for up-regulating TANGO1 in response to TGFβ, and this mechanism is mediated by the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). In vivo, murine and human cirrhotic tissue displayed increased TANGO1 messenger RNA levels. Finally, TANGO1(+/-) mice displayed less hepatic fibrosis compared to WT mice in two separate murine models: CCl4 and bile duct ligation. Loss of TANGO1 leads to procollagen I retention in the ER, which promotes UPR-mediated HSC apoptosis. TANGO1 regulation during HSC activation occurs through a UPR-dependent mechanism that requires the transcription factor, XBP1. Finally, TANGO1 is critical for fibrogenesis through mediating HSC homeostasis. The work reveals a unique role for TANGO1 and the UPR in facilitating collagen I secretion and fibrogenesis. (Hepatology 2017;65:983-998). © 2016 by

  19. Molecular design and nanoparticle-mediated intracellular delivery of functional proteins to target cellular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhiral Ashwin

    Intracellular delivery of specific proteins and peptides represents a novel method to influence stem cells for gain-of-function and loss-of-function. Signaling control is vital in stem cells, wherein intricate control of and interplay among critical pathways directs the fate of these cells into either self-renewal or differentiation. The most common route to manipulate cellular function involves the introduction of genetic material such as full-length genes and shRNA into the cell to generate (or prevent formation of) the target protein, and thereby ultimately alter cell function. However, viral-mediated gene delivery may result in relatively slow expression of proteins and prevalence of oncogene insertion into the cell, which can alter cell function in an unpredictable fashion, and non-viral delivery may lead to low efficiency of genetic delivery. For example, the latter case plagues the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and hinders their use for in vivo applications. Alternatively, introducing proteins into cells that specifically recognize and influence target proteins, can result in immediate deactivation or activation of key signaling pathways within the cell. In this work, we demonstrate the cellular delivery of functional proteins attached to hydrophobically modified silica (SiNP) nanoparticles to manipulate specifically targeted cell signaling proteins. In the Wnt signaling pathway, we have targeted the phosphorylation activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) by designing a chimeric protein and delivering it in neural stem cells. Confocal imaging indicates that the SiNP-chimeric protein conjugates were efficiently delivered to the cytosol of human embryonic kidney cells and rat neural stem cells, presumably via endocytosis. This uptake impacted the Wnt signaling cascade, indicated by the elevation of beta-catenin levels, and increased transcription of Wnt target genes, such as c-MYC. The results presented here suggest that

  20. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fros, Jelke J; Major, Lee D; Scholte, Florine E M; Gardner, Joy; van Hemert, Martijn J; Suhrbier, Andreas; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-03-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1α become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2α leading to a general inhibition of cellular translation, whilst the expression of transcription factor ATF4 is upregulated. Active IRE1α splices out an intron from XBP1 mRNA, to produce a potent transcription factor. Activation of the UPR increases the production of several proteins involved in protein folding, degradation and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrated that transient expression of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) envelope glycoproteins induced the UPR and that CHIKV infection resulted in the phosphorylation of eIF2α and partial splicing of XBP1 mRNA. However, infection with CHIKV did not increase the expression of ATF4 and known UPR target genes (GRP78/BiP, GRP94 and CHOP). Moreover, nuclear XBP1 was not observed during CHIKV infection. Even upon stimulation with tunicamycin, the UPR was efficiently inhibited in CHIKV-infected cells. Individual expression of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs) revealed that nsP2 alone was sufficient to inhibit the UPR. Mutations that rendered nsP2 unable to cause host-cell shut-off prevented nsP2-mediated inhibition of the UPR. This indicates that initial UPR induction takes place in the ER but that expression of functional UPR transcription factors and target genes is efficiently inhibited by CHIKV nsP2.

  1. Lectin receptor kinases participate in protein-protein interactions to mediate plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces.

  2. Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces. PMID:16361528

  3. Protein Kinase C-{delta} mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng-Hou [NO.3 People' s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 201900 (China); The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Ying-Li [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhao, Meng [Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chuan-Xu; Wang, Li-Shun [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@shsmu.edu.cn [The Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Institute of Health Science, SJTU-SM/Shanghai Institutes for Biological Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta ({Delta}PKC-{delta}). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the {Delta}PKC-{delta}, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that {Delta}PKC-{delta} mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-{delta} inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-{delta}-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of {Delta}PKC-{delta} in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of {Delta}PKC-{delta}. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-{delta} down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  4. Protein kinases: mechanisms and downstream targets in inflammation-mediated obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandipati, Kalyana C; Subramanian, Saravanan; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-02-01

    Obesity-induced low-grade inflammation (metaflammation) impairs insulin receptor signaling. This has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in the target tissues is mediated by stress kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, inhibitor of NF-kB kinase complex β (IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase, and RNA-activated protein kinase. Most of these kinases phosphorylate several key regulators in glucose homeostasis. The phosphorylation of serine residues in the insulin receptor and IRS-1 molecule results in diminished enzymatic activity in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. This has been one of the key mechanisms observed in the tissues that are implicated in insulin resistance especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). Identifying the specific protein kinases involved in obesity-induced chronic inflammation may help in developing the targeted drug therapies to minimize the insulin resistance. This review is focused on the protein kinases involved in the inflammatory cascade and molecular mechanisms and their downstream targets with special reference to obesity-induced T2-DM.

  5. TAT-mediated intracellular protein delivery to primary brain cells is dependent on glycosaminoglycan expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melissa J; Gao, Shan; Kang, Woo Hyeun; Banta, Scott; Morrison, Barclay

    2009-09-01

    Although some studies have shown that the cell penetrating peptide (CPP) TAT can enter a variety of cell lines with high efficiency, others have observed little or no transduction in vivo or in vitro under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment. The mechanisms underlying TAT-mediated transduction have been investigated in cell lines, but not in primary brain cells. In this study we demonstrate that transduction of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-TAT fusion protein is dependent on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) expression in both the PC12 cell line and primary astrocytes. GFP-TAT transduced PC12 cells and did so with even higher efficiency following NGF differentiation. In cultures of primary brain cells, TAT significantly enhanced GFP delivery into astrocytes grown under different conditions: (1) monocultures grown in serum-containing medium; (2) monocultures grown in serum-free medium; (3) cocultures with neurons in serum-free medium. The efficiency of GFP-TAT transduction was significantly higher in the monocultures than in the cocultures. The GFP-TAT construct did not significantly enter neurons. Experimental modulation of GAG content correlated with alterations in TAT transduction in PC12 cells and astrocyte monocultures grown in the presence of serum. In addition, this correlation was predictive of TAT-mediated transduction in astrocyte monocultures grown in serum free medium and in coculture. We conclude that culture conditions affect cellular GAG expression, which in turn dictates TAT-mediated transduction efficiency, extending previous results from cell lines to primary cells. These results highlight the cell-type and phenotype-dependence of TAT-mediated transduction, and underscore the necessity of controlling the phenotype of the target cell in future protein engineering efforts aimed at creating more efficacious CPPs.

  6. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Mediate HIV-1 gp120 Interactions with α4β7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, David; Guo, Wenjin; Cleveland, Brad; von Haller, Priska; Eng, Jimmy K; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Arthos, James; Hu, Shiu-Lok

    2017-08-16

    Gut-homing α4β7(high) CD4(+) T lymphocytes have been shown to be preferentially targeted by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV), and are implicated in HIV pathogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that HIV envelope protein gp120 binds and signals through α4β7, and that this likely contributes to the infection of α4β7(high) T cells and promotes cell-to-cell virus transmission. Structures within the second variable loop (V2) of gp120, including the tripeptide motif LDV/I, are thought to mediate gp120-α4β7 binding. However, lack of α4β7 binding has been reported in gp120 proteins containing LDV/I, and the precise determinants of gp120-α4β7 binding are not fully defined. In this work, we report the novel finding that fibronectins mediate indirect gp120-α4β7 interactions. We show that Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells used to express recombinant gp120 produced fibronectins and other extracellular matrix proteins that co-purified with gp120. CHO fibronectins were able to mediate the binding of a diverse panel of gp120 proteins to α4β7 in an in vitro cell binding assay. The V2 loop was not required for fibronectin-mediated binding of gp120 to α4β7, nor did V2-specific antibodies block this interaction. Removal of fibronectin through anion exchange chromatography abrogated V2-independent gp120-α4β7 binding. Additionally, we showed a recombinant human fibronectin fragment mediated gp120-α4β7 interactions in a similar manner to CHO fibronectin. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory observations regarding the gp120-α4β7 interaction and offer new insights into the potential role of fibronectin and other extracellular matrix proteins in HIV-1 biology.IMPORTANCE Immune tissues within the gut are severely damaged by HIV, and this plays an important role in the development of AIDS. Integrin α4β7 plays a major role in the trafficking of lymphocytes, including CD4(+) T cells, into gut lymphoid tissues. Previous reports

  7. Role of Rab GTPases and their interacting proteins in mediating metabolic signalling and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Tang, Bor Luen

    2015-06-01

    The vesicular transport pathways, which shuttle materials to and from the cell surface and within the cell, and the metabolic (growth factor and nutrient) signalling pathways, which integrate a variety of extracellular and intracellular signals to mediate growth, proliferation or survival, are both important for cellular physiology. There is evidence to suggest that the transport and metabolic signalling pathways intersect-vesicular transport can affect the regulation of metabolic signals and vice versa. The Rab family GTPases regulate the specificity of vesicular transport steps in the cell. Together with their interacting proteins, Rabs would likely constitute the points of intersection between vesicular transport and metabolic signalling pathways. Examples of these points would include growth factor signalling, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as autophagy. Many of these processes involve mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) in downstream cascades, or are regulated by TORC signalling. A general functionality of the vesicular transport processes controlled by the Rabs is also important for spatial and temporal regulation of the transmission of metabolic signals between the cell surface and the nucleus. In other cases, specific Rabs and their interacting proteins are known to function in recruiting metabolism-related proteins to target membranes, or may compete with other factors in the TORC signalling pathway as a means of metabolic regulation. We review and discuss herein examples of how Rabs and their interacting proteins can mediate metabolic signalling and regulation in cells.

  8. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including “p38 MAPK Signaling”, “p53 Signaling”, “14-3-3-mediated Signaling”, “p70S6K Signaling” and “Protein Ubiquitination Pathway”. This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells.

  9. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  10. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation study of the human Rab9 and RhoBTB3 C-terminus complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Ullah, Ata; Wadood, Abdul; Liu, Junjun; Zhang, Houjin

    2014-01-01

    Rab9 is required for the transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors to the trans-Golgi network from late endosomes through the interaction with its effector: RhoBTB3. Earlier research indicates the C-terminus of RhoBTB3 (Rho_Cterm) is used for the interaction with Rab9. We used the homology modeling along with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to study the binding pattern of Rho_Cterm and Rab9 at atomic level. Both modeled structures, Rab9 and Rho_Cterm, are of high quality as suggested by the Ramachandran plot and ProCheck. The complex of Rab9-Rho_Cterm was generated by unrestrained pairwise docking using ZDOCK server. The interface of complex is consistent with the previous experimental data. The results of MD simulation indicate that the binding interface is stable along the simulation process. PMID:25670879

  11. Multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization of PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Udo; Meinhart, Anton; Winkler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.winkler@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Crystal structures of two truncated variants of the transcription factor PpsR from R. sphaeroides are presented that enabled the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct. Together, these structures reveal the importance of α-helical PAS extensions for multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function. Per–ARNT–Sim (PAS) domains are essential modules of many multi-domain signalling proteins that mediate protein interaction and/or sense environmental stimuli. Frequently, multiple PAS domains are present within single polypeptide chains, where their interplay is required for protein function. Although many isolated PAS domain structures have been reported over the last decades, only a few structures of multi-PAS proteins are known. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function is poorly understood. The transcription factor PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is such a multi-PAS domain protein that, in addition to its three PAS domains, contains a glutamine-rich linker and a C-terminal helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif. Here, crystal structures of two N-terminally and C-terminally truncated PpsR variants that comprise a single (PpsR{sub Q-PAS1}) and two (PpsR{sub N-Q-PAS1}) PAS domains, respectively, are presented and the multi-step strategy required for the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct (PpsR{sub ΔHTH}) is illustrated. While parts of the biologically relevant dimerization interface can already be observed in the two shorter constructs, the PpsR{sub ΔHTH} structure reveals how three PAS domains enable the formation of multiple oligomeric states (dimer, tetramer and octamer), highlighting that not only the PAS cores but also their α-helical extensions are essential for protein oligomerization. The results demonstrate that the long helical glutamine-rich linker of PpsR results from a direct fusion of the N-cap of the PAS1 domain with the C-terminal extension of the N-domain that

  12. Debra, a protein mediating lysosomal degradation, is required for long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Benjamin; Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Aurélie; Comas, Daniel; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of neuroscience is to understand how neural circuits encode memory and guide behavior changes. Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory are conserved from flies to mammals, and Drosophila has been used extensively to study memory processes. To identify new genes involved in long-term memory, we screened Drosophila enhancer-trap P(Gal4) lines showing Gal4 expression in the mushroom bodies, a specialized brain structure involved in olfactory memory. This screening led to the isolation of a memory mutant that carries a P-element insertion in the debra locus. debra encodes a protein involved in the Hedgehog signaling pathway as a mediator of protein degradation by the lysosome. To study debra's role in memory, we achieved debra overexpression, as well as debra silencing mediated by RNA interference. Experiments conducted with a conditional driver that allowed us to specifically restrict transgene expression in the adult mushroom bodies led to a long-term memory defect. Several conclusions can be drawn from these results: i) debra levels must be precisely regulated to support normal long-term memory, ii) the role of debra in this process is physiological rather than developmental, and iii) debra is specifically required for long-term memory, as it is dispensable for earlier memory phases. Drosophila long-term memory is the only long-lasting memory phase whose formation requires de novo protein synthesis, a process underlying synaptic plasticity. It has been shown in several organisms that regulation of proteins at synapses occurs not only at translation level of but also via protein degradation, acting in remodeling synapses. Our work gives further support to a role of protein degradation in long-term memory, and suggests that the lysosome plays a role in this process.

  13. S100A8/A9 Proteins Mediate Neutrophilic Inflammation and Lung Pathology during Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Radha; Monin, Leticia; Torres, Diana; Slight, Samantha; Mehra, Smriti; McKenna, Kyle C.; Fallert Junecko, Beth A.; Reinhart, Todd A.; Kolls, Jay; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Reyna, Tatiana S.; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Tessier, Phillipe; Roth, Johannes; Selman, Moisés; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Cumming, Bridgette; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Steyn, Adrie J. C.; Babu, Subash; Kaushal, Deepak; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Vogl, Thomas; Rangel-Moreno, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the formation of granulomas. However, the immune factors that drive the formation of a protective granuloma during latent TB, and the factors that drive the formation of inflammatory granulomas during active TB, are not well defined. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the underlying immune mechanisms involved in formation of inflammatory granulomas seen during active TB. Methods: The immune mediators involved in inflammatory granuloma formation during TB were assessed using human samples and experimental models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, using molecular and immunologic techniques. Measurements and Main Results: We demonstrate that in human patients with active TB and in nonhuman primate models of M. tuberculosis infection, neutrophils producing S100 proteins are dominant within the inflammatory lung granulomas seen during active TB. Using the mouse model of TB, we demonstrate that the exacerbated lung inflammation seen as a result of neutrophilic accumulation is dependent on S100A8/A9 proteins. S100A8/A9 proteins promote neutrophil accumulation by inducing production of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and influencing leukocyte trafficking. Importantly, serum levels of S100A8/A9 proteins along with neutrophil-associated chemokines, such as keratinocyte chemoattractant, can be used as potential surrogate biomarkers to assess lung inflammation and disease severity in human TB. Conclusions: Our results thus show a major pathologic role for S100A8/A9 proteins in mediating neutrophil accumulation and inflammation associated with TB. Thus, targeting specific molecules, such as S100A8/A9 proteins, has the potential to decrease lung tissue damage without impacting protective immunity against TB. PMID:24047412

  14. Debra, a protein mediating lysosomal degradation, is required for long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kottler

    Full Text Available A central goal of neuroscience is to understand how neural circuits encode memory and guide behavior changes. Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory are conserved from flies to mammals, and Drosophila has been used extensively to study memory processes. To identify new genes involved in long-term memory, we screened Drosophila enhancer-trap P(Gal4 lines showing Gal4 expression in the mushroom bodies, a specialized brain structure involved in olfactory memory. This screening led to the isolation of a memory mutant that carries a P-element insertion in the debra locus. debra encodes a protein involved in the Hedgehog signaling pathway as a mediator of protein degradation by the lysosome. To study debra's role in memory, we achieved debra overexpression, as well as debra silencing mediated by RNA interference. Experiments conducted with a conditional driver that allowed us to specifically restrict transgene expression in the adult mushroom bodies led to a long-term memory defect. Several conclusions can be drawn from these results: i debra levels must be precisely regulated to support normal long-term memory, ii the role of debra in this process is physiological rather than developmental, and iii debra is specifically required for long-term memory, as it is dispensable for earlier memory phases. Drosophila long-term memory is the only long-lasting memory phase whose formation requires de novo protein synthesis, a process underlying synaptic plasticity. It has been shown in several organisms that regulation of proteins at synapses occurs not only at translation level of but also via protein degradation, acting in remodeling synapses. Our work gives further support to a role of protein degradation in long-term memory, and suggests that the lysosome plays a role in this process.

  15. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

    2014-09-01

    BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing.

  16. PI3K-mTOR-S6K Signaling Mediates Neuronal Viability via Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun J. Na

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP-2 and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling pathway are associated with common physiological functions such as neuronal polarity, axonal outgrowth and synaptic strength, as well as various brain disorders including epilepsy. But, their regulatory and functional links are unclear. Alterations in CRMP-2 expression that lead to its functional changes are implicated in brain disorders such as epilepsy. Here, we investigate whether changes in CRMP-2 expression, possibly regulated by mTOR-related signaling, correlates with neuronal growth and viability. Inhibition of mTOR and/or phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K led to deceased p-S6K, and p-S6 signals also reduced CRMP-2 expression. These changes corresponded to inhibition of neuronal viability and proliferation in cultured hippocampal HT-22 cells under both basal serum-free and serum- or insulin-induced mTOR pathway-activated conditions. CRMP-2 expression tended to be increased by mTOR activation, indicated by an increase in p-S6/S6 level, in pentylentetrazole (PTZ-induced epileptic rat hippocampal tissues was also significantly reduced by mTOR inhibition. Knockdown of CRMP-2 by si-RNA reduced the neuronal viability without changes in mTOR signaling, and overexpression of CRMP-2 recovered the glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and decrease of mTOR signaling in HT-22 cells. In conclusion, CRMP-2 protein expression controlled by the PI3K-mTOR-S6K signaling axis exerts its important functional roles in neuronal growth and survival.

  17. Cytokine-mediated inhibition of ketogenesis is unrelated to nitric oxide or protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailla, K; El-Mir, M Y; Cynober, L; Blonde-Cynober, F

    2001-08-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the lipid disturbances commonly associated with sepsis. Ketogenesis is inhibited during sepsis, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been suggested to mediate this impairment, irrespective of the ketogenic substrate (fatty acid or branched chain ketoacid). However, the underlying mechanism of cytokine action is still unknown. First we investigated the possible role of the induction of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, using rat hepatocyte monolayers. Hepatocytes were incubated for 6 h, with either alpha -ketoisocaproate (KIC) (1 mM) or oleic acid (0.5 mM) in the presence or absence of TNF alpha (25 microg/L) and IL-6 (15 microg/L). In some experiments, cells were incubated with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The ketone body (beta -hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) production and nitrite production were measured in the incubation medium. Our results indicated no involvement of nitric oxide in the inhibitory action of cytokines on ketogenesis. Secondly, we showed that cycloheximide (10(-4)M) did not counteract the cytokine-mediated ketogenesis decrease; hence, the effects of cytokines on ketogenesis are not protein synthesis-dependent. The cytokine-mediated inhibition of ketogenesis is therefore unrelated to either NO production or protein synthesis.

  18. The TEAD/TEF Family Protein Scalloped Mediates Transcriptional Output of the Hippo Growth-Regulatory Pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Shian; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Yonggang; Dong, Jixin; Pan, Duojia

    2008-01-01

    .... Here we identify the TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped (Sd) as a DNA-binding transcription factor that partners with Yki to mediate the transcriptional output of the Hpo growth-regulatory pathway. The diap1 (th...

  19. Alternative electron transport mediated by flavodiiron proteins is operational in organisms from cyanobacteria up to gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilík, Petr; Pavlovič, Andrej; Kouřil, Roman; Alboresi, Alessandro; Morosinotto, Tomas; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2017-05-01

    Photo-reduction of O2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms. We have established a simple method for the monitoring of FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction, based on the measurement of redox kinetics of P700 (the electron donor of photosystem I) upon dark-to-light transition. The O2 photo-reduction is manifested as a fast re-oxidation of P700. The validity of the method was verified by experiments with transgenic organisms, namely FDP knock-out mutants of Synechocystis and Physcomitrella and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing FDPs from Physcomitrella. We observed the fast P700 re-oxidation in representatives of all green plant groups excluding angiosperms. Our results provide strong evidence that the FDP-mediated O2 photo-reduction is functional in all nonflowering green plant groups. This finding suggests a major change in the strategy of photosynthetic regulation during the evolution of angiosperms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. Reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. Reinhardtii.

  1. The CEK1-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Román

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for the adaptation of living organisms to environmental changes. In pathogenic fungi, these MAPK cascades govern the response to many types of situations, and are essential for the successful establishment of the fungus within the host. Therefore, they influence virulence and can be considered as promising therapeutic targets. In the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, the Cek1-mediated pathway was identified long time ago as an important virulence determinant in certain animal models. We will review here the recent work that reveals the role that this route plays in three important processes for the cell: osmotic adaptation, fungal morphogenesis and cell wall remodeling. We will also show the complementary (and sometimes opposite roles that under specific circumstances the high osmolarity glycerol and CEK1 pathways play in C. albicans biology, especially in the context of the interaction with the mammalian host.

  2. BLNK: molecular scaffolding through 'cis'-mediated organization of signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christopher W; Dalton, Mark; Ishiai, Masamichi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Chan, Andrew C

    2002-12-02

    Assembly of intracellular macromolecular complexes is thought to provide an important mechanism to coordinate the generation of second messengers upon receptor activation. We have previously identified a B cell linker protein, termed BLNK, which serves such a scaffolding function in B cells. We demonstrate here that phosphorylation of five tyrosine residues within human BLNK nucleates distinct signaling effectors following B cell antigen receptor activation. The phosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues not only amplifies PLCgamma-mediated signaling but also supports 'cis'-mediated interaction between distinct signaling effectors within a large molecular complex. These data demonstrate the importance of coordinate phosphorylation of molecular scaffolds, and provide insights into how assembly of macromolecular complexes is required for normal receptor function.

  3. A MYB-domain protein EFM mediates flowering responses to environmental cues in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanyuan; Shen, Lisha; Chen, Ying; Bao, Shengjie; Thong, Zhonghui; Yu, Hao

    2014-08-25

    Plants adjust the timing of the transition to flowering to ensure their reproductive success in changing environments. Temperature and light are major environmental signals that affect flowering time through converging on the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding the florigen in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that a MYB transcription factor EARLY FLOWERING MYB PROTEIN (EFM) plays an important role in directly repressing FT expression in the leaf vasculature. EFM mediates the effect of ambient temperature on flowering and is directly promoted by another major FT repressor, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE. EFM interacts with an H3K36me2 demethylase JMJ30, which forms a negative feedback regulatory loop with the light-responsive circadian clock, to specifically demethylate an active mark H3K36me2 at FT. Our results suggest that EFM is an important convergence point that mediates plant responses to temperature and light to determine the timing of reproduction.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are required for melatonin-mediated defense responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin enhances pathogen resistance by inducing the expression of a number of plant defense-related genes. To examine whether the melatonin-mediated pathogen resistance is associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves were treated with melatonin and investigated for MAPK activation using an antiphospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) monoclonal antibody. Two MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, were activated rapidly and transiently by 1 μm melatonin treatment in Arabidopsis. Its tobacco ortholog MAPKs were also activated. The activation of MPK3 and MPK6 by 2-hydroxymelatonin and N-acetylserotonin was also observed, albeit to a lesser degree than that by melatonin. Furthermore, MAPK activation by melatonin was uncoupled from G-protein signaling, because melatonin efficiently activated two MAPKs in a G-protein β knockout mutant (agb1). Suppression of both MPK3 and MPK6 in transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited significant decreases in the induction of defense-related gene expression and pathogen resistance relative to wild-type plants. Using an array of MAP kinase kinase (MKK) knockout mutants, we found that four MKKs, namely MKK4, MKK5, MKK7, and MKK9, are responsible for the activation of MPK3 and MPK6 by melatonin, indicating that melatonin-mediated innate immunity is triggered by MAPK signaling through MKK4/5/7/9-MPK3/6 cascades.

  5. Natural Products Induce a G Protein-Mediated Calcium Pathway Activating p53 in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Paul R.; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. PMID:26341291

  6. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Paul R; Yan, Michael B; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S; Kenealey, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death.

  7. A Single Herpesvirus Protein Can Mediate Vesicle Formation in the Nuclear Envelope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Vollmer, Benjamin; Unsay, Joseph D.; Klupp, Barbara G.; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Antonin, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses assemble capsids in the nucleus and egress by unconventional vesicle-mediated trafficking through the nuclear envelope. Capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the nuclear envelope lumen. The resulting intralumenal vesicles fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, delivering the capsids to the cytoplasm. Two viral proteins are required for vesicle formation, the tail-anchored pUL34 and its soluble interactor, pUL31. Whether cellular proteins are involved is unclear. Using giant unilamellar vesicles, we show that pUL31 and pUL34 are sufficient for membrane budding and scission. pUL34 function can be bypassed by membrane tethering of pUL31, demonstrating that pUL34 is required for pUL31 membrane recruitment but not for membrane remodeling. pUL31 can inwardly deform membranes by oligomerizing on their inner surface to form buds that constrict to vesicles. Therefore, a single viral protein can mediate all events necessary for membrane budding and abscission. PMID:25605719

  8. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase-mediated protein nitration by tempol: Kinetics, mechanism, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sandra M; Augusto, Ohara

    2008-06-17

    Despite the therapeutic potential of tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinyloxy) and related nitroxides as antioxidants, their effects on peroxidase-mediated protein tyrosine nitration remain unexplored. This posttranslational protein modification is a biomarker of nitric oxide-derived oxidants, and, relevantly, it parallels tissue injury in animal models of inflammation and is attenuated by tempol treatment. Here, we examine tempol effects on ribonuclease (RNase) nitration mediated by myeloperoxidase (MPO), a mammalian enzyme that plays a central role in various inflammatory processes. Some experiments were also performed with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We show that tempol efficiently inhibits peroxidase-mediated RNase nitration. For instance, 10 muM tempol was able to inhibit by 90% the yield of 290 muM 3-nitrotyrosine produced from 370 muM RNase. The effect of tempol was not completely catalytic because part of it was consumed by recombination with RNase-tyrosyl radicals. The second-order rate constant of the reaction of tempol with MPO compound I and II were determined by stopped-flow kinetics as 3.3 x 10(6) and 2.6 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively (pH 7.4, 25 degrees C); the corresponding HRP constants were orders of magnitude smaller. Time-dependent hydrogen peroxide and nitrite consumption and oxygen production in the incubations were quantified experimentally and modeled by kinetic simulations. The results indicate that tempol inhibits peroxidase-mediated RNase nitration mainly because of its reaction with nitrogen dioxide to produce the oxammonium cation, which, in turn, recycles back to tempol by reacting with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical to produce oxygen and regenerate nitrite. The implications for nitroxide antioxidant mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Protein phosphatase 2A mediates resensitization of the neurokinin 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jane E; Roosterman, Dirk; Cottrell, Graeme S; Padilla, Benjamin E; Feld, Micha; Brand, Eva; Cedron, Wendy J; Bunnett, Nigel W; Steinhoff, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are phosphorylated and interact with β-arrestins, which mediate desensitization and endocytosis. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) degrades neuropeptides in endosomes and can promote recycling. Although endocytosis, dephosphorylation, and recycling are accepted mechanisms of receptor resensitization, a large proportion of desensitized receptors can remain at the cell surface. We investigated whether reactivation of noninternalized, desensitized (phosphorylated) receptors mediates resensitization of the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor (NK(1)R). Herein, we report a novel mechanism of resensitization by which protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is recruited to dephosphorylate noninternalized NK(1)R. A desensitizing concentration of SP reduced cell-surface SP binding sites by only 25%, and SP-induced Ca(2+) signals were fully resensitized before cell-surface binding sites started to recover, suggesting resensitization of cell-surface-retained NK(1)R. SP induced association of β-arrestin1 and PP2A with noninternalized NK(1)R. β-Arrestin1 small interfering RNA knockdown prevented SP-induced association of cell-surface NK(1)R with PP2A, indicating that β-arrestin1 mediates this interaction. ECE-1 inhibition, by trapping β-arrestin1 in endosomes, also impeded SP-induced association of cell-surface NK(1)R with PP2A. Resensitization of NK(1)R signaling required both PP2A and ECE-1 activity. Thus, after stimulation with SP, PP2A interacts with noninternalized NK(1)R and mediates resensitization. PP2A interaction with NK(1)R requires β-arrestin1. ECE-1 promotes this process by releasing β-arrestin1 from NK(1)R in endosomes. These findings represent a novel mechanism of PP2A- and ECE-1-dependent resensitization of GPCRs.

  10. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro;

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear....... In this study, Sirt1 gene knock-out murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to delineate the role of SIRT1 in the regulation of STAT3 mitochondrial function. Here, we show that STAT3 mRNA and protein levels and the accumulation of serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria were increased...... significantly in Sirt1-KO cells as compared with wild-type MEFs. Various mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, such as the oxygen consumption rate in cell cultures, enzyme activities of the electron transport chain complexes in isolated mitochondria, and production of ATP and lactate, indicated that Sirt1-KO...

  11. Free fatty acid transport across adipocytes is mediated by an unknown membrane protein pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, J Patrick; Parmley, Danielle; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    The role of cell membranes in regulating the flux of long chain free fatty acids (FFA) into and out of adipocytes is intensely debated. Four different membrane proteins including, FABPpm, CD36/FAT, caveolin-1, and FATP have been identified as facilitating FFA transport. Moreover, CD36 and caveolin-1 are also reported to mediate transport in conjunction with lipid rafts. The principal evidence for these findings is a correlation of the level of FFA uptake with the expression level of these proteins and with the integrity of lipid rafts. The 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cell lines in their preadipocyte states reveal little or no expression of these proteins and correspondingly low levels of uptake. Here we have microinjected the adipocyte and preadipocyte cell lines with ADIFAB, the fluorescent indicator of FFA. The ADIFAB fluorescence allowed us to monitor the intracellular unbound FFA concentration during FFA influx and efflux. We show that these measurements of transport, in contrast to FFA uptake measurements, correlate neither with expression of these proteins nor with lipid raft integrity in preadipocytes and adipocytes. Transport characteristics, including the generation of an ATP-dependent FFA concentration gradient, are virtually identical in adipocytes and preadipocytes. We suggest that the origin of the discrepancy between uptake and our measurements is that most of the FFA transported into the cells is lost during the uptake but not in the transport protocols. We conclude that long chain fatty acid transport in adipocytes is very likely mediated by an as-yet-unidentified membrane protein pump.

  12. Agrobacterium delivers VirE2 protein into host cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang; Pan, Shen Q.

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can cause crown gall tumors on a wide range of host plants. As a natural genetic engineer, the bacterium can transfer both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) [transferred DNA (T-DNA)] molecules and bacterial virulence proteins into various recipient cells. Among Agrobacterium-delivered proteins, VirE2 is an ssDNA binding protein that is involved in various steps of the transformation process. However, it is not clear how plant cells receive the T-DNA or protein molecules. Using a split–green fluorescent protein approach, we monitored the VirE2 delivery process inside plant cells in real time. We observed that A. tumefaciens delivered VirE2 from the bacterial lateral sides that were in close contact with plant membranes. VirE2 initially accumulated on plant cytoplasmic membranes at the entry points. VirE2-containing membranes were internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis to form endomembrane compartments. VirE2 colocalized with the early endosome marker SYP61 but not with the late endosome marker ARA6, suggesting that VirE2 escaped from early endosomes for subsequent trafficking inside the cells. Dual endocytic motifs at the carboxyl-terminal tail of VirE2 were involved in VirE2 internalization and could interact with the μ subunit of the plant clathrin-associated adaptor AP2 complex (AP2M). Both the VirE2 cargo motifs and AP2M were important for the transformation process. Because AP2-mediated endocytosis is well conserved, our data suggest that the A. tumefaciens pathogen hijacks conserved endocytic pathways to facilitate the delivery of virulence factors. This might be important for Agrobacterium to achieve both a wide host range and a high transformation efficiency.

  13. Digoxin-Mediated Upregulation of RGS2 Protein Protects against Cardiac Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Benita; Parra, Sergio; Atkins, Kevin B; Karaj, Behirda; Neubig, Richard R

    2016-05-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins have emerged as novel drug targets since their discovery almost two decades ago. RGS2 has received particular interest in cardiovascular research due to its role in regulating Gqsignaling in the heart and vascular smooth muscle. RGS2(-/-)mice are hypertensive, prone to heart failure, and display accelerated kidney fibrosis. RGS2 is rapidly degraded through the proteasome, and human mutations leading to accelerated RGS2 protein degradation correlate with hypertension. Hence, stabilizing RGS2 protein expression could be a novel route in treating cardiovascular disease. We previously identified cardiotonic steroids, including digoxin, as selective stabilizers of RGS2 protein in vitro. In the current study we investigated the functional effects of digoxin-mediated RGS2 protein stabilization in vivo. Using freshly isolated myocytes from wild-type and RGS2(-/-)mice treated with vehicle or low-dose digoxin (2µg/kg/day for 7 days) we demonstrated that agonist-induced cAMP levels and cardiomyocyte contractility was inhibited by digoxin in wild-type but not in RGS2(-/-)mice. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase in RGS2 protein levels in cardiomyocytes as well as in whole heart tissue. Furthermore, digoxin had protective effects in a model of cardiac injury in wild-type mice and this protection was lost in RGS2(-/-)mice. Digoxin is the oldest known therapy for heart failure; however, beyond its activity at the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, the exact mechanism of action is not known. The current study adds a novel mechanism, whereby through stabilizing RGS2 protein levels digoxin could exert its protective effects in the failing heart.

  14. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid...... moieties of low-density lipoprotein is of particular interest due to its potential role in the unregulated uptake of lipids and cholesterol by macrophages; this may contribute to the initial stage of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In the study reported here, we examined the comparative time......-courses of lipid and protein oxidation during copper-ion-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. We show that there is an early, lipid-mediated loss of 40-50% of the Trp residues of the apoB100 protein. There is no comparable loss over an identical period during the copper-ion-mediated oxidation of lipid...

  15. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors

  16. IgE-mediated soy protein sensitization in children with cow`s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Santi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Soy-based formula as an alternative to cow’s milk formula is preferable to extensively hydrolyzed protein formula because of the lower cost and more acceptable taste. However, cow’s milk allergy patients can subsequently develop a sensitivity to soy protein. Objective To compare soy protein sensitization in children with and without an allergy to cow’s milk. Methods This study was conducted in Yogyakarta from September 2007 until March 2008. Subjects were children aged below 4 years with an atopic history. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with a positive skin prick test to cow’s milk and those with a negative skin prick test to cow’s milk (control group. Both groups were given soy formula and tested at 6 weeks for sensitization to soy. Results There were 45 children in each group. Age, sex, and atopic history were similar in both groups. We found no soy protein sensitization (negative skin prick results in all subjects from both groups. Conclusion Risk of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to soy protein was not proven in children with cow’s milk allergy. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:67-71].

  17. Nanodiamond-Mediated Intercellular Transport of Proteins through Membrane Tunneling Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperla, Chandra Prakash; Mohan, Nitin; Chang, Che-Wei; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-12-02

    Recently discovered tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are capable of creating intercellular communication pathways through which transport of proteins and other cytoplasmic components occurs. Intercellular transport is related to many diseases and nanotubes are potentially useful as drug-delivery channels for cancer therapy. Here, we apply fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) as a photostable tracker, as well as a protein carrier, to illustrate the transport events in TNTs of human cells. Proteins, including bovine serum albumin and green fluorescent protein, are first coated on 100-nm FNDs by physical adsorption and then single-particle tracking of the bioconjugates in the transient membrane connections is carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Stop-and-go and to-and-fro motions mediated by molecular motors are found for the active transport of protein-loaded FNDs trapped in the endosomal vehicles of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T). Quantitative analysis of the heterotypical transport between HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by flow cytometry confirm the formation of open-ended nanotubes between them, despite that their TNTs differ in structural components. Our results demonstrate the promising applications of this novel carbon-based nanomaterial for intercellular delivery of biomolecular cargo down to the single-particle level.

  18. Bacterial resistance to complement killing mediated by the Ail protein of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, J B; Falkow, S

    1992-01-01

    Ail is a 17-kDa outer membrane Yersinia protein that mediates bacterial attachment to, and invasion of, cultured epithelial cells. We report here an alternative role for Ail in the pathogenesis of Yersinia infection. We found that Escherichia coli HB101 harboring the 4-kilobase recombinant ail clone pVM102 were highly resistant to killing in up to 50% normal human serum. A 674-base-pair fragment of DNA from pVM102, which encodes the ail gene, was inserted into pUC18 and shown to promote full ...

  19. Modulation of breast cancer resistance protein mediated atypical multidrug resistance using RNA interference delivered by adenovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-tong; ZHOU Geng-yin; WANG Chun-ling; GUO Cheng-hao; SONG Xian-rang; CHI Wei-ling

    2005-01-01

    @@ Clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) of malignancies to many antineoplastic agents is the major obstacle in the successful treatment of cancer. The emergence of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has necessitated the development of antagonists. To overcome the BCRP-mediated atypical MDR, RNA interference (RNAi) delivered by adenovirus targeting BCRP mRNA was used to inhibit the atypical MDR expression by infecting MCF-7/MX100 cell lines with constructed RNAi adenovirus.

  20. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K Brödel

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established

  1. Hepatic inflammation mediated by hepatitis C virus core protein is ameliorated by blocking complement activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chen-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection remains unclear. Transgenic mice with constitutive HCV core over-expression display steatosis only. While the reasons for this are unclear, it may be important that core protein production in these models begins during gestation, in contrast to human hepatitis C virus infection, which occurs post-natally and typically in adults. AIMS: To more realistically model the effect of core protein production in the adult liver, we developed a mouse with conditional expression of HCV core and examined the effect of core protein production in the adult liver. Methods Liver biopsy samples from transgenic mice with tetracycline(tet-regulated conditional core protein expression were evaluated immunohistologically. Microarray analysis of HCV core transgenic mice with steatohepatitis pointed to a role of the complement pathway. This was further explored by blocking complement activation by in vivo administration of CD55 (decay accelerating factor for complement, which inhibits activation of C3. Results Transgenic mice exhibited low, intermediate, or high HCV core protein expression when fed a permissive diet of standard chow. Aside from hepatic steatosis, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were seen in mice with intermediate levels of core protein. Microarray analyses of inflamed liver demonstrated activation of both the complement (C3 up-regulation and coagulation pathways (fibrinogen B up-regulation. Administration of CD55 reduced hepatic inflammation. Conclusion Transgenic mice that conditionally express intermediate HCV core protein develop inflammation, steatosis, and fibrosis. These effects mediated by HCV core are reduced by administration of CD55, a regulator of the complement pathway. The model may be valuable in investigating the pathogenesis of liver inflammation in chronic hepatitis C.

  2. Pri sORF peptides induce selective proteasome-mediated protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanet, J; Benrabah, E; Li, T; Pélissier-Monier, A; Chanut-Delalande, H; Ronsin, B; Bellen, H J; Payre, F; Plaza, S

    2015-09-18

    A wide variety of RNAs encode small open-reading-frame (smORF/sORF) peptides, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila polished-rice (pri) sORF peptides trigger proteasome-mediated protein processing, converting the Shavenbaby (Svb) transcription repressor into a shorter activator. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies an E2-E3 ubiquitin-conjugating complex, UbcD6-Ubr3, which targets Svb to the proteasome in a pri-dependent manner. Upon interaction with Ubr3, Pri peptides promote the binding of Ubr3 to Svb. Ubr3 can then ubiquitinate the Svb N terminus, which is degraded by the proteasome. The C-terminal domains protect Svb from complete degradation and ensure appropriate processing. Our data show that Pri peptides control selectivity of Ubr3 binding, which suggests that the family of sORF peptides may contain an extended repertoire of protein regulators.

  3. Nitric oxide-mediated protein modification in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Axel; Schrader, Jürgen; Reinartz, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of cardiovascular functions including the control of vascular tone, anti-inflammatory properties of the endothelium, cardiac contractility, and thrombocyte activation and aggregation. Numerous experimental data support the view that NO not only acts via cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent mechanisms but also modulates protein function by nitrosation, nitrosylation, glutathiolation, and nitration, respectively. To understand how NO regulates all of these diverse biological processes on the molecular level a comprehensive assessment of NO-mediated cGMP-dependent and independent targets is required. Novel proteomic approaches allow the simultaneous identification of large quantities of proteins modified in an NO-dependent manner and thereby will considerably deepen our understanding of the role NO plays in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  5. Mammalian Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation and contact inhibition as transcriptional mediators of Hippo signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Regulation of organ size is important for development and tissue homeostasis. In Drosophila, Hippo signaling controls organ size by regulating the activity of a TEAD transcription factor, Scalloped, through modulation of its co-activator protein Yki. Here, we show that mouse Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation by mediating Hippo signaling. In NIH3T3 cells, cell density and Hippo signaling regulated the activity of endogenous Tead proteins by modulating nuclear localization of a Yki homolog, Yap1, and the resulting change in Tead activity altered cell proliferation. Tead2-VP16 mimicked Yap1 overexpression, including increased cell proliferation, reduced cell death, promotion of EMT, lack of cell contact inhibition and promotion of tumor formation. Growth-promoting activities of various Yap1 mutants correlated with their Tead-co-activator activities. Tead2-VP16 and Yap1 regulated largely overlapping sets of genes. However, only a few of the Tead/Yap1-regulated genes in NIH3T3 cells were affected in Tead1(-/-);Tead2(-/-) or Yap1(-/-) embryos. Most of the previously identified Yap1-regulated genes were not affected in NIH3T3 cells or mutant mice. In embryos, levels of nuclear Yap1 and Tead1 varied depending on cell type. Strong nuclear accumulation of Yap1 and Tead1 were seen in myocardium, correlating with requirements of Tead1 for proliferation. However, their distribution did not always correlate with proliferation. Taken together, mammalian Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation and contact inhibition as a transcriptional mediator of Hippo signaling, but the mechanisms by which Tead/Yap1 regulate cell proliferation differ depending on the cell type, and Tead, Yap1 and Hippo signaling may play multiple roles in mouse embryos.

  6. Modification of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycan by EptC protein-mediated addition of phosphoethanolamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Nichollas E; Nothaft, Harald; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni possesses an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate structures that decorate both protein and non-protein surface-exposed structures. An N-linked glycosylation system encoded by the pgl gene cluster mediates...

  7. An auxilin-like J-domain protein, JAC1, regulates phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2005-09-01

    The ambient-light conditions mediate chloroplast relocation in plant cells. Under the low-light conditions, chloroplasts accumulate in the light (accumulation response), while under the high-light conditions, they avoid the light (avoidance response). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the accumulation response is mediated by two blue-light receptors, termed phototropins (phot1 and phot2) that act redundantly, and the avoidance response is mediated by phot2 alone. A mutant, J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (jac1), lacks the accumulation response under weak blue light but shows a normal avoidance response under strong blue light. In dark-adapted wild-type cells, chloroplasts accumulate on the bottom of cells. Both the jac1 and phot2 mutants are defective in this chloroplast movement in darkness. Positional cloning of JAC1 reveals that this gene encodes a J-domain protein, resembling clathrin-uncoating factor auxilin at its C terminus. The amounts of JAC1 transcripts and JAC1 proteins are not regulated by light and by phototropins. A green fluorescent protein-JAC1 fusion protein showed a similar localization pattern to green fluorescent protein alone in a transient expression assay using Arabidopsis mesophyll cells and onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, suggesting that the JAC1 protein may be a soluble cytosolic protein. Together, these results suggest that JAC1 is an essential component of phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement.

  8. Cobalt(III)-Mediated Permanent and Stable Immobilization of Histidine-Tagged Proteins on NTA-Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Seraphine V; Schenk, Franziska C; Spatz, Joachim P

    2016-02-24

    We present the cobalt(III)-mediated interaction between polyhistidine (His)-tagged proteins and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-modified surfaces as a general approach for a permanent, oriented, and specific protein immobilization. In this approach, we first form the well-established Co(2+) -mediated interaction between NTA and His-tagged proteins and subsequently oxidize the Co(2+) center in the complex to Co(3+) . Unlike conventionally used Ni(2+) - or Co(2+) -mediated immobilization, the resulting Co(3+) -mediated immobilization is resistant toward strong ligands, such as imidazole and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and washing off over time because of the high thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the Co(3+) complex. This immobilization method is compatible with a wide variety of surface coatings, including silane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass, thiol SAMs on gold surfaces, and supported lipid bilayers. Furthermore, once the cobalt center has been oxidized, it becomes inert toward reducing agents, specific and unspecific interactions, so that it can be used to orthogonally functionalize surfaces with multiple proteins. Overall, the large number of available His-tagged proteins and materials with NTA groups make the Co(3+) -mediated interaction an attractive and widely applicable platform for protein immobilization.

  9. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  10. Arctigenin suppresses unfolded protein response and sensitizes glucose deprivation-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrong; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Changhua; Nawaz, Ahmed; Wei, Wen; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Lijun; Yu, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in tumor survival and resistance to chemotherapies suggests a new anticancer strategy targeting UPR pathway. Arctigenin, a natural product, has been recently identified for its antitumor activity with selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation with unknown mechanism. Here we found that arctigenin specifically blocks the transcriptional induction of two potential anticancer targets, namely glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) and its analog GRP94, under glucose deprivation, but not by tunicamycin. The activation of other UPR pathways, e.g., XBP-1 and ATF4, by glucose deprivation was also suppressed by arctigenin. A further transgene experiment showed that ectopic expression of GRP78 at least partially rescued arctigenin/glucose starvation-mediated cell growth inhibition, suggesting the causal role of UPR suppression in arctigenin-mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. These observations bring a new insight into the mechanism of action of arctigenin and may lead to the design of new anticancer therapeutics.

  11. SET9-Mediated Regulation of TGF-β Signaling Links Protein Methylation to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilianos Elkouris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β signaling regulates a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, immune responses, and fibrogenesis. Here, we describe a lysine methylation-mediated mechanism that controls the pro-fibrogenic activity of TGF-β. We find that the methyltransferase Set9 potentiates TGF-β signaling by targeting Smad7, an inhibitory downstream effector. Smad7 methylation promotes interaction with the E3 ligase Arkadia and, thus, ubiquitination-dependent degradation. Depletion or pharmacological inhibition of Set9 results in elevated Smad7 protein levels and inhibits TGF-β-dependent expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix components. The inhibitory effect of Set9 on TGF-β-mediated extracellular matrix production is further demonstrated in mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis. Lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin or Ad-TGF-β treatment was highly compromised in Set9-deficient mice. These results uncover a complex regulatory interplay among multiple Smad7 modifications and highlight the possibility that protein methyltransferases may represent promising therapeutic targets for treating lung fibrosis.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming V. [Program of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chen, Weiqin [Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Harmancey, Romain N. [Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Nuotio-Antar, Alli M.; Imamura, Minako; Saha, Pradip [Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Taegtmeyer, Heinrich [Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chan, Lawrence, E-mail: lchan@bcm.tmc.edu [Program of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressed GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.

  13. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064.

  14. The intact CFTR protein mediates ATPase rather than adenylate kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Ugwu, Francisca; Stratford, Fiona L L; Huan, Ling-Jun; Li, Canhui; Bear, Christine E

    2008-06-01

    The two NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) proteins function in a complex to mediate ATPase activity and this activity has been linked to their regulated transport activity. A similar model has been proposed for CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), the chloride channel defective in cystic fibrosis, wherein ATP binding and hydrolysis regulate the channel gate. Recently, it was shown that the individual NBDs isolated from CFTR primarily mediate adenylate kinase activity, raising the possibility that this activity may also contribute to gating of the CFTR channel. However, this present study shows that whereas the isolated NBDs exhibit adenylate kinase activity, the full-length purified and reconstituted CFTR protein functions as an ATPase, arguing that the enzymatic activity of the NBDs is dependent on their molecular context and appropriate domain-domain assembly. As expected, the disease-causing mutant bearing a mutation in the ABC signature motif, CFTR-G551D, exhibited a markedly reduced ATPase activity. Furthermore, mutation of the putative catalytic base in CFTR caused a reduction in ATPase activity, with the CFTR-E1371Q mutant supporting a low level of residual activity. Neither of these mutants exhibited detectable adenylate kinase activity. Together, these findings support the concept that the molecular mechanism of action of CFTR is dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis, and that the structure of prokaryotic ABC ATPases provide a useful template for understanding their mechanism of action.

  15. Poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) mediates housekeeping degradation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhou; Fuping You; Huihui Chen; Zhengfan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) is a key adaptor in cellular antiviral innate immunity.We previously identified poly(C)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a feedback inhibitor of MAVS that facilitates its degradation after viral infection,but little is known about the regulatory potential of poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1),which highly resembles PCBP2.Here we report that PCBP1 mediates housekeeping degradation of MAVS using the same mechanism as PCBP2 employs.Overexpression of PCBP1 impairs MAVS-mediated antiviral responses,while knockdown of PCBP1 exerts the opposite effect.The suppression is due to PCBP1-induced MAVS degradation.We observe that PCBP1 and PCBP2 show synergy in MAVS inhibition,but their expression patterns are distinct:PCBP1 is stably and abundantly expressed,while PCBP2 shows low basal expression with rapid induction after infection.Individual knockdown and subcellular fractionation analyses reveal that unlike the postinfection inhibitor PCBP2,PCBP1 continuously eliminates cellular MAVS.Our findings unravel a critical role of PCBP1 in regulating MAVS for both finetuning the antivirai immunity and preventing inflammation.

  16. 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been developed as an anticancer treatment, which is based on the tumor-specific accumulation of a photosensitizer that induces cell death after irradiation of light with a specific wavelength. Depending on the subcellular localization of the photosensitizer, PDT could trigger various signal transduction cascades and induce cell death such as apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In this study, we report that both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascades are activated following 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated PDT in both PC12 and CL1-0 cells. Although the activities of caspase-9 and -3 are elevated, the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk did not protect cells against ALA-PDT-induced cell death. Instead, autophagic cell death was found in PC12 and CL1-0 cells treated with ALA-PDT. Most importantly, we report here for the first time that it is the activation of AMPK, but not MAPKs that plays a crucial role in mediating autophagic cell death induced by ALA-PDT. This novel observation indicates that the AMPK pathway play an important role in ALA-PDT-induced autophagy.

  17. Cherry Valley ducks mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS mediated signaling pathway and antiviral activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLRs-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly up-regulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus. Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8 in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What’s more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (duck Tembusu virus, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  18. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated

  19. Genistein induces apoptosis by stabilizing intracellular p53 protein through an APE1-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwu; Zhang, Chong; Qing, Yi; Cheng, Yi; Jiang, Xiaolin; Li, Mengxia; Yang, Zhenzhou; Wang, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Genistein (GEN) has been previously shown to have a proapoptotic effect on cancer cells through a p53-dependent pathway, the mechanism of which remains unclear. One of its intracellular targets, APE1, protects against apoptosis under genotoxic stress and interacts with p53. In this current study, we explored the mechanism of the proapoptotic effect of GEN by examining the APE1-p53 protein-protein interaction. We initially showed that the p53 protein level was elevated in GEN-treated human non-small lung cancer A549 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. By examining both protein synthesis and degradation, we found that GEN enhances p53 intracellular stability by interfering with the interaction of APE1 and p53, which provided a plausible explanation for how GEN initiates apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the interaction between APE1 and p53 is important for the degradation of p53 and is dependent on the redox domain of APE1 by utilizing the redox domain mutant APE1 C65A. Our data suggest that the degradation of wild-type p53 is blocked when the redox domain of APE1 is masked or interrupted. Based on this evidence, we hereby report a novel mechanism of p53 degradation through an APE1-mediated, redox-dependent pathway.

  20. 6-Thioguanine inhibition of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression is mediated by GLI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachelle W; Merkel, Alyssa R; Danilin, Sabrina; Nguyen, Mai P; Mundy, Gregory R; Sterling, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer cells frequently metastasize to bone, where they up-regulate their expression of the transcription factor GLI2 and the downstream osteolytic factor parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). The guanosine nucleotide 6-thioguanine (6-TG) inhibits PTHrP expression and blocks osteolytic bone destruction in mice inoculated with bone metastatic cells; however, the mechanism by which 6-TG inhibits PTHrP remains unclear. We hypothesized that 6-TG inhibition of PTHrP is mediated through GLI2 signaling. Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and RWGT2 squamous-cell lung carcinoma cells were treated with 100 μM 6-TG and examined for GLI2 mRNA expression and stability by Q-PCR, promoter activity by luciferase assay, and protein expression by Western blot. 6-TG significantly blocked GLI2 mRNA and protein expression, but did not affect stability. Additionally, 6-TG directly inhibited GLI2 promoter activity, and when cells were transfected with constitutively expressed GLI2, the inhibitory effect of 6-TG on PTHrP expression was abolished. Taken together, these data indicate that 6-TG regulates PTHrP in part through GLI2 transcription, and therefore the clinical use of 6-TG or other guanosine nucleotides may be a viable therapeutic option in tumor types expressing elevated levels of GLI proteins.

  1. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  2. Urea-mediated cross-presentation of soluble Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein.

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    Sascha Barabas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soluble extracellular proteins usually do not enter the endogenous human leukocyte antigen (HLA I-dependent presentation pathway of antigen-presenting cells, strictly impeding their applicability for the re-stimulation of protein-specific CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. Here we present for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV BZLF1 a novel strategy that facilitates protein translocation into antigen-presenting cells by its solubilisation in high molar urea and subsequent pulsing of cells in presence of low molar urea. Stimulation of PBMC from HLA-matched EBV-seropositive individuals with urea-treated BZLF1 but not untreated BZLF1 induces an efficient reactivation of BZLF1-specific CTL. Urea-treated BZLF1 (uBZLF1 enters antigen-presenting cells in a temperature-dependent manner by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is processed by the proteasome into peptides that are bound to nascent HLA I molecules. Dendritic cells and monocytes but also B cells can cross-present uBZLF1 in vitro. The strategy described here has potential for use in the development of improved technologies for the monitoring of protein-specific CTL.

  3. Association of triclosan to casein proteins through solvent-mediated high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, A; Dunlap, J; Harte, F

    2009-03-01

    The association of triclosan (TCS), a widely used hydrophobic compound, to the bovine casein micelle is investigated in this study. The use of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa was introduced as a method for the dissociation of casein micelles in a skim milk/ethanol solution (1: 1, v/v) in the presence of TCS at 20, 80, and 160 mg/L where ethanol evaporation served as the final step for TCS association to caseins. The majority of TCS (over 80%) was associated with the caseins regardless of initial TCS concentration or applied pressure. TCS association to caseins was enhanced by 30% with continued pressurization to 300 MPa. Micellar dissociation and reassociation was found to be an irreversible process as evidenced by microscopy images. Pressurization to 300 MPa resulted in the formation of an integrated protein network of casein proteins and noncovalently linked whey proteins where the solubility of TCS was enhanced up to 40 times its reported water solubility at the highest initial TCS level of 160 mg/L. Reformed micelles exhibited Newtonian flow behavior at all pressure levels. This study provides evidence for the solubility enhancing quality of TCS through the solvent-mediated pressure/shear-induced dissociation of casein proteins.

  4. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  5. Cryptococcus neoformans is resistant to surfactant protein A mediated host defense mechanisms.

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    Steven S Giles

    Full Text Available Initiation of a protective immune response to infection by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is mediated in part by host factors that promote interactions between immune cells and C. neoformans yeast. Surfactant protein A (SP-A contributes positively to pulmonary host defenses against a variety of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in part by promoting the recognition and phagocytosis of these pathogens by alveolar macrophages. In the present study we investigated the role of SP-A as a mediator of host defense against the pulmonary pathogen, C. neoformans. Previous studies have shown that SP-A binds to acapsular and minimally encapsulated strains of C. neoformans. Using in vitro binding assays we confirmed that SP-A does not directly bind to a fully encapsulated strain of C. neoformans (H99. However, we observed that when C. neoformans was incubated in bronchoalveolar fluid, SP-A binding was detected, suggesting that another alveolar host factor may enable SP-A binding. Indeed, we discovered that SP-A binds encapsulated C. neoformans via a previously unknown IgG dependent mechanism. The consequence of this interaction was the inhibition of IgG-mediated phagocytosis of C. neoformans by alveolar macrophages. Therefore, to assess the contribution of SP-A to the pulmonary host defenses we compared in vivo infections using SP-A null mice (SP-A-/- and wild-type mice in an intranasal infection model. We found that the immune response assessed by cellular counts, TNFalpha cytokine production, and fungal burden in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during early stages of infection were equivalent. Furthermore, the survival outcome of C. neoformans infection was equivalent in SP-A-/- and wild-type mice. Our results suggest that unlike a variety of bacteria, viruses, and other fungi, progression of disease with an inhalational challenge of C. neoformans does not appear to be negatively or positively affected by SP-A mediated mechanisms of

  6. NBR1-mediated selective autophagy targets insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates in plant stress responses.

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    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Plant autophagy plays an important role in delaying senescence, nutrient recycling, and stress responses. Functional analysis of plant autophagy has almost exclusively focused on the proteins required for the core process of autophagosome assembly, but little is known about the proteins involved in other important processes of autophagy, including autophagy cargo recognition and sequestration. In this study, we report functional genetic analysis of Arabidopsis NBR1, a homolog of mammalian autophagy cargo adaptors P62 and NBR1. We isolated two nbr1 knockout mutants and discovered that they displayed some but not all of the phenotypes of autophagy-deficient atg5 and atg7 mutants. Like ATG5 and ATG7, NBR1 is important for plant tolerance to heat, oxidative, salt, and drought stresses. The role of NBR1 in plant tolerance to these abiotic stresses is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Unlike ATG5 and ATG7, however, NBR1 is dispensable in age- and darkness-induced senescence and in resistance to a necrotrophic pathogen. A selective role of NBR1 in plant responses to specific abiotic stresses suggest that plant autophagy in diverse biological processes operates through multiple cargo recognition and delivery systems. The compromised heat tolerance of atg5, atg7, and nbr1 mutants was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble, detergent-resistant proteins that were highly ubiquitinated under heat stress. NBR1, which contains an ubiquitin-binding domain, also accumulated to high levels with an increasing enrichment in the insoluble protein fraction in the autophagy-deficient mutants under heat stress. These results suggest that NBR1-mediated autophagy targets ubiquitinated protein aggregates most likely derived from denatured or otherwise damaged nonnative proteins generated under stress conditions.

  7. CAML mediates survival of Myc-induced lymphoma cells independent of tail-anchored protein insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Jennifer C; Lindquist, Lonn D; Borgese, Nica; Bram, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand (CAML) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that functions, along with WRB and TRC40, to mediate tail-anchored (TA) protein insertion into the ER membrane. Physiologic roles for CAML include endocytic trafficking, intracellular calcium signaling, and the survival and proliferation of specialized immune cells, recently attributed to its requirement for TA protein insertion. To identify a possible role for CAML in cancer cells, we generated Eμ-Myc transgenic mice that carry a tamoxifen-inducible deletion allele of Caml. In multiple B-cell lymphoma cell lines derived from these mice, homozygous loss of Caml activated apoptosis. Cell death was blocked by Bcl-2/Bcl-xL overexpression; however, rescue from apoptosis was insufficient to restore proliferation. Tumors established from an Eμ-Myc lymphoma cell line completely regressed after tamoxifen administration, suggesting that CAML is also required for these cancer cells to survive and grow in vivo. Cell cycle analyses of Caml-deleted lymphoma cells revealed an arrest in G2/M, accompanied by low expression of the mitotic marker, phospho-histone H3 (Ser10). Surprisingly, lymphoma cell viability did not depend on the domain of CAML required for its interaction with TRC40. Furthermore, a small protein fragment consisting of the C-terminal 111 amino acid residues of CAML, encompassing the WRB-binding domain, was sufficient to rescue growth and survival of Caml-deleted lymphoma cells. Critically, this minimal region of CAML did not restore TA protein insertion in knockout cells. Taken together, these data reveal an essential role for CAML in supporting survival and mitotic progression in Myc-driven lymphomas that is independent of its TA protein insertion function.

  8. Multiple protein domains mediate interaction between Bcl10 and MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Felicia D; Jain, Nidhi A; Rossman, Jeremy S; Kingeter, Lara M; Kashyap, Anuj K; Schaefer, Brian C

    2008-11-21

    Bcl10 and MALT1 are essential mediators of NF-kappaB activation in response to the triggering of a diverse array of transmembrane receptors, including antigen receptors. Additionally, both proteins are translocation targets in MALT lymphoma. Thus, a detailed understanding of the interaction between these mediators is of considerable biological importance. Previous studies have indicated that a 13-amino acid region downstream of the Bcl10 caspase recruitment domain (CARD) is responsible for interacting with the immunoglobulin-like domains of MALT1. We now provide evidence that the death domain of MALT1 and the CARD of Bcl10 also contribute to Bcl10-MALT1 interactions. Although a direct interaction between the MALT1 death domain and Bcl10 cannot be detected via immunoprecipitation, FRET data strongly suggest that the death domain of MALT1 contributes significantly to the association between Bcl10 and MALT1 in T cells in vivo. Furthermore, analysis of point mutants of conserved residues of Bcl10 shows that the Bcl10 CARD is essential for interaction with the MALT1 N terminus. Mutations that disrupt proper folding of the Bcl10 CARD strongly impair Bcl10-MALT1 interactions. Molecular modeling and functional analyses of Bcl10 point mutants suggest that residues Asp(80) and Glu(84) of helix 5 of the Bcl10 CARD directly contact MALT1. Together, these data demonstrate that the association between Bcl10 and MALT1 involves a complex interaction between multiple protein domains. Moreover, the Bcl10-MALT1 interaction is the second reported example of interactions between a CARD and a non-CARD protein region, which suggests that many signaling cascades may utilize CARD interactions with non-CARD domains.

  9. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  10. Phospholipase D1 mediates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling for glucose uptake.

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    Jong Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1 activation is required for (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under glucose deprivation conditions. PLD1 activity rather than PLD2 activity is significantly enhanced by glucose deprivation. AMPK-wild type (WT stimulates PLD activity, while AMPK-dominant negative (DN inhibits it. AMPK regulates PLD1 activity through phosphorylation of the Ser-505 and this phosphorylation is increased by the presence of AMP. Furthermore, PLD1-S505Q, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, shows no changes in activity in response to glucose deprivation and does not show a significant increase in (14C-glucose uptake when compared to PLD1-WT. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of PLD1 is important for the regulation of (14C-glucose uptake. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK is stimulated by AMPK-induced PLD1 activation through the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA, which is a product of PLD. An ERK pharmacological inhibitor, PD98059, and the PLD inhibitor, 1-BtOH, both attenuate (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells. Finally, the extracellular stresses caused by glucose deprivation or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; AMPK activator regulate (14C-glucose uptake and cell surface glucose transport (GLUT 4 through ERK stimulation by AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results

  11. Cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of TALEN proteins via bioconjugation for genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Gaj, Thomas; Patterson, James T; Sirk, Shannon J; Barbas, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) have enabled the introduction of targeted genetic alterations into a broad range of cell lines and organisms. These customizable nucleases are comprised of programmable sequence-specific DNA-binding modules derived from TAL effector proteins fused to the non-specific FokI cleavage domain. Delivery of these nucleases into cells has proven challenging as the large size and highly repetitive nature of the TAL effector DNA-binding domain precludes their incorporation into many types of viral vectors. Furthermore, viral and non-viral gene delivery methods carry the risk of insertional mutagenesis and have been shown to increase the off-target activity of site-specific nucleases. We previously demonstrated that direct delivery of zinc-finger nuclease proteins enables highly efficient gene knockout in a variety of mammalian cell types with reduced off-target effects. Here we show that conjugation of cell-penetrating poly-Arg peptides to a surface-exposed Cys residue present on each TAL effector repeat imparted cell-penetrating activity to purified TALEN proteins. These modifications are reversible under reducing conditions and enabled TALEN-mediated gene knockout of the human CCR5 and BMPR1A genes at rates comparable to those achieved with transient transfection of TALEN expression vectors. These findings demonstrate that direct protein delivery, facilitated by conjugation of chemical functionalities onto the TALEN protein surface, is a promising alternative to current non-viral and viral-based methods for TALEN delivery into mammalian cells.

  12. Cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of TALEN proteins via bioconjugation for genome engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like (TAL effector nucleases (TALENs have enabled the introduction of targeted genetic alterations into a broad range of cell lines and organisms. These customizable nucleases are comprised of programmable sequence-specific DNA-binding modules derived from TAL effector proteins fused to the non-specific FokI cleavage domain. Delivery of these nucleases into cells has proven challenging as the large size and highly repetitive nature of the TAL effector DNA-binding domain precludes their incorporation into many types of viral vectors. Furthermore, viral and non-viral gene delivery methods carry the risk of insertional mutagenesis and have been shown to increase the off-target activity of site-specific nucleases. We previously demonstrated that direct delivery of zinc-finger nuclease proteins enables highly efficient gene knockout in a variety of mammalian cell types with reduced off-target effects. Here we show that conjugation of cell-penetrating poly-Arg peptides to a surface-exposed Cys residue present on each TAL effector repeat imparted cell-penetrating activity to purified TALEN proteins. These modifications are reversible under reducing conditions and enabled TALEN-mediated gene knockout of the human CCR5 and BMPR1A genes at rates comparable to those achieved with transient transfection of TALEN expression vectors. These findings demonstrate that direct protein delivery, facilitated by conjugation of chemical functionalities onto the TALEN protein surface, is a promising alternative to current non-viral and viral-based methods for TALEN delivery into mammalian cells.

  13. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

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    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  14. Hydrophobic enhancement of Dopa-mediated adhesion in a mussel foot protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yu, Jing; Broomell, Christopher; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2013-01-09

    Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is recognized as a key chemical signature of mussel adhesion and has been adopted into diverse synthetic polymer systems. Dopa's notorious susceptibility to oxidation, however, poses significant challenges to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. Using a surface forces apparatus to investigate the adhesion of mussel foot protein 3 (Mfp3) "slow", a hydrophobic protein variant of the Mfp3 family in the plaque, we have discovered a subtle molecular strategy correlated with hydrophobicity that appears to compensate for Dopa instability. At pH 3, where Dopa is stable, Mfp3 slow, like Mfp3 "fast" adhesion to mica, is directly proportional to the mol % of Dopa present in the protein. At pH of 5.5 and 7.5, however, loss of adhesion in Mfp3 slow was less than half that occurring in Mfp3 fast, purportedly because Dopa in Mfp3 slow is less prone to oxidation. Indeed, cyclic voltammetry showed that the oxidation potential of Dopa in Mfp3 slow is significantly higher than in Mfp3 fast at pH of 7.5. A much greater difference between the two variants was revealed in the interaction energy of two symmetric Mfp3 slow films (E(ad) = -3 mJ/m(2)). This energy corresponds to the energy of protein cohesion which is notable for its reversibility and pH independence. Exploitation of aromatic hydrophobic sequences to protect Dopa against oxidation as well as to mediate hydrophobic and H-bonding interactions between proteins provides new insights for developing effective artificial underwater adhesives.

  15. Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Min Fan; Yue-Xia Zhong; Mei Lan; Zong-You Zhang; Yong-Quan Shi; Ju Lu; Jie Ding; Kai-Cun Wu; Jian-Ping Jin

    2002-01-01

    .CONCLUSION: SE causes diarrhea and enhancesgastrointestinal motility through digestive tractadministration. Long-term gastric administration of SEinduces inflammatory changes and cell damage in the wholegastrointestinal tract. The differential proteins screened fromthe colonic tissues of the model mice might mediate theenhancing effect of SE on gastrointestinal motility.

  16. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R; Fernández, José A; Camire, Rodney M; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-11-19

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage-specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection.

  17. INCREASE IN ACTIVATED PROTEIN C MEDIATES ACUTE TRAUMATIC COAGULOPATHY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, Brian B.; Rahn, Pamela; Carles, Michel; Esmon, Charles T.; Xu, Jun; Brohi, Karim; Frith, Daniel; Pittet, Jean-François; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    In severely injured and hypoperfused trauma patients, endogenous acute coagulopathy (EAC) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Recent human data correlate this coagulopathy with activation of the protein C pathway. To examine the mechanistic role of protein C in the development of EAC, we used a mouse model of trauma and hemorrhagic shock, characterized by the combination of tissue injury and severe metabolic acidosis. Mice were subjected to one of four treatment groups: 1) C, control; 2) T, trauma (laparotomy); 3) H, hemorrhage (MAP, 35 mmHg × 60 min); 4) TH, trauma + hemorrhage. After 60 min, blood was drawn for analysis. Compared with C mice, the TH mice had a significantly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time (23.3 vs. 34.5 s) and significantly increased levels of activated protein C (aPC; 2.30 vs. 13.58 ng/mL). In contrast, T and H mice did not develop an elevated activated partial thromboplastin time or increased aPC. Selective inhibition of the anticoagulant property of aPC prevented the coagulopathy seen in response to trauma/hemorrhage (23.5 vs. 38.6 s [inhibitory vs. control monoclonal antibody]) with no impact on survival during the shock period. However, complete blockade of both the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of aPC caused 100% mortality within 45 min of shock, with histopathology evidence of pulmonary thrombosis and perivascular hemorrhage. These results indicate that our unique mouse model of T/H shock mimics our previous observations in trauma patients and demonstrates that EAC is mediated by the activation of the protein C pathway. In addition, the cytoprotective effect of protein C activation seems to be necessary for survival of the initial shock injury. PMID:19333141

  18. Conformational diversity in the TPR domain-mediated interaction of protein phosphatase 5 with Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Matthew J; Harris, Richard; Barford, David; Ladbury, John E; Williams, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (Ppp5) is one of several proteins that bind to the Hsp90 chaperone via a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. We report the solution structure of a complex of the TPR domain of Ppp5 with the C-terminal pentapeptide of Hsp90. This structure has the "two-carboxylate clamp" mechanism of peptide binding first seen in the Hop-TPR domain complexes with Hsp90 and Hsp70 peptides. However, NMR data reveal that the Ppp5 clamp is highly dynamic, and that there are multiple modes of peptide binding and mobility throughout the complex. Although this interaction is of very high affinity, relatively few persistent contacts are found between the peptide and the Ppp5-TPR domain, thus explaining its promiscuity in binding both Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vivo. We consider the possible implications of this dynamic structure for the mechanism of relief of autoinhibition in Ppp5 and for the mechanisms of TPR-mediated recognition of Hsp90 by other proteins.

  19. Molecular basis for TPR domain-mediated regulation of protein phosphatase 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Roe, S Mark; Cliff, Matthew J; Williams, Mark A; Ladbury, John E; Cohen, Patricia T W; Barford, David

    2005-01-12

    Protein phosphatase 5 (Ppp5) is a serine/threonine protein phosphatase comprising a regulatory tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain N-terminal to its phosphatase domain. Ppp5 functions in signalling pathways that control cellular responses to stress, glucocorticoids and DNA damage. Its phosphatase activity is suppressed by an autoinhibited conformation maintained by the TPR domain and a C-terminal subdomain. By interacting with the TPR domain, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and fatty acids including arachidonic acid stimulate phosphatase activity. Here, we describe the structure of the autoinhibited state of Ppp5, revealing mechanisms of TPR-mediated phosphatase inhibition and Hsp90- and arachidonic acid-induced stimulation of phosphatase activity. The TPR domain engages with the catalytic channel of the phosphatase domain, restricting access to the catalytic site. This autoinhibited conformation of Ppp5 is stabilised by the C-terminal alphaJ helix that contacts a region of the Hsp90-binding groove on the TPR domain. Hsp90 activates Ppp5 by disrupting TPR-phosphatase domain interactions, permitting substrate access to the constitutively active phosphatase domain, whereas arachidonic acid prompts an alternate conformation of the TPR domain, destabilising the TPR-phosphatase domain interface.

  20. Blood Group Antigen Recognition via the Group A Streptococcal M Protein Mediates Host Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M. P.; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren; Everest-Dass, Arun; Day, Christopher J.; Dabbs, Rebecca A.; Ve, Thomas; Kobe, Bostjan; Nizet, Victor; Packer, Nicolle H.; Walker, Mark J.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans. Preeminent among GAS virulence factors is the surface-expressed M protein. M1 protein showed high affinity for several terminal galactose blood group antigen structures. Deletion mutagenesis shows that M1 protein mediates glycan binding via its B repeat domains. Association of M1T1 GAS with oral epithelial cells varied significantly as a result of phenotypic differences in blood group antigen expression, with significantly higher adherence to those cells expressing H antigen structures compared to cells expressing A, B, or AB antigen structures. These data suggest a novel mechanism for GAS attachment to host cells and propose a link between host blood group antigen expression and M1T1 GAS colonization. PMID:28119471

  1. Influenza C virus NS1 protein counteracts RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasak Reinhard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nonstructural proteins 1 (NS1 from influenza A and B viruses are known as the main viral factors antagonising the cellular interferon (IFN response, inter alia by inhibiting the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I signalling. The cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor RIG-I senses double-stranded RNA and 5'-triphosphate RNA produced during RNA virus infections. Binding to these ligands activates RIG-I and in turn the IFN signalling. We now report that the influenza C virus NS1 protein also inhibits the RIG-I-mediated IFN signalling. Employing luciferase-reporter assays, we show that expression of NS1-C proteins of virus strains C/JJ/50 and C/JHB/1/66 considerably reduced the IFN-β promoter activity. Mapping of the regions from NS1-C of both strains involved in IFN-β promoter inhibition showed that the N-terminal 49 amino acids are dispensable, while the C-terminus is required for proper modulation of the IFN response. When a mutant RIG-I, which is constitutively active without ligand binding, was employed, NS1-C still inhibited the downstream signalling, indicating that IFN inhibitory properties of NS1-C are not necessarily linked to an RNA binding mechanism.

  2. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives Inhibit Fructose-Mediated Protein Glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintorn Yibchok-anun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs by approximately 11.96–63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine (CML, and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications.

  3. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP controls KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Asano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP, a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms.

  4. Popeye domain containing proteins are essential for stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Alexander; Breher, Stephanie S; Waldeyer, Christoph; Schindler, Roland F R; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Rinné, Susanne; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Schlueter, Jan; Becher, Jan; Simrick, Subreena; Vauti, Franz; Kuhtz, Juliane; Meister, Patrick; Kreissl, Sonja; Torlopp, Angela; Liebig, Sonja K; Laakmann, Sandra; Müller, Thomas D; Neumann, Joachim; Stieber, Juliane; Ludwig, Andreas; Maier, Sebastian K; Decher, Niels; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Kirchhof, Paulus; Fabritz, Larissa; Brand, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells create rhythmic pulses that control heart rate; pacemaker dysfunction is a prevalent disorder in the elderly, but little is known about the underlying molecular causes. Popeye domain containing (Popdc) genes encode membrane proteins with high expression levels in cardiac myocytes and specifically in the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in Popdc1 or Popdc2. ECG analysis revealed severe sinus node dysfunction when freely roaming mutant animals were subjected to physical or mental stress. In both mutants, bradyarrhythmia developed in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that the conserved Popeye domain functioned as a high-affinity cAMP-binding site. Popdc proteins interacted with the potassium channel TREK-1, which led to increased cell surface expression and enhanced current density, both of which were negatively modulated by cAMP. These data indicate that Popdc proteins have an important regulatory function in heart rate dynamics that is mediated, at least in part, through cAMP binding. Mice with mutant Popdc1 and Popdc2 alleles are therefore useful models for the dissection of the mechanisms causing pacemaker dysfunction and could aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention.

  5. SRA-domain proteins required for DRM2-mediated de novo DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianna M Johnson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available De novo DNA methylation and the maintenance of DNA methylation in asymmetrical sequence contexts is catalyzed by homologous proteins in plants (DRM2 and animals (DNMT3a/b. In plants, targeting of DRM2 depends on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, although the molecular details are still unclear. Here, we show that two SRA-domain proteins (SUVH9 and SUVH2 are also essential for DRM2-mediated de novo and maintenance DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. At some loci, SUVH9 and SUVH2 act redundantly, while at other loci only SUVH2 is required, and this locus specificity correlates with the differing DNA-binding affinity of the SRA domains within SUVH9 and SUVH2. Specifically, SUVH9 preferentially binds methylated asymmetric sites, while SUVH2 preferentially binds methylated CG sites. The suvh9 and suvh2 mutations do not eliminate siRNAs, suggesting a role for SUVH9 and SUVH2 late in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. With these new results, it is clear that SRA-domain proteins are involved in each of the three pathways leading to DNA methylation in Arabidopsis.

  6. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  7. Ribosomal protein s15 phosphorylation mediates LRRK2 neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Kim, Jungwoo Wren; Lee, Byoung Dae; Kang, Ho Chul; Xu, Jin-Chong; Jia, Hao; Stankowski, Jeannette; Kim, Min-Sik; Zhong, Jun; Kumar, Manoj; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Xiong, Yulan; Dickson, Dennis W.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated LRRK2 kinase activity and neurodegeneration are linked, but the phosphosubstrate that connects LRRK2 kinase activity to neurodegeneration is not known. Here, we show that ribosomal protein s15 is a key pathogenic LRRK2 substrate in Drosophila and human neuron PD models. Phospho-deficient s15 carrying a threonine 136 to alanine substitution rescues dopamine neuron degeneration and age-related locomotor deficits in G2019S LRRK2 transgenic Drosophila and substantially reduces G2019S LRRK2-mediated neurite loss and cell death in human dopamine and cortical neurons. Remarkably, pathogenic LRRK2 stimulates both cap-dependent and cap-independent mRNA translation, and induces a bulk increase in protein synthesis in Drosophila, which can be prevented by phospho-deficient T136A s15. These results reveal a novel mechanism of PD pathogenesis linked to elevated LRRK2 kinase activity and aberrant protein synthesis in vivo. PMID:24725412

  8. Materials Nanoarchitecturing via Cation-Mediated Protein Assembly: Making Limpet Teeth without Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukmar-Godec, Tina; Bertinetti, Luca; Dunlop, John W C; Godec, Aljaž; Grabiger, Michal A; Masic, Admir; Nguyen, Huynh; Zlotnikov, Igor; Zaslansky, Paul; Faivre, Damien

    2017-07-01

    Teeth are designed to deliver high forces while withstanding the generated stresses. Aside from isolated mineral-free exception (e.g., marine polychaetes and squids), minerals are thought to be indispensable for tooth-hardening and durability. Here, the unmineralized teeth of the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata) are shown to attain a stiffness, which is twofold higher than any known organic biogenic structures. In these teeth, protein and chitin fibers establish a stiff compact outer shell enclosing a less compact core. The stiffness and its gradients emerge from a concerted interaction across multiple length-scales: packing of hydrophobic proteins and folding into secondary structures mediated by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) together with a strong spatial control in the local fiber orientation. These results integrating nanoindentation, acoustic microscopy, and finite-element modeling for probing the tooth's mechanical properties, spatially resolved small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering for probing the material ordering on the micrometer scale, and energy-dispersive X-ray scattering combined with confocal Raman microscopy to study structural features on the molecular scale, reveal a nanocomposite structure hierarchically assembled to form a versatile damage-tolerant protein-based tooth, with a stiffness similar to mineralized mammalian bone, but without any mineral. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. DBC2 resistance is achieved by enhancing 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Denise; Yoshihara, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Masaaki

    2007-08-31

    Tumor suppressor gene DBC2 stops growth of tumor cells through regulation of CCND1. Interference of CCND1 down-regulation prevented growth arrest caused by DBC2 [T. Yoshihara, D. Collado, M. Hamaguchi, Cyclin D1 down-regulation is essential for DBC2's tumor suppressor function, Biochemical and biophysical research communications 358 (2007) 1076-1079]. It was also noted that DBC2 resistant cells eventually arose after repeated induction of DBC2 with muristerone A treatment [M. Hamaguchi, J.L. Meth, C. Von Klitzing, W. Wei, D. Esposito, L. Rodgers, T. Walsh, P. Welcsh, M.C. King, M.H. Wigler, DBC2, a candidate for a tumor suppressor gene involved in breast cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 13647-13652]. In order to elucidate the mechanism of resistance acquisition, we analyzed DBC2 sensitive and resistant cells derived from the same progenitor cells (T-47D). We discovered that DBC2 protein was abundantly expressed in the sensitive cells when DBC2 was induced. In contrast, it was undetectable by western blot analysis in the resistant cells. We confirmed that the inducible gene expression system was responsive in both cells by detecting induced GFP. Additionally, inhibition of 26S proteasome by MG132 revealed production of DBC2 protein in the resistant cells. These findings indicate that the resistant T-47D cells survive DBC2 induction by rapid destruction of DBC2 through 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation.

  10. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C; knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  11. Metal-Mediated Affinity and Orientation Specificity in a Computationally Designed Protein Homodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Der, Bryan S.; Machius, Mischa; Miley, Michael J.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian (UNC); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Computationally designing protein-protein interactions with high affinity and desired orientation is a challenging task. Incorporating metal-binding sites at the target interface may be one approach for increasing affinity and specifying the binding mode, thereby improving robustness of designed interactions for use as tools in basic research as well as in applications from biotechnology to medicine. Here we describe a Rosetta-based approach for the rational design of a protein monomer to form a zinc-mediated, symmetric homodimer. Our metal interface design, named MID1 (NESG target ID OR37), forms a tight dimer in the presence of zinc (MID1-zinc) with a dissociation constant <30 nM. Without zinc the dissociation constant is 4 {micro}M. The crystal structure of MID1-zinc shows good overall agreement with the computational model, but only three out of four designed histidines coordinate zinc. However, a histidine-to-glutamate point mutation resulted in four-coordination of zinc, and the resulting metal binding site and dimer orientation closely matches the computational model (C{alpha} rmsd = 1.4 {angstrom}).

  12. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  13. Gene expression profiles of human liver cells mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ying ZHANG; Fu-qing XU; Chang-liang SHAN; Rong XIANG; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the gene expression profiles mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), we characterized the molecular features of pathogenesis associated with HBx in a human liver cell model.Methods: We examined gene expression profiles in L-O2-X cells, an engineered L-O2 cell line that constitutively expresses HBx, relative to L-O2 cells using an Agilent 22 K human 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing more than 21,329 unique, well-characterized Homo sapiens genes, Western blot analysis and RNA interference (RNAi) targeting HBx mRNA validated the overexpression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2 in L-O2-X cells. Meanwhile, the BrdU incorporation assay was used to test cell proliferation mediated by upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).Results: The microarray showed that the expression levels of 152 genes were remarkably altered; 82 of the genes were upregulated and 70 genes were downregulated in L-O2-X cells. The altered genes were associated with signal transduction pathways, cell cycle, metastasis, transcriptional regulation, immune response, metabolism, and other processes. PCNA and Bcl-2 were upregulated in L-O2-X cells. Furthermore, we found that COX-2 upregulation in L-O2-X cells enhanced proliferation using the BrdU incorporation assay, whereas indomethacin (an inhibitor of COX-2) abolished the promotion.Conclusion: Our findings provide new evidence that HBx is able to regulate many genes that may be involved in the car-cinogenesis. These regulated genes mediated by HBx may serve as molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IB in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Srivastava; S K Raj

    2008-06-01

    Coat protein (CP)-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were tested for resistance against CMV by challenge inoculations. The transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumulation in their systemic leaves after virus challenge. These lines also showed virus resistance against two closely related strains of CMV. This is the first report of CP-mediated transgenic resistance against a CMV subgroup IB member isolated from India.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human zygotes using Cas9 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lichun; Zeng, Yanting; Du, Hongzi; Gong, Mengmeng; Peng, Jin; Zhang, Buxi; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Jianqiao

    2017-03-01

    Previous works using human tripronuclear zygotes suggested that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system could be a tool in correcting disease-causing mutations. However, whether this system was applicable in normal human (dual pronuclear, 2PN) zygotes was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 is also effective as a gene-editing tool in human 2PN zygotes. By injection of Cas9 protein complexed with the appropriate sgRNAs and homology donors into one-cell human embryos, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination-mediated correction of point mutations in HBB and G6PD. However, our results also reveal limitations of this correction procedure and highlight the need for further research.

  16. Metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Erin Quan; Herzig, Sébastien; Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L; Losón, Oliver C; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA-linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission.

  17. RNA- and protein-mediated control of Listeria monocytogenes virulence gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Alice; Cossart, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The model opportunistic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has been the object of extensive research, aiming at understanding its ability to colonize diverse environmental niches and animal hosts. Bacterial transcriptomes in various conditions reflect this efficient adaptability. We review here our current knowledge of the mechanisms allowing L. monocytogenes to respond to environmental changes and trigger pathogenicity, with a special focus on RNA-mediated control of gene expression. We highlight how these studies have brought novel concepts in prokaryotic gene regulation, such as the ‘excludon’ where the 5′-UTR of a messenger also acts as an antisense regulator of an operon transcribed in opposite orientation, or the notion that riboswitches can regulate non-coding RNAs to integrate complex metabolic stimuli into regulatory networks. Overall, the Listeria model exemplifies that fine RNA tuners act together with master regulatory proteins to orchestrate appropriate transcriptional programmes. PMID:27217337

  18. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  19. Mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-mediated inhibition of leptin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, I K; Hansen, J A; Andersen, H S

    2005-01-01

    Upon leptin binding, the leptin receptor is activated, leading to stimulation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction cascade. The transient character of the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 suggests the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as negative regulators...... of this signalling pathway. Specifically, recent evidence has suggested that PTP1B might be a key regulator of leptin signalling, based on the resistance to diet-induced obesity and increased leptin signalling observed in PTP1B-deficient mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism by which...... PTP1B mediates the cessation of the leptin signal transduction. Leptin-induced activation of a STAT3 responsive reporter was dose-dependently inhibited by co-transfection with PTP1B. No inhibition was observed when a catalytically inactive mutant of PTP1B was used or when other PTPs were co...

  20. Ultramild protein-mediated click chemistry creates efficient oligonucleotide probes for targeting and detecting nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Madsen, Charlotte Stahl; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    results by electronic structure calculations. Functionalized oligonucleotides were prepared in good yields by protein-mediated CuAAC click reactions for the first time with a human copper-binding chaperon. The carbohydrate, peptide, and fluorescent derivatives display high binding affinity and selectivity...... targeting and detection properties. We focus in particular on the pH sensitivity of these new probes and their high target specificity. For the first time, human copper(I)-binding chaperon Cox17 was applied to effectively catalyze click labeling of oligonucleotides. This was performed under ultramild...... conditions with fluorophore, peptide, and carbohydrate azide derivatives. In thermal denaturation studies, the modified probes showed specific binding to complementary DNA and RNA targets. Finally, we demonstrated the pH sensitivity of the new rhodamine-based fluorescent probes in vitro and rationalize our...

  1. Generation of an affinity column for antibody purification by intein-mediated protein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2003-11-01

    Coupling an antigenic peptide to a solid support is a crucial step in the affinity purification of a peptide-specific antibody. Conventional methods for generating reactive agarose, cellulose or other matrices for peptide conjugation are laborious and can result in a significant amount of chemical waste. In this report, we present a novel method for the facile production of a peptide affinity column by employing intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) in conjunction with chitin affinity chromatography. A reactive thioester was generated at the C-terminal of the chitin binding domain (CBD) from the chitinase A1 of Bacillus circulans WL-2 by thiol-induced cleavage of the peptide bond between the CBD and a modified intein. Peptide epitopes possessing an N-terminal cysteine were ligated to the chitin bound CBD tag. We demonstrate that the resulting peptide columns permit the highly specific and efficient affinity purification of antibodies from animal sera.

  2. Interactions of cullin3/KCTD5 complexes with both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins: Evidence for a role in protein stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Natalja; Heilbronn, Regine; Weger, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weger@charite.de

    2015-08-28

    Based on its specific interaction with cullin3 mediated by an N-terminal BTB/POZ homologous domain, KCTD5 has been proposed to function as substrate adapter for cullin3 based ubiquitin E3 ligases. In the present study we tried to validate this hypothesis through identification and characterization of additional KCTD5 interaction partners. For the replication protein MCM7, the zinc finger protein ZNF711 and FAM193B, a yet poorly characterized cytoplasmic protein, we could demonstrate specific interaction with KCTD5 both in yeast two-hybrid and co-precipitation studies in mammalian cells. Whereas trimeric complexes of cullin3 and KCTD5 with the respective KCTD5 binding partner were formed, KCTD5/cullin3 induced polyubiquitylation and/or proteasome-dependent degradation of these binding partners could not be demonstrated. On the contrary, KCTD5 or Cullin3 overexpression increased ZNF711 protein stability. - Highlights: • KCTD5 nuclear translocation depends upon M phase and protein oligomerization. • Identification of MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193 as KCTD5 interaction partners. • Formation of trimeric complexes of KCTD5/cullin3 with MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193B. • KCTD5 is not involved in polyubiquitylation of MCM7 replication factor. • The KCTD5/cullin3 complex stabilizes ZNF711 transcription factor.

  3. Folate receptor mediated intracellular protein delivery using PLL-PEG-FOL conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa Kim, Sun; Hoon Jeong, Ji; Joe, Cheol O; Gwan Park, Tae

    2005-04-18

    To develop a receptor-mediated intracellular delivery system that can transport therapeutic proteins or other bioactive macromolecules into a specific cell, a di-block copolymer conjugate, poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PLL-PEG-FOL), was synthesized. The PLL-PEG-FOL conjugate was physically complexed with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) in an aqueous phase by ionic interactions. Cellular uptake of PLL-PEG-FOL/FITC-BSA complexes was greatly enhanced against a folate receptor over-expressing cell line (KB cells) compared to a folate receptor deficient cell line (A549 cells). The presence of an excess amount of free folate (1 mM) in the medium inhibited the intracellular delivery of PLL-PEG-FOL/FITC-BSA complexes. This suggests that the enhanced cellular uptake of FITC-BSA by KB cells in a specific manner was attributed to folate receptor-mediated endocytosis of the complexes having folate moieties on the surface. The PLL-PEG-FOL di-block copolymer could be potentially applied for intracellular delivery of a wide range of other biological active agents that have negative charges on the surface.

  4. Yes-associated protein regulates endothelial cell contact-mediated expression of angiopoietin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Zhang, Haiying; Park, Hongryeol; Choi, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Heon-Woo; Agrawal, Vijayendra; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-05-12

    Angiogenesis is regulated by the dynamic interaction between endothelial cells (ECs). Hippo-Yes-associated protein (YAP) signalling has emerged as a key pathway that controls organ size and tissue growth by mediating cell contact inhibition. However, the role of YAP in EC has not been defined yet. Here, we show expression of YAP in the developing front of mouse retinal vessels. YAP subcellular localization, phosphorylation and activity are regulated by VE-cadherin-mediated-EC contacts. This VE-cadherin-dependent YAP phosphorylation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt activation. We further identify angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) as a potential transcriptional target of YAP in regulating angiogenic activity of EC in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of YAP-active form in EC enhances angiogenic sprouting, and this effect is blocked by ANG-2 depletion or soluble Tie-2 treatment. These findings implicate YAP as a critical regulator in angiogenesis and provide new insights into the mechanism coordinating junctional stability and angiogenic activation of ECs.

  5. Ultrafast glycerophospholipid-selective transbilayer motion mediated by a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buton, X; Morrot, G; Fellmann, P; Seigneuret, M

    1996-03-22

    A relatively rapid transbilayer motion of phospholipids in the microsomal membrane seems to be required due to their asymmetric synthesis in the cytoplasmic leaflet. Marked discrepancies exist with regard to the rate and specificity of this flip-flop process. To reinvestigate this problem, we have used both spin-labeled and radioactively labeled long chain phospholipids with a new fast translocation assay. Identical results were obtained with both types of probes. Transbilayer motion of glycerophospholipids was found to be much more rapid than previously reported (half-time less than 25 s) and to occur identically for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Such transport is nonvectorial and leads to a symmetric transbilayer distribution of phospholipids. In contrast, transverse diffusion of sphingomyelin was 1 order of magnitude slower. Phospholipid flip-flop appears to occur by a protein-mediated transport process displaying saturable and competitive behavior. Proteolysis, chemical modification, and competition experiments suggest that this transport process may be related to that previously described in the endoplasmic reticulum for short-chain phosphatidylcholine (Bishop, W. R., and Bell, R. M. (1985) Cell 42, 51-60). The relationship between phospholipid flip-flop and nonbilayer structures occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum was also investigated by 31P-NMR. Several conditions were found under which the 31P isotropic NMR signal previously attributed to nonbilayer structures is decreased or abolished, whereas transbilayer diffusion is unaffected, suggesting that the flip-flop process is independent of such structures. It is concluded that flip-flop in the endoplasmic reticulum is mediated by a bidirectional protein transporter with a high efficiency for glycerophospholipids and a low efficiency for sphingomyelin. In vivo, the activity of this transporter would be able to redistribute all changes in phospholipid composition due

  6. T cell proliferative responses to malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde haptenated protein are scavenger receptor mediated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Tuma, Dean J; Klassen, Lynell W

    2003-10-01

    Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) haptenated proteins have been described in disease processes related to prolonged oxidative stress (via malondialdehyde production), such as alcohol liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic non-steatohepatitis (NASH) and atherosclerosis. Experimentally, high titer IgG1 antibody responses are seen after immunization without adjuvant; however, T cell proliferative responses and the role of scavenger receptors in this immunogenicity has not previously been described. In this study, T cell proliferative responses to the carrier protein, but not the MAA hapten itself, were identified in vitro. Moreover, these T proliferative responses were inhibited when MAA-hen egg lysozyme (HEL) was co-immunized with excess scavenger receptor ligand polyG (poly-guanylic acid), implicating the role of (a) scavenger receptor(s) in initiating the T helper cell response. Activated B cells were unable to process and present MAA-HEL preferentially to T cells, while thioglycollate-elicited (but not Con A-elicited) macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) did so with approximately 32-fold less MAA-HEL than native antigen necessary to initiate equal proliferative responses. While this preferential processing and presentation may be related to several factors, preferential binding of MAA haptenated proteins mediated by scavenger receptors may be one mechanism. IL-4 was absent from the supernatants of T proliferative assays despite a strong IgG1 response in vivo, although the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 were expressed. Since the modification of proteins by the MAA have previously been shown to occur after ethanol consumption in vivo, the ability of MAA haptens to experimentally enhance immune responses, specifically humoral and T cell responses, may represent mechanisms by which autoimmune phenomena found in ALD occur.

  7. Kinetic analysis of the role of histidine chloramines in hypochlorous acid mediated protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2005-05-17

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H(2)O(2) and chloride ions by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) released from activated leukocytes. In addition to its potent antibacterial effects, excessive HOCl production can lead to host tissue damage, with this implicated in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis, and arthritis. HOCl reacts rapidly with biological materials, with proteins being major targets. Chlorinated amines (chloramines) formed from Lys and His side chains and alpha-amino groups on proteins are major products of these reactions; these materials are however also oxidants and can undergo further reactions. In this study, the kinetics of reaction of His side-chain chloramines with other protein components have been investigated by UV/visible spectroscopy and stopped flow methods at pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, using the chloramines of the model compound 4-imidazoleacetic acid and N-alpha-acetyl-histidine. The second-order rate constants decrease in a similar order (Cys > Met > disulfide bonds > Trp approximately alpha-amino > Lys > Tyr > backbone amides > Arg) to the corresponding reactions of HOCl, but are typically 5-25 times slower. These rate constants are consistent with His side-chain chloramines being important secondary oxidants in HOCl-mediated damage. These studies suggest that formation and subsequent reactions of His side-chain chloramines may be responsible for the targeted secondary modification of selected protein residues by HOCl that has previously been observed experimentally and highlight the importance of chloramine structure on their subsequent reactivity.

  8. OSBP-Related Protein Family: Mediators of Lipid Transport and Signaling at Membrane Contact Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentala, Henriikka; Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related protein homologs, ORPs, constitute a conserved family of lipid-binding/transfer proteins (LTPs) expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes. The ligand-binding domain of ORPs accommodates cholesterol and oxysterols, but also glycerophospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). ORPs have been implicated as intracellular lipid sensors or transporters. Most ORPs carry targeting determinants for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and non-ER organelle membrane. ORPs are located and function at membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which ER is closely apposed with other organelle limiting membranes. Such sites have roles in lipid transport and metabolism, control of Ca(2+) fluxes, and signaling events. ORPs are postulated either to transport lipids over MCSs to maintain the distinct lipid compositions of organelle membranes, or to control the activity of enzymes/protein complexes with functions in signaling and lipid metabolism. ORPs may transfer PI4P and another lipid class bidirectionally. Transport of PI4P followed by its hydrolysis would in this model provide the energy for transfer of the other lipid against its concentration gradient. Control of organelle lipid compositions by OSBP/ORPs is important for the life cycles of several pathogenic viruses. Targeting ORPs with small-molecular antagonists is proposed as a new strategy to combat viral infections. Several ORPs are reported to modulate vesicle transport along the secretory or endocytic pathways. Moreover, antagonists of certain ORPs inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ORPs are LTPs, which mediate interorganelle lipid transport and coordinate lipid signals with a variety of cellular regimes.

  9. Antibody-dependent SARS coronavirus infection is mediated by antibodies against spike proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Shen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Liu, Wu-Tse; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Huang, Jason C

    2014-08-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the FcγRII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Constitutive Photomorphogensis Protein1 (COP1 mediated p53 pathway and its oncogenic role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rabbani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the COP1 mediated tumor suppressor protein p53 pathway and its oncogenic role. COP1 is a negative regulator of p53 and acts as a pivotal controller of p53-Akt death-live switch (Protein kinase B. In presence of p53, COP1 is overexpressed in breast, ovarian, gastric cancers, even without MDM2 (Mouse double minute-2 amplification. Following DNA damage, COP1 is phosphorylated instantly by ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and degraded by 14-3-3 and #963; following nuclear export and enhancing ubiquitination. In ATM lacking cell, other kinases, i.e. ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein, Jun kinases and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase cause COP1 and CSN3 (COP9 signalosome complex subunit-3 phosphorylation and initiate COP1's down regulation. Although, it has been previously found that co-knockout of MDM2 and COP1 enhance p53's half life by eight fold, the reason is still unknown. Additionally, while interacting with p53, COP1 upregulate MDM2's E3 ubiquitin ligase, Akt, CSN6 (COP9 signalosome 6 activity and inhibit 14-3-3 and #963;'s negative regulation on MDM2 and COP1 itself. Conclusively, there persists an amplification loop among COP1, MDM2, Akt and 14-3-3 and #963; to regulate p53's stability and activity. However, the role of another tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue is yet to be discovered. This study provides insight on the molecular genetic pathways related to cancer and might be helpful for therapeutic inventions. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(5.000: 142-151

  11. Signal transduction across cellular membranes can be mediated by coupling of the clustering of anchored proteins in both leaflets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tongtao; Zhang, Xianren

    2012-01-01

    One key question in signal transduction is how the signal is relayed from the outer leaflet of a cellular membrane to the inner leaflet. Using a simulation model, a mechanism for the mediation of signal transduction is proposed here in which the coupling between membrane proteins in different leaflets can be achieved by the clustering of anchored proteins, without recruiting transmembrane proteins. Depending on the hydrophobic length of the anchored proteins, three coupling patterns, including face-to-face clustering, interdigitated clustering, and weak-coupled clustering, are observed in this work. This observation provides a possible explanation of how a particular downstream signaling pathway is selected.

  12. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  13. Tomato 14-3-3 protein TFT7 interacts with a MAP kinase kinase to regulate immunity-associated programmed cell death mediated by diverse disease resistance proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Sik; Martin, Gregory B

    2011-04-22

    Programmed cell death (PCD) associated with immunity is triggered when a plant disease resistance (R) protein recognizes a corresponding pathogen virulence protein. In tomato, detection by the host Pto kinase of the Pseudomonas syringae proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB causes localized PCD. Previously, we reported that both MAPKKKα (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase) and the tomato 14-3-3 protein 7 (TFT7) positively regulate Pto-mediated PCD in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, in contrast to MAPKKKα, TFT7 is required for PCD mediated by four other R proteins. Here we investigate why TFT7 is required for PCD induced by diverse R proteins in plants. We discovered that a MAPKK, SlMKK2, which acts downstream of SlMAPKKKα, also interacts with TFT7 in plant cells. Gene silencing experiments revealed that the orthologous genes of both SlMKK2 and TFT7 in N. benthamiana are required for PCD mediated by the same set of R proteins. SlMKK2 and its orthologs contain a 14-3-3 binding site in their N terminus, and Thr(33) in this site is required for interaction with TFT7 in vivo. Like the structurally similar human 14-3-3ε protein, TFT7 forms a homodimer in vivo. Because TFT7 interacts with both SlMAPKKKα and SlMKK2 and also forms a homodimer, we propose that TFT7 may coordinately recruit these client proteins for efficient signal transfer, leading to PCD induction.

  14. SIRT1 is a Highly Networked Protein That Mediates the Adaptation to Chronic Physiological Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Caron, Annabelle Z.; Gray, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that has a very large number of established protein substrates and an equally impressive list of biological functions thought to be regulated by its activity. Perhaps as notable is the remarkable number of points of conflict concerning the role of SIRT1 in biological processes. For example, evidence exists suggesting that SIRT1 is a tumor suppressor, is an oncogene, or has no effect on oncogenesis. Similarly, SIRT1 is variably reported to induce, inhibit, or have no effect on autophagy. We believe that the resolution of many conflicting results is possible by considering recent reports indicating that SIRT1 is an important hub interacting with a complex network of proteins that collectively regulate a wide variety of biological processes including cancer and autophagy. A number of the interacting proteins are themselves hubs that, like SIRT1, utilize intrinsically disordered regions for their promiscuous interactions. Many studies investigating SIRT1 function have been carried out on cell lines carrying undetermined numbers of alterations to the proteins comprising the SIRT1 network or on inbred mouse strains carrying fixed mutations affecting some of these proteins. Thus, the effects of modulating SIRT1 amount and/or activity are importantly determined by the genetic background of the cell (or the inbred strain of mice), and the effects attributed to SIRT1 are synthetic with the background of mutations and epigenetic differences between cells and organisms. Work on mice carrying alterations to the Sirt1 gene suggests that the network in which SIRT1 functions plays an important role in mediating physiological adaptation to various sources of chronic stress such as calorie restriction and calorie overload. Whether the catalytic activity of SIRT1 and the nuclear concentration of the co-factor, NAD+, are responsible for modulating this activity remains to be determined. However, the effect of modulating SIRT1 activity must

  15. gamma-Ray-mediated oxidative labeling for detecting protein conformational changes by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Wren, J Clara; Konermann, Lars

    2008-03-15

    Exposure of proteins to hydroxyl radicals induces the incorporation of oxygen atoms into solvent-exposed side chains. Earlier studies have employed this approach for mapping protein-protein interactions in mass spectrometry-based footprinting experiments. This work explores whether the overall level of gamma-ray mediated oxidative labeling can be used for monitoring large-scale conformational changes. According to a recently developed kinetic model (Tong, X.; Wren, J. C.; Konermann, L. Anal. Chem. 2007, 79, 6376-6382), the apparent first-order rate constant for oxidative labeling can be approximated as k(app) = k(RAD)/([P](tot) + C/k(u)), where k(RAD) is the primary rate of *OH formation, [P](tot) is the protein concentration, C reflects the presence of competing radical deactivation channels, and ku is the rate constant at which hydroxyl radicals react with the protein. The current study introduces conformational effects into this model by proposing that k(u) = [see text for formula] , where N is the number of amino acids, alphai is a measure for the solvent exposure of residue i, and k(ch)(i) is the oxidation rate constant that would apply for a completely solvent-exposed side chain. Using myoglobin and cytochrome c as model systems, it is demonstrated that unfolding by addition of H(3)PO(4) increases k(app) by up to 30% and 70%, respectively. Unfolding by other commonly used denaturants such as organic acids or urea results in dramatically lower oxidation levels than for the native state, a behavior that is due to the radical scavenging activity of these substances (corresponding to an increased value of C). Control experiments on model peptides are suitable for identifying such "secondary" effects, i.e., factors that modify oxidation levels without being related to conformational changes. In conclusion, the overall *OH labeling level represents a viable probe of large-scale protein conformational changes only under conditions where secondary effects are known

  16. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  17. Humoral and Cell-mediated Autoimmune Reactions to Human Acidic Ribosomal P2 Protein in Individuals Sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus P2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christina; Appenzeller, Ulrich; Seelbach, Heike; Achatz, Gernot; Oberkofler, Hannes; Breitenbach, Michael; Blaser, Kurt; Crameri, Reto

    1999-01-01

    A panel of cDNAs encoding allergenic proteins was isolated from an Aspergillus fumigatus cDNA library displayed on the surface of filamentous phage. Solid phase–immobilized serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) from A. fumigatus–allergic individuals was used to enrich phage displaying IgE-binding molecules. One of the cDNAs encoded a 11.1-kD protein that was identified as acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein type 2 (P2 protein). The allergen, formally termed rAsp f 8, shares >62% sequence identity and >84% sequence homology to corresponding eukaryotic P2 proteins, including human P2 protein. The sequences encoding human and fungal P2 protein were subcloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as His6-tagged fusion proteins, and purified by Ni2+–chelate affinity chromatography. Both recombinant P2 proteins were recognized by IgE antibodies from allergic individuals sensitized to the A. fumigatus P2 protein and elicited strong type 1–specific skin reactions in these individuals. Moreover, human and fungal P2 proteins induced proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of A. fumigatus– allergic subjects sensitized to the fungal P2 protein. These data provide strong evidence for in vitro and in vivo humoral and cell-mediated autoreactivity to human P2 protein in patients suffering from chronic A. fumigatus allergy. PMID:10224291

  18. Humoral and cellular responses to cow milk proteins in patients with milk-induced IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, L P C; Bardina, L; Castro, R; Sampson, H A; Beyer, K

    2005-07-01

    Cow milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in childhood. Patients with CMA present with a wide range of immunoglobulin (Ig)E- and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes. Limited information is known about the specific humoral and cellular responses to cow milk proteins in these various forms of CMA. The aim of the study was to determine IgE, IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 antibody levels and lymphocyte proliferative responses to the major cow milk allergens in patients with IgE- and non-IgE-mediated CMA. One hundred and forty cow milk allergic patients, 6 months to 22 years of age, were included in the study. One hundred and thirteen patients had IgE-mediated CMA, 11 had milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and 16 had allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Twenty-one patients without food allergy, 8 months to 18 years of age, served as controls. Serum IgE, IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies to alpha-, beta-, and kappa-casein, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For a subset of these patients, we performed lymphocyte proliferation assays to the various milk allergens. Patients with IgE-mediated CMA had higher specific IgE concentrations to casein compared with whey proteins (P IgA antibody levels when compared to the control group. Lymphocyte proliferative responses in all groups with CMA were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.05), although this response was similar in patients with IgE- and non-IgE-mediated CMA. There is a distinct pattern of humoral antibody response in the different forms of CMA. Patients with IgE-mediated CMA have an elevated polyisotypic response to cow milk protein. The relative lack of specific IgG4 production in patients with enterocolitis syndrome may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In general, caseins appear to be the predominant allergen in patients with CMA.

  19. ABI4 mediates antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellins at transcript and protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Yanli; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Liu, Chunyan; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Xiaofeng; Serino, Giovanna; Xie, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones which antagonistically mediate numerous physiological processes, and their optimal balance is essential for normal plant development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ABA and GA antagonism still needs to be determined. Here, we report that ABA-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a central factor in GA/ABA homeostasis and antagonism in post-germination stages. ABI4 overexpression in Arabidopsis (OE-ABI4) leads to developmental defects including a decrease in plant height and poor seed production. The transcription of a key ABA biosynthetic gene, NCED6, and of a key GA catabolic gene, GA2ox7, is significantly enhanced by ABI4 overexpression. ABI4 activates NCED6 and GA2ox7 transcription by directly binding to the promoters, and genetic analysis revealed that mutation in these two genes partially rescues the dwarf phenotype of ABI4 overexpressing plants. Consistently, ABI4 overexpressing seedlings have a lower GA/ABA ratio than the wild type. We further show that ABA induces GA2ox7 transcription while GA represses NCED6 expression in an ABI4-dependent manner; and that ABA stabilizes the ABI4 protein whereas GA promotes its degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA and GA antagonize each other by oppositely acting on ABI4 transcript and protein levels.

  20. Golgi Protein ACBD3 Mediates Neurotoxicity Associated with Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I. Sbodio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the gene for huntingtin (Htt. In HD, the corpus striatum selectively degenerates despite the uniform expression of mutant huntingtin (mHtt throughout the brain and body. Striatal selectivity reflects the binding of the striatal-selective protein Rhes to mHtt to augment cytotoxicity, but molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity have been elusive. Here, we report that the Golgi protein acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3 mediates mHtt cytotoxicity via a Rhes/mHtt/ACBD3 complex. ACBD3 levels are markedly elevated in the striatum of HD patients, in a striatal cell line harboring polyglutamine repeats, and in the brains of HD mice. Moreover, ACBD3 deletion abolishes HD neurotoxicity, which is increased by ACBD3 overexpression. Enhanced levels of ACBD3 elicited by endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial, and Golgi stresses may account for HD-associated augmentation of ACBD3 and neurodegeneration.

  1. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    of other protein-bound oxidation products. The formation of two oxidation products of DNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) and 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5OHdC), were studied with a novel HPLC using gradient elution and an electrochemical detection method, which allowed the detection of both...... of the present work was to investigate whether DOPA, and especially PB-DOPA, can mediate oxidative damage to DNA. We chose to generate PB-DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase, which catalyses the hydroxylation of tyrosine residues in protein. This permitted us to study the reactions of PB-DOPA in the virtual absence...... DNA modifications in a single experiment. We found that exposure of calf thymus DNA to DOPA or PB-DOPA resulted in the formation of 8oxodG and 5OHdC, with the former predominating. The formation of these DNA oxidation products by either DOPA or PB-DOPA depended on the presence of oxygen, and also...

  2. PK11195 effect on steroidogenesis is not mediated through the translocator protein (TSPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Lan N; Zhao, Amy H; Stocco, Douglas M; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2015-03-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein of unknown function with high physiological expression in steroidogenic cells. Using TSPO gene-deleted mice, we recently demonstrated that TSPO function is not essential for steroidogenesis. The first link between TSPO and steroidogenesis was established in studies showing modest increases in progesterone production by adrenocortical and Leydig tumor cell lines after treatment with PK11195. To reconcile discrepancies between physiological and pharmacological interpretations of TSPO function, we generated TSPO-knockout MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells (MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ) and examined their steroidogenic potential after exposure to either dibutyryl-cAMP or PK11195. Progesterone production in MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ after dibutyryl-cAMP was not different from control MA-10:Tspo+/+ cells, confirming that TSPO function is not essential for steroidogenesis. Interestingly, when treated with increasing concentrations of PK11195, both control MA-10:Tspo+/+ cells and MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ cells responded in a similar dose-dependent manner showing increases in progesterone production. These results show that the pharmacological effect of PK11195 on steroidogenesis is not mediated through TSPO.

  3. A hormone-responsive C1-domain-containing protein At5g17960 mediates stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindran Vijay Bhaskar

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play a critical role in mediating plant stress response. They employ a variety of proteins for coordinating such processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, some members of a Cys-rich protein family known as C1-clan proteins were involved in stress response, but the actual function of the protein family is largely unknown. We studied At5g17960, a C1-clan protein member that possesses three unique C1 signature domains viz. C1_2, C1_3 and ZZ/PHD type. Additionally, we identified 72 other proteins in A. thaliana that contain all three unique signature domains. Subsequently, the 73 proteins were phylogenetically classified into IX subgroups. Promoter motif analysis of the 73 genes identified the presence of hormone-responsive and stress-responsive putative cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, we observed that transcript levels of At5g17960 were induced in response to different hormones and stress treatments. At1g35610 and At3g13760, two other members of subgroup IV, also showed upregulation upon GA3, biotic and abiotic stress treatments. Moreover, seedlings of independent transgenic A. thaliana lines ectopically expressing or suppressing At5g17960 also showed differential regulation of several abiotic stress-responsive marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that C1-domain-containing proteins have a role to play in plant hormone-mediated stress responses, thereby assigning a putative function for the C1-clan protein family.

  4. From differentiation to proliferation: The secretory amyloid precursor protein as a local mediator of growth in thyroid epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrzik, Claus Ulrich; Hoffmann, Jens; Stöber, Kai; Chen, Chun-yan; Bauer, Christoph; Otero, Deborah A.C.; Roch, Jean-Marc; Herzog, Volker

    1998-01-01

    In various species, thyrotropin (TSH) is known to stimulate both differentiation and proliferation of thyroid follicle cells. This cell type has also been shown to express members of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor (APP) protein family and to release the secretory N-terminal domain of APP (sAPP) in a TSH-dependent fashion. In this study on binding to the cell surfaces, exogenously added recombinant sAPP stimulated phosphorylation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase and effectively ev...

  5. Mussel inspired protein-mediated surface modification to electrospun fibers and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Michael, Praveesuda Lorwattanapongsa; Zhong, Shaoping; Ma, Bing; MacEwan, Matthew R; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2012-04-01

    Mussel inspired proteins have been demonstrated to serve as a versatile biologic adhesive with numerous applications. The present study illustrates the use of such Mussel inspired proteins (polydopamine) in the fabrication of functionalized bio-inspired nanomaterials capable of both improving cell response and sustained delivery of model probes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the ability of dopamine to polymerize on the surface of plasma-treated, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber mats to form polydopamine coating. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that self-polymerization of dopamine was induced by pH shift and that the thickness of polydopamine coating was readily modulated by adjusting the concentration of dopamine and reaction time. Polydopamine coatings were noted to affect the mechanical properties of underlying fiber mats, as mechanical testing demonstrated a decrease in elasticity and increase in stiffness of polydopamine-coated fiber mats. Polydopamine coatings were also utilized to effectively immobilize extracellular matrix proteins (i.e., fibronectin) on the surface of polydopamine-coated, electrospun fibers, resulting in enhancement of NIH3T3 cell attachment, spreading, and cytoskeletal development. Comparison of release rates of rhodamine 6G encapsulated in coated and uncoated PCL fibers also confirmed that polydopamine coatings modulate the release rate of loaded payloads. The authors further demonstrate the significant difference of rhodamine 6G adsorption kinetics in water between PCL fibers and polydopamine-coated PCL fibers. Taken together, polydopamine-mediated surface modification to electrospun fibers may be an effective means of fabricating a wide range of bio-inspired nanomaterials with unique properties for use in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and advanced biomedical applications.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of human prion protein is mediated by its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Pasupuleti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular prion-related protein (PrP(c is a cell-surface protein that is ubiquitously expressed in the human body. The multifunctionality of PrP(c, and presence of an exposed cationic and heparin-binding N-terminus, a feature characterizing many antimicrobial peptides, made us hypothesize that PrP(c could exert antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intact recombinant PrP exerted antibacterial and antifungal effects at normal and low pH. Studies employing recombinant PrP and N- and C-terminally truncated variants, as well as overlapping peptide 20mers, demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity is mediated by the unstructured N-terminal part of the protein. Synthetic peptides of the N-terminus of PrP killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida parapsilosis. Fluorescence studies of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the "classical" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In contrast to LL-37, however, no marked helix induction was detected for the PrP-derived peptides in presence of negatively charged (bacteria-mimicking liposomes. PrP furthermore showed an inducible expression during wounding of human skin ex vivo and in vivo, as well as stimulation of keratinocytes with TGF-alpha in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of an antimicrobial activity of PrP, localisation of its activity to the N-terminal and heparin-binding region, combined with results showing an increased expression of PrP during wounding, indicate that PrPs could have a previously undisclosed role in host defense.

  7. Signaling mechanisms mediated by G-protein coupled receptors in human platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Arshad SAEED; Huma RASHEED; Faisal A Wahed FECTO; Mohammad Ilyas ACHAKZAI; Rahmat ALI; John Dennis CONNOR; Anwar-ul-Hassan GILANI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study deals with the investigation of mechanisms involved in the synergistic interaction between epinephrine and arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: Venous blood was taken from healthy human volunteers reported to be free of medications for one week. Platelet aggregation was monitored at 37 ℃ using Dual-channel Lumi-aggregometer. The resulting aggregation was recorded for 5 min by the measurement of light transmission as a function of time. RESULTS: The data show that a synergism in platelet aggregation mediated by subthreshold concentrations of epinephrine (1μmol/L) and AA (0.2μmol/L) was inhibited by the α2-receptor antagonist (yohimbine, IC50=0.6 μmol/L) and an inhibitor of AA-cyclooxygenase (COX), indomethacin (IC50=0.25 μmol/L).In examining receptor influence on intraplatelet signalling pathways, it was found that the synergistic effect was inhibited by calcium channel blockers, verapamil (IC50=0.4 μtmol/L) and diltiazem (IC50=2.5 μmol/L), as well as by low concentrations of inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122; IC50=0.2 μmol/L) and mitogens activated protein kinase (MAPK) (PD 98059; IC50=3.8 μmol/L). Herbimycin A, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine light chain kinase (TLCK), showed inhibition at IC50 value of 15 μmol/L, whereas chelerythrine, a protein kinase C (PKC)inhibitor, had no effect up to 20 μmol/L. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that synergism between epinephrine and AA in platelet aggregation is triggered through receptors coupled to G-protein, which in turn, activate PLC,COX, and MAP kinase-signaling pathways.

  8. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-02

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. RAGE-mediated extracellular matrix proteins accumulation exacerbates HySu-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Daile; He, Yuhu; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Huan; Zuo, Caojian; Chen, Guilin; Yu, Ying; Lu, Ankang

    2017-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation contributes to the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rare and fatal cardiovascular condition defined by high pulmonary arterial pressure, whether primary, idiopathic, or secondary to other causes. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is constitutively expressed in the lungs and plays an important role in ECM deposition. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which RAGE mediates ECM deposition/formation in pulmonary arteries and its roles in PAH progression remain unclear. Expression of RAGE and its activating ligands, S100/calgranulins and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), were increased in both human and mouse pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions and were also strikingly upregulated in pulmonary arteries in hypoxia plus SU5416 (HySu)-induced PAH in mice. RAGE deletion alleviated pulmonary arterial pressure and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in pulmonary arteries in HySu-induced PAH murine model. Moreover, blocking RAGE activity with a neutralizing antibody in human PASMCs, or RAGE deficiency in mouse PASMCs exposed to hypoxia, suppressed the expression of fibrotic proteins by reducing TGF-β1 expression. RAGE reconstitution in deficient mouse PASMCs restored hypoxia-stimulated TGF-β1 production via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway activation and subsequently increased ECM protein expression. Interestingly, HMGB1 acting on RAGE, not toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced ECM deposition in PASMCs. Finally, in both idiopathic PAH patients and HySu-induced PAH mice, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum were significantly elevated compared to those in controls. Activation of RAGE facilitates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by increase of ECM deposition in pulmonary arteries. Our results indicate that sRAGE may be a potential biomarker for PAH diagnosis and disease severity, and that RAGE may be a promising target for

  10. Protein PSMD8 may mediate microgravity-induced cell cycle arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Sun, Yeqing; Xu, Dan; Wu, Di; Chen, Xiaoning

    Microgravity environment of space can induce a serial of changes in cells, such as morphology alterations, cytoskeleton disorder and cell cycle disturbance. Our previous study of simulated-microgravity on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos demonstrated 26s proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 8 (PSMD8) might be a microgravity sensitive gene. However, functional study on PSMD8 is very limited and it has not been cloned in zebrafish till now. In this study, we tried to clone PSMD8 gene in zebrafish, quantify its protein expression level in zebrafish embryos after simulated microgravity and identify its possible function in cell cycle regulation. A rotary cell culture system (RCCS) designed by national aeronautics and apace administration (NASA) of America was used to simulate microgravity. The full-length of psmd8 gene in zebrafish was cloned. Preliminary analysis on its sequence and phylogenetic tree construction were carried out subsequently. Quantitative analysis by western blot showed that PSMD8 protein expression levels were significantly increased 1.18 and 1.22 times after 24-48hpf and 24-72hpf simulated microgravity, respectively. Moreover, a significant delay on zebrafish embryo development was found in simulated-microgravity exposed group. Inhibition of PSMD8 protein in zebrafish embryonic cell lines ZF4 could block cell cycle in G1 phase, which indicated that PSMD8 may play a role in cell cycle regulation. Interestingly, simulated-microgravity could also block ZF4 cell in G1 phase. Whether it is PSMD8 mediated cell cycle regulation result in the zebrafish embryo development delay after simulated microgravity exposure still needs further study. Key Words: PSMD8; Simulated-microgravity; Cell cycle; ZF4 cell line

  11. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies on the flavonoid mediated inhibition of multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, J.J. van; Wortelboer, H.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Punt, A.; Usta, M.; Bladeren, P.J.V.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a large series of flavonoids on multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) were studied in MRP1 and MRP2 transfected MDCKII cells. The results were used to define the structural requirements of flavonoids necessary for potent inhibition of MRP1- and MRP2-mediated calce

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  13. Study on the influence of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv-Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study and observe the influence situation of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia. Methods: 60 children with severe pneumonia in our hospital from February 2013 to January 2015 were selected as study object,and they were randomly divided into control group (routine treatment group) 30 cases and observation group (routine treatment and puerarin injection group) 30 cases, then the serum pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of two groups before the treatment and at different time after the treatment were respectively detected and compared. Results: The serum ulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of observation group at third,fifth and tenth day after the treatment were all obviously lower than those of control group, all P<0.05, the comparison indexes after the treatment all had significant differences. Conclusions: The influence of puerarin injection for the pulmonary surfactant protein and inflammatory mediators of children with severe pneumonia are great, and it can effectively improve the disease state of children with severe pneumonia.

  14. Influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Rui Kang; Jia-Li Xie; Ya-Ni Xue

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein and anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods:A total of 54 patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from April 2014 to May 2015 were selected as the study object, and they were randomly divided into control group (conventional treatment of severe pneumonia group) and observation group (conventional treatment and ulinastatin group), with 27 cases in each group. Then the serum levels of pulmonary surfactant protein,anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before and after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were compared. Results:The serum level of pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before treatment had no significant differences, all P>0.05, and those serum indexes in observation group after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were all significantly better than those of the control group, all P<0.05. Conclusions:The ulinastatin can effectively improve the pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with severe pneumonia, and its improvement role for various of severe pneumonia are obvious.

  15. Quantitative structure activity relationship studies on the flavonoid mediated inhibition of multidrug resistance proteins 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, J.J. van; Wortelboer, H.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Punt, A.; Usta, M.; Bladeren, P.J.V.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of a large series of flavonoids on multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) were studied in MRP1 and MRP2 transfected MDCKII cells. The results were used to define the structural requirements of flavonoids necessary for potent inhibition of MRP1- and MRP2-mediated

  16. CD55 is a key complement regulatory protein that counteracts complement-mediated inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Cotter, Christopher R; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhongying

    2016-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is being developed as an oncolytic virus for virotherapy. In this study we analysed the regulation of complement-mediated inactivation of a recombinant NDV in different host cells. NDV grown in human cells was less sensitive to complement-mediated virus inactivation than NDV grown in embryonated chicken eggs. Additionally, NDV produced from HeLa-S3 cells is more resistant to complement than NDV from 293F cells, which correlated with higher expression and incorporation of complement regulatory proteins (CD46, CD55 and CD59) into virions from HeLa-S3 cells. Further analysis of the recombinant NDVs individually expressing the three CD molecules showed that CD55 is the most potent in counteracting complement-mediated virus inactivation. The results provide important information on selecting NDV manufacture substrate to mitigate complement-mediated virus inactivation.

  17. Identification of a fatty acid binding protein4-UCP2 axis regulating microglial mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Cayla M; Xu, Hongliang; Nixon, Joshua P; Bernlohr, David A; Butterick, Tammy A

    2017-02-16

    Hypothalamic inflammation contributes to metabolic dysregulation and the onset of obesity. Dietary saturated fats activate microglia via a nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) mediated pathway to release pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in dysfunction or death of surrounding neurons. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones regulating metabolic and inflammatory pathways in response to fatty acids. Loss of FABP4 in peripheral macrophages via either molecular or pharmacologic mechanisms results in reduced obesity-induced inflammation via a UCP2-redox based mechanism. Despite the widespread appreciation for the role of FABP4 in mediating peripheral inflammation, the expression of FABP4 and a potential FABP4-UCP2 axis regulating microglial inflammatory capacity is largely uncharacterized. To that end, we hypothesized that microglial cells express FABP4 and that inhibition would upregulate UCP2 and attenuate palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory response. Gene expression confirmed expression of FABP4 in brain tissue lysate from C57Bl/6J mice and BV2 microglia. Treatment of microglial cells with an FABP inhibitor (HTS01037) increased expression of Ucp2 and arginase in the presence or absence of PA. Moreover, cells exposed to HTS01037 exhibited attenuated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) compared to PA alone indicating reduced NFκB signaling. Hypothalamic tissue from mice lacking FABP4 exhibit increased UCP2 expression and reduced iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1; microglial activation marker) expression compared to wild type mice. Further, this effect is negated in microglia lacking UCP2, indicating the FABP4-UCP2 axis is pivotal in obesity induced neuroinflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a FABP4-UCP2 axis with the potential to modulate the microglial inflammatory response.

  18. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  19. A novel human immunoglobulin Fc gamma Fc epsilon bifunctional fusion protein inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daocheng; Kepley, Christopher L; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ke; Saxon, Andrew

    2002-05-01

    Human mast cells and basophils that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, Fc epsilon receptor 1 (Fc epsilon RI), have key roles in allergic diseases. Fc epsilon RI cross-linking stimulates the release of allergic mediators. Mast cells and basophils co-express Fc gamma RIIb, a low affinity receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and whose co-aggregation with Fc epsilon RI can block Fc epsilon RI-mediated reactivity. Here we designed, expressed and tested the human basophil and mast-cell inhibitory function of a novel chimeric fusion protein, whose structure is gamma Hinge-CH gamma 2-CH gamma 3-15aa linker-CH epsilon 2-CH epsilon 3-CH epsilon 4. This Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein was expressed as the predicted 140-kappa D dimer that reacted with anti-human epsilon- and gamma-chain specific antibodies. Fc gamma Fc epsilon bound to both human Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII. It also showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of antigen-driven IgE-mediated histamine release from fresh human basophils sensitized with IgE directed against NIP (4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetyl). This was associated with altered Syk signaling. The fusion protein also showed increased inhibition of human anti-NP (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl) and anti-dansyl IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in transgenic mice expressing human Fc epsilon RI alpha. Our results show that this chimeric protein is able to form complexes with both Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII, and inhibit mast-cell and basophil function. This approach, using a Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein to co-aggregate Fc epsilon RI with a receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif, has therapeutic potential in IgE- and Fc epsilon RI-mediated diseases.

  20. TBK1 Mediates Critical Effects of Measles Virus Nucleocapsid Protein (MVNP) on Pagetic Osteoclast Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Quanhong; Sammut, Bénédicte; Wang, Feng-Ming; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Windle, Jolene J.; Roodman, G. David; Galson, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is characterized by abnormal osteoclasts with unique characteristics that include: increased sensitivity of osteoclast progenitors to 1,25(OH)2D3, RANKL and TNF-α, increased osteoclast numbers, increased expression of IL-6 and several transcription factors. We recently reported that measles virus nucleocapsid protein (MVNP) plays a key role in the development of these abnormal osteoclasts. MVNP can induce the pagetic osteoclast phenotype in vitro and in vivo in TRAP-MVNP transgenic mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MVNP generates pagetic osteoclasts have not been determined. TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase-ɛ (IKKɛ) are IKK family members which complex with MVNP and activate both IRF3 and NF-κB pathways. MVNP increases the amount of TBK1 protein in bone marrow monocytes (BMM). Interestingly, we found that RANKL increased TBK1 and IKKɛ early in osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a possible role in normal osteoclastogenesis. However, only TBK1 is further increased in osteoclasts formed by TRAP-MVNP BMM due to increased TBK1 protein stability. TBK1 over-expression induced IL6 promoter reporter activity, and elevated endogenous IL6 mRNA and p65 NF-κB, TAF12 and ATF7 proteins in several cell lines. Over-expression of TBK1 was insufficient to induce pagetic osteoclasts from WT BMM, but synergized with MVNP to increase pagetic osteoclast formation from TRAP-MVNP BMM. BX795 inhibition of TBK1 impaired MVNP-induced IL-6 expression in both NIH3T3 cells and BMM, and shRNA knockdown of Tbk1 in NIH3T3 cells impaired IL-6 secretion induced by MVNP and decreased TAF12 and ATF7, factors involved in 1,25(OH)2D3 hypersensitivity of pagetic osteoclasts. Similarly, Tbk1 knockdown in BMM from TRAP-MVNP and WT mice specifically impaired development of the MVNP-induced osteoclast pagetic phenotype. These results demonstrate that TBK1 plays a critical role in mediating the effects of MVNP on osteoclast differentiation

  1. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Major, L.D.; Scholte, F.E.; Gardner, J.; Hemert, van M.J.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1a become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2a leading to a general inh

  2. Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Major, L.D.; Scholte, F.E.; Gardner, J.; Hemert, van M.J.; Suhrbier, A.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK and IRE1a become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2a leading to a general inh

  3. P-glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Limits Substrate and Drug Uptake in a Preclinical Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E Adkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a specialized vascular interface that restricts the entry of many compounds into brain. This is accomplished through the sealing of vascular endothelial cells together with tight junction proteins to prevent paracellular diffusion. In addition, the BBB has a high degree of expression of numerous efflux transporters which actively extrude compounds back into blood. However, when a metastatic lesion develops in brain the vasculature is typically compromised with increases in passive permeability (blood-tumor barrier; BTB. What is not well documented is to what degree active efflux retains function at the BTB despite the changes observed in passive permeability. In addition, there have been previous reports documenting both increased and decreased expression of P-gp in lesion vasculature. Herein, we simultaneously administer a passive diffusion marker (14C-AIB and a tracer subject to P-gp efflux (rhodamine 123 into a murine preclinical model of brain metastases of breast cancer. We observed that the metastatic lesions had similar expression (p>0.05; n=756-1214 vessels evaluated at the BBB and the BTB. Moreover, tissue distribution of R123 was not significantly (p>0.05 different between normal brain and the metastatic lesion. It is possible that the similar expression of P-gp on the BBB and the BTB contribute to this phenomenon. Additionally we observed P-gp expression at the metastatic cancer cells adjacent to the vasculature which may also contribute to reduced R123 uptake into the lesion. The data suggest that despite the disrupted integrity of the BTB, efflux mechanisms appear to be intact, and may be functionally comparable to the normal BBB. The BTB is a significant hurdle to delivering drugs to brain metastasis.

  4. A novel role for ATM in regulating proteasome-mediated protein degradation through suppression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Wood

    Full Text Available Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder wherein mutation of the ATM kinase is responsible for the A-T pathogenesis. Although the precise role of ATM in A-T pathogenesis is still unclear, its function in responding to DNA damage has been well established. Here we demonstrate that in addition to its role in DNA repair, ATM also regulates proteasome-mediated protein turnover through suppression of the ISG15 pathway. This conclusion is based on three major pieces of evidence: First, we demonstrate that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells. Second, we show that the reduced protein turnover is causally linked to the elevated expression of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 in A-T cells. Third, we show that expression of the ISG15 is elevated in A-T cells derived from various A-T patients, as well as in brain tissues derived from the ATM knockout mice and A-T patients, suggesting that ATM negatively regulates the ISG15 pathway. Our current findings suggest for the first time that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells due to elevated expression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway, which could contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in A-T patients.

  5. Phosphorylation of the human respiratory syncytial virus P protein mediates M2-2 regulation of viral RNA synthesis, a process that involves two P proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Ana; Villanueva, Nieves

    2016-01-04

    The M2-2 protein regulates the balance between human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) transcription and replication. Here it is shown that M2-2 mediated transcriptional inhibition is managed through P protein phosphorylation. Transcription inhibition by M2-2 of the HRSV based minigenome pRSVluc, required P protein phosphorylation at serines (S) in positions 116, 117, 119 and increased inhibition is observed if S232 or S237 is also phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of these residues is required for viral particle egression from infected cells. Viral RNA synthesis complementation assays between P protein variants, suggest that two types of P proteins participate in the process as components of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Type I is only functional when, as a homotetramer, it is bound to N and L proteins through residues 203-241. Type II is functionally independent of these interactions and binds to N protein at a region outside residues 232-241. P protein type I phosphorylation at S116, S117 and S119, did not affect the activity of RdRp but this phosphorylation in type II avoids its interaction with N protein and impairs RdRp functionality for transcription and replication. Structural changes in the RdRp, mediated by phosphorylation turnover at the indicated residues, in the two types of P proteins, may result in a fine adjustment, late in the infectious cycle, of transcription, replication and progression in the morphogenetic process that ends in egression of the viral particles from infected cells.

  6. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Cordeiro, Yraima; Rocha e Lima, Luis M.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Lopes, Marilene H. [Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa de Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBqM/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Bioquimica Medica

    2009-07-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP{sup c}), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP{sup c} with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P{sup c} and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP{sup c}. Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P{sup c}, and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P{sup c} scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  7. Amyloid precursor protein mediated changes in intestinal epithelial phenotype in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L Puig

    Full Text Available Although APP and its proteolytic metabolites have been well examined in the central nervous system, there remains limited information of their functions outside of the brain. For example, amyloid precursor protein (APP and amyloid beta (Aβ immunoreactivity have both been demonstrated in intestinal epithelial cells. Based upon the critical role of these cells in absorption and secretion, we sought to determine whether APP or its metabolite amyloid β (Aβ, had a definable function in these cells.The human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells, were cultured to examine APP expression and Aβ secretion, uptake, and stimulation. Similar to human colonic epithelium stains, Caco-2 cells expressed APP. They also secreted Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42, with LPS stimulating higher concentrations of Aβ 1-40 secretion. The cells also responded to Aβ 1-40 stimulation by increasing IL-6 cytokine secretion and decreasing cholesterol uptake. Conversely, stimulation with a sAPP-derived peptide increased cholesterol uptake. APP was associated with CD36 but not FATP4 in co-IP pull down experiments from the Caco-2 cells. Moreover, stimulation of APP with an agonist antibody acutely decreased CD36-mediated cholesterol uptake.APP exists as part of a multi-protein complex with CD36 in human colonic epithelial cells where its proteolytic fragments have complex, reciprocal roles in regulating cholesterol uptake. A biologically active peptide fragment from the N-terminal derived, sAPP, potentiated cholesterol uptake while the β secretase generated product, Aβ1-40, attenuated it. These data suggest that APP is important in regulating intestinal cholesterol uptake in a fashion dependent upon specific proteolytic pathways. Moreover, this biology may be applicable to cells beyond the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Alternatively spliced myeloid differentiation protein-2 inhibits TLR4-mediated lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Jones, Heather D; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-02-15

    We previously identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2s) that competitively inhibits binding of MD-2 to TLR4 in vitro. In this study, we investigated the protective role of MD-2s in LPS-induced acute lung injury by delivering intratracheally an adenovirus construct that expressed MD-2s (Ad-MD-2s). After adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, MD-2s was strongly expressed in lung epithelial cells and readily detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Compared to adenovirus serotype 5 containing an empty vector lacking a transgene control mice, Ad-MD-2s delivery resulted in significantly less LPS-induced inflammation in the lungs, including less protein leakage, cell recruitment, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and MIP-2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from Ad-MD-2s mice transferred into lungs of naive mice before intratracheal LPS challenge diminished proinflammatory cytokine levels. As house dust mite (HDM) sensitization is dependent on TLR4 and HDM Der p 2, a structural homolog of MD-2, we also investigated the effect of MD-2s on HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. Ad-MD-2s given before HDM sensitization significantly inhibited subsequent allergic airway inflammation after HDM challenge, including reductions in eosinophils, goblet cell hyperplasia, and IL-5 levels. Our study indicates that the alternatively spliced short isoform of human MD-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat human diseases induced or exacerbated by TLR4 signaling, such as Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin-induced lung injury and HDM-triggered allergic lung inflammation.

  9. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

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    Markowitz, S.; Saito, K.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    Utilizing /sup 125/I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated /sup 125/I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and /sup 125/I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of /sup 125/I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs.

  10. P2X7 receptor-NADPH oxidase axis mediates protein radical formation and Kupffer cell activation in carbon tetrachloride-mediated steatohepatitis in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Saurabh; Rana, Ritu; Corbett, Jean; Kadiiska, Maria B; Goldstein, Joyce; Mason, Ronald P

    2012-05-01

    While some studies show that carbon tetrachloride-mediated metabolic oxidative stress exacerbates steatohepatitic-like lesions in obese mice, the redox mechanisms that trigger the innate immune system and accentuate the inflammatory cascade remain unclear. Here we have explored the role of the purinergic receptor P2X7-NADPH oxidase axis as a primary event in recognizing the heightened release of extracellular ATP from CCl(4)-treated hepatocytes and generating redox-mediated Kupffer cell activation in obese mice. We found that an underlying condition of obesity led to the formation of protein radicals and posttranslational nitration, primarily in Kupffer cells, at 24h post-CCl(4) administration. The free radical-mediated oxidation of cellular macromolecules, which was NADPH oxidase and P2X7 receptor-dependent, correlated well with the release of TNF-α and MCP-2 from Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cells in CCl(4)-treated mice exhibited increased expression of MHC Class II proteins and showed an activated phenotype. Increased expression of MHC Class II was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin , P2X7 receptor antagonist A438709 hydrochloride, and genetic deletions of the NADPH oxidase p47 phox subunit or the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 receptor acted upstream of NADPH oxidase activation by up-regulating the expression of the p47 phox subunit and p47 phox binding to the membrane subunit, gp91 phox. We conclude that the P2X7 receptor is a primary mediator of oxidative stress-induced exacerbation of inflammatory liver injury in obese mice via NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanisms.

  11. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cecilia; Conti, Gabriela; Zavallo, Diego; Manacorda, Carlos Augusto; Asurmendi, Sebastian

    2014-08-03

    Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses.

  12. BH3-only protein BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Indra M; Chen, Miao-Der; Muro, Israel; Robertson, John D; Wright, Casey W; Bratton, Shawn B

    2014-01-01

    Acute heat shock can induce apoptosis through a canonical pathway involving the upstream activation of caspase-2, followed by BID cleavage and stimulation of the intrinsic pathway. Herein, we report that the BH3-only protein BIM, rather than BID, is essential to heat shock-induced cell death. We observed that BIM-deficient cells were highly resistant to heat shock, exhibiting short and long-term survival equivalent to Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells and better than either Bid(-/-) or dominant-negative caspase-9-expressing cells. Only Bim(-/-) and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells exhibited resistance to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Moreover, while dimerized caspase-2 failed to induce apoptosis in Bid(-/-) cells, it readily did so in Bim(-/-) cells, implying that caspase-2 kills exclusively through BID, not BIM. Finally, BIM reportedly associates with MCL-1 following heat shock, and Mcl-1(-/-) cells were indeed sensitized to heat shock-induced apoptosis. However, pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 and BCL-X(L) with ABT-737 also sensitized cells to heat shock, most likely through liberation of BIM. Thus, BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis through a BAX/BAK-dependent pathway that is antagonized by antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members.

  13. Thioredoxin interacting protein mediates lipid-induced impairment of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Ashok; Das, Nabanita; Bhattacharjee, Sudarshan; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Roy, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-28

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an important determinant of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce IR by various mechanisms. A surfeit of circulating FFA leads to intra-myocellular lipid accumulation that induces mitochondrial ROS generation and worsens IR. However, the molecular mechanisms behind are unclear. We identified thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), which is overexpressed in T2DM, to be a promoter of ROS-induced IR. We observed upregulation of TxNIP upon palmitate treatment in skeletal muscle cells that led to ROS generation and Glut-4 downregulation resulting in impaired glucose-uptake. FFA-induced overexpression of TxNIP gene was mediated through the activation of its bona-fide trans activator, ChREBP. Further, Palmitate-induced impairment in AMPK-SIRT-1 pathway resulted in overexpression of ChREBP. While Fenofibrate, abrogated PA-induced TxNIP expression and ROS generation in skeletal muscle cells, Saroglitazar, a dual PPARα/γ-agonist, not only inhibited PA-induced TXNIP expression but also led to greater improvement in glucose uptake. Taken together, TxNIP appears to be an important factor in FFA-induced ROS generation and IR in skeletal muscle cells, which can be modulated for the management of this complex disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophil-derived heparin binding protein--a mediator of increased vascular permeability after burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Joakim; Lindbom, Lennart; Herwald, Heiko; Sjöberg, Folke

    2009-12-01

    Increased vascular permeability and oedema formation constitute a major clinical challenge following burns. Several clinical studies show that leukocytes are systemically activated following burns. Neutrophils have the capability to increase vascular permeability via mechanisms thought to involve the release of heparin binding protein (HBP). We hypothesised that HBP is elevated in plasma after major burns due to a systemic inflammatory response and investigated plasma-HBP concentrations in 10 severely burned patients daily for 1 week following the burn. Five-fold higher levels in plasma-HBP concentration compared to a control group were detected on the first day after injury, followed by a steep reduction in the time-period that corresponds to the last part of the hyperpermeability phase. These data are in accordance with the hypothesis that HBP may function as a mediator of the early burn-induced increase in vascular permeability, and call for further studies to confirm a possible cause-and-effect relationship between HBP and oedema formation following burns.

  15. The Chemorepulsive Protein Semaphorin 3A and Perineuronal Net-Mediated Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Winter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, closure of critical periods coincides with the appearance of extracellular matrix structures, called perineuronal nets (PNN, around various neuronal populations throughout the brain. The absence or presence of PNN strongly correlates with neuronal plasticity. It is not clear how PNN regulate plasticity. The repulsive axon guidance proteins Semaphorin (Sema 3A and Sema3B are also prominently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain. In the neocortex, Sema3A accumulates in the PNN that form around parvalbumin positive inhibitory interneurons during the closure of critical periods. Sema3A interacts with high-affinity with chondroitin sulfate E, a component of PNN. The localization of Sema3A in PNN and its inhibitory effects on developing neurites are intriguing features and may clarify how PNN mediate structural neural plasticity. In the cerebellum, enhanced neuronal plasticity as a result of an enriched environment correlates with reduced Sema3A expression in PNN. Here, we first review the distribution of Sema3A and Sema3B expression in the rat brain and the biochemical interaction of Sema3A with PNN. Subsequently, we review what is known so far about functional correlates of changes in Sema3A expression in PNN. Finally, we propose a model of how Semaphorins in the PNN may influence local connectivity.

  16. DNA sequence-dependent mechanics and protein-assisted bending in repressor-mediated loop formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedicker, James Q.; Garcia, Hernan G.; Johnson, Stephanie; Phillips, Rob

    2013-12-01

    As the chief informational molecule of life, DNA is subject to extensive physical manipulations. The energy required to deform double-helical DNA depends on sequence, and this mechanical code of DNA influences gene regulation, such as through nucleosome positioning. Here we examine the sequence-dependent flexibility of DNA in bacterial transcription factor-mediated looping, a context for which the role of sequence remains poorly understood. Using a suite of synthetic constructs repressed by the Lac repressor and two well-known sequences that show large flexibility differences in vitro, we make precise statistical mechanical predictions as to how DNA sequence influences loop formation and test these predictions using in vivo transcription and in vitro single-molecule assays. Surprisingly, sequence-dependent flexibility does not affect in vivo gene regulation. By theoretically and experimentally quantifying the relative contributions of sequence and the DNA-bending protein HU to DNA mechanical properties, we reveal that bending by HU dominates DNA mechanics and masks intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. Such a quantitative understanding of how mechanical regulatory information is encoded in the genome will be a key step towards a predictive understanding of gene regulation at single-base pair resolution.

  17. Antibody to collapsin response mediator protein 1 promotes neurite outgrowth from rat hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongsheng Lin; Jing Chen; Wenbin Zhang; Xiaobing Gong; Biao Chen; Guoqing Guo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) on neurite outgrowth from rat hippocampal neurons by blocking its function using an antibody. Hippocampal neurons, cultured in vitro, were treated (blocked) using a polyclonal antibody to CRMP-1, and neurite outgrowth and cytoskeletal changes w ere captured using atomic force microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. Control cells, treated with normal rabbit IgG, established their characteristic morphology and had a large number of processes emerging from the soma, including numerous branches. Microtubules were clearly visible in the soma, formed an elaborate network, and were aligned in parallel arrays to form bundles which projected into neurites. After blocking with CRMP-1 antibody, the number of branches emerging from axons and dendrites significantly increased and were substantially longer, compared with control cells. However, the microtubule network nearly disappeared and only a few remnants were visible. When CRMP-1 antibody-blocked neurons were treated with the Rho inhibitor, Y27632, numerous neurites emerged from the soma, and branches were more abundant than in control neurons. Although the microtubules were not as clearly visible compared with neurons cultured in control medium, the microtubule network recovered in cells treated with Y27632, when compared with cells that were blocked by CRMP-1 antibody (but not treated with Y27632). These results demonstrate that neurite outgrowth from hippocampal neurons can be promoted by blocking CRMP-1 with a polyclonal antibody.

  18. Syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis via protein kinase C βII-mediated tyrosinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyejung; Chung, Heesung; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Sora; Han, Inn-Oc; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Syndecan-2, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is highly expressed in melanoma cells, regulates melanoma cell functions (e.g. migration). Since melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which largely function to synthesize melanin, we investigated the possible involvement of syndecan-2 in melanogenesis. Syndecan-2 expression was increased in human skin melanoma tissues compared with normal skin. In both mouse and human melanoma cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of syndecan-2 was associated with reduced melanin synthesis, whereas overexpression of syndecan-2 increased melanin synthesis. Similar effects were also detected in human primary epidermal melanocytes. Syndecan-2 expression did not affect the expression of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, but instead enhanced the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase by increasing the membrane and melanosome localization of its regulator, protein kinase CβII. Furthermore, UVB caused increased syndecan-2 expression, and this up-regulation of syndecan-2 was required for UVB-induced melanin synthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis and could be a potential therapeutic target for treating melanin-associated diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Are G-protein-coupled receptors involved in mediating larval settlement and metamorphosis of coral planulae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cawa; Hadfield, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Larvae of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis are induced to settle and metamorphose by the presence of marine bacterial biofilms, and the larvae of Montipora capitata respond to a combination of filamentous and crustose coralline algae. The primary goal of this study was to better understand metamorphosis of cnidarian larvae by determining what types of receptors and signal-transduction pathways are involved during stimulation of metamorphosis of P. damicornis and M. capitata. Evidence from studies on larvae of hydrozoans suggests that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are good candidates. Settlement experiments were conducted in which competent larvae were exposed to neuropharmacological agents that affect GPCRs and their associated signal-transduction pathways, AC/cAMP and PI/DAG/PKC. On the basis of the results of these experiments, we conclude that GPCRs and these pathways do not mediate settlement and metamorphosis in either coral species. Two compounds that had an effect on both species, forskolin and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA), may be acting on other cellular processes not related to GPCRs. This study strengthens our understanding of the underlying physiological mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis in coral larvae.

  20. Membrane Tension Inhibits Deformation by Coat Proteins in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinger, Julian; Drubin, David; Oster, George; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-02-01

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), clathrin and various adaptor proteins coat a patch of the plasma membrane, which is reshaped to form a budded vesicle. Experimental studies have demonstrated that elevated membrane tension can inhibit bud formation by a clathrin coat. In this study, we investigate the impact of membrane tension on the mechanics of membrane budding by simulating clathrin coats that either grow in area or progressively induce greater curvature. At low membrane tension, progressively increasing the area of a curvature-generating coat causes the membrane to smoothly evolve from a flat to budded morphology, whereas the membrane remains essentially flat at high membrane tensions. Interestingly, at physiologically relevant, intermediate membrane tensions, the shape evolution of the membrane undergoes a snapthrough instability in which increasing coat area causes the membrane to "snap" from an open, U-shaped bud to a closed, $\\Omega$-shaped bud. This instability is accompanied by a large energy barrier, which could cause a developing endocytic pit to stall if the binding energy of additional coat is insufficient to overcome this barrier. Similar results were found for a coat of constant area in which the spontaneous curvature progressively increases. Additionally, a pulling force on the bud, simulating a force from actin polymerization, is sufficient to drive a transition from an open to closed bud, overcoming the energy barrier opposing this transition.

  1. Lysine and arginine biosyntheses mediated by a common carrier protein in Sulfolobus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Horie, Akira; Yoshida, Ayako; Takahashi, Kento; Nishida, Hiromi; Lassak, Kerstin; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kosono, Saori; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    LysW has been identified as a carrier protein in the lysine biosynthetic pathway that is active through the conversion of α-aminoadipate (AAA) to lysine. In this study, we found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, not only biosynthesizes lysine through LysW-mediated protection of AAA but also uses LysW to protect the amino group of glutamate in arginine biosynthesis. In this archaeon, after LysW modification, AAA and glutamate are converted to lysine and ornithine, respectively, by a single set of enzymes with dual functions. The crystal structure of ArgX, the enzyme responsible for modification and protection of the amino moiety of glutamate with LysW, was determined in complex with LysW. Structural comparison and enzymatic characterization using Sulfolobus LysX, Sulfolobus ArgX and Thermus LysX identify the amino acid motif responsible for substrate discrimination between AAA and glutamate. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that gene duplication events at different stages of evolution led to ArgX and LysX.

  2. An Intrinsically Disordered Motif Mediates Diverse Actions of Monomeric C-reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yun; Wang, Jing; Meng, Fan; Jia, Zhe-Kun; Su, Yang; Bai, Qi-Feng; Lv, Ling-Ling; Ma, Fu-Rong; Potempa, Lawrence A; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Most proinflammatory actions of C-reactive protein (CRP) are only expressed following dissociation of its native pentameric assembly into monomeric form (mCRP). However, little is known about what underlies the greatly enhanced activities of mCRP. Here we show that a single sequence motif, i.e. cholesterol binding sequence (CBS; a.a. 35-47), is responsible for mediating the interactions of mCRP with diverse ligands. The binding of mCRP to lipoprotein component ApoB, to complement component C1q, to extracellular matrix components fibronectin and collagen, to blood coagulation component fibrinogen, and to membrane lipid component cholesterol, are all found to be markedly inhibited by the synthetic CBS peptide but not by other CRP sequences tested. Likewise, mutating CBS in mCRP also greatly impairs these interactions. Functional experiments further reveal that CBS peptide significantly reduces the effects of mCRP on activation of endothelial cells in vitro and on acute induction of IL-6 in mice. The potency and specificity of CBS are critically determined by the N-terminal residues Cys-36, Leu-37, and His-38; while the versatility of CBS appears to originate from its intrinsically disordered conformation polymorphism. Together, these data unexpectedly identify CBS as the major recognition site of mCRP and suggest that this motif may be exploited to tune the proinflammatory actions of mCRP.

  3. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is a mediator of polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx in ocular bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernacki, K A; Barrett, R P; Hobden, J A; Hazlett, L D

    2000-01-15

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected cornea are required to clear bacteria from affected tissue, yet their persistence may contribute to irreversible tissue destruction. This study examined the role of C-X-C chemokines in PMN infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected cornea and the contribution of these mediators to disease pathology. After P. aeruginosa challenge, corneal PMN number and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC levels were compared in mice that are susceptible (cornea perforates) or resistant (cornea heals) to P. aeruginosa infection. While corneal PMN myeloperoxidase activity (indicator of PMN number) was similar in both groups of mice at 1 and 3 days postinfection, by 5-7 days postinfection corneas of susceptible mice contained a significantly greater number of inflammatory cells. Corneal MIP-2, but not KC, levels correlated with persistence of PMN in the cornea of susceptible mice. To test the biological relevance of these data, resistant mice were treated systemically with rMIP-2. This treatment resulted in increased corneal PMN number and significantly exacerbated corneal disease. Conversely, administration of neutralizing MIP-2 pAb to susceptible mice reduced both PMN infiltration and corneal destruction. Collectively, these findings support an important role for MIP-2 in recruitment of PMN to P. aeruginosa-infected cornea. These data also strongly suggest that a timely down-regulation of the host inflammatory response is critical for resolution of infection.

  4. The Legionella pneumophila collagen-like protein mediates sedimentation, autoaggregation, and pathogen-phagocyte interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Nour, Mena; Duncan, Carla; Prashar, Akriti; Rao, Chitong; Ginevra, Christophe; Jarraud, Sophie; Low, Donald E; Ensminger, Alexander W; Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Guyard, Cyril

    2014-02-01

    Although only partially understood, multicellular behavior is relatively common in bacterial pathogens. Bacterial aggregates can resist various host defenses and colonize their environment more efficiently than planktonic cells. For the waterborne pathogen Legionella pneumophila, little is known about the roles of autoaggregation or the parameters which allow cell-cell interactions to occur. Here, we determined the endogenous and exogenous factors sufficient to allow autoaggregation to take place in L. pneumophila. We show that isolates from Legionella species which do not produce the Legionella collagen-like protein (Lcl) are deficient in autoaggregation. Targeted deletion of the Lcl-encoding gene (lpg2644) and the addition of Lcl ligands impair the autoaggregation of L. pneumophila. In addition, Lcl-induced autoaggregation requires divalent cations. Escherichia coli producing surface-exposed Lcl is able to autoaggregate and shows increased biofilm production. We also demonstrate that L. pneumophila infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmanella vermiformis is potentiated under conditions which promote Lcl dependent autoaggregation. Overall, this study shows that L. pneumophila is capable of autoaggregating in a process that is mediated by Lcl in a divalent-cation-dependent manner. It also reveals that Lcl potentiates the ability of L. pneumophila to come in contact, attach, and infect amoebae.

  5. Biomimetic magnetite mediated by magnetosome proteins vs. ALH84001 meteorite magnetite: Are both comparable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry-Sosa, A.; Jimenez-Lopez, C.

    2016-07-01

    The suggestion in 1996 that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 could contain proof of possible biologic activity in the past have generated a huge controversy that last until today. One of the most discussed evidence is the presence of magnetite crystals that resemble those produced by a particular group of bacteria, the so called magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). These microorganisms are the only known example of biologically controlled biomineralization among the prokaryotes and exert an exquisite control over the biomineralization process of intracellular magnetite that result in crystals with very unique features that, so far, cannot be replicated by inorganic means. These unique features have been used to recognize the biological origin of natural terrestrial magnetites, but the problem arises when those same biogenecity criteria are applied to extraterrestrial magnetites. Most of the problems are caused by the fact that it is not clear whether or not some of those characteristics can be reproduced inorganically. Magnetosome protein mediated magnetite synthesis seems to be the best approach to obtain magnetosome-like magnetites, and such strategy may help clarify what is the specific biosignature of magnetotactic bacteria. (Author)

  6. Autophagy-mediated Regulation of BACE1 Protein Trafficking and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tuancheng; Tammineni, Prasad; Agrawal, Chanchal; Jeong, Yu Young; Cai, Qian

    2017-02-03

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for amyloid-β generation and is degraded in lysosomes. The autophagy-lysosomal system plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis in neurons. Recent studies established that nascent autophagosomes in distal axons move predominantly in the retrograde direction toward the soma, where mature lysosomes are mainly located. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy plays a critical role in regulation of BACE1 trafficking and degradation. Here, we report that induction of neuronal autophagy enhances BACE1 turnover, which is suppressed by lysosomal inhibition. A significant portion of BACE1 is recruited to the autophagy pathway and co-migrates robustly with autophagic vacuoles along axons. Moreover, we reveal that autophagic vacuole-associated BACE1 is accumulated in the distal axon of Alzheimer's disease-related mutant human APP transgenic neurons and mouse brains. Inducing autophagy in mutant human APP neurons augments autophagic retention of BACE1 in distal axons, leading to enhanced β-cleavage of APP. This phenotype can be reversed by Snapin-enhanced retrograde transport, which facilitates BACE1 trafficking to lysosomes for degradation. Therefore, our study provides new insights into autophagy-mediated regulation of BACE1 turnover and APP processing, thus building a foundation for future development of potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic strategies.

  7. Role of Sigma Receptor in Cocaine-Mediated Induction of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: Implications for HAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Yao, Honghong; Chen, Xufeng; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon; Buch, Shilpa

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine abuse has been shown to accelerate the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-associated neurological disorders (HANDs) partially through increasing neuroinflammatory response mediated by activated astrocytes; however, the detailed molecular mechanism of cocaine-mediated astrocyte activation is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated increased astrogliosis in the cortical regions of brains from HIV(+) cocaine abusers compared with the HIV(+) group without cocaine abuse. We next sought to explore whether cocaine exposure could result in increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a filament protein critical for astrocyte activation. Exposure of cocaine to astrocytes resulted in rapid translocation of sigma receptor to the plasma membrane with subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways. Using a pharmacological approach, we provide evidence that cocaine-mediated upregulation of GFAP expression involved activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling with subsequent downstream activation of the early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1). Egr-1 activation, in turn, caused transcriptional regulation of GFAP. Corroboration of these findings in vivo demonstrated increased expression of GFAP in the cortical region of mice treated with cocaine compared with the saline injected controls. A thorough understanding of how cocaine mediates astrogliosis could have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions aimed at HIV-infected cocaine abusers.

  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of N-Myc(and STAT) interactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijia; Cheng; Shiyou; Chen; Ruiling; Li; Yu; Chen; Min; Wang; Deyin; Guo

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-Co V) encodes eight accessory proteins, the functions of which are not yet fully understood. SARS-Co V protein 6(P6) is one of the previously studied accessory proteins that have been documented to enhance viral replication and suppress host interferon(IFN) signaling pathways. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified eight potential cellular P6-interacting proteins from a human spleen c DNA library. For further investigation, we targeted the IFN signaling pathway-mediating protein, N-Myc(and STAT) interactor(Nmi). Its interaction with P6 was confirmed within cells. The results showed that P6 can promote the ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of Nmi. This study revealed a new mechanism of SARS-Co V P6 in limiting the IFN signaling to promote SARS-Co V survival in host cells.

  9. PLAA Mutations Cause a Lethal Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy by Disrupting Ubiquitin-Mediated Endolysosomal Degradation of Synaptic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma A; Nahorski, Michael S; Murray, Lyndsay M; Shaheen, Ranad; Perkins, Emma; Dissanayake, Kosala N; Kristaryanto, Yosua; Jones, Ross A; Vogt, Julie; Rivagorda, Manon; Handley, Mark T; Mali, Girish R; Quidwai, Tooba; Soares, Dinesh C; Keighren, Margaret A; McKie, Lisa; Mort, Richard L; Gammoh, Noor; Garcia-Munoz, Amaya; Davey, Tracey; Vermeren, Matthieu; Walsh, Diana; Budd, Peter; Aligianis, Irene A; Faqeih, Eissa; Quigley, Alan J; Jackson, Ian J; Kulathu, Yogesh; Jackson, Mandy; Ribchester, Richard R; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Woods, C Geoffrey; Maher, Eamonn R; Mill, Pleasantine

    2017-05-04

    During neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles undergo multiple rounds of exo-endocytosis, involving recycling and/or degradation of synaptic proteins. While ubiquitin signaling at synapses is essential for neural function, it has been assumed that synaptic proteostasis requires the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). We demonstrate here that turnover of synaptic membrane proteins via the endolysosomal pathway is essential for synaptic function. In both human and mouse, hypomorphic mutations in the ubiquitin adaptor protein PLAA cause an infantile-lethal neurodysfunction syndrome with seizures. Resulting from perturbed endolysosomal degradation, Plaa mutant neurons accumulate K63-polyubiquitylated proteins and synaptic membrane proteins, disrupting synaptic vesicle recycling and neurotransmission. Through characterization of this neurological intracellular trafficking disorder, we establish the importance of ubiquitin-mediated endolysosomal trafficking at the synapse. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isoferulic Acid, a New Anti-Glycation Agent, Inhibits Fructose- and Glucose-Mediated Protein Glycation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Adisakwattana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of isoferulic acid (IFA on fructose- and glucose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA was investigated. Our data showed that IFA (1.25–5 mM inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs and non-fluorescent AGE [Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine: CML], as well as the level of fructosamine. IFA also prevented protein oxidation of BSA indicated by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protein thiol modification. Furthermore, IFA suppressed the formation of β-cross amyloid structures of BSA. Therefore, IFA might be a new promising anti-glycation agent for the prevention of diabetic complications via inhibition of AGEs formation and oxidation-dependent protein damage.

  11. Bacteroidales Secreted Antimicrobial Proteins Target Surface Molecules Necessary for Gut Colonization and Mediate Competition In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Kevin G; Coyne, Michael J; Gentyala, Rahul R; Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-08-23

    . Interference competition, mediated by bacterial factors that directly harm other members, is beginning to be appreciated as important in contributing to species- and strain-level dynamics of abundant gut bacteria. Here, we show that gut Bacteroidales secrete antimicrobial proteins (BSAPs) that antagonize strains of the same species. We show that BSAPs target molecules of sensitive cells that are important for gut colonization and therefore are maintained in sensitive cells. In an experimental animal model of gut colonization, a BSAP-1-producing strain antagonized and outcompeted an isogenic sensitive strain. Furthermore, metagenomic analyses showed that BSAP-1-producing and -sensitive strains are not found together in human gut microbiotas. These data suggest that BSAPs are strong ecological drivers shaping the strain-level composition of gut communities. Copyright © 2016 Roelofs et al.

  12. A cell-permeable hairpin peptide inhibits hepatitis C viral nonstructural protein 5A-mediated translation and virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Ruchala, Piotr; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Maloney, Eden M; Miao, Edna; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W

    2012-06-01

    NS5A is a key regulator of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle including RNA replication, assembly, and translation. We and others have shown that NS5A augments HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation. Furthermore, Quercetin treatment and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 knockdown inhibit the NS5A-driven augmentation of IRES-mediated translation and infectious virus production. We have also coimmunoprecipitated HSP70 with NS5A and demonstrated cellular colocalization, leading to the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex formation is important for IRES-mediated translation. Here, we have identified the NS5A region responsible for complex formation through in vitro deletion analyses. Deletion of NS5A domains II and III failed to reduce HSP70 binding, whereas domain I deletion eliminated complex formation. NS5A domain I alone also bound HSP70. Deletion mapping of domain I identified the C-terminal 34 amino acids (C34) as the interaction site. Furthermore, addition of C34 to domains II and III restored complex formation. C34 expression significantly reduced intracellular viral protein levels, in contrast to same-size control peptides from other NS5A domains. C34 also competitively inhibited NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation, whereas controls did not. Triple-alanine scan mutagenesis determined that an exposed beta-sheet hairpin in C34 was primarily responsible for NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation. Moreover, treatment with a 10-amino acid peptide derivative of C34 suppressed NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation and significantly inhibited intracellular viral protein synthesis, with no associated cytotoxicity. These results support the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex augments viral IRES-mediated translation, identify a sequence-specific hairpin element in NS5A responsible for complex formation, and demonstrate the functional significance of C34 hairpin-mediated NS5A/HSP70 interaction. Identification of this element may allow

  13. Environment control to improve recombinant protein yields in plants based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi eFujiuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: 1 recombinant protein content per unit biomass; and 2 recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on those parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and post-inoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Pre-inoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, post-inoculation environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and humidity have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the post-inoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain

  14. Identification of a novel protein-protein interaction motif mediating interaction of GPCR-associated sorting proteins with G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornert, Olivier; Møller, Thor Christian; Boeuf, Julien

    2013-01-01

    GPCR desensitization and down-regulation are considered key molecular events underlying the development of tolerance in vivo. Among the many regulatory proteins that are involved in these complex processes, GASP-1 have been shown to participate to the sorting of several receptors toward the degra......GPCR desensitization and down-regulation are considered key molecular events underlying the development of tolerance in vivo. Among the many regulatory proteins that are involved in these complex processes, GASP-1 have been shown to participate to the sorting of several receptors toward...... the degradation pathway. This protein belongs to the recently identified GPCR-associated sorting proteins (GASPs) family that comprises ten members for which structural and functional details are poorly documented. We present here a detailed structure-function relationship analysis of the molecular interaction...... between GASPs and a panel of GPCRs. In a first step, GST-pull down experiments revealed that all the tested GASPs display significant interactions with a wide range of GPCRs. Importantly, the different GASP members exhibiting the strongest interaction properties were also characterized by the presence...

  15. Protein Folding and Structure Prediction from the Ground Up: The Atomistic Associative Memory, Water Mediated, Structure and Energy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingchen; Lin, Xingcheng; Zheng, Weihua; Onuchic, José N; Wolynes, Peter G

    2016-08-25

    The associative memory, water mediated, structure and energy model (AWSEM) is a coarse-grained force field with transferable tertiary interactions that incorporates local in sequence energetic biases using bioinformatically derived structural information about peptide fragments with locally similar sequences that we call memories. The memory information from the protein data bank (PDB) database guides proper protein folding. The structural information about available sequences in the database varies in quality and can sometimes lead to frustrated free energy landscapes locally. One way out of this difficulty is to construct the input fragment memory information from all-atom simulations of portions of the complete polypeptide chain. In this paper, we investigate this approach first put forward by Kwac and Wolynes in a more complete way by studying the structure prediction capabilities of this approach for six α-helical proteins. This scheme which we call the atomistic associative memory, water mediated, structure and energy model (AAWSEM) amounts to an ab initio protein structure prediction method that starts from the ground up without using bioinformatic input. The free energy profiles from AAWSEM show that atomistic fragment memories are sufficient to guide the correct folding when tertiary forces are included. AAWSEM combines the efficiency of coarse-grained simulations on the full protein level with the local structural accuracy achievable from all-atom simulations of only parts of a large protein. The results suggest that a hybrid use of atomistic fragment memory and database memory in structural predictions may well be optimal for many practical applications.

  16. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process. PMID:26393507

  17. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Hu

    Full Text Available Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process.

  18. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  19. Interpenetration as a Mechanism for Negative Thermal Expansion in the Metal-Organic Framework Cu3(btb)2 (MOF-14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Luks, Emily; Darwish, Tamim A.; Kepert, Cameron J. [Sydney; (ANSTO)

    2014-07-11

    Metal–organic framework materials (MOFs) have recently been shown in some cases to exhibit strong negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior, while framework interpenetration has been found to reduce NTE in many materials. Using powder and single-crystal diffraction methods we investigate the thermal expansion behavior of interpenetrated Cu3(btb)2 (MOF-14) and find that it exhibits an anomalously large NTE effect. Temperature-dependent structural analysis shows that, contrary to other interpenetrated materials, in MOF-14 the large positive thermal expansion of weak interactions that hold the interpenetrating networks together results in a low-energy contractive distortion of the overall framework structure, demonstrating a new mechanism for NTE.

  20. Dihydrotestosterone regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via protein kinase C in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Ye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of androgens decreases plasma concentrations of high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the mechanisms by which androgens mediate lipid metabolism remain unknown. This present study used HepG2 cell cultures and ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice to determine whether apolipoprotein M (ApoM, a constituent of HDL, was affected by dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence of either DHT, agonist of protein kinase C (PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, blocker of androgen receptor flutamide together with different concentrations of DHT, or DHT together with staurosporine at different concentrations for 24 hrs. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice were treated with DHT or vehicle for 7d or 14d and the levels of plasma ApoM and livers ApoM mRNA were measured. The mRNA levels of ApoM, ApoAI were determined by real-time RT-PCR. ApoM and ApoAI were determined by western blotting analysis. Results Addition of DHT to cell culture medium selectively down-regulated ApoM mRNA expression and ApoM secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 nM DHT, the ApoM mRNA levels were about 20% lower than in untreated cells and about 40% lower at 1000 nM DHT than in the control cells. The secretion of ApoM into the medium was reduced to a similar extent. The inhibitory effect of DHT on ApoM secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide but by an antagonist of PKC, Staurosporine. Agonist of PKC, PMA, also reduced ApoM. At 0.5 μM PMA, the ApoM mRNA levels and the secretion of ApoM into the medium were about 30% lower than in the control cells. The mRNA expression levels and secretion of another HDL-associated apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI were not affected by DHT. The levels of plasma ApoM and liver ApoM mRNA of DHT-treated C57BL/6 J mice were lower than those of vehicle-treated mice. Conclusions DHT directly and selectively down-regulated the level of ApoM mRNA and the

  1. Nociceptive-induced myocardial remote conditioning is mediated by neuronal gamma protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eric R; Hsu, Anna K; Urban, Travis J; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Gross, Garrett J

    2013-09-01

    Deciphering the remote conditioning molecular mechanism may provide targets to develop therapeutics that can broaden the clinical application. To further investigate this, we tested whether two protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, the ubiquitously expressed epsilon PKC (εPKC) and the neuronal-specific gamma PKC (γPKC), mediate nociceptive-induced remote myocardial conditioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for both in vivo and ex vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion protocols. For the in vivo studies, using a surgical abdominal incision for comparison, applying only to the abdomen either bradykinin or the εPKC activator (ψεRACK) reduced myocardial infarct size (45 ± 1, 44 ± 2 %, respectively, vs. incision: 43 ± 2 %, and control: 63 ± 2 %, P classical PKC isozyme activator (activating α, β, βII, and γ), reduced myocardial injury. Importantly, the classical PKC isozyme activator given to the abdomen in vivo (with an intact nervous system including γPKC) during myocardial ischemia reduced infarct size as effectively as an abdominal incision or ψεRACK (45 ± 1 vs. 45 ± 2 and 47 ± 1 %, respectively). The classical PKC activator-induced protection was also blocked by spinal cord surgical transection. These findings identified potential remote conditioning mimetics, with these strategies effective even during myocardial ischemia. A novel mechanism of nociceptive-induced remote conditioning, involving γPKC, was also identified.

  2. An integrative model for phytochrome B mediated photomorphogenesis: from protein dynamics to physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rausenberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved various sophisticated mechanisms to respond and adapt to changes of abiotic factors in their natural environment. Light is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors and it regulates plant growth and development throughout their entire life cycle. To monitor the intensity and spectral composition of the ambient light environment, plants have evolved multiple photoreceptors, including the red/far-red light-sensing phytochromes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an integrative mathematical model that describes how phytochrome B (phyB, an essential receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana, controls growth. Our model is based on a multiscale approach and connects the mesoscopic intracellular phyB protein dynamics to the macroscopic growth phenotype. To establish reliable and relevant parameters for the model phyB regulated growth we measured: accumulation and degradation, dark reversion kinetics and the dynamic behavior of different nuclear phyB pools using in vivo spectroscopy, western blotting and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP technique, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed model predicts that the phyB-containing nuclear bodies (NBs (i serve as storage sites for phyB and (ii control prolonged dark reversion kinetics as well as partial reversibility of phyB Pfr in extended darkness. The predictive power of this mathematical model is further validated by the fact that we are able to formalize a basic photobiological observation, namely that in light-grown seedlings hypocotyl length depends on the total amount of phyB. In addition, we demonstrate that our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with quantitative data concerning phyB levels and the corresponding hypocotyl lengths. Hence, we conclude that the integrative model suggested in this study captures the main features of phyB-mediated photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

  3. Sequential activation of protein kinase C isoforms by organic dust is mediated by tumor necrosis factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Todd A; Slager, Rebecca E; Heires, Arthur J; Devasure, Jane M; Vonessen, Susanna G; Poole, Jill A; Romberger, Debra J

    2010-06-01

    Dust samples collected from Nebraska swine confinement facilities (hog dust extract [HDE]) are known to elicit proinflammatory cytokine release from human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro. This response involves the activation of two protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms: PKCalpha and PKCepsilon. Experiments were designed to investigate the relationship between the two isoenzymes and the degree to which each is responsible for cytokine release in HBE. Experiments also examined the contribution of TNF-alpha to IL-6 and IL-8 release. PKCalpha and PKCepsilon activities were inhibited using isoform-specific pharmacologic inhibitors and genetically modified dominant-negative (DN) expressing cell lines. Release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha was measured and PKC isoform activities assessed. We found that HDE stimulates PKCalpha activity by 1 hour, and within 6 hours the activity returns to baseline. PKCalpha-specific inhibitor or PKCalphaDN cells abolish this HDE-mediated effect. Both IL-6 and IL-8 release are likewise diminished under these conditions compared with normal HBE, and treatment with TNF-alpha-neutralizing antibody does not further inhibit cytokine release. In contrast, PKCepsilon activity was enhanced by 6 hours after HDE treatment. TNF-alpha blockade abrogated this effect. HDE-stimulated IL-6, but not IL-8 release in PKCepsilonDN cells. The concentration of TNF-alpha released by HDE-stimulated HBE is sufficient to have a potent cytokine-eliciting effect. A time course of TNF-alpha release suggests that TNF-alpha is produced after PKCalpha activation, but before PKCepsilon. These results suggest a temporal ordering of events responsible for the release of cytokines, which initiate and exacerbate inflammatory events in the airways of people exposed to agricultural dust.

  4. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated immune responses through Pasteurella multocida toxin-induced G protein signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Dagmar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-triggered Toll-like receptor (TLR 4-signalling belongs to the key innate defence mechanisms upon infection with Gram-negative bacteria and triggers the subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. There is an active crosstalk between TLR4-mediated and other signalling cascades to secure an effective immune response, but also to prevent excessive inflammation. Many pathogens induce signalling cascades via secreted factors that interfere with TLR signalling to modify and presumably escape the host response. In this context heterotrimeric G proteins and their coupled receptors have been recognized as major cellular targets. Toxigenic strains of Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida produce a toxin (PMT that constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαq, Gα13 and Gαi independently of G protein-coupled receptors through deamidation. PMT is known to induce signalling events involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Results Here we show that the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins through PMT suppresses LPS-stimulated IL-12p40 production and eventually impairs the T cell-activating ability of LPS-treated monocytes. This inhibition of TLR4-induced IL-12p40 expression is mediated by Gαi-triggered signalling as well as by Gβγ-dependent activation of PI3kinase and JNK. Taken together we propose the following model: LPS stimulates TLR4-mediated activation of the NFĸB-pathway and thereby the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40. PMT inhibits the production of IL-12p40 by Gαi-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and cAMP accumulation and by Gβγ-mediated activation of PI3kinase and JNK activation. Conclusions On the basis of the experiments with PMT this study gives an example of a pathogen-induced interaction between G protein-mediated and TLR4-triggered signalling and illustrates how a bacterial toxin is able to interfere with the host’s immune

  5. Modification of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycan by EptC protein-mediated addition of phosphoethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nichollas E; Nothaft, Harald; Edwards, Alistair V G; Labbate, Maurizio; Djordjevic, Steven P; Larsen, Martin R; Szymanski, Christine M; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-08-24

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni possesses an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate structures that decorate both protein and non-protein surface-exposed structures. An N-linked glycosylation system encoded by the pgl gene cluster mediates the synthesis of a rigidly conserved heptasaccharide that is attached to protein substrates or released as free oligosaccharide in the periplasm. Removal of N-glycosylation results in reduced virulence and impeded host cell attachment. Since the N-glycan is conserved, the N-glycosylation system is also an attractive option for glycoengineering recombinant vaccines in Escherichia coli. To determine whether non-canonical N-glycans are present in C. jejuni, we utilized high throughput glycoproteomics to characterize C. jejuni JHH1 and identified 93 glycosylation sites, including 34 not previously reported. Interrogation of these data allowed the identification of a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN)-modified variant of the N-glycan that was attached to multiple proteins. The pEtN moiety was attached to the terminal GalNAc of the canonical N-glycan. Deletion of the pEtN transferase eptC removed all evidence of the pEtN-glycan but did not globally influence protein reactivity to patient sera, whereas deletion of the pglB oligosaccharyltransferase significantly reduced reactivity. Transfer of eptC and the pgl gene cluster to E. coli confirmed the addition of the pEtN-glycan to a target C. jejuni protein. Significantly reduced, yet above background levels of pEtN-glycan were also observed in E. coli not expressing eptC, suggesting that endogenous E. coli pEtN transferases can mediate the addition of pEtN to N-glycans. The addition of pEtN must be considered in the context of glycoengineering and may alter C. jejuni glycan-mediated structure-function interactions.

  6. Notch-mediated post-translational control of Ngn3 protein stability regulates pancreatic patterning and cell fate commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Afelik, Solomon; Jensen, Jan Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    involves transcriptional repression as previously shown, but also incorporates a novel post-translational mechanism. In addition to its ability to promote endocrine fate, we provide evidence of a competing ability of Ngn3 in the patterning of multipotent progenitor cells in turn controlling the formation...... of ducts. On one hand, Ngn3 cell-intrinsically activates endocrine target genes; on the other, Ngn3 cell-extrinsically promotes lateral signaling via the Dll1>Notch>Hes1 pathway which substantially limits its ability to sustain endocrine formation. Prior to endocrine commitment, the Ngn3-mediated......>Hes1-mediated Ngn3 protein destabilization serves to limit endocrine differentiation by reducing cellular levels of Ngn3. This system thus allows for rapid dynamic changes between opposing bHLH proteins in cells approaching a terminal differentiation event. Inhibition of Notch signaling leads to Ngn3...

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid Promotes Axon Outgrowth by Translational Regulation of Tau and Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Toshinari; Mayanagi, Taira; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Fukumoto, Kentaro; Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Sobue, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    n-3 PUFAs are essential for neuronal development and brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological effects remain unclear. Here we examined the mechanistic action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain. We found that DHA treatment of cortical neurons resulted in enhanced axon outgrowth that was due to increased axon elongation rates. DHA-mediated axon outgrowth was accompanied by the translational up-regulation of Tau and collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), two important axon-related proteins, and the activation of Akt and p70 S6 kinase. Consistent with these findings, rapamycin, a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), prevented DHA-mediated axon outgrowth and up-regulation of Tau and CRMP2. In addition, DHA-dependent activation of the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway enhanced 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract-dependent translation of Tau and CRMP2. Therefore, our results revealed an important role for the Akt-mTOR-S6K pathway in DHA-mediated neuronal development.

  8. In vitro oxidation of fibrinogen promotes functional alterations and formation of advanced oxidation protein products, an inflammation mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; de Carvalho, José Antônio Mainardi; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; da Silva, José Edson Paz; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study suggest that the oxidation of FB may provoke the formation of AOPP, which in turn, may promote functional alterations in FB, thus causing changes in its structural domains and increasing its procoagulant activity.

  9. Evolutionary aspects of plastid proteins involved in transcription: the transcription of a tiny genome is mediated by a complicated machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yusuke; Shiina, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplasts in land plants have a small genome consisting of only 100 genes encoding partial sets of proteins for photosynthesis, transcription and translation. Although it has been thought that chloroplast transcription is mediated by a basically cyanobacterium-derived system, due to the endosymbiotic origin of plastids, recent studies suggest the existence of a hybrid transcription machinery containing non-bacterial proteins that have been newly acquired during plant evolution. Here, we highlight chloroplast-specific non-bacterial transcription mechanisms by which land plant chloroplasts have gained novel functions.

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Abrogates the DDX3 Function That Enhances IPS-1-Mediated IFN–Beta Induction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The DEAD box helicase DDX3 assembles IPS-1 (also called Cardif, MAVS, or VISA) in non-infected human cells where minimal amounts of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein are expressed. DDX3 C-terminal regions directly bind the IPS-1 CARD-like domain as well as the N-terminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. DDX3 physically binds viral RNA to form IPS-1-containing spots, that are visible by confocal microscopy. HCV polyU/UC induced IPS-1-mediated interferon (IFN)-beta promoter activation,...

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated endogenous protein tagging for RESOLFT super-resolution microscopy of living human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Michael; Testa, Ilaria; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2015-04-20

    Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches.

  12. Lactobacillus acidophilus S-layer protein-mediated inhibition of Salmonella-induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Yin, Yinyan; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2011-05-27

    Surface layer (S-layer) proteins are crystalline arrays of proteinaceous subunits present as the outermost component of the cell wall in several Lactobacillus species. The underlying mechanism for how S-layer proteins inhibit pathogen infections remains unclear. To gain insights into the mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus S-layer proteins, we examined how Lactobacillus S-layer proteins impact Salmonella Typhimurium-induced apoptosis in vitro in Caco-2 human colon epithelial cells. When Caco-2 cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344, we found that apoptosis was mediated by activation of caspase-3, but not caspase-1. When Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and S-layer proteins were coincubated simultaneously, Caco-2 cell apoptosis was markedly decreased and the cell damage was modified, as evaluated by flow cytometry and microscopy. Detailed analyses showed that the S-layer proteins inhibited the caspase-3 activity and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lactobacillus S-layer proteins protected against Salmonella-induced apoptosis through reduced caspase-3 activation. In addition, Salmonella-induced apoptotic cell damage was modified by S-layer proteins through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This mechanism may represent a novel approach for antagonizing Salmonella infection.

  13. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  14. Osh proteins regulate COPII-mediated vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Kentaro; Ikeda, Atsuko; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Castillon, Guillaume A; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Hanada, Kentaro; Riezman, Howard; Muñiz, Manuel; Funato, Kouichi

    2014-01-15

    Lipids synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are delivered to the Golgi by vesicular and non-vesicular pathways. ER-to-Golgi transport is crucial for maintaining the different membrane lipid composition and identities of organelles. Despite their importance, mechanisms regulating transport remain elusive. Here we report that in yeast coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle-mediated transport of ceramide from the ER to the Golgi requires oxysterol-binding protein homologs, Osh proteins, which have been implicated in lipid homeostasis. Because Osh proteins are not required to transport proteins to the Golgi, these results indicate a specific requirement for the Osh proteins in the transport of ceramide. In addition, we provide evidence that Osh proteins play a negative role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. Together, our data suggest that ceramide transport and sphingolipid levels between the ER and Golgi are maintained by two distinct functions of Osh proteins, which negatively regulate COPII vesicle formation and positively control a later stage, presumably fusion of ceramide-enriched vesicles with Golgi compartments.

  15. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Dhople, Vishnu M; Völker, Uwe; Ummanni, Ramesh; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2014-01-01

    Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  16. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  17. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors....

  18. Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 (CRMP2) is a Plausible Etiological Factor and Potential Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease: Comparison and Contrast with Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kenneth; Kursula, Petri

    2016-04-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has long been viewed as a pathology that must be caused either by aberrant amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing, dysfunctional tau protein processing, or a combination of these two factors. This is a reasonable assumption because amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation are the defining histological features in AD, and because AβPP and tau mutations can cause AD in humans or AD-like features in animal models. Nonetheless, other protein players are emerging that one can argue are significant etiological players in subsets of AD and potentially novel, druggable targets. In particular, the microtubule-associated protein CRMP2 (collapsin response mediator protein-2) bears striking analogies to tau and is similarly relevant to AD. Like tau, CRMP2 dynamically regulates microtubule stability; it is acted upon by the same kinases; collects similarly in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs); and when sequestered in NFTs, complexes with critical synapse-stabilizing factors. Additionally, CRMP2 is becoming recognized as an important adaptor protein involved in vesicle trafficking, amyloidogenesis and autophagy, in ways that tau is not. This review systematically compares the biology of CRMP2 to that of tau in the context of AD and explores the hypothesis that CRMP2 is an etiologically significant protein in AD and participates in pathways that can be rationally engaged for therapeutic benefit.

  19. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle arrest mediated by a novel cell surface proliferation inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enebo, D. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Moos, P. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A novel cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), purified from the cell surface of bovine cerebral cortex cells has been shown to be a potent and reversible inhibitor of proliferation of a wide array of fibroblasts as well as epithelial-like cells and nontransformed and transformed cells. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which CeReS-18 exerts its inhibitory action, the effect of the inhibitor on the posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB), a tumor suppressor gene, has been examined. It is shown that CeReS-18 mediated cell cycle arrest of both human diploid fibroblasts (HSBP) and mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) results in the maintenance of the RB protein in the hypophosphorylated state, consistent with a late G1 arrest site. Although their normal nontransformed counterparts are sensitive to cell cycle arrest mediated by CeReS-18, cell lines lacking a functional RB protein, through either genetic mutation or DNA tumor virus oncoprotein interaction, are less sensitive. The refractory nature of these cells is shown to be independent of specific surface receptors for the inhibitor, and another tumor suppressor gene (p53) does not appear to be involved in the CeReS-18 inhibition of cell proliferation. The requirement for a functional RB protein product, in order for CeReS-18 to mediate cell cycle arrest, is discussed in light of regulatory events associated with density-dependent growth inhibition.

  20. SGT1 interacts with the Prf resistance protein and is required for Prf accumulation and Prf-mediated defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kud, Joanna; Zhao, Zhulu; Du, Xinran; Liu, Yule; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Fangming

    2013-02-15

    The highly conserved eukaryotic co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1) is an important signaling component of plant defense responses and positively regulates disease resistance conferred by many resistance (R) proteins. In this study, we investigated the contribution of SGT1 in the Prf-mediated defense responses in both Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SGT1 was demonstrated to interact with Prf in plant cells by co-immunoprecipitation. The requirement of SGT1 in the accumulation of Prf or autoactive Prf(D1416V) was determined by the degradation of these proteins in N. benthamiana, in which SGT1 was repressed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Pseudomonas pathogen assay on the SGT1-silenced tomato plants implicates SGT1 is required for the Prf-mediated full resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). These results suggest that, in both N. benthamiana and tomato, SGT1 contributes to the Prf-mediated defense responses by stabilizing Prf protein via its co-chaperone activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A modulates integrin β1-mediated epithelial cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Daria R; Akimov, Yevhen A; Rokka, Anne; Laajala, Teemu D; Aittokallio, Tero; Kouvonen, Petri; Pellinen, Teijo; Kuznetsov, Sergey G

    2016-10-07

    G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin β1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between GPRC5A and a receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, an upstream regulator of FAK, although its contribution to the observed adhesion phenotype is unclear. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role for GPRC5A in regulation of the ITGB1-mediated cell adhesion and it's downstream signaling, thus indicating a potential novel role for GPRC5A in human epithelial cancers.

  2. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated relaxations in pig coronary arteries do not involve Gi/o proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok Fu Jacobus NG; Susan Wai Sum LEUNG; Picky Ying Keung MAN; Paul M VANHOUTTE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Endothelium-dependent relaxations to certain neurohumoral substances are mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o protein. Our experiments were designed to determine the role, if any, of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins in relaxations attributed to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Methods: Pig coronary arterial rings with endothelia were suspended in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution maintained at 37℃ and continuously aerated with 95%O2 and 5% CO2. Isometric tension was measured during contractions to prostaglandin F2, in the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Results: Thrombin, the thrombin re-ceptor-activating peptide SFLLRN, bradykinin, substance P, and calcimycin pro-duced dose-dependent relaxations. These relaxations were not inhibited by prior incubation with pertussis toxin, but were abolished upon the addition of charyb-dotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to the α2-adrenergic agonist UK14304 and those to serotonin were abolished in the presence of indomethacin and L-NAME. Conclusion: Unlike nitric oxide-mediated relaxations, EDHF-mediated relax-ations of pig coronary arteries do not involve pertussis toxin-sensitive pathways and are Gi/o protein independent.

  3. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  4. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    motility parameters. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that resveratrol-induced improvement of cryopreserved sperm functions may be mediated through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, indicating the importance of AMP-activated protein kinase activity for human spermatozoa functions. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol ameliorates oxidative stress-mediated damages in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Decolorization of direct dyes by salt fractionated turnip proteins enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and redox mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2007-09-01

    The present paper demonstrates the effect of salt fractionated turnip (Brassica rapa) proteins on the decolorization of direct dyes, used in textile industry, in the presence of various redox mediators. The rate and extent of decolorization of dyes was significantly enhanced by the presence of different types of redox mediators. Six out of 10 investigated compounds have shown their potential in enhancing the decolorization of direct dyes. The performance was evaluated at different concentrations of mediator and enzyme. The efficiency of each natural mediator depends on the type of dye treated. The decolorization of all tested direct dyes was maximum in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C. Complex mixtures of dyes were also maximally decolorized in the presence of 0.6mM redox mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid). In order to examine the operational stability of the enzyme preparation, the enzyme was exploited for the decolorization of mixtures of dyes for different times in a stirred batch process. There was no further change in decolorization of an individual dye or their mixtures after 60 min; the enzyme caused more than 80% decolorization of all dyes in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole/violuric acid. However, there was no desirable increase in dye decolorization of the mixtures on overnight stay. Total organic carbon analysis of treated dyes or their mixtures showed that these results were quite comparable to the loss of color from solutions. However, the treatment of such polluted water in the presence of redox mediators caused the formation of insoluble precipitate, which could be removed by the process of centrifugation. The results suggested that catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions might be important for natural transformation pathways for dyes and indicate their potential use as an efficient means for removal of dyes color from waters and wastewaters.

  6. Lectin receptor kinases participate in protein-protein interactions to mediate plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouget, A.; Senchou, V.; Govers, F.; Sanson, A.; Barre, A.; Rougé, P.; Pont-Lezica, R.; Canut, H.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsi

  7. Hydrophobic-domain-dependent protein-protein interactions mediate the localization of GPAT enzymes to ER subdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic network that consists of numerous regions or subdomains with discrete morphological features and functional properties, including those involved in protein and oil-body formation, anterograde transport of secretory proteins, the exchange of macromolecules ...

  8. Shear stress-mediated refolding of proteins from aggregates and inclusion bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, TZ; Ormonde, CFG; Kudlacek, ST; Kunche, S; Smith, JN; Brown, WA; Pugliese, KM; Olsen, TJ; Iftikhar, M; Raston, CL; Weiss, GA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Recombinant protein overexpression of large proteins in bacteria often results in insoluble and misfolded proteins directed to inclusion bodies. We report the application of shear stress in micrometer-wide, thin fluid films to refold boiled hen egg white lysozyme, recombinant hen egg white lysozyme, and recombinant caveolin-1. Furthermore, the approach allowed refolding of a much larger protein, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The reported metho...

  9. Protein kinase C modulation of the regulation of sarcoplasmic reticular function by protein kinase A-mediated phospholamban phosphorylation in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Satoko; Matsuda, Naoyuki; Sakuraya, Fumika; Jesmin, Subrina; Hattori, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    1. The goal of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated regulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via phospholambin protein phosphorylation is functionally impaired in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 2. Phospholamban (PLB) protein and mRNA levels were 1.3-fold higher in diabetic than in control hearts, while protein expression of cardiac SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) was unchanged. 3. Basal and isoprenaline-stimulated phosphorylation of PLB at Ser(16) or Thr(17) was unchanged in diabetic hearts. However, stronger immunoreactivity was observed at the basal level in diabetic hearts when antiphosphoserine antibody was used. 4. Basal (32)P incorporation into PLB was significantly higher in diabetic than in control SR vesicles, but the extent of the PKA-mediated increase in PLB phosphorylation was the same in the two groups of vesicles. 5. Stimulation of Ca(2+) uptake by PKA-catalyzed PLB phosphorylation was weaker in diabetic than in control SR vesicles. The PKA-induced increase in Ca(2+) uptake was attenuated when control SR vesicles were preincubated with protein kinase C (PKC). 6. PKC activities were increased by more than two-fold in the membranous fractions from diabetic hearts in comparison with control values, regardless of whether Ca(2+) was present. This was associated with increases in the protein content of PKCdelta, PKCeta, PKCiota, and PKClambda in diabetic membranous fractions. 7. The changes observed in diabetic rats were reversed by insulin therapy. 8. These results suggest that PKA-dependent phosphorylation may incompletely counteract the function of PLB as an inhibitor of SERCA2a activity in diabetes in which PKC expression and activity are enhanced.

  10. lin-8, which antagonizes Caenorhabditis elegans Ras-mediated vulval induction, encodes a novel nuclear protein that interacts with the LIN-35 Rb protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Ewa M; Harrison, Melissa M; Walhout, Albertha J M; Vidal, Marc; Horvitz, H Robert

    2005-11-01

    Ras-mediated vulval development in C. elegans is inhibited by the functionally redundant sets of class A, B, and C synthetic Multivulva (synMuv) genes. Three of the class B synMuv genes encode an Rb/DP/E2F complex that, by analogy with its mammalian and Drosophila counterparts, has been proposed to silence genes required for vulval specification through chromatin modification and remodeling. Two class A synMuv genes, lin-15A and lin-56, encode novel nuclear proteins that appear to function as a complex. We show that a third class A synMuv gene, lin-8, is the defining member of a novel C. elegans gene family. The LIN-8 protein is nuclear and can interact physically with the product of the class B synMuv gene lin-35, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian Rb. LIN-8 likely acts with the synMuv A proteins LIN-15A and LIN-56 in the nucleus, possibly in a protein complex with the synMuv B protein LIN-35 Rb. Other LIN-8 family members may function in similar complexes in different cells or at different stages. The nuclear localization of LIN-15A, LIN-56, and LIN-8, as well as our observation of a direct physical interaction between class A and class B synMuv proteins, supports the hypothesis that the class A synMuv genes control vulval induction through the transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

  11. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Kusch, Angelika [Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin D-13353 (Germany); Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Dumler, Inna, E-mail: dumler.inna@mh-hannover.de [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  12. Role of tetanus neurotoxin insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) in vesicular transport mediating neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arca, S; Alberts, P; Zahraoui, A; Louvard, D; Galli, T

    2000-05-15

    How vesicular transport participates in neurite outgrowth is still poorly understood. Neurite outgrowth is not sensitive to tetanus neurotoxin thus does not involve synaptobrevin-mediated vesicular transport to the plasma membrane of neurons. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) is a vesicle-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor), involved in transport to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells, a tetanus neurotoxin-resistant pathway. Here we show that TI-VAMP is essential for vesicular transport-mediating neurite outgrowth in staurosporine-differentiated PC12 cells. The NH(2)-terminal domain, which precedes the SNARE motif of TI-VAMP, inhibits the association of TI-VAMP with synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP25). Expression of this domain inhibits neurite outgrowth as potently as Botulinum neurotoxin E, which cleaves SNAP25. In contrast, expression of the NH(2)-terminal deletion mutant of TI-VAMP increases SNARE complex formation and strongly stimulates neurite outgrowth. These results provide the first functional evidence for the role of TI-VAMP in neurite outgrowth and point to its NH(2)-terminal domain as a key regulator in this process.

  13. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates ovine endometrial prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis: role of G(i) proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, P D; Mendes, J O; Yemm, R S; Clay, C M; Nelson, S E; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    2001-10-01

    Oxytocin stimulates a rapid increase in ovine endometrial prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha synthesis. The overall objective of these experiments was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin induces endometrial PGF2alpha synthesis. The objective of experiment 1 was to determine whether G(i) proteins mediate oxytocin-induced PGF2alpha synthesis. Uteri were collected from four ovary-intact ewes on Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i) proteins, had no effect on the ability of oxytocin to induce PGF2alpha synthesis (P > 0.10). The objective of experiment 2 was to determine whether any of the three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), or p38 MAPK, mediate oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) synthesis. Eleven ovary-intact ewes were given an injection of oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.; n = 5) or physiological saline (i.v.; n = 6) on Day 15 postestrus. Uteri were collected 15 min after injection and caruncular endometrium was dissected. Endometrial homogenates were prepared and subjected to Western blotting. Membranes were probed for both total and phosphorylated forms of all three classes of MAPK. All classes of MAPK were detected in ovine endometrium, but oxytocin treatment had no effect on the expression of these proteins (P > 0.10). ERK1/2 was the only phosphorylated MAPK detected and its concentrations were higher in oxytocin-treated ewes (P Day 14 postestrus. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and subjected to in vitro incubation. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 activity, blocked the ability of oxytocin to stimulate PGF(2alpha synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the ovine oxytocin receptor is not coupled to G(i) proteins. These results indicate that oxytocin induces phosphorylation of ERK1

  14. Isolation of bovine platelet cationic proteins which inhibit the surface-mediated activation of factor XII and prekallikrein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Kato, H; Iwanaga, S

    1985-01-01

    A possible role of bovine platelets in the surface-mediated activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein was studied, using the contact system reconstituted with the purified proteins from bovine plasma. The washed platelets before and after aggregation by ADP, thrombin or collagen did not show any ability to trigger or accelerate the activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein. On the contrary, these aggregates showed a potent inhibitory activity on the activation of those zymogens triggered by kaolin, amylose sulfate and sulfatide. The inhibitory substances from the supernatant of the thrombin-induced aggregates were separated into two major fractions, a low affinity fraction and a high affinity fraction, on a heparin-Sepharose column. The high affinity protein was identified as platelet factor 4, based on the amino acid composition. From the low affinity fraction, a beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG)-like substance and three kinds of unknown proteins, named LA1, LA2, and LA3, were isolated by gel-filtration on a column of Sephadex G-100 or Sephadex G-75 followed by chromatography on a column of Mono S. The molecular weights of LA1, LA2, and LA3 were estimated to be 35,000, 26,000, and 11,000, respectively, on SDS-PAGE. LA2 was identified as a carbohydrate-less LA1, as judged from the amino acid composition and carbohydrate content. The inhibitory activities of these five cationic proteins on the activation of Factor XII and prekallikrein mediated with amylose sulfate, sulfatide and kaolin were different from each other. In the case of kaolin-mediated activation, LA3 was the most potent inhibitor, while platelet factor 4 and beta-TG-like substance did not show any significant inhibitory activity. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of all the cationic proteins were not correlated with their anti-heparin activities. Since these proteins were rapidly liberated from platelets by the action of the stimulants, the present results demonstrate a negative role of platelets in

  15. Trafficking of Na,K-ATPase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein is mediated by protein kinase A or C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Jørgensen, PL

    2003-01-01

    . Responses of similar magnitude were seen after inhibition of protein phosphatase by okadaic acid. Reduction of the amount of Na,K-ATPase in surface plasma membranes through internalization in recycling endosomes may thus in part explain a decrease in Na,K-pump activity following protein kinase activation......Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the C-terminal of rat Na,K-ATPase a1-subunit is introduced as a novel procedure for visualizing trafficking of Na,K-pumps in living COS-1 renal cells in response to PKA or PKC stimulation. Stable, functional expression of the fluorescent...... along the plasma membrane of COS cells. In unstimulated COS cells, Na,K-EGFP was also present in lysosomes and in vesicles en route from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, but it was almost absent from recycling endosomes labelled with fluorescent transferrin. After activation of protein...

  16. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marie Barbaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho- lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012. Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein, a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH, which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while

  17. Crystal Structure of the ERp44-Peroxiredoxin 4 Complex Reveals the Molecular Mechanisms of Thiol-Mediated Protein Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Li, De-Feng; Wang, Xi'e; Liang, Jinzhao; Sitia, Roberto; Wang, Chih-Chen; Wang, Xi

    2016-10-04

    ERp44 controls the localization and transport of diverse proteins in the early secretory pathway. The mechanisms that allow client recognition and the source of the oxidative power for forming intermolecular disulfides are as yet unknown. Here we present the structure of ERp44 bound to a client, peroxiredoxin 4. Our data reveal that ERp44 binds the oxidized form of peroxiredoxin 4 via thiol-disulfide interchange reactions. The structure explains the redox-dependent recognition and characterizes the essential non-covalent interactions at the interface. The ERp44-Prx4 covalent complexes can be reduced by glutathione and protein disulfide isomerase family members in the ER, allowing the two components to recycle. This work provides insights into the mechanisms of thiol-mediated protein retention and indicates the key roles of ERp44 in this biochemical cycle to optimize oxidative folding and redox homeostasis.

  18. Suppressing membrane height fluctuations leads to a membrane-mediated interaction among proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Kayla; Maibaum, Lutz

    2016-11-01

    Membrane-induced interactions can play a significant role in the spatial distribution of membrane-bound proteins. We develop a model that combines a continuum description of lipid bilayers with a discrete particle model of proteins to probe the emerging structure of the combined membrane-protein system. Our model takes into account the membrane's elastic behavior, the steric repulsion between proteins, and the quenching of membrane shape fluctuations due to the presence of the proteins. We employ coupled Langevin equations to describe the dynamics of the system. We show that coupling to the membrane induces an attractive interaction among proteins, which may contribute to the clustering of proteins in biological membranes. We investigate the lateral protein diffusion and find that it is reduced due to transient fluctuations in membrane shape.

  19. Suppressing membrane height fluctuations leads to a membrane-mediated interaction among proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Kayla; Maibaum, Lutz

    2016-11-01

    Membrane-induced interactions can play a significant role in the spatial distribution of membrane-bound proteins. We develop a model that combines a continuum description of lipid bilayers with a discrete particle model of proteins to probe the emerging structure of the combined membrane-protein system. Our model takes into account the membrane's elastic behavior, the steric repulsion between proteins, and the quenching of membrane shape fluctuations due to the presence of the proteins. We employ coupled Langevin equations to describe the dynamics of the system. We show that coupling to the membrane induces an attractive interaction among proteins, which may contribute to the clustering of proteins in biological membranes. We investigate the lateral protein diffusion and find that it is reduced due to transient fluctuations in membrane shape.

  20. Vaccination with TAT-antigen fusion protein induces protective, CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Katharina; Brosch, Sven; Butsch, Florian; Tada, Yayoi; Shibagaki, Naotaka; Udey, Mark C; von Stebut, Esther

    2010-11-01

    In murine leishmaniasis, healing is mediated by IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, an efficacious vaccine should induce Th1 and Tc1 cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with exogenous proteins primarily induce strong CD4-dependent immunity; induction of CD8 responses has proven to be difficult. We evaluated the immunogenicity of fusion proteins comprising the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT and the Leishmania antigen LACK (Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C kinase), as TAT-fusion proteins facilitate major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent antigen presentation. In vitro, TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs induced stronger proliferation of Leishmania-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with DCs incubated with LACK alone. Vaccination with TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs or fusion proteins plus adjuvant in vivo significantly improved disease outcome in Leishmania major-infected mice and was superior to vaccination with DCs treated with LACK alone. Vaccination with DC+TAT-LACK resulted in stronger proliferation of CD8(+) T cells when compared with immunization with DC+LACK. Upon depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, TAT-LACK-mediated protection was lost. TAT-LACK-pulsed IL-12p40-deficient DCs did not promote protection in vivo. In summary, these data show that TAT-fusion proteins are superior in activating Leishmania-specific Tc1 cells when compared with antigen alone and suggest that IL-12-dependent preferential induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells promotes significant protection against this important human pathogen.

  1. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  2. The novel SH3 domain protein Dlish/CG10933 mediates fat signaling in Drosophila by binding and regulating Dachs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Wang, Xing; Matakatsu, Hitoshi; Fehon, Richard; Blair, Seth S

    2016-01-01

    Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16624.001 PMID:27692068

  3. Fractalkine Mediates Communication between Pathogenic Proteins and Microglia: Implications of Anti-Inflammatory Treatments in Different Stages of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Desforges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases has been widely demonstrated. Intraneuronal protein accumulation may regulate microglial activity via the fractalkine (CX3CL1 signaling pathway that provides a mechanism through which neurons communicate with microglia. CX3CL1 levels fluctuate in different stages of neurodegenerative diseases and in various animal models, warranting further investigation of the mechanisms underlying microglial response to pathogenic proteins, including Tau, β-amyloid (Aβ, and α-synuclein. The temporal relationship between microglial activity and localization of pathogenic proteins (intra- versus extracellular likely determines whether neuroinflammation mitigates or exacerbates disease progression. Evidence in transgenic models suggests a beneficial effect of microglial activity on clearance of proteins like Aβ and a detrimental effect on Tau modification, but the role of CX3CL1 signaling in α-synucleinopathies is less clear. Here we review the nature of fractalkine-mediated neuronmicroglia interaction, which has significant implications for the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatments during different stages of neurodegenerative pathology. Specifically, it is likely that anti-inflammatory treatment in early stages of disease during intraneuronal accumulation of proteins could be beneficial, while anti-inflammatory treatment in later stages when proteins are secreted to the extracellular space could exacerbate disease progression.

  4. Short amino acid stretches can mediate amyloid formation in globular proteins: the Src homology 3 (SH3) case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Salvador; Zurdo, Jesús; Narayanan, Saravanakumar; Parreño, Matilde; Mangues, Ramón; Reif, Bernd; Chiti, Fabrizio; Giannoni, Elisa; Dobson, Christopher M; Aviles, Francesc X; Serrano, Luis

    2004-05-11

    Protein misfolding and deposition underlie an increasing number of debilitating human disorders. We have shown that model proteins unrelated to disease, such as the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of the p58alpha subunit of bovine phosphatidyl-inositol-3'-kinase (PI3-SH3), can be converted in vitro into assemblies with structural and cytotoxic properties similar to those of pathological aggregates. By contrast, homologous proteins, such as alpha-spectrin-SH3, lack the capability of forming amyloid fibrils at a measurable rate under any of the conditions we have so far examined. However, transplanting a small sequence stretch (6 aa) from PI3-SH3 to alpha-spectrin-SH3, comprising residues of the diverging turn and adjacent RT loop, creates an amyloidogenic protein closely similar in its behavior to the original PI3-SH3. Analysis of specific PI3-SH3 mutants further confirms the involvement of this region in conferring amyloidogenic properties to this domain. Moreover, the inclusion in this stretch of two consensus residues favored in SH3 sequences substantially inhibits aggregation. These findings show that short specific amino acid stretches can act as mediators or facilitators in the incorporation of globular proteins into amyloid structures, and they support the suggestion that natural protein sequences have evolved in part to code for structural characteristics other than those included in the native fold, such as avoidance of aggregation.

  5. Hepatitis C virus NS5A and core proteins induce oxidative stress-mediated calcium signalling alterations in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Natalia; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Majano, Pedro L; Benedicto, Ignacio; Rosado, Juan A; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2009-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural core and non-structural NS5A proteins induce in liver cells a series of intracellular events, including elevation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Since oxidative stress is associated to altered intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, we aimed to investigate the effect of these proteins on Ca(2+) mobilization in human hepatocyte-derived transfected cells, and the protective effect of quercetin treatment. Ca(2+) mobilization and actin reorganization were determined by spectrofluorimetry. Production of ROS/RNS was determined by flow cytometry. Cells transfected with NS5A and core proteins showed enhanced ROS/RNS production and resting cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and reduced Ca(2+) concentration into the stores. Phenylephrine-evoked Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+) entry and extrusion by the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly reduced in transfected cells. Similar effects were observed in cytokine-activated cells. Phenylephrine-evoked actin reorganization was reduced in the presence of core and NS5A proteins. These effects were significantly prevented by quercetin. Altered Ca(2+) mobilization and increased calpain activation were observed in replicon-containing cells. NS5A and core proteins induce oxidative stress-mediated Ca(2+) homeostasis alterations in human hepatocyte-derived cells, which might underlie the effects of both proteins in the pathogenesis of liver disorders associated to HCV infection.

  6. Heterodimer formation between c-Jun and Jun B proteins mediated by Epstein Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin; TAO Yongguang; TAN Yunnian; Leo M. Lee; DENG Xiyun; WU Qiao; CAO Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) may trigger the transcription factor AP-1 including c-Jun and c-fos. In this report, using a Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by the Tet-on system, we show that Jun B can efficiently form a new heterodimeric complex with the c-Jun protein under the regulation of LMP1, phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser 63, ser 73) and Jun B is involved in the process of the new heterodimeric formation. We also find that this heterodimeric form can bind to the AP-1 consensus sequence. Transfection studies suggest that JNK interaction protein (JIP) could inhibit the heterodimer formation of c-Jun and Jun B through blocking the AP-1 signaling pathway triggered by LMP1. The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  7. Dynamic protein S-palmitoylation mediates parasite life cycle progression and diverse mechanisms of virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W B; Sharma, Aabha I; Engman, David M

    2017-04-01

    Eukaryotic parasites possess complex life cycles and utilize an assortment of molecular mechanisms to overcome physical barriers, suppress and/or bypass the host immune response, including invading host cells where they can replicate in a protected intracellular niche. Protein S-palmitoylation is a dynamic post-translational modification in which the fatty acid palmitate is covalently linked to cysteine residues on proteins by the enzyme palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) and can be removed by lysosomal palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT) or cytosolic acyl-protein thioesterase (APT). In addition to anchoring proteins to intracellular membranes, functions of dynamic palmitoylation include - targeting proteins to specific intracellular compartments via trafficking pathways, regulating the cycling of proteins between membranes, modulating protein function and regulating protein stability. Recent studies in the eukaryotic parasites - Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei, Cryptococcus neoformans and Giardia lamblia - have identified large families of PATs and palmitoylated proteins. Many palmitoylated proteins are important for diverse aspects of pathogenesis, including differentiation into infective life cycle stages, biogenesis and tethering of secretory organelles, assembling the machinery powering motility and targeting virulence factors to the plasma membrane. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of palmitoylation in eukaryotic parasites, highlighting five exemplary mechanisms of parasite virulence dependent on palmitoylation.

  8. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of KLHL41 Mutations Implicates BTB-Kelch-Mediated Ubiquitination as an Alternate Pathway to Myofibrillar Disruption in Nemaline Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vandana A.; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Shaheen, Ranad; Todd, Emily J.; Swanson, Lindsay C.; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Hsu, Cynthia; Clarke, Nigel F.; Darras, Basil T.; Farrar, Michelle A.; Hashem, Amal; Manton, Nicholas D.; Muntoni, Francesco; North, Kathryn N.

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital muscle disorder primarily affecting skeletal muscles that results in neonatal death in severe cases as a result of associated respiratory insufficiency. NM is thought to be a disease of sarcomeric thin filaments as six of eight known genes whose mutation can cause NM encode components of that structure, however, recent discoveries of mutations in non-thin filament genes has called this model in question. We performed whole-exome sequencing and have ...

  10. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  11. LyGDI, a novel SHIP-interacting protein, is a negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Payal; Wavreille, Anne-Sophie; Justiniano, Steven E; Marsh, Rachel L; Yu, Jianhua; Burry, Richard W; Jarjoura, David; Eubank, Timothy; Caligiuri, Michael A; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2011-01-01

    SHIP and SHIP-2 are inositol phosphatases that regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through catalytic as well as non-catalytic mechanisms. In this study we have used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis to identify downstream signaling proteins that uniquely associate with SHIP or SHIP-2 upon FcγR clustering in human monocytes. We identified LyGDI as a binding partner of SHIP, associating inducibly with the SHIP/Grb2/Shc complex. Immunodepletion and competition experiments with recombinant SHIP domains revealed that Grb2 and the proline-rich domain of SHIP were necessary for SHIP-LyGDI association. Functional studies in primary human monocytes showed that LyGDI sequesters Rac in the cytosol, preventing it from localizing to the membrane. Consistent with this, suppression of LyGDI expression resulted in significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  12. LyGDI, a novel SHIP-interacting protein, is a negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Mehta

    Full Text Available SHIP and SHIP-2 are inositol phosphatases that regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis through catalytic as well as non-catalytic mechanisms. In this study we have used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis to identify downstream signaling proteins that uniquely associate with SHIP or SHIP-2 upon FcγR clustering in human monocytes. We identified LyGDI as a binding partner of SHIP, associating inducibly with the SHIP/Grb2/Shc complex. Immunodepletion and competition experiments with recombinant SHIP domains revealed that Grb2 and the proline-rich domain of SHIP were necessary for SHIP-LyGDI association. Functional studies in primary human monocytes showed that LyGDI sequesters Rac in the cytosol, preventing it from localizing to the membrane. Consistent with this, suppression of LyGDI expression resulted in significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  13. Suppression of adenylyl cyclase-mediated cAMP production by plasma membrane associated cytoskeletal protein 4.1G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Toshihiro; Chiba, Ayano; Sukegawa, Jun; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Saito, Masaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown lately that activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is regulated by an array of proteins binding to carboxy (C)-terminus of GPCRs. Proteins of 4.1 family are subsets of subcortical cytoskeletal proteins and are known to stabilize cellular structures and proteins at the plasma membrane. One of the 4.1 family proteins, 4.1G has been shown to interact with the C-terminus of GPCRs and regulate intracellular distribution of the receptors, including parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptor (PTHR). PTHR is coupled to trimeric G proteins G(s) and G(q), which activate the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway and phospholipase C pathway, respectively. During the course of investigation of the role of 4.1G on adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling pathway, we found that 4.1G suppressed forskolin-induced cAMP production in cells. The cAMP accumulation induced by forskolin was decreased in HEK293 cells overexpressing 4.1G or increased in 4.1G-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PTH -(1-34)-stimulated cAMP production was also suppressed in the presence of exogenously expressed 4.1G despite its activity to increase the distribution of PTHR to the cell surface. In cells overexpressing FERM domain-deleted 4.1G, a mutant form of the protein deficient in plasma membrane distribution, neither forskolin-induced nor PTH -(1-34)-stimulated cAMP production was not altered. The suppression of the forskolin-induced cAMP production was observed even in membrane preparations of 4.1G-overexpressing cells. In 4.1G-knockdown HEK293 cells, plasma membrane distribution of adenylyl cyclase 6, one of the major subtypes of the enzyme in the cells, showed a slight decrease, in spite of the increased production of cAMP in those cells when stimulated by forskolin. Also, cytochalasin D treatment did not cause any influence on forskolin-induced cAMP production in HEK293 cells. These data indicate that plasma membrane-associated 4.1G regulates GPCR-mediated G(s) signaling

  14. Nonsense mediated decay resistant mutations are a source of expressed mutant proteins in colon cancer cell lines with microsatellite instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frameshift mutations in microsatellite instability high (MSI-High colorectal cancers are a potential source of targetable neo-antigens. Many nonsense transcripts are subject to rapid degradation due to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD, but nonsense transcripts with a cMS in the last exon or near the last exon-exon junction have intrinsic resistance to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD. NMD-resistant transcripts are therefore a likely source of expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High tumours. METHODS: Using antibodies to the conserved N-termini of predicted mutant proteins, we analysed MSI-High colorectal cancer cell lines for examples of naturally expressed mutant proteins arising from frameshift mutations in coding microsatellites (cMS by immunoprecipitation and Western Blot experiments. Detected mutant protein bands from NMD-resistant transcripts were further validated by gene-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA knockdown. A genome-wide search was performed to identify cMS-containing genes likely to generate NMD-resistant transcripts that could encode for antigenic expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancers. These genes were screened for cMS mutations in the MSI-High colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Mutant protein bands of expected molecular weight were detected in mutated MSI-High cell lines for NMD-resistant transcripts (CREBBP, EP300, TTK, but not NMD-sensitive transcripts (BAX, CASP5, MSH3. Expression of the mutant CREBBP and EP300 proteins was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. Five cMS-bearing genes identified from the genome-wide search and without existing mutation data (SFRS12IP1, MED8, ASXL1, FBXL3 and RGS12 were found to be mutated in at least 5 of 11 (45% of the MSI-High cell lines tested. CONCLUSION: NMD-resistant transcripts can give rise to expressed mutant proteins in MSI-High colon cancer cells. If commonly expressed in primary MSI-High colon cancers, MSI-derived mutant proteins could be useful as cancer specific

  15. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Besnard-Guérin

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are potent