WorldWideScience

Sample records for bt transgenic plants

  1. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  2. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  3. Integration and inheritance stability of foreign Bt toxin gene in the bivalent insectresistant transgenic cotton plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and expressional stability of Bt toxin gene is crucial for the breeding of insect-resistant transgenic cotton varieties and their commercialization. Genomic Southern blot analysis of R3, R4 and R5 generations of bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants was done in order to determine the integration, the copy number and the inheritance stability of Bt toxin gene in the transgenic cotton plants. The results indicated that there was a 4.7 kb positive band in the Southern blot when the genomic DNA of the bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants and the positive control (the plasmid) were digested with HindⅢ respectively. This result proved that the Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton in full length.There is only one Xho I restriction site in the Bt toxin gene.Southern blot analysis indicated that many copies of Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton when the genomic DNA of transgenic plants was digested with Xho I. Among them, there were four copies (about 17.7, 8,5.5 and 4.7 kb in size) existing in all the tested plants of R3,R4 and R5 generations. The preliminary conclusion was that there were more than four copies of Bt toxin gene integrated into the genome of the cotton, among them, more than one copy can express and inherit steadily. This result provides a scientific basis for the breeding of the bivalent insect-resistant transgenic cotton plants and its commercialization.``

  4. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  5. Identification of Bt-transgenic Rice Plants for Resistance to Stripe Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis) and Genetic Analysis of the Transgenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chang-xiang; YAO Fang-yin; LI Guang-xian; WEN Fu-jiang

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to herbicide Basta was used to identify Bt-transgenic rice plants and the progenies of crosses between the Bt-transgenic rice and the rice varieties cultivated in the Huang Huai area of China. The results demonstrated that the Basta-positive rice plants were highly resistant to stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis ) both in the laboratory and field tests. Both cryIA (b) and bar genes were expressed and co-inherited in both selfing and crossing progenies. Mendelian segregation of the marker gene bar was observed in F2 and BC1 progenies. The results implicates that it is possible to transfer cryIA (b) gene into other cultivated varieties through crosses and back crosses.

  6. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  7. Evaluation of Impact of Pollen Grains from Bt, Bt/CpTI Transgenic Cotton and Bt Corn Plants on the Growth and Development of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-dong; YE Gong-yin; WU Kong-ming; WANG Xiao-qi; GUO Yu-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The δ-endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes aretwo kinds of genes popularly used for developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pests. To clarify whetherthere is any risk concerning the effects of pollens from these transgenic crops on non-target insects with eco-nomic importance, such as the effects on the growth and development as well as cocoon quality of the silk-worm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus, a series of feeding experiments were conducted, using pollens from transgeniccotton or corn containing crylAc, cry1A+-CpTI or crylAb genes, compared with pollens from non-transgenicnormal cotton and corn as well as the non-pollen treatment. In contrast to the latter ones, pollens from trans-genic plants showed no significant adverse effects on larval mortality, cocoon weight, pupa weight, cocoonshell weight, pupation rate, emergence rate and fecundity of the silkworm after neonates were fed with thepollens for 72 h. In addition, no dosage effects of pollens were found. Though the duration of 1st instar larvaewas prolonged in the case of feeding with transgenic pollens as compared with those of the non-pollen treat-ment, but they were not significantly different from those fed with pollens from non-transgenic cotton or corn.Meanwhile, the body weight of the 3rd instar molters fed with transgenic pollens was obviously different fromthose for non-pollen treatment, and was all significantly heavier than that of the controls. Consequently, it isconsidered that the adverse effect of pollens from transgenic insect-resistant cotton and corn on the growth anddevelopment of the silkworm is negligible.

  8. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions. PMID:26930855

  9. [Advances in safety studies of soil Bt toxin proteins released from transgenic Bt crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaoyu; Jiang, Mingxing; Cheng, Jia; Jiang, Yonghou

    2003-11-01

    Commercialized transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops are permitted for field growth in a large scale, which leads to significant issues of ecological risk assessment in soil ecosystem. In this paper, some general safety problems involving in the soil Bt active toxins released from insect-resistant transgenic Bt crops in the forms of plant residues, root exudates and pollens were reviewed, including their adsorption by soil active-particles, their insecticidal activity, persistence, and biodegradation by soil microbes, and their effects on soil organisms.

  10. Effects of two years planting transgenic Bt rice (BtSY63) on soil nematode community%转基因水稻Bt汕优63种植两年对土壤线虫群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修强; 陈法军; 刘满强; 陈小云; 胡锋

    2012-01-01

    通过连续2年的大田试验,对转基因水稻Bt汕优63(BtSY63)及其亲本汕优63(SY63)种植下大田土壤线虫数量、营养类群组成、生态指标和群落组成进行对比分析.结果表明:BtSY63和SY63种植下土壤线虫数量均随种植时间发生明显波动,但两者间无显著差异;与SY63相比,BtSY63种植下捕杂食线虫百分比和Shannon多样性指数出现了短暂的增加,但仅在个别时间差异显著;非度量多变量排序(nMDS)分析表明,BtSY63和SY63种植下土壤线虫群落组成无显著差异.可见,大田BtSY63种植2年对土壤线虫群落的影响不显著.%A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting transgenic Bt rice ( BtSY63 ) and its near-isogenic non-Bt rice ( SY63 ) on the soil nematode abundance, trophic group composition, ecological indices, and community structure. With the planting of BtSY63 and SY63, the soil nematode abundance changed obviously with sampling time, but had no significant difference between planting BtSY63 and SY63. Only at specific sampling time, the percentage of omnivore-predators and the Shannon diversity index of nematode community under the planting of BtSY63 were significantly higher than those under the planting of SY63. The non-metric multidimensional scaling ( nMDS) of nematode community revealed that no significant difference was observed in the nematode community composition between planting BtSY63 and SY63 across all sampling times. In conclusion, two years planting BtSY63 had no deleterious effects on the soil nematode community.

  11. Detection and monitoring of insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins have become one of the most important tools for managing corn and cotton insect pests in the US and other countries. The widespread adoption of transgenic Bt crops could place a high degree of selection pressure on the target insect populations and accelerate development of resistance, raising concerns about the long-term durability of Bt plants as an effective pest management tool. Conservation of Bt susceptibility in insects has become one of the most active research areas in modern agriculture. One of the key factors for a successful Bt resistance management plan is to have a cost-effective monitoring system that can provide information on: (i) the initial Bt resistance allele frequencies at low levels in field insect populations; and (ii) early shifts in Bt resistance allele frequencies so that proactive measures for managing resistance can be deployed well before field control failures. Developing such a monitoring program has been difficult because: (i) resistance traits that occur at very low frequencies are hard to detect; (ii) many factors affect the sensitivity and accuracy of a Bt resistance monitoring program; and (iii) monitoring resistance is costly. Several novel methods for detecting Bt resistance alleles developed during the last decade have made a cost-effective monitoring system possible. Future studies should focus on how to improve and standardize the methodologies for insect sampling and Bt resistance detection.

  12. Effects of External Chemical Regulation on Bt Transgenic Cotton Plants under Combined Stress of High Temperature and Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gui-sheng; ZHANG Wang-ding; TONG Chen; LIN Yan; AN Lin-lin; LIU Gui-juan

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to find a possible way to combat or alleviate the negative effects caused by high temperature and water deficit at the growth stage of peak boll-setting.[Method] With Bt transgenic cotton GK22 as the test cultivar,a potted experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the regulation of external substances(the water solutions of pix,urea and their mixture) on the physiological parameters,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield component of cotton plants in artificial climate chambers treated with high temperature and water deficit.[Result] The application of external pix,urea or their mixture was effective in stabilizing the physiological parameters of cotton plants,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield components.Compared with the exclusive application of pix and urea,the mixture of pix and urea played the most effective role in stabilizing the content of chlorophyll,soluble sugar and insecticidal protein,alleviating the increase of the content of free amino acids and proline,and increasing boll number per plant,boll weight and seed cotton yield.[Conclusion] The water solutions of pix,urea or their mixtures can be used to combat or alleviate the stress of high temperature and water deficit if they are sprayed onto cotton plants prior to stress occurrence.

  13. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  14. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  15. The Expression of Bt Toxin Protein in Transgenic Plants%Bt毒蛋白在转基因植物中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊杰

    2012-01-01

    With the promotion of insect-resistant genetically modified crops and large-scale commercial cultivation,Bt toxin in transgenic plants expression is increasingly attracted attention.In this paper,corn,cotton,rice and other insect-resistant transgenic crops expressing the Bt toxin were discussed.%随着抗虫转基因植物的推广和大面积商业化种植,Bt毒蛋白在转基因植物中的表达引起了人们的重视。综述了玉米、棉花、水稻等抗虫转基因植物的Bt毒蛋白表达及其时空变化规律。

  16. [Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals.

  17. [Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals. PMID:20707123

  18. Transfer of Bt-toxin protein gene into maize by high-velocity microprojectile bombardments and regeneration of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 杜天兵; 张宏; 谢友菊; 戴景瑞; 米景九; 李太源; 田颖川; 乔利亚; 莽克强

    1995-01-01

    Bt-toxin protein gene was successfully transferred into maize by the microprojectile bombard-ments of cell suspension,embryogenic calli and immature embryos with a Chinese-made particle gun(JQ-700).Although the bombarded embryogenic calli and immature embryos produced less mean transformants per dishthan the cell suspensions,they were the suitable materials for maize transformation because their culture andregeneration have been achieved in most maize cultivars.The evaluation on the resistance of transgenic plantsto corn borer shows the significant difference between them,from highly resistant to susceptible.

  19. Effects of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystems: a review of a ten-year research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenke LIU

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic cotton is the unique Bt transgenic crop planted on a large scale in China, and its commercialized varieties and hectareage had increased rapidly in China during the past decade (1997-2006) with broad geographic distribution for the economic, environmental, and health benefits. In 2004, the planting area of Bt transgenic cotton in China ranked first worldwide with up to 370 × 106hm2. In addition, Bt transgenic rice varieties in field tests have been close to approval for commercialization. However, ecological risks, a complex issue of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystem is urgently faced in China due to more than 60 varieties transferred single or bivalent Bt genes grown under diverse geographic regions. Two main pathways, biomass incorporation and root exudates, are involved in the effects of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystems. In this paper, the research results in recent years in China involved in the effects of Bt transgenic crops (Bt transgenic cottons and rice) on soil ecosystems were summarized with special attentions paid to the release and persistence of Bt toxins, and the toxicology to microorganisms, as well as the change of soil biochemical properties in soils where Bt transgenic crops were planted or incubated with their biomass. In addition, the complexity and current research defaults of ecological risk evaluation of Bt transgenic crops in China were highlighted.

  20. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. PMID:27219503

  1. [Advances in effects of insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops on soil ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Yong; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Man; Li, He; Zhou, Lang; Tang, Zong-Wen; Cao, Fei; Li, Wei

    2011-05-01

    With the large scale cultivation of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal proteins in the world, the problem of environmental safety caused by these Bt crops has received extensive attention. These insecticidal crystal proteins can be released into the soil continuously in the growing period of Bt plants. If their accumulation of the insecticidal crystal proteins exceeds consumption by insect larvae and degradation by the environmental factors, these insecticidal crystal proteins could constitute a hazard to non-target insects and soil microbiota. There are three main ways to release insecticidal crystal proteins into soil for Bt plants: root exudates, pollen falling, and crop reside returning. The Bt insecticidal crystal proteins released into soil can be adsorbed rapidly by active soil particles and the absorption equilibrium attained within 1-3 h. The adsorption protects Bt insecticidal crystal proteins against soil microbial degradation or enzyme degradation, which leads to remarkable prolong of the persistence of insecticidal activity. The change of soil microorganism species is an important index for evaluating the effect of Bt plants on soil ecology. The research showed that these insecticidal crystal proteins released by the Bt plant root exudates or Bt organism had no toxicity to the soil earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria and fungi; however, it could reduce the mycelium length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and restrain AMF to form invasion unit. The influencing degree of Bt protein on soil enzyme activity varied with the releasing modes or growth period of Bt crops. Bt Cry1Ab protein can be taken up from soil by parts of following crops; however, different results were obtained with different commercial kits. To better understand the soil ecological evaluation about the insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops, this review provides a comprehensive overview about the release

  2. Modified accumulation of selected heavy metals in Bt transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiyan; HUANG Jianzhong; YE Qingfu; WU Dianxing; CHEN Ziyuan

    2009-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified crops generally does not take into account the potential hazard of altered patterns of heavy metal accumulation in plants.A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of heavy metal amendments on the accumulation of Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn in a Bt transgenic rice Ke-Ming-Dao (KMD) and its wild-type Xiushui 11 (Xs11).In control soils,significant difference was only found in contents of Cu (p < 0.01) and Pb (p < 0.05) in straw between KMD and Xs11.At three levels of Cd amendments (5,10,and 20 mg/kg),the Cd contents in grain and straw of KMD were significantly higher than those of Xs11,and all grain Cd contents were significantly higher than the international criteria (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) as specified by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).These results implied that it may be unsafe for growing Bt transgenic rice in heavily Cd-polluted areas.No significant difference in Zn was found between the two varieties with the exception of roots at Zn amendment level of 600 mg/kg,while Pb contents in KMD were much higher in the straw at the lead amendment level of 1000 mg/kg and in the root at 250 mg Pb/kg.Data on the heavy metal accumulation patterns for the genetically modified rice may be used for the selection of growing areas as well as for plant residue management for Bt rice.

  3. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  4. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  5. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-rong,Li; BrendaOppert; KunYanZhu; RandallA.Higgins; Fang-nengHuang; LawrentL.Buschman

    2003-01-01

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modifications of the native Bt genes greatly enhanced expression levels. This is a review of the developments that made modem high-expression transgenic Bt plants possible, with an emphasis on the reasons for the low-level expression of native Bt genes in plant systems, and the techniques that have been used to improve plant expression of Bt toxin genes.

  6. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  7. Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Pei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1 and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1 plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.

  8. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  11. Susceptibility of field populations of sugarcane borer from non-Bt and Bt maize plants to five individual Cry toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangneng Huang; Mukti N.Ghimire; B.Rogers Leonard; Yu-Cheng Zhu; Graham P.Head

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane borer,Diatraea saccharalis (F.),is a major target of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the US midsouth region.Resistance development in targct pest populations is a major threat to the sustainable use of Bt crops.In our field trials in 2009,a significant number of live borers and plant injury from D.saccharalis were observed in an experimental SmartStaxTM maize line.The objective of this study was to assess the relative susceptibility of two field populations ofD.saccharalis collected from non-Bt and Bt maize plants containing SmartStaxTM traits to five individual Cry proteins.The five Bt proteins included two proteins (Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2) that were expressed in SmartStaxTM maize plants and three other common Bt proteins (Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac) that were not produced in SmartStaxTM.Larval mortality and growth inhibition on Bt diet of the fourth gcneration after field collections were evaluated 7 days after release of neonates on the diet surface.The laboratory bioassays showed that 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values for Cry1 A.105 and Cry2Ab2 for the population originated from Bt plants were 3.55-and 1.34-fold greater,respectively,than those of the population collected from non-Bt plants.In contrast,relative to the population from non-Bt plants,the LC50 of the population sampled from Bt plants were 3.85-,2.5-and 1.64-fold more sensitive to Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac,respectively.The resuits did not provide clear evidence to conclude that the observed field survival of D.saccharalis on Bt plants was associated with increased levels of resistance.

  12. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  13. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. PMID:26318006

  14. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  15. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly. PMID:27509747

  16. Variation induced by DNA rearrangement in a transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the development of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton cultivars, one male and female sterile mutant has been found in a homozygous T4 strain in our laboratory. The mutant plant, as well as its leaves, buds and flowers, is only 1/2-1/3 as large as that of the wild transgenic Bt + CpTI bivalant cotton plants. Cytological observation found that the chromosome number of the mutant is 2n = 52; however, there are 4 - 8 univalents observed in meiosis Ⅰ of pollen mother cells. Laboratory bioassay indicated that the mutant was highly resistant to bollworm as the wild plants. PCR amplification revealed that Bt and CpTI genes in the mutant were still intactly inserted. However, small deletion of flanked area had been observed in the mutant by Southern blotting analysis. So it is proposed that the mutant phenotype might result from either the DNA deletion or T-DNA trans-ferring in plant genome. No such report has been presented that the rearrangement of chromosome structure in a homo-zygous transgenic line occurred. Further analysis is ongoing.

  17. The recovery of Bt toxin content after temperature stress termination in transgenic cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.

    2013-06-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of Bt cotton under different environments has generated controversy in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate possible reasons of the conflicting results caused by temperature stress. Two different types of Bt transgenic cotton cultivars (a Bt cultivar, Sikang1, and an hybrid Bt cultivar, Sikang3) were selected. The plants of the two Bt cultivars were exposed to high temperature (37 degree centigrade), low temperature (18 degree centigrade), and the control (27 degree centigrade) for short (24 h) and long (48 h) periods of stress at peak boll stage, and then moved to the glasshouse where the control plants were maintained. The results showed that the leaf insecticidal toxin content fully recovered within 24 h to the level of control after the end of short duration high-temperature treatment, and recovered mostly within 48 h of the termination of 24 h low-temperature stress. Under long duration high temperature treatment the Bt toxin content required longer recovery periods (48 and 72 h for Sikang3 and Sikang1, respectively) to reach the control level. The Bt protein content only recovered partially at 96 h after the end of the long-duration low-temperature stress, and the concentrations of the Cry1Ac protein were 74% and 77% of the corresponding control for Sikang1 and Sikang3, respectively. The different recovery and increase slowly of the leaf nitrogen metabolic rates after ceasing the heat and cold stress may be possible reason for the above difference. In summary, the duration and type of temperature (cold or heat) stress may cause different Bt insecticidal protein recovery rate due to different recovery rate of enzymes. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton germplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19, in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents. Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in resistant level at different developmental stages in the three categories of germplasm lines. When neonate larvae are fed with leaves of cotton plant at the seeding stage with less than 10 leaves on the main stem, the mortality of the neonate larvae is 100%, but the resistance level will decline at later season. When Bt gene has been transferred to the cotton genome, it can be steadily transferred to the progeny, the level of resistance to bollworm keeps fundamentally uniform. Such insects as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virencens) in laboratory directive selection are very apt to produce resistance to the Bt insecticidal crystal protein. From the present crop system of cotton region in the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, and the expression characteristic of transgenic Bt resistant cotton, we suggest that the resistance to toxin protein in bollworm is not apt to be produced if the transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties are released and grown in the regions except in the Xinjiang cotton region. The managing strategies to delay or retard the resistance are discussed.

  19. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  20. BT799玉米对亚洲玉米螟抗性研究%Resistance of transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月琴; 何康来; 江帆; 王依冬; 张天涛; 王振营; 白树雄

    2014-01-01

    Objectives] To review the resistance of transgenic Bt corn to target pests which is one of the primarily steps for research and development of insect-resistant, transgenic corn. This review mainly evaluates the resistance of transgenic Cry1Ac gene corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and measured the quantity of Cry1Ac protein expressed in corn plant tissues. [Methods] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, laboratory bioassay and field studies with artificial infestation were employed in this study. [Results] The expression levels of Cry1Ac protein were 768.0 ng/g (protein/fresh leaves), 1452.8-2978.5 ng/g (protein/dry mass of silk, husk and young kernels). Leaf-feeding rates in field trials indicated that BT799 and CC-2XBT799 were highly resistant to ACB. The survival of ACB larvae feeding on Zhengdan 958K, a single cross hybrid containing BT799, was significantly lower (0-37.5%) than that of larvae that fed on non-Bt Zhengdan 958 (89.9%-100.0%). In addition, larval survival of Cry1Ac-, Cry1Ie-, and Cry1F-selected ACB strains (ACB-AcR, ACB-IeR and ACB-FR) were significantly different when fed on Zhengdan 958K. ACB-IeR had the lowest survival followed by ACB-FR, both of them had significantly lower survival than those that fed on the control Zhengdan 958. However, the survival of ACB-AcR was not significantly different from larvae feeding on the control Zhengdan 958. [Conclusion] These results suggests that the transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 is highly toxic to the ACB and can provide effective control for ACB in the field.%【目的】抗螟性鉴定是转基因抗虫玉米研发的重要一环。本文主要就转基因玉米BT799对亚洲玉米螟的抗性展开评价,同时测定了BT799植株组织中Cry1Ac蛋白的表达量。【方法】采用了酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)、室内生测和田间人工接虫鉴定3种方法。【结果】转基因抗虫玉米BT799组织中Cry1Ac蛋白含量分别为768

  1. A comparison of Bt transgene, hybrid background, water stress, and insect stress effects on corn leaf and ear injury and subsequent yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Odvody, Gary N; Anderson, Darwin J; Remmers, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-01

    Experimentally manipulated water and insect stresses were applied to field-grown corn with different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes and no Bt transgenes, and different nontransgenic hybrid backgrounds (2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX). Differences in leaf injury, ear injury, and yield were detected among experimental factors and their interactions. Under high and low water stress, injury from noctuid larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on leaves during vegetative growth (primarily from fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) and on developing ears (primarily from corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]) was lowest on more recent releases of Bt hybrids (newer Bt hybrids) expressing Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 and Cry 3Bb1, compared with earlier Bt hybrids (older Bt hybrids) expressing Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 and non-Bt hybrids. High water stress led to increased leaf injury under substantial fall armyworm feeding pressure in 2011 (as high as 8.7 on a 1-9 scale of increasing injury). In contrast, ear injury by corn earworm (as high as 20 cm(2) of surface area of injury) was greater in low water stress conditions. Six hybrid backgrounds did not influence leaf injury, while ear injury differences across hybrid backgrounds were detected for non-Bt and older Bt hybrid versions. While newer Bt hybrids expressing Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 and Cry 3Bb1 had consistent low leaf injury and high yield and low but less consistent ear injury across six hybrid backgrounds, water stress was a key factor that influenced yield. Bt transgenes played a more variable and lesser role when interacting with water stress to affect yield. These results exemplify the interplay of water and insect stress with plant injury and yield, their interactions with Bt transgenes, and the importance of these interactions in considering strategies for Bt transgene use where water stress is common. PMID:24780114

  2. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  3. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felipe Farias, Davi; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F.; Carvalho, A.F.U.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolutio

  4. Exposure and nontarget effects of transgenic Bt corn debris in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter D; Dively, Galen P; Swan, Christopher M; Lamp, William O

    2010-04-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transformed with a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) comprises 49% of all corn in the United States. The input of senesced corn tissue expressing the Bt gene may impact stream-inhabiting invertebrates that process plant debris, especially trichopteran species related to the target group of lepidopteran pests. Our goal was to assess risk associated with transgenic corn debris entering streams. First, we show the input of corn tissue after harvest was extended over months in a stream. Second, using laboratory bioassays based on European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)], we found no bioactivity of Cry1Ab protein in senesced corn tissue after 2 wk of exposure to terrestrial or aquatic environments. Third, we show that Bt near-isolines modify growth and survivorship of some species of invertebrates. Of the four nontarget invertebrate species fed Bt near-isolines, growth of two closely related trichopterans was not negatively affected, whereas a tipulid crane fly exhibited reduced growth rates, and an isopod exhibited reduced growth and survivorship on the Cry1Ab near-isoline but not on the stacked Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 near-isoline. Because of lack of evidence of bioactivity of Bt after 2 wk and because of lack of nontarget effects on the stacked near-isoline, we suggest that tissue-mediated differences, and not the presence of the Cry1Ab protein, caused the different responses among the species. Overall, our results provide evidence that adverse effects to aquatic nontarget shredders involve complex interactions arising from plant genetics and environment that cannot be ascribed to the presence of Cry1Ab proteins.

  5. Large-scale test of the natural refuge strategy for delaying insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Zhang, Haonan; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2015-02-01

    The 'natural refuge strategy" for delaying insect resistance to transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) relies on refuges of host plants other than cotton that do not make Bt toxins. We tested this widely adopted strategy by comparing predictions from modeling with data from a four-year field study of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in six provinces of northern China. Bioassay data revealed that the percentage of resistant insects increased from 0.93% in 2010 to 5.5% in 2013. Modeling predicted that the percentage of resistant insects would exceed 98% in 2013 without natural refuges, but would increase to only 1.1% if natural refuges were as effective as non-Bt cotton refuges. Therefore, the results imply that natural refuges delayed resistance, but were not as effective as an equivalent area of non-Bt cotton refuges. The percentage of resistant insects with nonrecessive inheritance of resistance increased from 37% in 2010 to 84% in 2013. Switching to Bt cotton producing two or more toxins and integrating other control tactics could slow further increases in resistance.

  6. Concurrent use of transgenic plants expressing a single and two Bacillus thuringiensis genes speeds insect adaptation to pyramided plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Cao, Jun; Collins, Hilda L.; Bates, Sarah L.; Roush, Richard T.; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Anthony M Shelton

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were grown on over 13 million ha in the United States and 22.4 million ha worldwide in 2004. Preventing or slowing the evolution of resistance by insects (“resistance management”) is critical for the sustainable use of Bt crops. Plants containing two dissimilar Bt toxin genes in the same plant (“pyramided”) have the potential to delay insect resistance. However, the advantage of pyramided Bt plan...

  7. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-ying Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BT799 is a genetically modified (GM maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58 at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control.

  8. Degradation of Cry1Ab Protein Within Transgenic Bt Maize Tissue by Composite Microbial System of MC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Yao; Gu Wan-rong; Ye Le-fu; Chen Dong-sheng; Li Jing; Wei Shi

    2014-01-01

    Environmental safety issues involved in transgenic plants have become the concern of researchers, practitioners and policy makers in recent years. Potential differences between Bt maize (ND1324 and ND2353 expressing the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein) and near-isogenic non-Bt varieties (ND1392 and ND223) in their influence on the composite microbial system of MC1 during the fermentation process were studied during 2011-2012. Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize residues didn't affect characteristics of lignocellulose degradation by MC1, pH of fermentation broth decreasing at initial stage and increasing at later stage of degradation. The quality of various volatile products in fermentation broth showed that no significant difference of residues fermentation existed between Bt maize and non-Bt maize. During the fermentation MC1 efficiently degraded maize residues by 83%-88%, and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content decreased by 70%-72%, 72%-75% and 30%-37%, respectively. Besides that, no consistent difference was found between Bt and non-Bt maize residues lignocellulose degradation by MC1 during the fermentation process. MC1 degraded 88%-89% Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize residues, and in the fermentation broth of MC1 and bacteria of MC1 Cry1Ab protein was not detected. DGGE profile analyses revealed that the microbial community drastically changed during 1-3 days and became stable until the 9th day. Though the dominant strains at different fermentation stages had significantly changed, no difference on the dominant strains was observed between Bt and non-Bt maize at different stages. Our study indicated that Cry1Ab protein did not influence the growth characteristic of MC1.

  9. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  10. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on Nontarget Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shao-Peng; Yang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Qing; Pu, De-Qiang; Shi, Min; Ye, Gong-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-08-01

    The effects of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1, KMD2, and G8-7, on biological parameters and population dynamics of nontarget insect, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were investigated in the laboratory and field. No significant differences were found between Bt and non-Bt rice lines for aphid survival. The developmental time of R. maidis that fed on KMD1 and KMD2 did not differ significantly from those of the individuals feeding on the parental variety Xiushui11, but significantly prolonged developmental time was observed on G8-7 as compared with its parental variety Xiushui110. Aphid fecundity was significantly higher on Bt than on parental rice. A 2-yr field survey indicated that Bt rice did not significantly affect the population dynamics of R. maidis in comparison with non-Bt rice. Additionally, guttation droplets of Bt rice and aphids feeding on Bt rice were analyzed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. No Cry1Ab protein was found in aphid adults feeding on Bt rice lines both in the laboratory and field. By using the guttation droplets from the top of rice seedlings, we designed a novel method to collect phloem sap, and found that relatively low concentrations were detected in the guttation droplets from Bt rice lines. In conclusion, although the Bt rice lines tested in this study stimulate the fecundity of R. maidis, the aphid population density did not increase in Bt rice fields. PMID:27389683

  11. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  12. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on the Food Consumption, Growth and Survival of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-fang; YE Gong-yin; CHEN Xue-xin; PENG Yu-fa

    2005-01-01

    The transgenic rice KMD1, expressing a synthetic Cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis,showed effective resistance to Significant declines were revealed in food consumption and growth of the older RLF nymphs fed on the cut-leaves of transgenic KMD1 plants. The increase rate of food consumption by larvae fed on KMD1 was drastically lower than those on Xiushui 11. Food consumption was varied with different instars when the larvae fed on the Bt rice. Those of fourth- and fifth-instar larvae were different compared to the third-instar, lower than those on the non-transgenic rice but still increased a little when the feeding time prolonged. It is indicated that younger RLF larvae are more sensitive to Bt rice than older ones. Also, about 81%, 78% and 68% of the third-, fourth-and fifth-instar RLF larvae died within 72 hours bioassay period on KMD1 leaves, respectively. These results demonstrated that Bt-transgene in KMD1 rice confers substantial protection against infestations with older RLF larvae.

  13. Plant Fitness Assessment for Wild Relatives of Insect Resistant Bt-Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Letourneau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When field tests of transgenic plants are precluded by practical containment concerns, manipulative experiments can detect potential consequences of crop-wild gene flow. Using topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvicide (Bt and larval additions, we measured fitness effects of reduced herbivory on Brassica rapa (wild mustard and Raphanus sativus (wild radish. These species represent different life histories among the potential recipients of Bt transgenes from Bt cole crops in the US and Asia, for which rare spontaneous crosses are expected under high exposure. Protected wild radish and wild mustard seedlings had approximately half the herbivore damage of exposed plants and 55% lower seedling mortality, resulting in 27% greater reproductive success, 14-day longer life-spans, and 118% more seeds, on average. Seed addition experiments in microcosms and in situ indicated that wild radish was more likely to spread than wild mustard in coastal grasslands.

  14. Study on Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Bt Toxic Protein Expression in Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton and Its Degradation in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen ZHANG; Lianrong WANG; Liancheng ZHANG; Jun ZHANG; Xinbo JI; Jinmao WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ob.jcctive] This study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of Bt toxic protein expression in insect-resistant transgenic cotton and its degradation in soil. [Meth~d] BtcrylAc toxic protein expression in roots, stems and leaves of trans- genic cotton Guoshen GK45 at different developmental stages and the annual aver- age content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in the topsoil, rhizosphere soil and following cotton-growing area were explored and analyzed by using enzyme linked immuno sorbed assay (ELISA). [Result] The content of exogenous BtCrylAc toxin protein de- creased during the growth process of insect-resistant transgenic cotton; to be specif- ic, the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in cotton stems and leaves decreased more slowly and always maintained a high level, while that in roots decreased rapidly and reached a minimum level to the following plant growth and development stage. BtCrylAc toxin protein was detected in topsoil of both non-transgenic and transgenic cotton-growing areas, and the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein increased in topsoil of following cotton-growing area, which was very low in rhizosphere soil. [Conclusion] Determination of BtcrylAc toxic protein provides scientific basis for the risk assess- ment of the cultivation of genetically modified crops and the safety evaluation of soil ecosystem.

  15. Preparative Purification and Bioassay of Bt Toxin from Cry1Ab Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-min; YE Qin-fu

    2004-01-01

    A method of extracting and purifying Cry1Ab protein(Bt toxin) from Cry1Ab transgenic rice was established. Most of the Bt toxin present in the tissue of Cry1Ab transgenic rice was extracted effectively with a solution of 50 mmol/LNa2CO3 and NaHCO3. The crude protein containing Bt toxin was obtained after the pretreatment of Cry1Ab transgenic rice with ultra-filtration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and centrifugation. The dialysed crude protein was futher separated on DEAE Sephadex A-50 columns and Sephadex G-150 columns. The protein bound on DEAE Sephadex A-50 gel was eluted with buffer solution B(10 mmol/L trisHCl buffer+1. 0 mmol/L EDTA, pH=8.0) mixed with 0. 1, 0. 3, 0. 5 and 0. 8 mol/L NaCl in a discontinuous gradient elution mode. The peak of the Bt toxin eluted from the columns was identified by ELISA and bioassayed with larvae of tobacco hornworms and silkworms. The purity and the bioactivity of the Bt toxin were determined by means of SDS-PAGE and larvicidal assay, respectively. The purity of the Bt toxin obtained by this method is high, and its insecticidal activity is retained after the toxin is purified.

  16. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  17. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  18. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  19. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories. PMID:17875476

  20. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories.

  1. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  2. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  3. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  4. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  5. Effects of Transgenic Bt Maize on Soil Nutrient Content%转 Bt 基因玉米对土壤养分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景小鹏; 李建东; 周旭梅; 景希强

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic Bt maize Dan BT01 was used as the subjects to study on the effects of transgenic Bt maize on farmland nutrition in different growth periods of seedling stage,jointing stage,huge bellbottom stage, tasseling stage,silking stage and mature stage under field condition.The results showed that oil organic matter content at the tasseling stage and mature stage,total phosphorus content at the silking stage,slowly available potassium concentrations at the huge bellbottom stage and mature stage of transgenic Bt maize were significant-ly higher than the non-transgenic maize,and there was no significant difference of the oil organic matter con-tent,total nitrogen,total phosphorus content and slowly available potassium concentrations at the other growth stages.transgenic Bt maize’s the nitrogen content of the soil hydrolase at the huge bellbottom stage was signif-icantly higher than the non-transgenic maize,at tasseling and silking stage was significantly lower than the non-transgenic maize.Soil nitrate content of transgenic Bt maize at jointing and tasseling is significantly lower than non-transgenic maize,at maturity has significantly increased.Transgenic Bt maize’s soil ammonium ni-trogen in the the huge bellbottom and tasseling stage is significantly lower than non-transgenic maize.From the jointing stage,in addition to the available phosphorus content of the grain-filling stage,non-genetically modi-fied corn available P and K content was significantly higher than transgenic Bt maize.%试验以转 Bt 基因玉米丹 BT01为研究对象,研究了在大田种植条件下转 Bt 基因玉米对苗期、拔节期、大喇叭口期、抽雄期、灌浆期和成熟期土壤养分含量的影响。结果表明,转 Bt 基因玉米抽雄期和成熟期土壤有机质含量,灌浆期全磷含量,大喇叭口期和成熟期缓效钾含量显著高于非转基因玉米,其余生育时期与非转基因玉米的土壤有机质、全氮、

  6. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

  7. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  8. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  9. Assessment of Survival Competitiveness in Wasteland for Transgenic Bt Maize%抗虫转基因玉米荒地生存竞争力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小文; 李吉崇; 郭玉海; 董学会

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the survival capacity of the transgenic Bt maize and its receptor parent plant ( Zheng 58) ,we compared the survival competitiveness between weeds and maize separately and explored the possibility of maize evolved into weeds under field condition and artificial wasteland condition,which could provide theory basis for security assessment of transgenic Bt corn in ecological environment. The results showed that the transgenic Bt maize was more competitive than its receptor parent plant,but less competitive than weeds. The seeds of transgenic Bt maize also could live through the winter. Nonetheless,the trangenic Bt maize could not evolve into weeds in our test condition.%研究了转Cry1Ac基因玉米及受体非转基因玉米(郑58)在野外自然条件及模拟野外条件下的生存能力,比较玉米与杂草的竞争力及玉米自身成为杂草的可能性,为转抗虫基因玉米的环境生态安全评价提供理论基础.结果表明,生存竞争能力非转基因玉米<转基因玉米<杂草,转抗虫玉米虽然在与杂草的竞争中优于非转基因受体,其种子也能越冬,但在试验条件下不会演变成超级杂草.

  10. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  11. Effect of dual Bt-expression transformation vectors on transgene expression in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L N; Dong, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, R X; Liu, H M; Yang, Q; Yang, M S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of vector structure on dual Bt gene expression and establish an efficient expression vector using Cry1Ac and Cry3A genes. Four vectors (N4, N5, N10, and S23) were developed and used for genetic transformation of tobacco to obtain insect-resistant transgenic lines. The vectors were constructed using the MAR structure, applying different promoter and enhancer sequences, and changing the transgene open-reading frame sequence. The average Cry1Ac toxalbumin expression quantity was 67 times higher in N5 than in N4 transgenic lines (8.77 and 0.13 μg/g, respectively). In contrast, the average Cry3A toxalbumin expression quantity was 1.5 times higher in N4 than in N5 lines (12.70 and 8.21 μg/g, respectively). The sequences of both Bt genes significantly influenced toxalbumin expression, although upstream Bt genes presented lower expression levels. The average Cry1Ac toxalbumin content was 13 times higher in the transgenic lines of AtADH 5'-non-translated sequence N5 (8.77 mg/g) than in the omega N10 lines (0.67 mg/g). Furthermore, the average Cry1Ac toxalbumin content was 5 times higher in MAR N5 than in non-MAR S23 lines (8.77 and 1.63 mg/g, respectively). The average Cry3A toxalbumin content was 1.3 times higher in N5 than in S23 lines (8.21 and 6.48 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, toxalbumin expression levels differed significantly among the S23-transformed lines. The MAR structure applied on both ends of the genes increased both the level and stability of exogenous gene expression. In conclusion, N5 was the most optimal of the four tested vectors. PMID:27525887

  12. TRANSGENIC PLANTS RESISTANT TO INSECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kereša

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors are secondary metabolites present in all plants and it seems that their major role is protection of plants against attacks of animals, insects and microorganisms. One of the family of proteinase inhibitors are squash inhibitors of serine proteinases purified from seeds belonging to genera Cucurbita, Cucumis and Momordica. Squash inhibitors consist of 29-32 amino acid residues and are considered to be the smallest inhibitors of the serine proteinases known. Because of shortness, genes for these inhibitors could be synthesised and modified at different ways. Modifications could lead to changes in inhibitor activity. Tobacco as a model plant was transformed with 12 different genes of squash inhibitors. Stable integration of transgenes in putative transgenic plants was determined by PCR analysis using genomic DNA and primers that anneal to promoter and terminator region. The first step of proteinase inhibitor gene expression in transgenic plants was revealed by RT-PCR analysis. In entomological tests where larvae were fed with leaves, influence of transgenic T0 plants, as well as non-transgenic control plants on retardation of larval growth of S. littoralis was examined. Results of entomological tests showed that it is possible to express squash proteinase inhibitors in plants at level that significantly reduces S. littoralis larval growth.

  13. Studies on Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Bt Toxin by Using Envirologix Kits in Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-bo; SHU Qing-yao

    2002-01-01

    Investigations were done on the usefulness of Envirologix Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac Plate kits for quantitative analysis of Bt toxin content in transgenic rice grains. Two transgenic rice lines: Kemingdao 1 (KMD1) and Kemingdao 2 (KMD2), transformed with a cry1Ab gene, and their parental variety, cv.Xiushui 11, were used as positive and negative samples. Results showed that the correlation coefficients as high as 0. 985 - 0. 998, significant at probability level of 0.05 or 0.01, were obtained for linear regression equations by using the appended calibrators of the kits. No significant differences were detected for values of same rice sample obtained from different trials or by using different lots of the product (kit). The detectable Bt toxin content by this method could be as low as 0.5 ng/g. The Envirologix Kit could be useful for rapid quantitative detection of Bt toxin in rice grains because of its preciseness, simplicity and time saving.

  14. Effect of vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines and their straw amendment on soil enzymes, respiration, functional diversity and community structure of soil microorganisms under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Fang; Bin Dong; Hu Yan; Feifan Tang; Baichuan Wang; Yunlong Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crops,there is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of their vegetation and residues on soil environmental quality.This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines Huachi B6 (HC) and TT51 (TT) followed by the return of their straw to the soil on soil enzymes (catalase,arease,neutral phosphatase and invertase),anaerobic respiration activity,microbial utilization of carbon substrates and community structure,under field conditions.The results indicated that the vegetation of the two transgenic rice lines (HC and TT) and return of their straw had few adverse effects on soil enzymes and anaerobic respiration activity compared to their parent and distant parent,although some transient differences were observed.The vegetation and subsequent straw amendment of Bt rice HC and TT did not appear to have a harmful effect on the richness,evenness and community structure of soil microorganisms.No different pattern of impact due to plant species was found between HC and TT.It could be concluded that the vegetation of transgenic Bt rice lines and the return of their straw as organic fertilizer may not alter soil microbe-mediated functions.

  15. Biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different structures of transgenic corn against Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith is the main target pest of Bt corn technologies, such as YieldGard VT PRO(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2 and PowerCore(tm (Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab2/Cry1F. In this study, it was evaluated the biological activity of Bt proteins expressed in different plant structures of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn against S. frugiperda . Complete mortality of S. frugiperda neonates was observed on leaf-disc of both Bt corn technologies. However, the mortality in silks and grains was lower than 50 and 6%, respectively. In addition, more than 49% of the surviving larvae in silks and grains completed the biological cycle. However, all life table parameters were negatively affected in insects that developed in silks and grains of both Bt corn events. In summary, the low biological activity of Bt proteins expressed on silks and grains of YieldGard VT PRO(tm and PowerCore(tm corn can contribute to the resistance evolution in S. frugiperda populations.

  16. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  17. Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice does not residue in rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression of Cry1Ab protein in Bt transgenic rice (KMD) and its residue in the rhizosphere soil during the whole growth in field, as well as degradation of the protein from KMD straw in five soils under laboratory incubation were studied. The residue of Cry1Ab protein in KMD rhizosphere soil was undetectable (below the limit of 0.5 ng/g air-dried soil). The Cry1Ab protein contents in the shoot and root of KMD were 3.23-8.22 and 0.68-0.89 μg/g (fresh weight), respectively. The half-lives of the Cry1Ab protein in the soils amended with KMD straw (4%, w/w) ranged from 11.5 to 34.3 d. The residence time of the protein varied significantly in a Fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil amended with KMD straw at the rate of 3, 4 and 7%, with half-lives of 9.9, 13.8 and 18 d, respectively. In addition, an extraction method for Cry1Ab protein in soil was developed, with extraction efficiencies of 46.4-82.3%. - Cry1Ab protein was not detected in the rhizosphere soil of field-grown Bt transgenic rice

  18. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  19. Ubi1 intron-mediated enhancement of the expression of Bt cry1Ah gene in transgenic maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YueBing; LANG Zhihong; ZHANG Jie; HE KangLai; SONG FuPing; HUANG DaFang

    2008-01-01

    The cry1Ah gone was one of novel insecticidal genes cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis isolate BT8. Two plant expression vectors containing cry1Ah gone were constructed. The first intron of maize ubiqutin1 gone was inserted between the maize Ubiquitin promoter and cry1Ah gone in one of the plant expressing vectors (pUUOAH). The two vectors were introduced into maize immature embryonic calli by microprojectile bombardment, and the reproductively plants were acquired. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that foreign genes had been integrated into maize genome and inherited to the next generation stably. The ELISA assay to T1 and T2 generation plants showed that the expression of Cry1Ah protein in the construct containing the ubi1 intron (pUUOAH) was 20% higher than that of the intronless construct (pUOAH). Bioassay results showed that the transgenic maize harboring cry1Ah gone had high resistance to the Asian corn borers and the insecticidal activity of the transgenic maize containing the ubi1 intron was higher than that of the intronless construct. These results indicated that the maize ubil intron can enhance the expression of the Bt cry1Ah gone in transgenic maize efficiently

  20. INSECTICIDAL TOXIN FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS IS RELEASED FROM ROOTS OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN IN VITRO AND IN SITU. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe insecticidal toxin encoded by the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was released in root exudates from transgenic Bt corn during 40 days of growth in soil amended to 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12% (v/v) with montmorillonite or kaolinite in a...

  1. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline endotoxins are the first commercial applications of genetically modified crops and their use has steadily expanded over the last ten years. Together with the expanding agricultural use of transgenic crops, climate change is predicted to be among the major factors affecting agriculture in the coming years. Plants, herbivores and insects of higher trophic levels are all predicted to be affected by the current atmospheric climate change. However, only very few studies to date have addressed the sustained use and herbivore interactions of Bt-producing plants under the influence of these abiotic factors. The main objective of this study was to comparatively assess the performance of a Bt Cry1Ac toxin-producing oilseed rape line and its non-transgenic parent line in terms of vegetative growth and allocation to secondary defence compounds (glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids), and the performance of Bt-target and nontarget insect herbivores as well as tritrophic interaction functioning on these lines. For this, several growth chamber experiments with vegetative stage non-Bt and Bt plants facing exposures to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} level alone or together with increased temperature and different regimes of elevated O{sub 3} were conducted. The main hypothesis of this work was that Bt-transgenic plants have reduced performance or allocation to secondary compounds due to the cost of producing Bt toxin under changed abiotic environments. The Bt-transgenic oilseed rape line exhibited slightly delayed vegetative growth and had increased nitrogen and reduced carbon content compared to the non-transgenic parent line, but the physiological responses (i.e. biomass gain and photosynthesis) of the plant lines to CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enhancements were equal. Two aphid species, non-susceptible to Bt Cry1Ac, showed equal performance and reproduction on both plant lines under elevated CO{sub 2

  2. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring tomato proteinase inhibitor II gene and their insect resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The plant expression vectors pBCT2 and pBT2 were constructed with the cDNA sequence (tin2) and genomic DNA sequence (tin2i) of tomato proteinase inhibitor II gene respectively. Then the two expression vectors were transferred into tobacco via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404, and transgenic tobacco plants were generated. Molecular analysis and trypsin activity assay showed that both cDNA and genomic DNA were expressed properly in the transgenic plants. Insecticidal activities in these transgenic plants indicated that transgenic tobacco plants carrying tin2i sequence were more resistant to 2-instar larvae of Heliothis armigera Hubner than those carrying tin2 sequence. Therefore the intron of tin2i sequence might be a contributor to insecticidal activity of the transgenic tobacco.

  3. 转Bt水稻对土壤可溶性有机碳氮及微生物学性质的影响%Effects of transgenic Bt rice on soil dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen contents and microbiological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修强; 陈法军; 刘满强; 胡锋

    2012-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2009 and 2010) was conducted to evaluate the effects of three transgenic Bt rice lines ( KMD, HH1, and BtSY63 ) and their non-fit lines ( XSD, MH63 , and SY63 ) on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC ) and nitrogen ( DON) and microbiological properties. All the measured indices changed significantly with sampling time. Comparing with their corresponding non-Bt lines, the test transgenic Bt lines had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbial biomass nitrogen ( MBN). The transgenic Bt lines had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass carbon ( MBC ) , basal respiration ( BR) , and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in certain periods of time in the first year, but no effects in the second year. Among the soils planted with the three non-Bt rice lines, no difference was observed in the DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, whereas in the soil planted with BtSY63, the MBC and BR were significantly higher, but the qCO2was significantly lower, as compared with those in the soils planted with KMD and HH1. In sum, two years' planting transgenic Bt rice had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, but the differences of soil microbiological properties induced by the planting of different transgenic Bt rice lines were larger than those induced by the planting of different non-Bt lines, implying that long term monitoring would help to reveal the effects of transgenic Bt rice on the structure and function of soil ecosystem.%研究了3种转Bt水稻[克螟稻(KMD)、华恢1号(HH1)和Bt汕优63(BtSY63)]及对应亲本在2年大田条件下对土壤可溶性有机碳(DOC)和可溶性有机氮(DON)及微生物学性质的影响.结果表明:测定指标均随采样时间发生显著变化.与对应亲本相比,转Bt水稻对土壤DOC、DON和微生物生物量氮(MBN)的影响不显著,而对土壤微生物生物量碳(MBC)、基础呼吸(BR)和微生物代谢熵(qCO2)的影响在大田种植第1

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  5. The resistance of insects to the transgenic Bt plants and its managing strategy%昆虫对转Bt杀虫蛋白基因植物的抗性及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世贵; 叶恭银; 胡萃

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1 引言 苏云金杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis 简称Bt)是目前世界上产量最大、应用最为成功的微生物杀虫剂,除了已筛选出多种Bt菌株直接发酵培养外,还培育出转基因工程菌及转基因植物,使Bt的使用范围大为扩大. Bt在形成芽孢时产生的伴孢晶体是Bt杀虫活性的主要来源,它可能由几种晶体蛋白即δ-内毒素组成,包括Cry和Cyt两大类.一般认为,δ-内毒素的作用过程要经溶解、酶解活化、与受体结合、插入和孔洞或离子通道形成等五个环节[1],涉及到多种毒素和作用位点,单一因素的改变对其敏感性影响不大,自50年代到80年代初Bt应用的30多年里,均未有昆虫对之产生抗性的报道,以至于一些研究者曾过分乐观地认为昆虫对Bt 不会产生抗性.进入80年代后,情况发生了急剧变化,相继发现五带淡色库蚊(Culex qu inquefasciatusg)、印度谷螟(Plodia interpunctella)等多种昆虫对Bt产生了抗体[2],同时在田间也发现世界性蔬菜害虫小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella) 对Bt产生了抗生[3-4],世界各国相继开展了昆虫对Bt产生抗性的条件和机制的研究,以期在昆虫还未普遍对Bt产生抗性之前,制定出相应的防治策略,这对于Bt制剂,尤其是转Bt工程菌和转Bt植物的推广使用,具有十分重要的意义.

  6. Survival and development of a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its natural enemy, the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera. Pteromalidae), on transgenic Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise S.; Lövei, Gabor L; Székács, András

    2013-01-01

    -product pests and their biological control. Results Weevils were not harmfully affected by transgenic Bt maize in their development characteristics (development time, body mass), and females emerging from transgenic maize kernels were larger. However, significantly fewer parasitoid females emerged from weevils......Background The effect of transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) containing a lepidopteran-specific Bt toxin on a stored-product pest, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and its parasitoid, Lariophagus distinguendus Förster, was examined in the laboratory to test the impact of transgenic maize on stored...

  7. Prediction on Antigenic Epitope Characteristics of Bt Cry2Ab Protein in Transgenic Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jierong GAO; Ying HE; Zehong ZOU; Ailin TAO; Yuncan AI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to predict the structural characteristics of Bt Cry2Ab protein in transgenic crops with bioinformatic analysis to provide the theoreti- cal clues for design of antibody Cry2Ab. [Method] The amino acid sequence of Cry2Ab protein was searched from NCBI database. The B cell epitopes were pre- dicted with DNAStar. The binding affinity between Cry2Ab protein and MHC-II molecules was analyzed with NetMHCII 2.2 Server to predict the T cell epitopes. [Result] Prediction result suggested the potential B cell epitope of Cry2Ab locating in the region of 208-215. Analysis of the binding affinity between Cry2Ab and MHC-II molecules suggested the regions of 177-185, 299-307 and 255-263 were the po- tential T cell epitopes. Human with HLA-DRB10101 alleles and HLA-DRB10701 al- leles were more sensitive to Cry2Ab protein. [Conclusion] This study facilitates to un- derstand the structural characteristics of Cry2Ab protein and provides a new clue to improve the assessment method for potential allergenicity of genetically modified food.

  8. Chronic Responses of Daphnia magna Under Dietary Exposure to Leaves of a Transgenic (Event MON810) Bt-Maize Hybrid and its Conventional Near-Isoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderbaum, Daniel Ferreira; Cuhra, Marek; Wickson, Fern; Orth, Afonso Inácio; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Bøhn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance is the second most common trait globally in cultivated genetically modified (GM) plants. Resistance is usually obtained by introducing into the plant's genome genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) coding for insecticidal proteins (Cry proteins or toxins) that target insect pests. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that a chronic, high-dose dietary exposure to leaves of a Bt-maize hybrid (GM event MON810, expressing a transgenic or recombinant Cry1Ab toxin), exerted no adverse effects on fitness parameters of the aquatic nontarget organism Daphnia magna (water flea) when compared to an identical control diet based on leaves of the non-GM near-isoline. Cry1Ab was immunologically detected and quantified in GM maize leaf material used for Daphnia feed. A 69-kD protein near Bt's active core-toxin size and a 34-kD protein were identified. The D. magna bioassay showed a resource allocation to production of resting eggs and early fecundity in D. magna fed GM maize, with adverse effects for body size and fecundity later in life. This is the first study to examine GM-plant leaf material in the D. magna model, and provides of negative fitness effects of a MON810 maize hybrid in a nontarget model organism under chronic, high dietary exposure. Based upon these results, it is postulated that the observed transgenic proteins exert a nontarget effect in D. magna and/or unintended changes were produced in the maize genome/metabolome by the transformation process, producing a nutritional difference between GM-maize and non-GM near-isoline. PMID:26262442

  9. Call for Papers--Bt Research (ISSN 1925-1939)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Bt Research (ISSN 1925-1939) is a new launched, open access and peer-reviewed journal that disseminates significant creative reviews and opinions or innovative research work in the area of Bacillus thuringiensis, including the isolation and identification of novel Bt strains, identification of novel Bt toxic genes and their functions, the insecticidal mechanism Bt toxics, Bt genetic engineering, transgenic Bt plants, the resistance mechanism of target-insect to Bt toxins, and the development of novel experimental methods and techniques for Bt Research.

  10. 新疆南部棉区转Bt基因棉花对棉铃虫抗性的季节性变化规律%The seasonal dynamics of resistance of transgenic Bt cotton to cotton bollworm in cotton planting region of southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁瑞丰; 李号宾; 刘建; 徐遥; 张永军; 阿克旦·吾外士

    2012-01-01

    The levels of Bt toxic protein in six kinds of transgenic Bt cottons in different periods were detected using ELISA and the levels of the resistance of those cottons against cotton bollworm larvae of local four generations were tested using laboratory bioassay. The levels of Bt toxic protein in tender leaves of transgenic Bt cotton decreased gradually with the cotton growing up. The level of Bt toxic protein was highest in cotyledon period, reaching 1 210.03 - 1 733.15 ng/g. Compared with the cotyledon period, the reduced ranges of the Bt toxic protein in tender leaves of three-leaf period, seven-leaf period, squaring period, flowering and little boll period, boll opening period were 2.5% -96.0%. The resistance of those cottons to 4th generation larvae was lower, and only up to 19.0% -41.3%. The corrected mortali- ty of the 4th generation larvae were merely only 12.0% - 36.2% , lower resistance were indicated.%采用ELISA检测和室内生物测定方法,测定6个转Bt基因棉花品种(系)不同生育期叶片中的Bt毒蛋白含量及其对各世代棉铃虫的抗性水平。转Bt基因棉花叶片中的Bt毒蛋白含量总体上随着棉花生育期的推进而逐渐下降,6个品种(系)叶片的Bt毒蛋白含量子叶期最高,达1210.03~1733.15ng/g,与子叶期相比,三叶期、七叶期、盛蕾期、花铃期、吐絮期Bt毒蛋白含量减少幅度为2.5%~96.0%。6个品种(系)对第4代棉铃虫幼虫抗虫性较低,毒杀效果仅为19.0%~41.3%。幼虫的校正死亡率逐代下降,各棉花品种对第4代幼虫的校正死亡率仅为12.0%~36.2%。

  11. DEGRADATION OF Bt PROTEIN IN GROUND LEAVES AND BUDS FROM TRANSGENIC Bt COTTON%转Bt基因棉粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美俊; 杨武德

    2011-01-01

    以转Bt基因棉Bt冀668为材料,室内采用ELISA法,测定粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白在土壤、水中不同时间的残留量以及不同环境处理下的残留量,以研究转Bt基因棉粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白在不同基质中的降解动态以及与环境影响因子的关系.结果显示,粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白分别在熟土、生土和水中前40d、48d取样天数间的残留量差异显著,中后期相邻两取样间无显著差异.取样结束时,熟土、生土和水中粉碎叶Bt蛋白残留量分别为初始量的7.4%、2.24%和15.48%,蕾样为初始量的6.22%、4.72%和15.71%,表明Bt蛋白在熟土、生土和水中前期快速降解,中后期进入缓慢稳定降解阶段,水中降解速率最慢,熟土中前期降解快于生土,后期降解反而慢于生土,使得其取样结束时残留量高于生土.75%含水量土壤中,粉碎叶Bt蛋白的降解显著快于25%和50%处理;35℃和25℃下降解显著快于15℃,5℃降解最慢;在有茵土中Bt蛋白的降解显著快于无菌土.上述结果显示一定范围内,高温、高湿可加快Bt蛋白的降解,且土壤微生物是促进Bt蛋白降解的重要因子之一.%The degradation dynamics of Bt protein in ground leaves and buds from transgenic Bt cotton in different substrates and their relation with environmental factors were investigated. Ground powers of BtJi 668 leaves and buds were mixed with soil or water, and residue Bt protein contents during sampling days (0 ~ 88days) and under different environment were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA) in laboratory. Residue Bt protein contents in ground leaves and buds had significant difference among sampling days at early stages, however, no difference between adjoining sampling days at middle and later stages in three substrates ripened soil, unripened soil and water. At the end of treated time, residue Bt protein contents in ground leaves decreased to 7.4% ,2. 24% and 15.48%, and in buds to

  12. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  13. Effects of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Insecticide Use and Predatory Insect Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable effort has been expended to determine if crops genetically engineered to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins harm non-target arthropods. However, if Bt crops kill target pests and thereby reduce insecticide use, this could benefit some non-target arthropods. We analyzed data fr...

  14. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton. PMID:26841044

  15. Can Conventional Crop Producers Also Benefit From Bt Technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, Zhe; Mitchell, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since their commercial introduction in 1996. In 2009, 25 countries planted 134 million ha of transgenic crops. The widespread adoption of such plants has reduced use of conventional insecticides while attaining yield gains, thus providing economic, environmental and human health benefits. Because of Bt crops’ high pest control efficacy, there is concern that pests will develop re...

  16. Construction of a new plant expression vector containing two insect resistant genes and its expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new plant expression vector (pBS29K-BA) containing two insect resistant genes, a synthetic chimeric gene BtS29K encoding the activated insecticidal protein Cry1Ac and a gene API-BA encoding the arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) proteinase inhibitor (API) A and B, is constructed. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these two genes are obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco leaf discs. The average expression levels of Cry1Ac and API-BA proteins in transgenic plants are of 3.2 μg and 4.9 μg per gram fresh leaf respectively. The results of insecticidal assay of transgenic plants indicate that the pBS29K-BA transformed plants are more resistant to insect damage than the plants expressing the Cry1Ac gene or API-BA gene alone.

  17. Transgenic plants for insect pest control: a forward looking scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Gatehouse, J; Capell, T; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived, as a result of the ability of insects to develop resistance against single insecticidal gene products. However, despite such dire predictions no such collapse has taken place and the acreage of transgenic insect resistance crops has been increasing at a steady rate over the 9 years since the deployment of the first transgenic insect resistant plant. However, in order to assure durability and sustainability of resistance, novel strategies have been contemplated and are being developed. This perspective addresses a number of potentially useful strategies to assure the longevity of second and third generation insect resistant plants.

  18. Leaf morphology and ultrastructure responses to elevated O3 in transgenic Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac rice and conventional rice under fully open-air field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated tropospheric ozone severely affects not only yield but also the morphology, structure and physiological functions of plants. Because of concerns regarding the potential environmental risk of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor changes in transgenic insect-resistant rice under the projected high tropospheric ozone before its commercial release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE system, we investigated the changes in leaf morphology and leaf ultrastructure of two rice varieties grown in plastic pots, transgenic Bt Shanyou 63 (Bt-SY63, carrying a fusion gene of cry1Ab and cry1Ac and its non-transgenic counterpart (SY63, in elevated O3 (E-O3 versus ambient O3 (A-O3 after 64-DAS (Days after seeding, 85-DAS and 102-DAS. Our results indicated that E-O3 had no significant effects on leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, stomatal length and stomatal density for both Bt-SY63 and SY63. E-O3 increased the leaf thickness of Bt-SY63, but decreased that of SY63. O3 stress caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts, a significant increase in the proportion of total plastoglobule area in the entire cell area (PCAP and a significant decrease in the proportion of total starch grain area in the entire cell area (SCAP, suggesting that E-O3 accelerated the leaf senescence of the two rice genotypes. Compared with SY63, E-O3 caused early swelling of the thylakoids of chloroplasts and more substantial breakdown of chloroplasts in Bt-SY63. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the incorporation of cry1Ab/Ac into SY63 could induce unintentional changes in some parts of plant morphology and that O3 stress results in greater leaf damage to Bt-SY63 than to SY63, with the former coupled with higher O3 sensitivity in CCAP (the proportions of total chloroplast area in the entire cell area, PCAP and SCAP. This study provides valuable baseline information for the prospective

  19. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits.

  20. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits. PMID:26314074

  1. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  2. Can pyramids and seed mixtures delay resistance to Bt crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary strategy for delaying evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) entails refuges of plants that do not produce Bt toxins and thus allow survival of susceptible pests. Recent advances include using refuges together...

  3. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Amina; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Tahir, Sana; Mirza, Safdar Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilisation of Bt crops greatly highlights biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risks caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is a critical issue to be addressed. In agricultural biotechnology, the goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of a genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on the ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide during the last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non-target organisms (NTOs). The NTOs include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and humans. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non-target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarised in the form of the current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events, although critical risk assessments are still needed before commercialisation of these crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26857894

  4. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Amina; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Tahir, Sana; Mirza, Safdar Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilisation of Bt crops greatly highlights biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risks caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is a critical issue to be addressed. In agricultural biotechnology, the goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of a genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on the ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide during the last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non-target organisms (NTOs). The NTOs include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and humans. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non-target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarised in the form of the current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events, although critical risk assessments are still needed before commercialisation of these crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The impact of common smut(Ustilago maydis) on aflatoxin and fumonisin in transgenic Bt and non-Bt maize (Zea mays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis (common smut), produces galls that are valued food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Field studies conducted in Elizabeth, Mississippi used near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin were determined ...

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cauliflower: optimization of protocol and development of Bt-transgenic cauliflower

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Chakrabarty; N Viswakarma; S R Bhat; P B Kirti; B D Singh; V L Chopra

    2002-09-01

    A number of factors that are known to influence genetic transformation were evaluated to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl explants of cauliflower variety Pusa Snowball K-1. The binary vector p35SGUSINT mobilized into Agrobacterium strain GV2260 was used for transformation and transient GUS expression was used as the basis for identifying the most appropriate conditions for transformation. Explant age, preculture period, bacterial strain and density were found to be critical determinants of transformation efficiency. Using the optimized protocol, the synthetic cryIA(b) gene was mobilized into cauliflower. Molecular analyses of transgenics established the integration and expression of the transgene. Insect bioassays indicated the effectiveness of the transgene against infestation by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae.

  7. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  8. Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment; 1 non-Bt control maize diet or 2 Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ~143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment. Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05, while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05 in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05, while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05 in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4(+CD8(+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05. Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment.

  9. Tritrophic choice experiments with Bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, T.H.; Potting, R.P.J.; Denholm, I.; Clark, S.J.; Clark, A.J.; Stewart, C.N.; Poppy, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely

  10. Transgenic plants in the biopharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Richard M; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer

    2005-02-01

    Many of our 'small-molecule-drugs' are natural products from plants, or are synthetic compounds based on molecules found naturally in plants. However, the vast majority of the protein therapeutics (or biopharmaceuticals) we use are from animal or human sources, and are produced commercially in microbial or mammalian bioreactor systems. Over the last few years, it has become clear that plants have great potential for the production of human proteins and other protein-based therapeutic entities. Plants offer the prospect of inexpensive biopharmaceutical production without sacrificing product quality or safety, and following the success of several plant-derived technical proteins, the first therapeutic products are now approaching the market. In this review, the different plant-based production systems are discussed and the merits of transgenic plants are evaluated compared with other platforms. A detailed discussion is provided of the development issues that remain to be addressed before plants become an acceptable mainstream production technology. The many different proteins that have already been produced using plants are described, and a sketch of the current market and the activities of the key players is provided. Despite the currently unclear regulatory framework and general industry inertia, the benefits of plant-derived pharmaceuticals are now bringing the prospect of inexpensive veterinary and human medicines closer than ever before. PMID:15757412

  11. Expression of complete metabolic pathways in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Zaltsman, Adi; King, Lisa; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering emerged as a methodology to introduce only few transgenes into the plant genome. Following fast-paced developments of the past few decades, engineering of much larger numbers of transgenes became a reality, allowing to introduce full metabolic pathways from other organisms into plants and generate transgenics with startling new traits. From the advent of the classical plant genetic engineering, the transgenes were introduced into the nuclear genome of the plant cell, and this strategy still is quite successful when applied to few transgenes. However, for introducing large number of transgenes, we advocate that the chloroplast genome is a superior choice, especially for engineering of new complete metabolic pathways into plants. The ability to genetically engineer plants with complex and fully functional metabolic pathways from other organisms bears a substantial promise in generation of pharmaceuticals, i.e., biopharming, and new agricultural crops with that traits never existed before, leading to enhancement in quality of human life. PMID:22616478

  12. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing synthetic Cry1Ac and Cry1le genes are more toxic to cotton bollworm than those containing one gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Yun; JIA ZhiWei; HE KangLai; LIU YunJun; SONG FuPing; WANG BaoMin; WANG GuoYing

    2008-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1Ac, Crylle or both genes were obtained. In the leaves of transgenic plants carrying both genes, the contents of CrylAc and Cry1le proteins were 0.173% and 0.131% of the total proteins, respectively, Cry1Ac protein content was 0.182 % and Cry1le protein con-tent was 0.124% of the total proteins in the leaves of transgenic plants containing only one Bt gone. Fresh leaves of transgenic tobacco and wild-type plants were used for the insect bioassay against wild-type and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The bioassay results showed that transgenic plants carrying both genes were significantly more toxic to wild-type and Cry1Ac-resistant cotton bollworm than those carrying Cry1Ac or Cry1le alone. This study indicates that the higher toxicity of transgenic tobacco plants carrying both genes is caused by the cooperative function of both Bt proteins, thus providing a potential way to delay the development of insect resis-tance to transgenic crops.

  13. Obtaining High Pest-resistant Tobacco Plants Carrying B.t. insecticidal Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To increase the expression level of CryIA(c) gene in transgenic plants, a plant expression vector pBinMoBc carrying the CryIA(c) gene under control of chimeric OM promoter and Ω factor was constructed. As a control, pBinoBc carrying the CryIA(c) gene with the CaMV 35S promoter was also constructed. The vectors were transferred into tobacco plants respectively via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. ELISA assay showed that the expression level of the CryIA(c) gene in pBinMoBc transgenic tobacco plants was 2.44-times that in pBinoBc transgenic tobacco plants, and it could be up to 0.255% of total soluble proteins. Bioassay showed that pBinMoBc transgenic tobacco plants had more notable insecticidal effect than pBinoBc transgenic tobacco plants. The above results showed that the chimeric OM promoter was a stronger promoter than CaMV 35S promoter that was widely used in plant genetic engineering, and this is very useful in pest-resistant plant genetic engineering.

  14. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  15. Advances in effects of insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops on soil ecology%转Bt基因作物释放杀虫晶体蛋白对土壤生态安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周学永; 刘宁; 赵曼; 李河; 周浪; 唐宗文; 曹斐; 李巍

    2011-01-01

    With the large scale cultivation of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensi.s (Bt) insecticidal crystal proteins in the world, the problem of environmental safety caused by these Bt crops has received extensive attention.These insecticidal crystal proteins can be released into the soil continuously in the growing period of Bt plants.If their accumulation of the insecticidal crystal proteins exceeds consumption by insect larvae and degradation by the environmental factors,these insecticidal crystal proteins could constitute a hazard to non-target insects and soil microbiota.There are three main ways to release insecticidal crystal proteins into soil for Bt plants: root exudates, pollen falling, and crop reside retuming.The Bt insecticidal crystal proteins released into soil can be adsorbed rapidly by active soil particles and the absorption equilibrium attained within l-3 h.The adsorption protects Bt insecticidal crystal proteins against soil microbial degradation or enzyme degradation, which leads to remarkable prolong of the persistence of insecticidal activity.The change of soil microorganism species is an important index for evaluating the effect of Bt plants on soil ecology.The research showed that these insecticidal crystal proteins released by the Bt plant root exudates or Bt organism had no toxicity to the soil earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria and fungi; however, it could reduce the mycelium length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and restrain AMF to form mvasion unit.The influencing degree of Bt protein on soil enzyme activity varied with the releasing modes or growth period of Bt crops.Bt CryIAb protein can be taken up from soil by parts of following crops; however, different results were obtained with different commercial kits.To better understand the soil ecological evaluation about the insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops, this review provides a comprehensive overview about the release, adsorption

  16. Spatio-temporal Expression of Foreign Bt Insecticidal Protein in Transgenic Bt Cotton Varieties in Northern Xinjiang Province, China%新疆北部地区转Bt基因棉外源杀虫蛋白表达时空动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 李海强; 丁瑞丰; 汪飞; 李号宾; 徐遥; 阿克旦·吾外士; 刘建

    2012-01-01

    To study the spatial and temporal expression of Bt insecticidal protein in transgenic Bt cotton planted in northern Xinjiang Province, Bt insecticidal protein levels in four transgenic Bt cotton varieties (CCRI 43, GK62, GK19, sGK321), were quantitatively tested and compared during different developmental periods in 2009 and 2010, using the ELISA method. Trends in the spatio-temporal expression of Bt insecticidal protein were basically consistent between 2009 and 2010, although the expression amount was different, and some varieties had significant differentiation. Bt insecticidal protein levels varied with organs and developmental periods. The Bt insecticidal protein content gradually decreased with cotton development. The Bt insecticidal protein content of the cotyledon was the highest, and levels in the tender leaves during the cotyledon period, the three-leaf period, and the seven-leaf period were higher than those in the tender leaves, squares, petals and young bolls during the squaring period, flowering period, boiling period, respectivesly. Bt insecticidal protein levels in squares during the squaring period were higher than those in the flowering period and boiling period, and the levels in petals during the flowering period were higher than those during the boiling period. In the squaring period, the tender leaves had more Bt insecticidal protein than the squares; but in the flowering period, the squares had more Bt insecticidal protein than the tender leaves or the petals. In the boiling period, Bt insecticidal protein levels in tender leaves and squares were higher than those in petals and young bolls. The expression level of Bt in-secticidal protein in transgenic Bt cotton can thus be influenced by the kind of organ, the developmental period, variety, and planting season.%为研究新疆北部地区转Bt基因棉外源杀虫蛋白时空表达规律,2009年和2010年以中棉所43、GK62、 GK19和sGK321等4个转Bt基因抗虫棉为试验材料,利

  17. Growth, productivity, and competitiveness of introgressed weedy Brassica rapa hybrids selected for the presence of Bt cry1Ac and gfp transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Sutherland, Jamie P; Moon, Hong Seok; Poppy, Guy M; Warwick, Suzanne I; Weissinger, Arthur K; Rufty, Thomas W; Raymer, Paul L; Stewart, C Neal

    2005-09-01

    Concerns exist that transgenic crop x weed hybrid populations will be more vigorous and competitive with crops compared with the parental weed species. Hydroponic, glasshouse, and field experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of introgression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ac and green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenes on hybrid productivity and competitiveness in four experimental Brassica rapa x transgenic Brassica napus hybrid generations (F1, BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC2F2). The average vegetative growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of transgenic hybrid generations grown under high N hydroponic conditions were lower than that of the weed parent (Brassica rapa, AA, 2n = 20), but similar to the transgenic crop parent, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38). No generational differences were detected under low N conditions. In two noncompetitive glasshouse experiments, both transgenic and nontransgenic BC2F2 hybrids had on average less vegetative growth and seed production than B. rapa. In two high intraspecific competition field experiments with varied herbivore pressure, BC2F2 hybrids produced less vegetative dry weight than B. rapa. The competitive ability of transgenic and nontransgenic BC2F2 hybrids against a neighbouring crop species were quantified in competition experiments that assayed wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield reductions under agronomic field conditions. The hybrids were the least competitive with wheat compared with parental Brassica competitors, although differences between transgenic and nontransgenic hybrids varied with location. Hybridization, with or without transgene introgression, resulted in less productive and competitive populations. PMID:16101783

  18. Development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on pollen from Bt-transgenic and conventional maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Zünd, Jan; Waldburger, Mario; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) pollen is highly nutritious and can be used by predatory arthropods to supplement or replace a carnivorous diet. We demonstrate that maize pollen can be utilized by larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions. Complete development on maize pollen was not possible, but 25% of neonates reached the third instar. When only one instar was fed with pollen and the other two instars with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), 58-87% of the larvae reached the pupal stage. The experiments included pollen produced by nine cultivars: three genetically modified (GM) cultivars expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1, their corresponding non-transformed near-isolines, and three conventional cultivars. Maize cultivars were grown in two batches in a glasshouse. Their pollen differed by up to 59% in total protein content, 25% in C:N ratio, and 14% in grain diameter, but the differences were inconsistent and depended on the batch. Lacewing performance was not affected by maize cultivar. For environmental risk assessment of GM plants, in planta studies must consider the variability among conventional cultivars, individual plants, batches, and environmental conditions when evaluating the ecological significance of differences observed between GM and near-isolines. PMID:25082074

  19. Production of Drought and Salt Tolerant Transgenic Cereal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Garg; R. Wu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Genetic transformation of cereal plants is a powerful method for producing agronomically useful transgenic plants. Salt and drought stress result in substantial yield losses, which amounts to many billions of dollars each year.

  20. Hybridization between transgenic and wild plants: environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified products are widely commercialized in agricultural production. These include resistant plants to diseases, insects or herbicides, plants with capacity for longer storing times or better nutritional quality. However, there are some concerns and critics from environmental organizations on the risk associated to transgenic plants or organisms genetically modified (OGM. This review discusses the vertical gene transfer (plant/Plant within the OGM context. Although transgenic hybrids have been reported between transgenic plants and their wild relatives, the extent of the environmental risk has not been evaluated per se. The risk depends on the plant species involved, the transgenes, and the ecosystem where the plants are located. Studies on biosafety assessment must be evaluated case by case. Biotechnology and conventional methods allow to control gen flow and decrease the risk of gene transfer among species.

  1. Use of Bt-resistant caterpillars to assess the effect of Cry proteins on beneficial natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern related to the use of insect-resistant Bt-transgenic plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of important crop pests. A few studies purporting to show negative effects of Bt plants on non-target organisms had tremendous negative effects on the per...

  2. Pyramids of QTLs enhance host–plant resistance and Bt-mediated resistance to leaf-chewing insects in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, María A.; All, John N.; Boerma, H. Roger; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2016-01-01

    Key message QTL-M and QTL-E enhance soybean resistance to insects. Pyramiding these QTLs with cry1Ac increases protection against Bt-tolerant pests, presenting an opportunity to effectively deploy Bt with host–plant resistance genes. Abstract Plant resistance to leaf-chewing insects minimizes the need for insecticide applications, reducing crop production costs and pesticide concerns. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], resistance to a broad range of leaf-chewing insects is found in PI 22935...

  3. [Effect of transgenic plants on biodiversity of agroecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chengrong; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming

    2003-08-01

    The effect of transgenic plants on the biodiversity of agroecosystem is an important environmental issue. There are many researches in this field at home and abroad recently. This paper reviewed the advances of the researches based on three levels of biodiversity as genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. They included following aspects: the effect of insect-resistant transgenic crops on target pest; the effect of herbicide-resistant transgenic crops on crops and wild weedy relatives; the effect of virus-resistant transgenic crops on virus; and the effect of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. This paper also discussed the effect of transgenic crops on soil ecosystem and crop genetic diversity. Their potential risks included uncontrolled flows of genes to wild relatives; development of herbicide, insect, and virus resistance in wild relatives; reduced crop genetic diversity; and adverse effects on organisms that were not pests, such as beneficial insects.

  4. 转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米及其抗虫性研究进展%Transgenic Corn with Bt Toxin Protein Gene and Insect-resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春英; 宋建成

    2001-01-01

    本文从转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米的培育及商品化,Bt毒蛋白基因在转基因玉米中的遗传分离与整合、对玉米螟及其它害虫的杀虫效果、对天敌种群数量和玉米病害发生程度的影响、玉米螟对转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米产生抗性及解决措施、应用转Bt毒蛋白基因玉米潜在的生态风险性等方面对国内外最新研究进展进行了综述。%This review briefly focused on the progress at home and overseas in the study of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene,including the breeding and commercial production of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene,genetic segregation and combination of Bt toxin protein in transgenic corn,insecticidal effect on corn borer and other pests,influence on natural enemy population amount and corn disease,corn borer tolerance to Bt toxic protein gene and countermeasures,and the potential ecological risk of transgenic corn transformed with Bt toxic protein gene.

  5. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  6. The Application of TDZ in Enhancing Regeneration of Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Jia; B. Zhao; X.D. Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ At present, transgenic plants are globally grown. Availability of a reliable regeneration system predominantly from a single transformed cell is the prerequisites for gene transfer, but regeneration is still a key problem (Wenzel, 2006).

  7. Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Astrid T; Dicke, Marcel

    2002-08-01

    So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of insect pest control. However, in plant breeding programmes, natural enemies of herbivores have largely been ignored, although there are many examples that show that plant breeding affects the effectiveness of biological control. Negative influences of modified plant characteristics on carnivorous arthropods may induce population growth of new, even more harmful pest species that had no pest status prior to the pesticide treatment. Sustainable pest management will only be possible when negative effects on non-target, beneficial arthropods are minimized. In this review, we summarize the effects of insect-resistant crops and insect-resistant transgenic crops, especially Bt crops, from a food web perspective. As food web components, we distinguish target herbivores, non-target herbivores, pollinators, parasitoids and predators. Below-ground organisms such as Collembola, nematodes and earthworms should also be included in risk assessment studies, but have received little attention. The toxins produced in Bt plants retain their toxicity when bound to the soil, so accumulation of these toxins is likely to occur. Earthworms ingest the bound toxins but are not affected by them. However, earthworms may function as intermediaries through which the toxins are passed on to other trophic levels. In studies where effects of insect-resistant (Bt) plants on natural enemies were considered, positive, negative and no effects have been found. So far, most studies have concentrated on natural enemies of target herbivores. However, Bt toxins are structurally rearranged when they bind to

  8. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  9. The development and status of Bt rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Hallerman, Eric M; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of transgenic rice expressing insecticidal genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China, posing the prospect of increases in production with decreased application of pesticides. We explore the issues facing adoption of Bt rice for commercial production in China. A body of safety assessment work on Bt rice has shown that Bt rice poses a negligible risk to the environment and that Bt rice products are as safe as non-Bt control rice products as food. China has a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of genetically modified (GM) plants; however, decision-making regarding approval of commercial production has become politicized, and two Bt rice lines that otherwise were ready have not been allowed to enter the Chinese agricultural system. We predict that Chinese farmers would value the prospect of increased yield with decreased use of pesticide and would readily adopt production of Bt rice. That Bt rice lines may not be commercialized in the near future we attribute to social pressures, largely due to the low level of understanding and acceptance of GM crops by Chinese consumers. Hence, enhancing communication of GM crop science-related issues to the public is an important, unmet need. While the dynamics of each issue are particular to China, they typify those in many countries where adoption of GM crops has been not been rapid; hence, the assessment of these dynamics might inform resolution of these issues in other countries.

  10. The development and status of Bt rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Hallerman, Eric M; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of transgenic rice expressing insecticidal genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China, posing the prospect of increases in production with decreased application of pesticides. We explore the issues facing adoption of Bt rice for commercial production in China. A body of safety assessment work on Bt rice has shown that Bt rice poses a negligible risk to the environment and that Bt rice products are as safe as non-Bt control rice products as food. China has a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of genetically modified (GM) plants; however, decision-making regarding approval of commercial production has become politicized, and two Bt rice lines that otherwise were ready have not been allowed to enter the Chinese agricultural system. We predict that Chinese farmers would value the prospect of increased yield with decreased use of pesticide and would readily adopt production of Bt rice. That Bt rice lines may not be commercialized in the near future we attribute to social pressures, largely due to the low level of understanding and acceptance of GM crops by Chinese consumers. Hence, enhancing communication of GM crop science-related issues to the public is an important, unmet need. While the dynamics of each issue are particular to China, they typify those in many countries where adoption of GM crops has been not been rapid; hence, the assessment of these dynamics might inform resolution of these issues in other countries. PMID:26369652

  11. Impact of Transgenic Bt+CpTI Cotton on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microorganisms%转双价棉种植对土壤酶活性及土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 宋晓龙; 皇甫超河; 张贵龙; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2013-01-01

    Due to its strong and effective insecticidal properties, transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton has witnessed an expanding planting area in recent years, and the impact of its cultivation on soil ecosystem becomes an important part of environmental risk assessment. Using transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton sGK321 and its parental homologous conventional cotton Shiyuan 321 as the study objects, a comparative analysis was conducted on the changes in enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase) of the rhizosphere soil and changes in the number of culturable microor-ganisms (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) at different growth stages (seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage, and bol opening stage) of sGK321 and Shiyuan 321 under the condition of 13 years field plantings. The results showed that, the populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete and the soil enzyme activi-ties of urease, alkaline phosphatase and catalase had a similar variation trend along with the cotton growing process for transgenic cotton and conventional cotton. Some occasional and inconsistent effects on soil enzyme activities and soil fungi composi-tion in the rhizosphere soil of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton were found at the seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage as compared with that of conventional cotton. The amount of bacteria and actinomycetes were not significantly different during a certain stage; however, the activities of urease, catalase, alkaline phos-phatase, also with the number of fungi were significantly different, e.g. the urease activities at seedling stage, the alkaline phosphatase at seedling and budding stages, and the soil culturable fungi at flower and bol stage were less than that of conven-tional cotton, while the soil alkaline phosphatase activities at flower and bol stage were higher. Cluster analysis showed that soil enzyme activities and microbial popu-lation changed mainly along the growth processes, suffering little from the planting of

  12. Field assessment of Bt cry1Ah corn pollen on the survival, development and behavior of Apis mellifera ligustica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping-Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Hong-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Wei-Yu; Sun, Ji-Hu; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2012-05-01

    Honeybees may be exposed to insecticidal proteins from transgenic plants via pollen. An assessment of the impact of such exposures on the honeybee is an essential part of the risk assessment process for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of transgenic Bt cry1Ah corn on the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Colonies of honeybees were moved to Bt or non-Bt corn fields during anthesis and then sampled to record their survival, development and behavior. No differences in immature stages, worker survival, bee body weight, hypopharyngeal gland weight, colony performance, foraging activity or olfactory learning abilities were detected between colonies that were placed in non-Bt corn fields and those placed in Bt corn fields. We conclude that cry1Ah corn carries no risk for the survival, development, colony performance or behavior of the honeybee A. mellifera ligustica. PMID:22364780

  13. Bt cry1Ah/cry1Ie双价基因抗虫玉米的研究%Studies on Insect-resistant Transgenic Maize (Zea mays L.) Harboring Bt cry1Ah and cry1Ie Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨召军; 郎志宏; 张杰; 宋福平; 何康来; 黄大昉

    2012-01-01

    构建了含有人工改造的抗虫基因Bt cry1Ah、cry1Ie和耐除草剂基因2mG2-epsps的植物表达载体pMUHUESGM,利用基因枪法将表达盒片段转化玉米愈伤组织,以2mG2-epsps基因为筛选标记基因,经草甘膦异丙胺盐筛选获得24株T0代再生植株,其中PCR检测阳性植株有20株.T0和T1代植株的分子检测结果证明了外源基因已经整合到玉米基因组中并能够稳定遗传和表达,转基因株系在田间生物活性检测中表现出较好的抗虫性,这为培育抗虫玉米新品种提供了参考,同时本研究中采用了基因枪片段转化法,提高了转基因的生物安全性.%A plant expression vector pMUHUESGM harboring modified Bt cry1Ah gene,Bt cryl Ie gene and glyphosate-tolerant 2mG2-epsps gene was constructed. The foreign genes cassette of the vector pMUHUESGM was transferred into maize (Zea mays L. ) immature embryonic calli by mieroprojectile bombardment. Twenty-four T0 regenerated plants were obtained with 2mG2-epsps gene as a selectable marker gene and glyphosate isopropylamine salt as a screening agent. PCR analysis showed that 20 plants had the integration of cryIAh,crylle and 2mG2-epsps genes. T0 and T1 generation plants' molecular detection showed that foreign genes had been not only integrated into the maize genome,but also inherited and expressed stably over generations in maize. Bioassay revealed that transgenic events had high resistance to Asia corn borer. These results provided reference for breeding of new insect-resistant maize,moreover fragment transformation improved biosafety of genetically modified organisms.

  14. Effect of Cry1Ab protein on rhizobacterial communities of Bt-maize over a four-year cultivation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Barriuso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bt-maize is a transgenic variety of maize expressing the Cry toxin from Bacillus turingiensis. The potential accumulation of the relative effect of the transgenic modification and the cry toxin on the rhizobacterial communities of Bt-maize has been monitored over a period of four years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The accumulative effects of the cultivation of this transgenic plant have been monitored by means of high throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the bacterial DNA coding for the 16S rRNA hypervariable V6 region from rhizobacterial communities. The obtained sequences were subjected to taxonomic, phylogenetic and taxonomic-independent diversity studies. The results obtained were consistent, indicating that variations detected in the rhizobacterial community structure were possibly due to climatic factors rather than to the presence of the Bt-gene. No variations were observed in the diversity estimates between non-Bt and Bt-maize. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cultivation of Bt-maize during the four-year period did not change the maize rhizobacterial communities when compared to those of the non-Bt maize. This is the first study to be conducted with Bt-maize during such a long cultivation period and the first evaluation of rhizobacterial communities to be performed in this transgenic plant using Next Generation Sequencing.

  15. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera, which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  16. From transgene expression to public acceptance of transgenic plants: a matter of predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynárová, L.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    A good strategy for acceptable legislation of transgenic plants can be thought to be composed of several stacked levels of decision-making. These levels range from global to individual to cellular to nuclear and beyond. Any decision will depend on decisions made on the level below. Various examples

  17. Impacts of Environmental Factors on Degradation of Cry1Ab Insecticidal Protein in Leaf-Blade Powders of Transgenic Bt Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yao-yu; JIANG Ming-xing; CHENG Jia-an

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the environmental fate of Bt insecticidal protein released by Bt rice plants in paddy soils is a key issue in its ecological risk assessment. In this study, the impacts of soil water content, pH, and temperature on the degradation of Cry1Ab protein expressed in the leaves of Bt rice KMD2 were studied in the laboratory. Three types of paddy soils were used, i.e., blue clayey paddy soil, pale paddy soil on quaternary red soil, and marine-fluvigenic yellow loamy paddy soil. Ground powders of KMD2 leaf blades were mixed with each type of soil, and degradation dynamics of Cry1Ab were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The degradation rate of Cry1Ab was high at the early experimental stage, but slowed down steadily at middle and later stages, which could be described by exponential equations, with the half-life period of degradation determined as 1.8-4.0 d. The soil water content, pH, and temperature could affect the degradation of Cry1Ab, but the effects of soil pH and temperature were relatively greater. In general,Cry 1 Ab degradations were slower under lower soil pH and temperature conditions, especially for marine-fluvigenic yellow loamy paddy soil.

  18. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  19. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  20. Production and identification of salt_tolerant transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@To relieve the damage of salt to the cell, many plants accumulated some low_molecular weight organic compounds, which were called osmoprotectant, such as betaine, mannitol, and sorbitol. Therefore if the gene_encoding enzyme responsible for synthesizing the osmoprotectant was transformed into rice plants, the salt_tolerance capacity of the transgenic plants would be increased, and the enormous loss caused by salinization of soil would be reduced.

  1. Spatial distribution of Aglais urticae (L.) and its host plant Urtica dioica (L.) in an agricultural landscape: implications for Bt maize risk assessment and post-market monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathmann, Achim; Wirooks, Ludger; Eckert, Jörg; Schuphan, Ingolf

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decades, genes of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) (Bt) coding for protein toxins have been engineered into maize for protection against the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.)). However, these transgenic plants may have an impact on non-target organisms. In particular, a potential hazard was identified for non-target lepidopteran larvae, if they consume Bt maize pollen on their host plants. Risk can be defined as a function of the effect of an event (hazard) and the likelihood of this event occurring. Although data on toxicity (hazard) are available from many lab and field studies, knowledge about the environmental exposure of European lepidopteran larvae is incomplete at the population level. Therefore we studied the distribution of small tortoiseshell caterpillars (Aglais urticae (L.)) and its host plant in an agricultural landscape in Germany, to estimate the potential population exposure to maize pollen. The results showed that larvae of the small tortoiseshell developed primarily on freshly sprouted nettle stands (Urtica dioica (L.)) in field margins, rather than adjacent to hedges and groves. However, the main distribution was at margins of cereal (non-maize) fields, where 70% of all larvae were found. This may be due the fact that cereals covered 54% of the survey area, while maize only covered 6.1%. On the other hand, maize fields seem so show higher food plant densities than cereal crops. The results must be interpreted carefully, as the data basis of the present study is very small, and the situation can vary between years due to crop rotation or other changes in agricultural practices. Therefore it is still questionable whether the small tortoiseshell is significantly exposed to maize pollen. For a conclusive risk assessment, more replications and surveys of larger areas in different intensively managed agricultural landscapes over several years are needed. PMID:16978572

  2. [Comparison between transgenic insect-resistant cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein and its parental variety in rhizospheric fungal diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Gang; Jiao, Hai-Hua; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Qi, Hong-Yan; Ma, An-Zhou; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Hong-xun

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of rhizospheric fungal diversity and biomass at different sampling stages associated with two transgenic insectresistant cottons expressing Cry1Ac protein and their control varieties were studied under greenhouse conditions, followed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), in order to evaluate the ecological security of planting transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein. The results indicated that the fungal superior bands in rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton were similar with that of control cotton at four sampling stages, the more obvious difference in the blurred bands among transgenic Bt cotton, JM20 and SHIYUAN321 was detected. The rhizospheric fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 was significantly lower than that of its parental control cotton at seedling stage, while the slight decrease in fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton XP188 was detected at boll forming stage, the ill-defined decrease, even growing tendency in two transgenic Bt cottons was detected at other stages. However, the difference of rhizospheric fungal community compositions and biomass was not only existed between transgenic cotton and its control, but also between SHIYUAN321 and JM20, and the same phenomenon was also detected between transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 and XP188. Hence, Bt protein is not the only incentive resulting in the difference in fungal community composition and diversity, the decrease in biomass between transgenic cotton and untransgenic cotton, different cotton varieties has an effect on them. PMID:25639113

  3. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  4. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  5. Soil microbial biomass and root growth in Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Broughton, K.; Knox, O. G.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has had a substantial impact on pest management in the cotton industry. While there has been substantial research done on the impact of Bt on the above-ground parts of the cotton plant, less is known about the effect of Bt genes on below ground growth of cotton and soil microbial biomass. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that Bt [Sicot 80 BRF (Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex®)] and non-Bt [Sicot 80 RRF (Roundup Ready Flex®)] transgenic cotton varieties differ in root growth and root turnover, carbon indices and microbial biomass. A field experiment was conducted in Narrabri, north-western NSW. The experimental layout was a randomised block design and used minirhizotron and core break and root washing methods to measure cotton root growth and turnover during the 2008/09 season. Root growth in the surface 0-0.1 m of the soil was measured using the core break and root washing methods, and that in the 0.1 to 1 m depth was measured with a minirhizotron and an I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to calculate root length per unit area, root carbon added to the soil through intra-seasonal root death, carbon in roots remaining at the end of the season and root carbon potentially added to the soil. Microbial biomass was also measured using the ninhydrin reactive N method. Root length densities and length per unit area of non-Bt cotton were greater than Bt cotton. There were no differences in root turnover between Bt and non-Bt cotton at 0-1 m soil depth, indicating that soil organic carbon stocks may not be affected by cotton variety. Cotton variety did not have an effect on soil microbial biomass. The results indicate that while there are differences in root morphology between Bt and non-Bt cotton, these do not change the carbon turnover dynamics in the soil.

  6. Insect-Resistant and Glyphosate-Tolerant Transgenic Maize Transformed by Bt cry1Ah and 2mG2-epsps Genes%转Bt cry1Ah/2mG2-epsps双价基因抗虫/耐除草剂玉米研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫福霞; 郎志宏; 张杰; 陆伟; 何康来; 黄大昉

    2012-01-01

    构建了含有Bt杀虫基因cry1Ah和耐草甘膦基因2mG2-epsps的双价植物表达载体pMAGUHM,通过基因枪轰击Q31×Z31杂交组合的胚性愈伤组织,以2mG2-epsps为筛选标记,通过1 mmo1/L草甘膦异丙胺盐筛选,获得TO代转化植株80株,其中PCR检测有36株为阳性植株,阳性率达45%.对得到的阳性植株的T1、T2代进行了跟踪检测,证明外源基因已整合到玉米基因组中并正确表达.草甘膦及玉米螟抗性检测结果表明,有5个转基因品系表现出具有耐草甘膦和抗虫的双重特性.%A bivalent plant expression vector pMAGUHM expressing the modified Bt cry 1 Ah gene and giyphosate-tolerant 2mG2-epsps gene was constructed and transformed into Zea mays L. calli Q31 ×Z31 hybrid by microprejec-tile bombardment. Using the 2mG2-epspsgene as a selective marker,eighty glyphosate-tolerant maize plantlets were selected by 1 mmol/L glyphosate- isopropylammonium, and thirty-six glyphosate-tolerant maize plantlets were confirmed transgenic plants by PCR analysis. The positive rate was 45%. Further analysis was performed on the Tl and T2 generation and it was confirmed that Bt cry 1 Ah gene and 2mG2-epsps gene had been integrated into the maize genome and expressed successfully.The bioassay of corn borer (Pyramid nubilalis Hubern) resistance and glypho-sate tolerance indicated that five transgenic lines showed both glyphosate tolerant and insect resistant traits.

  7. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commerci

  8. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  9. Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Gryspeirt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA. This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable.

  10. Transgenic plants and biosafety: science, misconceptions and public perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C N; Richards, H A; Halfhill, M D

    2000-10-01

    One usually thinks of plant biology as a non-controversial topic, but the concerns raised over the biosafety of genetically modified (GM) plants have reached disproportionate levels relative to the actual risks. While the technology of changing the genome of plants has been gradually refined and increasingly implemented, the commercialization of GM crops has exploded. Today's commercialized transgenic plants have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation or gene gun-mediated transformation. Recently, incremental improvements of biotechnologies, such as the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a selectable marker, have been developed. Non-transformation genetic modification technologies such as chimeraplasty will be increasingly used to more precisely modify germplasm. In spite of the increasing knowledge about genetic modification of plants, concerns over ecological and food biosafety have escalated beyond scientific rationality. While several risks associated with GM crops and foods have been identified, the popular press, spurred by colorful protest groups, has left the general public with a sense of imminent danger. Reviewed here are the risks that are currently under research. Ecological biosafety research has identified potential risks associated with certain crop/transgene combinations, such as intra- and interspecific transgene flow, persistence and the consequences of transgenes in unintended hosts. Resistance management strategies for insect resistance transgenes and non-target effects of these genes have also been studied. Food biosafety research has focused on transgenic product toxicity and allergenicity. However, an estimated 3.5 x 10(12) transgenic plants have been grown in the U.S. in the past 12 years, with over two trillion being grown in 1999 and 2000 alone. These large numbers and the absence of any negative reports of compromised biosafety indicate that genetic modification by biotechnology poses no immediate or

  11. Transgenic Plants as Sensors of Environmental Pollution Genotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological development is inevitably associated with many environmental problems which primarily include pollution of soil, water and air. In many cases, the presence of contamination is difficult to assess. It is even more difficult to evaluate its potential danger to the environment and humans. Despite the existence of several whole organism-based and cell-based models of sensing pollution and evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity, there is no ideal system that allows one to make a quick and cheap assessment. In this respect, transgenic organisms that can be intentionally altered to be more sensitive to particular pollutants are especially promising. Transgenic plants represent an ideal system, since they can be grown at the site of pollution or potentially dangerous sites. Plants are ethically more acceptable and esthetically more appealing than animals as sensors of environmental pollution. In this review, we will discuss various transgenic plant-based models that have been successfully used for biomonitoring genotoxic pollutants. We will also discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of these systems and describe some novel ideas for the future generation of efficient transgenic phytosensors.

  12. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke;

    2014-01-01

    Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root...... of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either......-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention....

  13. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Memari Trava; Mauro Sartori Bueno; Geraldo Balieiro

    2012-01-01

    Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis) that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day) and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA) of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Scienc...

  14. Field trials to evaluate the effects of transgenic cry1Ie maize on the community characteristics of arthropod natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingfei; He, Kanglai; Hellmich, Richard L; Bai, Shuxiong; Zhang, Tiantao; Liu, Yunjun; Ahmed, Tofael; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-02-26

    Possible non-target effect of transgenic cry1Ie maize exerts on natural enemy community biodiversity in the field is unresolved. In the present study, a 2-yr comparison of transgenic cry1Ie maize (Event IE09S034, Bt maize) and its near isoline (Zong 31, non-Bt maize) on natural enemy community biodiversity were compared with whole plant inspections, pitfall traps and suction sampler. Natural enemy diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener', Simpson's and Pielou's index) and abundance suggested there were no significant differences between the two types of maize. The only exceptions were the Pielou's index for whole plant inspections in 2013 and abundance for pitfall traps in 2012, which were significantly higher in Bt maize than those of non-Bt maize. The main species of natural enemies were identical in Bt and non-Bt maize plots for each method and the three methods combined. For whole plant inspections, Bt maize had no time-dependent effect on the entire arthropod natural enemy community, and also no effect on community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt maize plots. These results suggested that despite the presence of a relatively minor difference in natural enemy communities between Bt and non-Bt maize, transgenic cry1Ie maize had little, if any, effect on natural enemy community biodiversity.

  15. Feasibility of landmine detection using transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyholos, Michael; Faust, Anthony A.; Miao, Minmin; Montoya, Rebecca; Donahue, D. Aaron

    2006-05-01

    Genetically modified plants that detect TNT and its degradation products are potentially powerful aids in humanitarian demining and detection of unexploded ordnance. Although the feasibility of TNT detection by plants and microorganisms has been demonstrated by several research teams world wide, thus far, none of these previously demonstrated systems has the sensitivity and specificity to be effective under field conditions. We are using two approaches to increase the potential effectiveness of these and related biological detection systems. First, we are expanding the repertoire of explosive-responsive promoters by conducting DNA microarray experiments with plants treated with TNT-degradation products, and characterizing the inducibility of reporter gene expression by these promoters. Second, we are evaluating the dynamics and limiting factors in the transmission of artificial signals from roots to shoots. This will increase the ability of soil-based TNT perception strategies to effect human-readable changes in shoot morphology as part of a practical plant-based explosives detection system.

  16. In situ methods to localize transgenes and transcripts in interphase nuclei: a tool for transgenic plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic engineering of commercially important crops has become routine in many laboratories. However, the inability to predict where a transgene will integrate and to efficiently select plants with stable levels of transgenic expression remains a limitation of this technology. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a powerful technique that can be used to visualize transgene integration sites and provide a better understanding of transgene behavior. Studies using FISH to characterize transgene integration have focused primarily on metaphase chromosomes, because the number and position of integration sites on the chromosomes are more easily determined at this stage. However gene (and transgene expression occurs mainly during interphase. In order to accurately predict the activity of a transgene, it is critical to understand its location and dynamics in the three-dimensional interphase nucleus. We and others have developed in situ methods to visualize transgenes (including single copy genes and their transcripts during interphase from different tissues and plant species. These techniques reduce the time necessary for characterization of transgene integration by eliminating the need for time-consuming segregation analysis, and extend characterization to the interphase nucleus, thus increasing the likelihood of accurate prediction of transgene activity. Furthermore, this approach is useful for studying nuclear organization and the dynamics of genes and chromatin.

  17. 转Bt基因玉米叶片中Bt蛋白的表达和分泌研究%Study on Expression and Exudation of Bt Protein in Leaves of Transgenic Insect- resistant Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓燕; 赵蕾; 孙红炜; 李凡; 赵辉; 颜世磊; 路兴波

    2012-01-01

    With the transgenic insect - resistant corn Mon810 and its non - transgenic parent as materials , the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) method was used to detect the expression and quanti-tate the exudation of Bt protein in corn leaves. The results showed that Bt protein could be detected in tissue and on surface of leaves. The Bt content in tissues showed a rising trend from seedling stage to silking stage with the advances of vegetable growth, and reached the peak at the silking stage and then declined gradually. The variation of Bt exudation on leaf surface had no obvious regularity.%以转Bt玉米Mon810及其亲本非转基因玉米为研究对象,通过酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)定量检测Mon810玉米叶中Bt蛋白表达量和叶表Bt蛋白分泌量,结果表明叶组织和叶表均可检测到Bt蛋白,组织内Bt蛋白量从苗期到抽丝期随着植株营养生长的加快呈上升趋势,至抽丝期达到顶峰,之后逐渐降低;叶表Bt蛋白分泌量变化无明显规律性.

  18. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Vögel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO. NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software, which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica growing adjacent to maize fields.

  19. Research of the event-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of transgenic maize Bt176%转基因玉米Bt176品系特异性环介导等温扩增检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌莉; 刘静宇; 易敏英; 吴少云; 刘津; 蔡颖; 李志勇; 高东微

    2013-01-01

    根据转基因玉米品系Bt176外源插入片段与玉米基因组序列设计和筛选品系特异性引物,并对反应体系和反应条件进行优化,最终建立转基因玉米品系Bt176的品系特异性LAMP检测方法.对该方法进行了灵敏度、特异性和稳定性评价.评价结果表明:该方法定性检测低限为0.5%,特异性和稳定性均达到100%.%According to the exogenous insert sequences of the transgenic maize event Bt176 connected with the maize genome sequences,the event specific primers were designed and screened as well as the reaction system and the parameters were optimized. An event specific loop - mediatec isothermal amplification method for the detection of transgenic maize event Bt176 was established in this paper.Moreover,an evaluation of this method on its specificity,sensitivity and stability was performed.The evaluation results showed the LOD of 0.5% ,and both the specificity and stability of 100%.

  20. Wirkung von Ernterückständen transgener Pflanzen auf die mikrobielle C- und N-Transformation in landwirtschaftlich genutzten Böden am Beispiel von Bt-Mais

    OpenAIRE

    Roose, Katja

    2006-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ging es um die Erarbeitung, Anwendung und Beurteilung von quantitativen Analysenverfahren / Methoden für ein Monitoring von durch Bt-Mais verursachbaren Umwelteffekten im Boden. Die Ausgangsthese besagte, dass sich transgene Maisstreu beim mikrobiellen Abbau anders verhält als konventionelle. Bezugnehmend auf die These wurden zwei Freilandversuche (Freilandmikrokosmenmethode nach Raubuch 1997 über 2 Jahre, Quantifizierung des Maisstreuabbaus mit Hilfe kleiner Bodens...

  1. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  2. Effects of transgenic Bt (Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac) rice on the population development of Plodia interpunctella%转Bt基因稻谷对印度谷螟生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海燕; 王振华; 华红霞; 高艮亮; 蔡万伦; 杨长举

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the transgenic Bt rice CrylAb/ CrylAc gene on the feeding of Plodia interpunctella ( Hlibner)on stored rice was investigated. Population parameters of P. Interpunctella were investigated after adding different ratios (70% , 50% , 30% , 10% ) of transgenic Bt rice flour into a conventional artificial diet at 30°C. And RH75%. The content of Bt protein in 3rd instar larva and the transgenic Bt rice grain was measured using the ELISA method. The results show that significant mortality of 1" instar larva was observed 72 h after feeding on Bt rice flour. Larval mortality rates and development time increased significantly as the content of transgenic Bt rice flour in the artificial diet increased. For research purposes, 2. 35 u.g/g was the optimal sub-lethal dose of Cryl Ab/Cryl Ac protein for P. Interpunctella.%为建立仓储阶段转Bt水稻安全性评价中靶标害虫抗性汰选研究体系,配制了含不同比例(70%,50%,30%,10%)转Bt基因(Cry1Ab/Cry IAbc)明辉63水稻谷粉(简称Bt谷粉)的人工饲料饲喂印度谷螟Plodiainterpunctella (Hübner),测定其对1~3龄幼虫在72 h内的急性毒力,及对印度谷螟种群生长发育的影响,并采用ELISA法检测转基因稻谷和末龄幼虫体内Bt蛋白含量.结果发现:4种比例人工饲料对幼虫的毒力作用均发生在取食48 h后,72 h后剂量效应明显.含Bt水稻较高比例的饲料对印度谷螟发育的负面效应明显:幼虫死亡率高,发育历期延长.Bt蛋白在幼虫体内含量与对应饲料中的含量基本成正比.综合考虑,将Bt杀虫蛋白含量2.35 μg/g作为转Bt基因稻谷对印度谷螟的亚致死剂量最为合适.

  3. Immunogenicity of transgenic plant-derived hepatitis B surface antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Thanavala, Y; Yang, Y. F.; Lyons, P; Mason, H S; Arntzen, C

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the Children's Vaccine Initiative is to encourage the discovery of technology that will make vaccines more readily available to developing countries. Our strategy has been to genetically engineer plants so that they can be used as inexpensive alternatives to fermentation systems for production of subunit antigens. In this paper we report on the immunological response elicited in vivo by using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) purified from transgenic tobacco leaves...

  4. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Longdou; Gao Wu Jun; Wang Jingxue; Duan Hongying; Li Ruili

    2005-01-01

    The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation o...

  5. FROM Qutn TO Bt COTTON: DEVELOPMENT, ADOPTION AND PROSPECTS. A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies. PMID:26841496

  6. The end of a myth—Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E.; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies. PMID:25161661

  7. The end of a myth-Bt (Cry1Ab) maize does not harm green lacewings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Naranjo, Steven E; Li, Yunhe; Bigler, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt maize harms beneficial species. We provide a comprehensive review of the studies evaluating the effects of Bt (Cry1Ab) maize on C. carnea. The evidence indicates that this important predator is not affected by Bt maize or by the produced Cry1Ab protein. We discuss how conceptual models can assist environmental risk assessments, and we emphasize the importance of robust and reproducible studies.

  8. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    system to degrade lignin. An important step in this degradation is cleavage of the most abundant lignin linkage type, β-aryl ether. It is cleaved in a three step reaction catalyzed by a dehydrogenase, a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione lyase. Due to the nature of the enzymatic reactions...... of the cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure...... be degraded by LigDFG, which can presumably cause loosening of the lignin-ferulate-polysaccharide matrix. In a xylanase hydrolysis of Brachypodium transgenic stems, the release of arabinose and xylose was increased compared to wild type. The data presented demonstrate that introduction of lignin degrading...

  9. Uptake, transport, distribution and Bio-effects of SiO2 nanoparticles in Bt-transgenic cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Van Nhan; Rui, Yukui; Gui, Xin; Li, Xuguang; Liu, Shutong; Han, Yaning

    2014-01-01

    Background SiO2 nanoparticle is one of the most popular nanomaterial which has been used in various fields, such as wastewater treatment, environmental remediation, food processing, industrial and household applications, biomedicine, disease labeling, and biosensor, etc. In agriculture, the use of SiO2 nanoparticles as insecticide, carriers in drug delivery, or in uptake and translocation of nutrient elements, etc., has been given attention. However, the effects of nanoparticles on plants hav...

  10. Detrimental effect of expression ofBt endotoxin Cry1Ac on in vitro regeneration, in vivo growth and development of tobacco and cotton transgenics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Rawat; Amarjeet Kumar Singh; Krishna Ray; Bhupendra Chaudhary; Sanjeev Kumar; Taru Gautam; Shaveta Kanoria; Gurpreet Kaur; Paritosh Kumar; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2011-06-01

    High levels of expression of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis cannot be routinely achieved in transgenic plants despite modifications made in the gene to improve its expression. This has been attributed to the instability of the transcript in a few reports. In the present study, based on the genetic transformation of cotton and tobacco, we show that the expression of the Cry1Ac endotoxin has detrimental effects on both the in vitro and in vivo growth and development of transgenic plants. A number of experiments on developing transgenics in cotton with different versions of cry1Ac gene showed that the majority of the plants did not express any Cry1Ac protein. Based on Southern blot analysis, it was also observed that a substantial number of lines did not contain the cry1Ac gene cassette although they contained the marker gene nptII. More significantly, all the lines that showed appreciable levels of expression were found to be phenotypically abnormal. Experiments on transformation of tobacco with different constructs expressing the cry1Ac gene showed that in vitro regeneration was inhibited by the encoded protein. Further, out of a total of 145 independent events generated with the different cry1Ac gene constructs in tobacco, only 21 showed expression of the Cry1Ac protein, confirming observations made in cotton that regenerants that express high levels of the Cry1Ac protein are selected against during regeneration of transformed events. This problem was circumvented by targeting the Cry1Ac protein to the chloroplast, which also significantly improved the expression of the protein.

  11. TRANSGENIC PLANTS - INSECTICIDAL TOXIN IN ROOT EXUDATES FROM BT CORN. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardet, Ludovic; Leclercq, Julie; Bénistan, Elise; Dessailly, Florence; Oliver, Gérald; Martin, Florence; Montoro, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development. PMID:21643815

  13. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A.; Nero, Damion C.

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  14. Current Status and Future Strategies for Development of Transgenic Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Ping Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the author summarized the current status, challenges, and strategies in China in the development of transgenic plants and its commercialization. Based on sets of successful examples and data achieved from execution of the National Special Project for Transgenic Plant Research and Commercialization in the last five years, the priorities and key directions were put forward for the future development of transgenic plants in China.

  15. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Longdou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  16. Impacts of Bt rice expressing Cry1C or Cry2A protein on the performance of nontarget leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Wang, W; Xu, H X; Hu, C; Guo, Y Y; Peng, Y F; Ye, G Y

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) protein can effectively control target insects including stem borers and leaf folders. However, the potential effects of Bt rice on nontarget organisms including nontarget herbivores have not been fully evaluated. In the current study, ecological fitness parameters of the nontarget herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), fed on T1C-19 (Cry1C) or T2A-1 (Cry2A) rice were compared with non-Bt rice (MH63) under laboratory conditions. A 2-yr field trial was also conducted to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps in the Bt and control rice plots using the vacuum-suction machine and yellow sticky card traps. Laboratory results showed that there were no significant differences in some of biological parameters including egg developmental duration, adult fresh weight, adult longevity, and oviposition period when N. cincticeps fed on Bt or non-Bt rice was compared. However, the survival rate of N. cincticeps nymphs fed on T2A-1 Bt rice plants was significantly higher than that on the control. When N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 Bt rice plants, its nymphal duration was significantly longer and fecundity significantly lower compared with those fed on both T2A-1 Bt and non-Bt rice plants; the preoviposition period of N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 and T2A-1 Bt rice was also significantly shorter than those on non-Bt rice. Nonetheless, both seasonal density and population dynamics of N. cincticeps adults and nymphs were similar between Bt (T1C-19 and T2A-1) and non-Bt rice plots under field conditions. In conclusion, our results indicate that our two tested Bt rice lines would not lead to higher population of N. cincticeps. Long-term experiments to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.

  17. PERSISTENCE IN SOIL OF TRANSGENIC PLANT PRODUCED BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI O-ENDOTOXIN1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants that produce pesticidal proteins will release these proteins into the soil when these plants are incorporated into the soil by tillage or as leaf litter. Little is known about the fate and persistence of transgenic plant pesticidal products in the soil. We used ...

  18. Construction and analysis of the transgenic carrot and celery plants expressing the recombinant thaumatin II protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchakivska Yu. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To obtain the transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II in order to increase plant stress tolerance. Methods. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the carrot and celery seedlings was used for obtaining the transgenic plants. Presence and transcription of the transgene in plant tissues were proved by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. The plants were tested for the biotic stress tolerance by in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity assays and for the salinity and osmotic stress tolerance by plant survival test in presence of NaCl and PEG in different concentrations. Results. Transgenic plants able to express recombinant thaumatin II gene (transcription proved for 60–100 % were obtained by agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic carrot plant extracts inhibited the growth of the studied phytopathogenic bacteria strains but exhibited no antifungal activity. Survival level of transgenic plants under the salinity and osmotic stress effect was definitely higher comparing to the untransgenic ones. The analysis of the photosynthetic pigment content in the transgenic carrot plants showed no significant difference of this parameter under salinity stress that may indicate a possible protective activity of the recombinant protein. Conclusions. The obtained in our study transgenic carrot and celery plants able to express the recombinant thaumatin II gene were characterized by antibacterial activity and increased tolerance to salinity and osmotic stress factors.

  19. Transgenic Plants as Sensors of Environmental Pollution Genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological development is inevitably associated with manyenvironmental problems which primarily include pollution of soil, water and air. In manycases, the presence of contamination is difficult to assess. It is even more difficult toevaluate its potential danger to the environment and humans. Despite the existence ofseveral whole organism-based and cell-based models of sensing pollution and evaluationof toxicity and mutagenicity, there is no ideal system that allows one to make a quick andcheap assessment. In this respect, transgenic organisms that can be intentionally altered tobe more sensitive to particular pollutants are especially promising. Transgenic plantsrepresent an ideal system, since they can be grown at the site of pollution or potentiallydangerous sites. Plants are ethically more acceptable and esthetically more appealing thananimals as sensors of environmental pollution. In this review, we will discuss varioustransgenic plant-based models that have been successfully used for biomonitoringgenotoxic pollutants. We will also discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of thesesystems and describe some novel ideas for the future generation of efficient transgenicphytosensors.

  20. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay. PMID:19353306

  1. Field Evaluation of the Asian Corn Borer Control in Hybrid of Transgenic Maize Event MON 810

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua

    2003-01-01

    In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with<0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.

  2. Insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measurements were taken of Bt protein expressed in the leaves of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) transformed with a synthesized Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cry1A gene and its persistent level in larval bodies and faeces of a non-targeted insect pest, beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). We performed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and bioassays using neonate larvae of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) to detect the insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level. The results showed that Bt protein content in functional leaves was different at various developmental stages and was different among plants at the same stage. Even though Bt protein concentration in the larval bodies and faeces decreased 97.5%-99% compared to that found in cotton leaves subsequently fed to beet armyworm larvae, it still had a lethal effect on neonate cotton bollworm larvae. Therefore, Bt protein present at the second trophic level had insecticidal activity. This result is important in understanding and predicting the effect of transgenic plants on nontarget organisms.

  3. Morphogenetic and chemical stability of long-term maintained Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Catharanthus roseus plants (transgenic Dhawal [DT] and transgenic Nirmal [NT]) obtained from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizognenes-mediated transformations, respectively, have been maintained in vitro for 5 years. Plants were studied at regular intervals for various parameters such as plant height, leaf size, multiplication rate, alkaloid profile and presence of marker genes. DT plant gradually lost the GUS gene expression and it was not detected in the fifth year while NT plant demonstrated the presence of genes rolA, rolB and rolC even in the fifth year, indicating the more stable nature of Ri transgene. Vindoline content in the DT was two times more than in non-transformed control plants. Alkaloid and tryptophan profiles were almost constant during the 5 years. The cluster analysis revealed that the DT plant is more close to the control Nirmal plant followed by NT plant. PMID:25102992

  4. Dynamic Distribution of Two Spotted Spider Mite in Transgenic Bt Insect-resistant Cotton Field%棉叶螨在转Bt基因抗虫棉的棉田动态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文华; 陈建平; 刘标; 孟军; 方志翔

    2011-01-01

    Through recent two years' systematical investigations on two spotted spider mite, it was clear that the plants with mite,plants with red leaf, the number of red leaf, leaves with mite and the number of adult and nymphal mite in the transgenic Bt cotton fields were always higher than those in the conventional cotton fields, but there were no significant differences.In the whole growth and developmental period of cotton, two spotted spider mite occurred mainly in the first twenty days of June and from the end of July to beginning of August, and this mite had the similar population dynamics in two types of cotton fields.In addition, when the previous crop of cotton was different, the occurrence and damage of two spotted spider mite in cotton field were also different, the population density of the mite and the number of damaged plants in the cotton field without previous crop were always obviously lower than those in the cotton field with previous crop horsebean.%通过近2年的系统调查,明确了Bt棉处理棉叶螨的有螨株、红叶株、红叶数、有螨叶和成若螨数量始终高于常规棉对照,但差异均不显著;棉叶螨在在棉花全生育期的发生为害主要有2个时段,1个是在6月上中旬前茬夏熟作物成熟离田期,另1个是在7月底8月初秋熟玉米成熟离田期,两类棉田处理所表现的消长动态也基本相似.另外,棉花前茬茬口不同,棉叶螨的发生为害也有差异,空白茬口棉田的螨量与被害株始终低于蚕豆茬,趋势十分明显.

  5. Establishment of Genetic Transformation System for Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Obtaining of Its Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zili(易自力); Zhou Puhua; Chu Chengcai; Li Xiang; Tian Wenzhong; Wang Li; Cao Shouyun; Tang Zuoshun

    2004-01-01

    The initiation and regeneration system for embryogenic callus of Miscanthus sacchariflrus is established at very high frequency. Potato proteinaseⅡ(pinⅡ) genes are introduced into the callus of Miscanthus sacchariflorus and some transgenic plants are obtained by the particle bombardment transformation system. PCR and Southern analysis show that target genes are integrated into the genome of these transgenic plants.

  6. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants: Regulation and biosafety concern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Tuteja; Shiv Verma; Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Sebastian Raveendar; In Bheema Lingeshwara Reddy

    2012-03-01

    During the efficient genetic transformation of plants with the gene of interest, some selectable marker genes are also used in order to identify the transgenic plant cells or tissues. Usually, antibiotic- or herbicide-selective agents and their corresponding resistance genes are used to introduce economically valuable genes into crop plants. From the biosafety authority and consumer viewpoints, the presence of selectable marker genes in released transgenic crops may be transferred to weeds or pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract or soil, making them resistant to treatment with herbicides or antibiotics, respectively. Sexual crossing also raises the problem of transgene expression because redundancy of transgenes in the genome may trigger homology-dependent gene silencing. The future potential of transgenic technologies for crop improvement depends greatly on our abilities to engineer stable expression of multiple transgenic traits in a predictable fashion and to prevent the transfer of undesirable transgenic material to non-transgenic crops and related species. Therefore, it is now essential to develop an efficient marker-free transgenic system. These considerations underline the development of various approaches designed to facilitate timely elimination of transgenes when their function is no longer needed. Due to the limiting number of available selectable marker genes, in future the stacking of transgenes will be increasingly desirable. The production of marker-free transgenic plants is now a critical requisite for their commercial deployment and also for engineering multiple and complex trait. Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the regulation and biosafety concern of genetically modified (GM) crops.

  7. [Methods for construction of transgenic plant expression vector: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangpu; Yang, Shushen

    2015-03-01

    Construction of recombinant plasmid vector for gene expression is a key step in making transgenic plants and important to study gene function and plant genetic engineering. A right choice of gene construction method can be cost-effective and achieve more diverse recombinant plasmids. In addition to the traditional methods in construction of plant gene expression vectors, such as Gateway technology, three DNA method and one step cloning, a few novel methods have been developed in recent years. These methods include oligonucleotide synthesis-based construction of small fragment gene expression vectors via competitive connection; construction of small RNA expression vector using pre-microRNA; recombination-fusion PCR method which inserts DNA fragments of multiple restriction sites into the target vector; and insertion of a DNA fragment into any region of a linear vector via In-Fusion Kit. Construction of complex vectors with many fragments uses sequence and ligation-independent cloning method, Gibson isothermal assembly or Golden Gate assembly. This paper summarizes our working experience in the area of recombinant vector construction and reports from others with an intention to disseminate ideas about currently widely used DNA recombination methods for plant transformation. PMID:26204753

  8. Development of Insect-Resistant Hybrid Rice by Introgressing the Bt Gene from Bt Rice Huahui 1 into II-32A/B, a Widely Used Cytogenic Male Sterile System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yun-song; HUANG Hai-qing; XU Meng-yun; WANG Liang-chao; ZHANG Xiao-bo; ZHANG Ji-wen; TU Ju-min

    2014-01-01

    Huahui 1 is an elite transgenic male sterile restorer line of wild rice abortive-type that expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)δ-endotoxin and provides effective and economic control of lepidopteran insects. To exploit Huahui 1 to develop a new Bt rice, the insertion site of the Bt gene was determined by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Bt was located in the promoter region of LOC.Os10g10360, approximately 5.35 Mb from the telomere of the short arm of chromosome 10. For the ifrst time, a Bt cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) system was developed by introgressing Bt from Huahui 1. The recipient CMS system used consisted of Indonesia paddy rice-type II-32B (maintainer line) and II-32A (male sterile line). Marker-assisted selection was used to increase selection efifciency in the backcrossing program. In BC5F1, the Bt plant 85015-8 was selected for further analyses, as it had the highest SSR marker homozygosity. In addition, the linkage drag of the foreign Bt gene in 85015-8 was minimized to 8.01-11.46 Mb. The foreign Bt gene was then delivered from 85015-8 into II-32A. The resultant Bt II-32A and Bt II-32B lines were both resistant to lepidopteran in ifeld trials, and agronomic traits were not disturbed. The maintainability of II-32B, and the male sterility and general combining ability of II-32A, were not affected by the Bt introgression. This study demonstrates a simple and fast approach to develop Bt hybrid rice.

  9. In vivo import of plastocyanin and a fusion protein into developmentally different plastids of transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Douwe de; Cremers, Fons; Teertstra, Renske; Smits, Lianne; Hille, Jacques; Smeekens, Sjef; Weisbeek, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants that constitutively express a foreign plastocyanin gene were used to study protein transport in different tissues. Normally expression of endogenous plastocyanin genes in plants is restricted to photosynthetic tissues only, whereas this foreign plastocyanin protein is found

  10. A point mutation (L1015F) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) population from the transgenic Bt cotton field of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-02-01

    In China, the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), has caused severe economic damage to many kinds of crops, especially the cotton and jujubes. Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely used for controlling this pest in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Five populations of A. lucorum collected from cotton crops at different locations in China were evaluated for lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. The results showed that only the population collected from Shandong Province exhibited 30-fold of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Neither PBO nor DEF had obvious synergism when compared the synergistic ratio between SS and RR strain which was originated from the Shandong population. Besides, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, or 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities between the Shandong population and the laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The full-length sodium channel gene named AlVSSC encoding 2028 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One single point mutation L1015F in the AlVSSC was detected only in the Shandong population. Our results revealed that the L1015F mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance was identified in A. lucorum populations in China. These results will be useful for the rational chemical control of A. lucorum in the transgenic Bt cotton field. PMID:26821662

  11. THE TRANSGENIC PLANTS – ADVANTAGES REGARDING THEIR CULTIVATION AND POTENTIALLY RISKS CONCERNING THE FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Dana PUSTA; PAŞCA, Ioan; MORAR, Roman; SOBOLU, Rodica; Camelia RĂDUCU; Antonia ODAGIU

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades the genetic modifi ed organisms (GMO) have started to “conquer”, little by little our lives. The most widely used are the trangenic plants, because they have bigger productions and they are resistant to different pests. In the beginning, the spread of the transgenic plants was controlled, but today many countries cultivate genetic modifi ed plants without any control. Among these countries Romania is ahead, starting the cultivation of the transgenic plants in 1999, ver...

  12. Construction of Plant Expression Vectors Containing Two Anti - insect Genes pCAMBIA3300 - bt - pta%植物表达双价抗虫载体pCAMBIA3300-bt-pta的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰

    2012-01-01

    本研究将苏云金芽孢杆菌(bt)与半夏凝集素抗虫基因(pta)两类抗虫基因连接到具有高效性的植物表达载体pCAMBIA3300中,重组表达质粒分别经过ApaⅡ单酶切及xhoⅠ和KpnⅠ双酶切鉴定、分析后,实验结果表明含有双价抗虫基因pCAMBIA3300-bt-pta的植物重组表达质粒已构建成功。%Two insect -resistant genes, Ternata leetin gene ( Pta ) and Bacillusthuringiensis ( bt ), were ligated into the plant expression vectors, pCAMBIA3300. The recombinant plasmids were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and the results showed that these recombinant plasmids were constructed successfully.

  13. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  14. Acquiring transgenic tobacco plants with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Lang, Zhihong; Zhu, Li; Huang, Dafang

    2012-10-01

    The advantages of gene 'stacking' or 'pyramiding' are obvious in genetically modified (GM) crops, and several different multi-transgene-stacking methods are available. Using linker peptides for multiple gene transformation is considered to be a good method to meet a variety of needs. In our experiment, the Bt cry1Ah gene, which encodes the insect-resistance protein, and the mG ( 2 ) -epsps gene, which encodes the glyphosate-tolerance protein, were connected by a 2A or LP4/2A linker. Linker 2A is a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that has self-cleavage activity. LP4 is a peptide from Raphanus sativus seeds that has a recognition site and is cleaved by a protease. LP4/2A is a hybrid peptide that contains the first 9 amino acids of LP4 and 20 amino acids from 2A. We used the linker peptide to construct four coordinated expression vectors: pHAG, pHLAG, pGAH and pGLAH. Two single gene expression vectors, pSAh and pSmG(2), were used as controls. The six expression vectors and the pCAMBIA2301 vector were transferred into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and 529 transformants were obtained. Molecular detection and bioassay detection data demonstrated that the transgenic tobaccos possessed good pest resistance and glyphosate tolerance. The two genes in the fusion vector were expressed simultaneously. The plants with the genes linked by the LP4/2A peptide showed better pest resistance and glyphosate tolerance than the plants with the genes linked by 2A. The expression level of the two genes linked by LP4/2A was not significantly different from the single gene vector. Key message The expression level of the two genes linked by LP4/2A was higher than those linked by 2A and was not significantly different from the single gene vector.

  15. High susceptibility of Bt maize to aphids enhances the performance of parasitoids of lepidopteran pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Faria

    Full Text Available Concerns about possible undesired environmental effects of transgenic crops have prompted numerous evaluations of such crops. So-called Bt crops receive particular attention because they carry bacteria-derived genes coding for insecticidal proteins that might negatively affect non-target arthropods. Here we show a remarkable positive effect of Bt maize on the performance of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis, which in turn enhanced the performance of parasitic wasps that feed on aphid honeydew. Within five out of six pairs that were evaluated, transgenic maize lines were significantly more susceptible to aphids than their near-isogenic equivalents, with the remaining pair being equally susceptible. The aphids feed from the phloem sieve element content and analyses of this sap in selected maize lines revealed marginally, but significantly higher amino acid levels in Bt maize, which might partially explain the observed increased aphid performance. Larger colony densities of aphids on Bt plants resulted in an increased production of honeydew that can be used as food by beneficial insects. Indeed, Cotesia marginiventris, a parasitoid of lepidopteran pests, lived longer and parasitized more pest caterpillars in the presence of aphid-infested Bt maize than in the presence of aphid-infested isogenic maize. Hence, depending on aphid pest thresholds, the observed increased susceptibility of Bt maize to aphids may be either a welcome or an undesirable side effect.

  16. Oral immunization with hepatitis B surface antigen expressed in transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Qingxian; Richter, Liz; Yang, Yu Fang; Arntzen, Charles J.; Mason, Hugh S.; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2001-01-01

    Oral immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) derived from yeast (purified product) or in transgenic potatoes (uncooked unprocessed sample) was compared. An oral adjuvant, cholera toxin, was used to increase immune responses. Transgenic plant material containing HBsAg was the superior means of both inducing a primary immune response and priming the mice to respond to a subsequent parenteral injection of HBsAg. Electron microscopy of transgenic ...

  17. CHANGES IN ENDOGENOUS GENE TRANSCRIPT AND PROTEIN LEVELS IN MAIZE PLANTS EXPRESSING THE SOYBEAN FERRITIN TRANSGENE

    OpenAIRE

    Kanobe, Milly N.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Theodore eBailey; Paul eScott

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and exp...

  18. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Eapen, Susan, E-mail: eapenhome@yahoo.com [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. {yields} Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. {yields} Using in vitro T{sub 1} seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. {yields} This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of {sup 14}C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  19. Incipient resistance of Helicoverpa punctigera to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Downes

    Full Text Available Combinations of dissimilar insecticidal proteins ("pyramids" within transgenic plants are predicted to delay the evolution of pest resistance for significantly longer than crops expressing a single transgene. Field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt transgenic crops has been reported for first generation, single-toxin varieties and the Cry1 class of proteins. Our five year data set shows a significant exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in Australian field populations of Helicoverpa punctigera since the adoption of a second generation, two-toxin Bt cotton expressing this insecticidal protein. Furthermore, the frequency of cry2Ab resistance alleles in populations from cropping areas is 8-fold higher than that found for populations from non-cropping regions. This report of field evolved resistance to a protein in a dual-toxin Bt-crop has precisely fulfilled the intended function of monitoring for resistance; namely, to provide an early warning of increases in frequencies that may lead to potential failures of the transgenic technology. Furthermore, it demonstrates that pyramids are not 'bullet proof' and that rapid evolution to Bt toxins in the Cry2 class is possible.

  20. Increased mortality is predicted of Inachis io larvae caused by Bt-maize pollen in European farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Niels; Lang, Andreas; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2013-01-01

    A potential environmental risk of the field cultivation of insect-resistant (Bt-toxin expressing) transgenic maize (Zea mays) is the consumption of Bt-containing pollen by herbivorous larvae of butterflies (Lepidoptera). Maize is wind-pollinated, and at flowering time large amounts of pollen can...... climatic records, maize and butterfly phenology data, we built a simulation model of the butterfly's annual life cycle, overlaid with the phenology of maize pollen deposition on the leaves of the food plant Urtica dioica, and linked these with the dose–response curve of I. io larvae to Bt-maize pollen...... (event MON810). The simulations indicated that in Northern Europe, where I. io is univoltine, Bt-maize pollen would not be present on the food plant at the same time as the I. io larvae. However, in Central and Southern Europe, where I. io is bivoltine, Bt-maize pollen and the second generation I. io...

  1. 转Bt基因棉对土壤无脊椎动物群落结构的影响%Effect of transgenic Bt cotton on soil invertebrate community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建英; 万方浩; 吴岷

    2009-01-01

    Soil invertebrates were collected by Tullgren and Baermann funnels and analyzed using community ecology method. Then soil invertebrate community structures in the 0~15 cm soil layer in transgenic Bt cotton (cvs. "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B") fields were compared with those in non-Bt cotton (cv. "SM3") fields. Nematodes and acarids are dominant soil invertebrate groups with frequencies above 54% and over 18% respectively in each cotton cultivar field. Compared with parental non-Bt cv. "SM3"field, "GK12" field has more enchytraelidae and less homopetera, psocoptera and diptera. Cumulative numbers of most soil invertebrate groups do not significantly differ in "GK12" and "NuCOTN33B" fields, except that there are less homoptera and more araneae in "GK12" field. Soil invertebrate group richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness are significantly lower in "GK12" field than in "SM3" field. Those in "NuCOTN 33B" field are also higher than in "GK12" field. Scalable one-parametric Renyi-diversity profiles also indicate significantly lower diversity in "GK12" than in "SM3" field, and generally lower diversity in "GK12" than in "NuCOTN 33B" field, except for dominant and common invertebrate groups in the 10~15 cm soil layer. The dynamics of soil invertebrate abundance, diversity and evenness have a similar fluctuation trend for the three cotton cultivar fields. Abundance of soil invertebrate reaches its peak in October during the period from July to November. At the peak, soil invertebrates are concentrated in the 0~5 cm and 10~15 cm soil layers in "SM3" field, but in the 10~15 cm soil layer in "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B" fields. While invertebrate diversity and evenness decrease in November in "SM3" field, they increase in "GK12" field. The above findings imply that planting "GK12" changes the abundance, and decreases the richness, diversity and evenness of soil invertebrate groups. Soil invertebrate community structures also differ between the two Bt cotton cultivars

  2. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Bryony C. Bonning; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ha...

  3. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  4. Copper-Controllable, Site-Specific DNA Excision in Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiang-lei; LIANG Bin; CHEN Ming; HU Yuan-lei; LIN Zhong-ping

    2003-01-01

    A copper-inducible, Cre-loxP recombination-mediated DNA excision system has been developed in transgenic tobacco plants. The copper inducible system derived from yeast was used for the control of the expression of the Cre recombinase. Upon copper induction, the GUS reporter gene expression unit flanked by two direct lox sites was excised from the transgenic tobacco genome. Quantitative fluorometric GUS assays,Northern blot and PCR analyses showed a high-efficient, copper-dependent and Cre-loxP mediated DNA recombination in all the tested transgenic lines. The copper inducible foreign gene excision might be of great potential in genetic control of transgenic crops.

  5. Loading and Light Degradation Characteristics of Bt Toxin on Nanogoethite: A Potential Material for Controlling the Environmental Risk of Bt Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt-modified crops release toxins into soil through root exudates and upon decomposition of residues. The fate of these toxins in soil has not been yet clearly elucidated. Nanogoethite was found to have a different influence on the lifetime and insecticidal activity of Bt toxin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the adsorption characteristics of Bt toxin on nanogoethite and its activity changes before and after adsorption. The adsorption of toxin on nanogoethite reached equilibrium within 5 h, and the adsorption isotherm of Bt toxin on nanogoethite conformed to the Langmuir equation (R2>0.9690. In the range of pH from 6.0 to 8.0, larger adsorption occurred at lower pH value. The toxin adsorption decreased with the temperature between 10 and 50°C. The results of FTIR, XRD, and SEM indicated that toxin did not influence the structure of nanogoethite and the adsorption of toxin only on the surface of nanogoethite. The LC50 value for bound toxin was higher than that of free toxin, and the nanogoethite greatly accelerated the degradation of toxin by ultraviolet irradiation. The above results suggested that nanogoethite is a potential material for controlling the environmental risk of toxin released by Bt transgenic plants.

  6. Effects of Bt Transgenic Cotton on Occurrence of Cotton Spider Mites in Relation to the Secondary Metabolites in Cotton%Bt棉对棉叶螨发生的影响及与次生代谢物质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠; 赵鸣; 夏晓明; 王红艳; 董合忠

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of Sf transgenic cotton on occurrence of cotton spider mites, and the relationship with the secondary metabolites in cotton plants. Using four Bt cotton varieties and a non-Bf cotton, CCRI 12, as the control, the abundance and developmental duration of cotton spider mites, and also the activity of their carboxylesterase(CarE) were determined, as well as the gossypol and tannin levels in cotton leaves, both in the field and in the greenhouse. Cotton spider mites were more abundant on four Bt cotton varieties than on the common cotton variety CCRI 12. The development period of cotton spider mites fed on four Bt cotton varieties was shorter than on CCRI 12. The gossypol and tannin levels in four Bt cotton varieties were significantly lower than in CCRI 12, although these also varied greatly among the Bt cotton varieties. The activity of CarE in mites fed on CCRI 12 was significantly lower than in those fed on the four Bt varieties. In general it appears that changes in secondary metabolite levels affect the occurrence of cotton spider mites in Bt cotton.%为明确Bt棉对棉叶螨发生的影响及其与棉株次生代谢物质的关系,以4个Bt棉品种为材料,以不携带Bt基因的常规棉为对照,在大田和温室中调查了棉叶螨的发生趋势,室内观察了棉叶螨的发育历期,测定了不同品种棉花叶片的棉酚和单宁含量,以及取食不同棉花品种的棉叶螨羧酸酯酶的比活力.结果表明,棉叶螨在4个Bt棉品种上的发生显著重于非Bt棉中棉所12,取食4个Bt棉品种的棉叶螨发育历期均明显短于取食中棉所12的棉叶螨的发育历期.4个抗虫棉品种间棉酚和单宁含量虽有差异,但均显著低于中棉所12,而取食中棉所12的棉叶螨的羧酸酯酶比活力也显著低于4个Bt棉品种.Bt棉本身次生代谢物质含量的改变可能影响了棉叶螨的发生.

  7. Generating of rice OsCENH3-GFP transgenic plants and their genetic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU HengXiu; WANG Xin; GONG ZhiYun; TANG Ding; GU MingHong; CHENG ZhuKuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate rice functional centromeres, OsCENH3-GFP chimeric gene was constructed and transformed into the indica rice variety, Zhongxian 3037, mediated by Agrobacturium. The integration of the exogenous genes in the transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The transgenic plants grow normally during their whole life time, just like Zhongxian 3037. No significant defects were detected in either mitosis or meiosis of the transgenic plants. The overlapping of GFP signals and anti-CENH3 foci in both mitotic and meiotic cells from To and T1 generation plants indicated that GFP had been successfully fused with CENH3, so the GFP signals can well represent the CENH3 locations on each chromosome. To evaluate the applicability of the transgenic plants to other genetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using rice centromeric tandem repetitive sequence CentO as the probe was conducted on the zygotene chromosomes of pollen mother cells (PMCs). It has been revealed that the GFP signals are overlapping with CentO FISH signals, showing that CentO is one of the key elements constituting rice functional centromeres. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-α-tublin antibody and anti-PAIR2 antibody on the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis stages of the transgenic plants further reveals that OsCENH3-GFP transgenic plants can be widely used for studying rice molecular biology, especially for tagging functional centromeres in both living cells and tissues.

  8. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. PMID:23384757

  9. Survey of organophosphate resistance and an Ala216Ser substitution of acetylcholinesterase-1 gene associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) collected from the transgenic Bt cotton fields in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Miao, Ling; Liang, Pei; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-09-01

    The mirid bug is frequently controlled by the application of organophosphorus insecticides in the transgenic Bt cotton field of China. A topical bioassay method was performed to evaluate the toxicities of chlorpyrifos and malathion towards field-collected Chinese populations of Apolygus lucorum from transgenic Bt cotton fields. For chlorpyrifos, the resistance ratios ranged from 0.8 to 9.4-fold compared to a susceptible strain. For malathion, the resistance levels relative to the susceptible strain ranged from 1.2 to 14.4-fold. Compared to a susceptible strain, the Cangzhou population from Hebei province showed the highest resistance ratios towards these insecticides. A comparison of the detoxifying and target enzyme activities between the Cangzhou population and a susceptible strain revealed that altered acetylcholinesterase possibly account for the chlorpyrifos and malathion resistance in the Cangzhou population. Two acetylcholinesterase (AChE-encoding) genes (designated Alace1 and Alace2) from the green mirid bug (A. lucorum) were identified. The Alace1 and Alace2 genes encoded 597 and 645 amino acids, respectively. Both AChE proteins had conserved motifs including a catalytic triad, a choline-binding site, and an acyl pocket. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Alace1 had a much higher transcriptional level than Alace2, for the expression profiles of both spatial and time distributions. One amino acid substitution, Ala216Ser in Alace1, was found in the Cangzhou population. These results suggest that the mutation Ala216Ser should be most likely involved in organophosphorus resistance in A. lucorum. PMID:27521910

  10. Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, Ming; Carlson, John; Liang, Haiying

    2015-06-02

    Transgenic lignocellulosic plants are provided according to embodiments of the present invention, the transgenic plants transformed with an expression cassette encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to a cell wall of the transgenic plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine. Methods of increasing lignin-protein bonds in a lignocellulosic plant are provided according to embodiments of the present invention which include expressing a recombinant nucleic acid in a lignocellulosic plant, the recombinant nucleic acid encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to the cell wall of a plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine.

  11. Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Ming; Carlson, John; Liang, Haiying

    2012-04-24

    Transgenic lignocellulosic plants are provided according to embodiments of the present invention, the transgenic plants transformed with an expression cassette encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to a cell wall of the transgenic plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine. Methods of increasing lignin-protein bonds in a lignocellulosic plant are provided according to embodiments of the present invention which include expressing a recombinant nucleic acid in a lignocellulosic plant, the recombinant nucleic acid encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to the cell wall of a plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine.

  12. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, III, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  13. Generation of selectable marker-free transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects using two co-transformation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxiu Yu; Quanhong Yao; Ling Wang; Zhipeng Zhao; Zhiyun Gong; Shuzhu Tang; Qiaoquan Liu; Minghong Gua

    2009-01-01

    To produce selectable marker-free (SMF) transgenic rice resistant to chewing insects, the Bacillus thuringiensis crylA (c) gene (Bt) was introduced into two efitejaponica rice varieties by using two Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation systems. One system is with a single mini-twin T-DNA binary vector in one Agrobacterium strain, which consists of two separate T-DNA regions, one carrying the Bt while the other contains the selectable marker gene, hygromycin resistant gene (HPT). The other system uses two separate binary vectors in two separate Agrobacterium cultures, containing the Bt or HPT gene on individual plasmids. A lot of independent transgenic rice lines harboring both Bt and selectable marker genes were obtained. The results showed that the co-transformation frequency of the Bt gene and HPTgene was much higher by using the mini-twin T-DNA vector system (29.87%) than that by the two separate binary vector sys-tems (4.52%). However, the frequency of the SMF transgenic rice plants obtained from the offspring of co-transgenic plants (21.74%) was lower for the mini-twin T-DNA vector system than that for the latter (50-60%). The data of ELISA implied that the expressed Bt pro-teins were quantitated as 0.025-0.103% of total leaf soluble proteins in the transgenic plant. Therefore, several elite transgenic rice lines, free of the selectable marker gene, were chosen. The results from both in vitro and in vivo insect bioassays indicated that the SMF trans-genic rice was shown to be highly resistant to the striped stem borer and rice leaf folder. Moreover, in a natural field condition without any insecticide applied, all the transgenic rice plants were found to be not injured by the rice leaf folder, whereas the wild types were impaired seriously.

  14. Increasing of antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity in chicory transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvieieva N. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determination of the antioxidant activity (AOA and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in transgenic chicory plants carrying the human interferon α2b target and nptII or bar selective genes. Methods. AOA was measured by a method based on the determination of kinetics of the reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidation. SOD activity was assayed using the system consisting of ethionine, riboflavin, and nitroblue tetrazolium. Results. Antioxidant activity of transformed plants extracts was more than 1,91–2,59 and 2,04–2,43 times over the activity of control non-transgenic plants (at nptII and bar gene presence respectively. SOD activity was higher in transgenic plants than in the control, and was 2,03 ± 0,46–3,33 ± 0,54 U/g weight (nptII gene and 2,25 ± 0,46–2,68 ± 0,08 U/g weight (bar gene. Conclusions. Transgenic C. intybus plants have higher antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity compared to non-transgenic plants. The increasing of AOA and SOD activity is a response of plants to transformation stress factor and integration of foreign genes in plant genome.

  15. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-01-01

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  16. The composite effect of transgenic plant volatiles for acquired immunity to herbivory caused by inter-plant communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Muroi

    Full Text Available A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos including (E-β-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2 that were constitutively overexpressing (E-β-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai. In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications.

  17. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2008-03-01

    Controversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring during rice improvement through transgenesis versus mutation breeding. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene expression in four different pools of four types of rice plants and respective controls: (i) a gamma-irradiated stable mutant, (ii) the M1 generation of a 100-Gy gamma-irradiated plant, (iii) a stable transgenic plant obtained for production of an anticancer antibody, and (iv) the T1 generation of a transgenic plant produced aiming for abiotic stress improvement, and all of the unmodified original genotypes as controls. We found that the improvement of a plant variety through the acquisition of a new desired trait, using either mutagenesis or transgenesis, may cause stress and thus lead to an altered expression of untargeted genes. In all of the cases studied, the observed alteration was more extensive in mutagenized than in transgenic plants. We propose that the safety assessment of improved plant varieties should be carried out on a case-by-case basis and not simply restricted to foods obtained through genetic engineering. PMID:18303117

  18. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads Jonas Birkbak; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent...

  19. Lox-dependent gene expression in transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbak, N; Kishchenko, O; Sakhno, L; Komarnytsky, I; Kuchuk, M

    2013-01-01

    Lox sites of the Cre/lox recombination system from bacteriophage P1 were analyzed for their ability to affect on transgene expression when inserted upstream from a gene coding sequence adjacent to the right border (RB) of T-DNA. Wild and mutated types of lox sites were tested for their effect upon bar gene expression in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated and biolistic transformation methods. Lox-mediated expression of bar gene, recognized by resistance of transgenic plants to PPT, occurred only in plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. RT-PCR analysis confirms that PPT-resistant phenotype of transgenic plants obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was caused by activation of bar gene. The plasmid with promoterless gus gene together with the lox site adjacent to the RB was constructed and transferred to Nicotiana tabacum as well. Transgenic plants exhibited GUS activity and expression of gus gene was detected in plant leaves. Expression of bar gene from the vectors containing lox site near RB allowed recovery of numerous PPT-resistant transformants of such important crops as Beta vulgaris, Brassica napus, Lactuca sativa and Solanum tuberosum. Our results demonstrate that the lox site sequence adjacent to the RB can be used to control bar gene expression in transgenic plants.

  20. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  1. Reduction of lesion growth rate of late blight plant disease in transgenic potato expressing harpin protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汝刚; 范云六

    1999-01-01

    Using harpin protein gene from apple fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylavora and potato prp1-1 promoter as main DNA elements, the feasibility of using pathogen infection-induced hypersensitive response was explored as a new strategy of engineering fungal disease resistance. Three plant transformation vectors were constructed and 68 transgenic potato plants were produced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. Southern, Northern and Western blot analysis demonstrated the insertion, transcription and protein expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic plants. Disease resistance test using a complex race of Phytophthora infestans as challenging pathogen showed that both constitutive and pathogen infection-induced expression of harpin protein gene in transgenic potato reduced the lesion growth rate of fungus. Among plants where harpin protein gene expression was induced only by fungus infection, two plants were found to be highly resistant to P. infestans infection. Fungal hyphae were not pr

  2. Comparing gene expression profiles between Bt and non-Bt rice in response to brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3,834 and 3,273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and

  3. Effects of Transgenic Bt Corn on Genetic Diversity of Bacteria in Rhizospheric Soil%转Bt基因玉米对根际土壤细菌遗传多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红炜; 李凡; 杨淑珂; 王敏; 路兴波

    2013-01-01

    连续两年在田间自然状态下,采用PCR-DGGE方法研究6个不同生育期种植转Bt基因玉米MON810对根际土壤细菌群落遗传多样性的影响。结果表明,2008年,同一生育期内转Bt基因玉米与非Bt基因玉米根际土壤细菌16S rDNA DGGE指纹图谱相似,细菌群落的遗传物质组成差异不显著,仅在抽丝期和乳熟期Bt玉米出现两条差异条带。2009年,苗期、拔节期、喇叭口期、抽雄期4个生育期两种玉米出现差异条带,抽丝期和乳熟期无差异条带。对DGGE图谱条带进行克隆测序,部分图谱中的条带所代表的DNA序列相同,最终得到51条DNA序列,共涉及主要细菌门类8个,典型差异条带分别属于芽单胞菌门(Gemmatimonadetes)、变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)。总体来看,与不同品种相比,不同生育期、不同年份间细菌群落差异更为显著,Bt蛋白的积累对根际细菌群落变化有一定影响。%Effects of transgenic Bt corn on bacteria genetic diversity in rhizospheric soil were studied by using PCR-DGGE within six different growth periods. The results showed that, in 2008, the 16s rDNA DGGE fingerprint of Bt maize was basically similar to non-Bt corn in one growth period and Bt corn had one different band in silking and milk stages respectively. In 2009, there were different bands in the first four growth periods and no different band in the last two. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands suggested that there were 51 DNA sequences belonged to 8 bac-teria classes. Different bands belong to Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes respectively. On the whole, the differences among the Bt corn and non-Bt corn were not obvious relative to the effects of different growth stages and different year on rhizosphere bacteria diversity. The accumulate of protein made a bit of difference on the bacteria community of rhizospheric soil.

  4. Expression of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit in transgenic tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-li; ZHANG Zheng; LI Wen-sheng; ZHENG Jing; KONG Ling-hong; WANG Yi-li; SI Lü-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To construct plant transformation vector containing Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) gene and generate LT-B transgenic tobacco plants. Methods: The LT-B coding sequence was amplified from pMMB68 by PCR, subcloned into middle vector pUCmT and binary vector pBI121 to obtain plant expression vector pBI-LTB, in which LT-B expression was controlled under the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The tobacco plants (Nicotiana tobacum L. Cuttivar Xanthi) were transformed by co-cultivating leaf discs method via Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the plant expression vector. The regenerated transgenic tobacco plants were selected by kanamycin and confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, Western blot and ELISA. Results: LT-B gene integrated in the tobacco genomic DNA and were expressed in 9 strains of transgenic tobacco plants. The yield was varied from 3.36-10.56 ng/mg total soluble tobacco leaf protein. Conclusion: The plant binary expression vector pBILTB was constructed successfully, and transgenic LT-B tobacco plants was generated, and confirmed by Southern blot. The protein LT-B expressed by engineered plants was identified by Western blot analysis and had the expected molecular weight of LT-B pentamer protein. This result is an important step close to developing an edible vaccine and supplying a mucasal immunoajuvant, which will contribute to the prevention of mucosa-route evading pathogen.

  5. Enhanced tolerance to drought in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4 photosynthesis enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fei; Gu; Ming; Qiu; Jian-Chang; Yang

    2013-01-01

    Maize-specific pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase(PPDK) was overexpressed in rice independently or in combination with the maize C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PCK). The wild-type(WT) cultivar Kitaake and transgenic plants were evaluated in independent field and tank experiments. Three soil moisture treatments,well-watered(WW), moderate drought(MD) and severe drought(SD), were imposed from 9d post-anthesis till maturity. Leaf physiological and biochemical traits, root activities,biomass, grain yield, and yield components in the untransformed WT and two transgenic rice lines(PPDK and PCK) were systematically studied. Compared with the WT, both transgenic rice lines showed increased leaf photosynthetic rate: by 20%–40% under WW, by45%–60% under MD, and by 80%–120% under SD. The transgenic plants produced 16.1%,20.2% and 20.0% higher grain yields than WT under the WW, MD and SD treatments,respectively. Under the same soil moisture treatments, activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and carbonic anhydrase(CA) in transgenic plants were 3–5-fold higher than those in WT plants. Compared with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, activities of PEPC and CA were less reduced under both MD and SD treatments. The transgenic plants also showed higher leaf water content, stomatal conductance, transpiration efficiency, and root oxidation activity and a stronger active oxygen scavenging system than the WT under all soil moisture treatments, especially MD and SD. The results suggest that drought tolerance is greatly enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4photosynthesis enzymes. This study was performed under natural conditions and normal planting density to evaluate yield advantages on a field basis. It may open a new avenue to droughttolerance breeding via overexpression of C4enzymes in rice.

  6. Rice Blast Resistance of Transgenic Rice Plants with Pi-d2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN De-xi; CHEN Xue-wei; LEI Cai-lin; MA Bing-tian; WANG Yu-ping; LI Shi-gui

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to rice blast of transgenic rice lines harboring rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2 transformed from three different expression vectors of pCB6.3kb, pCB5.3kb and pZH01-2.72kb were analyzed. Nine advanced-generation transgenic rice lines with Pi-d2 gene displayed various resistance to 39 rice blast strains, and the highest disease-resistant frequency reached 91.7%. Four early-generation homozygous transgenic lines with Pi-d2 gene exhibited resistance to more than 81.5% of 58 rice blast strains, showing the characteristic of wide-spectrum resistance. The transgenic embryonic calli selected by the crude toxin of rice blast fungus showed that the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic rice plants decreased as the concentration of crude toxin in the culture medium increased. When the concentration of crude toxin reached 40%, the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic lines was 49.3%, and that of the receptor control was 5%. The disease incidence of neck blast of the transgenic rice lines in fields under induction was 0% to 50%, indicating that the rice blast resistance of transgenic rice lines is much higher than that of the receptor control.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Bt Crops on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jian J Duan; Michelle Marvier; Joseph Huesing; Galen Dively; Zachary Y Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important pollinators of many agricultural crops worldwide and are a key test species used in the tiered safety assessment of genetically engineered insect-resistant crops. There is concern that widespread planting of these transgenic crops could harm honey bee populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 25 studies that independently assessed potential effects of Bt Cry proteins on honey bee survival (or ...

  8. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) gravid females discriminate between Bt or multivitamin corn varieties? Role of olfactory and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. PMID:25843586

  9. Overexpression of several Arabidopsis histone genes increases agrobacterium-mediated transformation and transgene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenea, Gabriela N; Spantzel, Joerg; Lee, Lan-Ying; Zhu, Yanmin; Lin, Kui; Johnson, Susan J; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2009-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A-1 is important for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Mutation of HTA1, the gene encoding histone H2A-1, results in decreased T-DNA integration into the genome of Arabidopsis roots, whereas overexpression of HTA1 increases transformation frequency. To understand the mechanism by which HTA1 enhances transformation, we investigated the effects of overexpression of numerous Arabidopsis histones on transformation and transgene expression. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing cDNAs encoding histone H2A (HTA), histone H4 (HFO), and histone H3-11 (HTR11) displayed increased transformation susceptibility, whereas histone H2B (HTB) and most histone H3 (HTR) cDNAs did not increase transformation. A parallel increase in transient gene expression was observed when histone HTA, HFO, or HTR11 overexpression constructs were cotransfected with double- or single-stranded forms of a gusA gene into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts. However, these cDNAs did not increase expression of a previously integrated transgene. We identified the N-terminal 39 amino acids of H2A-1 as sufficient to increase transient transgene expression in plants. After transfection, transgene DNA accumulates more rapidly in the presence of HTA1 than with a control construction. Our results suggest that certain histones enhance transgene expression, protect incoming transgene DNA during the initial stages of transformation, and subsequently increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  10. Production of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants with Enhanced Stress Tolerances by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guan-ting; CHEN Jin-qing; HU Zhang-hua; LANG Chun-xiu; CHEN Xiao-yun; WANG Fu-lin; JIN Wei; XIA Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve stress tolerances of turf-type tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying plasmid pCMD containing stress tolerance-related CBF1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was used to transform mature seeds-derived embryogenic calli of four cultivars. A total of 112 transgenic plants were regenerated from 32 independent lines and verified by histochemical detection of GUS activity, PCR assay and Southern hybridization analysis. The transformation frequency ranged from 0.92 to 2.87% with apparent differences among the cultivars. Stress tolerances of transgenic plants were enhanced, which was shown by the facts that transgenic plants had distinct growth superiority and significantly higher survival rate than non-transformed ones under high salinity and high osmosis stresses,and that relative electronic conductivity of in vitro leaves treated with low and high temperatures, dehydration and high salinity stresses was 25-30% lower in transgenic plants than in control plants. In addition, it was observed that growth of transgenic plants was inhibited due to constitutive overexpression of CBF1 gene under normal environmental conditions.

  11. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA. Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization. Two lines, D1232 and D1653, showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head. Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage, and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage. It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin. These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant organs and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  12. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEYUKE; WANXINXUE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA.Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization.Two lines,D1232 and D1653,showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head.Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage,and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage.It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin.These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant orgens and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  13. Inverted-repeat transgenic maize plants resistant to sugarcane mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing is a post-transcriptional genesilencing phenomenon induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).In an attempt to generate dsRNA-mediated transgenic maize plants resistant to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV),we cloned SCMV Nib gene-specificsequences and inserted it into the binary vector p3301 in the sense and antisense orientations (named SCMVir-Nib),which could produce RNAs capable of duplex formation in plant cells.Maize immature embryos were co-cultured with Agrobacterium carrying two vectors,one marker-free vector harboring the SCMVirNIb and one vector harboring bar gene as the selective marker.Resistant calli were recovered by selection on medium containing Biolaphos.Among the regenerated plantlets from resistant calli,14 plants have been certified to contain SCMVirNIb by PCR amplification and DNA dot blot.T1 plants derived from the 14 plants were challenged in a greenhouse with SCMV inoculums and the percentages of resistant plants in 11 T1 lines were higher than 60%.One plant in the T1 line was found to carry SCMVirNIb without bar gene by PCR assay.T2 plants derived from T1 SCMV resistant transgenic plants were challenged with SCMV inoculums in field.The percentages of resistant plants from 3 lines,including the line derived from the marker-free transgenic plant,were higher than 85%.The non-transgenic control plants were all susceptible.Further molecular analysis confirmed that the resistant plants from the marker-free transgenic line contained SCMVirNIb but not the bar gene.

  14. Production of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Virus-Like Particles in Transgenic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biemelt, Sophia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Galmbacher, Petra; Willmitzer, Lothar; Müller, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer is linked to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) and is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. There is a strong demand for the development of an HPV preventive vaccine. Transgenic plants expressing the HPV major capsid protein L1 could be a system to produce virus-like particles for prophylactic vaccination or could even be used as edible vaccines to induce an L1-specific prophylactic immune response. Here, we describe the generation of transgenic tobacco...

  15. Expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene and salinity tolerance in rice transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭岩; 张莉; 肖岗; 曹守云; 谷冬梅; 田文忠; 陈受宜

    1997-01-01

    Betaine as one of osmolytes plays an important role in osmoregulation of most high plants. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase C BADH) is the second enzyme involved in betaine biosynthesis. The BADH gene from a halophite, Atriplex hortensis, was transformed into rice cultivars by bombarment method. Totally 192 transgenic rice plants were obtained and most of them had higher salt tolerance than controls. Among transgenic plants transplanted in the saline pool containing 0.5% NaCl in a greenhouse, 22 survived, 13 of which set seeds, and the frequency of seed setting was very low, only 10% . But the controls could not grow under the same condition. The results of BADH ac-tivity assay and Northern blot showed that the BADH gene was integrated into chromosomes of transgenic plants and expressed.

  16. Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene are resistant to diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H J; Lee, S B; Chung, J S; Han, S U; Han, O; Guh, J O; Jeon, J S; An, G; Back, K

    2000-06-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the penultimate step enzyme of the branch point for the biosynthetic pathway of Chl and hemes, is the target site of action of diphenyl ether (DPE) herbicides. However, Bacillus subtilis Protox is known to be resistant to the herbicides. In order to develop the herbicide-resistant plants, the transgenic rice plants were generated via expression of B. subtilis Protox gene under ubiquitin promoter targeted to the cytoplasm or to the plastid using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. The integration and expression of the transgene were investigated at T0 generation by DNA and RNA blots. Most transgenic rice plants revealed one copy transgene insertion into the rice genome, but some with 3 copies. The expression levels of B. subtilis Protox mRNA appeared to correlate with the copy number. Furthermore, the plastidal transgenic lines exhibited much higher expression of the Protox mRNA than the cytoplasmic transgenic lines. The transgenic plants expressing the B. subtilis Protox gene at T0 generation were found to be resistant to oxyfluorfen when judged by cellular damage with respect to cellular leakage, Chl loss, and lipid peroxidation. The transgenic rice plants targeted to the plastid exhibited higher resistance to the herbicide than the transgenic plants targeted to the cytoplasm. In addition, possible resistance mechanisms in the transgenic plants to DPE herbicides are discussed. PMID:10945344

  17. Phenotypic performance of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with pyramided rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of transgenic plants commonly carried out under controlled conditions in culture rooms and greenhouses can give valuable information about the influence of introduced genes on transgenic plant phenotype. However, an overall assessment of plant performance can only be made by testing t...

  18. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2008-01-01

    Controversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring ...

  19. PPF1 May Suppress Plant Senescence via Activating TFL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Senescence, a sequence of biochemical and physiological events, constitutes the final stage of development In higher plants and is modulated by a variety of environmental factors and intemal factors. PPF1 possesses an important biological function in plant development by controlling the Ca2+ storage capacity within chloroplasts. Here we show that the expression of PPF1 might play a pivotal role in negatively regulating plant senescence as revealed by the regulation of overexpression and suppression of PPF1 on plant development. Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in the senescence-signaling pathway. Investigation of the senescence-related phenotypes in PPF1(-) tfl1-1 and PPF1(+) tfl1-1 double mutants confirmed and further highlighted the relation of PPF1 with TFL1 in tranegenic plants. The activation of TFL1 expression by PPF1 defines an important pathway possibly essential for the negative regulation of plant senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  20. Transgene-based anthocyanin hyper-pigmentation as a visual reporter of gene silencing in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Co-suppression” associated loss of flower pigmentation in transgenic petunia plants was one of the first clear indicators of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing in plants. We have been exploring the use of genetically engineered anthocyanin over-production in vegetative tissues as...

  1. Study on Heterosis and Combining Ability of Transgenic Bt Cotton%转Bt基因抗虫棉品种间杂种优势及配合力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴茂华; 刘丽英; 吴振良

    2013-01-01

    以6个转Bt基因陆地棉作为亲本材料,按完全双列杂交(Griffing 4)设计,从16个性状指标上对其品种间杂种优势和配合力进行研究。结果表明,杂种F1具有明显的优势,测试的16个性状中有13个性状具有正向中亲优势,5个性状具有正向超高优势,14个性状具有正向竞争优势。通径分析表明:在增产因素中,株高、单铃重和衣分所起的作用大。配合力分析表明:16个性状的遗传变异主要产生于基因的加性效应,而籽棉产量、皮棉重、果枝数、单铃重、衣分、烂铃率、比强度和纤维长度的非加性效应也很强;冀棉616( P5)和衡棉4号( P1)是优良的高产亲本,冀棉228( P6)是良好的优质亲本;筛选出8个高优势组合,其中3个为丰产组合P1×P2、P4×P5、P1×P4,3个为优质组合P5×P6、P2×P5、P3×P4,2个为高产优质组合P2×P6、P3×P5。%Crosses were made by Griffing4 design,using 6 transgenic Bt cotton varieties as parents ,to analyze heterosis of F1 hybrids and the combining ability from 16 traits.F1 hybrids showed an appreciable heterosis .13 of 16 characters measured had mid-parent heterosis ,5 showed high-parent heterosis and 14 expressed competitive hetero-sis.Path analysis indicated that plant height , single boll weight and lint percentage contributed greatly to the in-crease of output of the yield components .Combining ability analysis showed that the additive effects were predomi-nant in F1 traits,but non-additive effects of seed cotton yield ,lint yield,number of fruit branches ,single boll weight , lint percentage,rate of rotten boll,fiber strength and fiber length were also very strong .Jimian 616 and Hengmian 4 were high yied parents and Jimian 228 was a good quality parent with high genetic combining ability .8 excellent combinations were selected from 15 F1 hybrids,3 of which were high yield P1 ×P2,P4 ×P5,P1 ×P4,3 were good quality P5 ×P6,P2 ×P5

  2. Development of potato transgenic plants and molecular and genetic analyses of their integration stability and transgene expression efficiency using vegetative and sexual propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the stability of integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were investigated. Over 400 kanamycin resistant transgenic plants with the nptII, gus, tt (insect toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, variety kurstaki) and tg (fusion of tt and gus under the 35S promoter) foreign genes were obtained from eight potato genotypes by co-cultivation of the leaf discs with A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 (pBI 121), A. tumefaciens 3850 (pGV 941tg) and A. rchizogenes A4 (pGV 941tt). Southern blot analysis showed that more than 80% of the regenerating plants had one or several copies of the foreign genes. Selection for kanamycin resistance and Southern blot analysis revealed the stability of inheritance of transgenes by vegetative propagation of the plants via cloning and through tubers. However, 0.3% of the plants lost the nptII gene during the cloning process. About 500 self-pollinated seeds of four independently obtained transgenic clones were harvested. Analysis of the phenotypic segregation of the transgenic progeny on selective medium with kanamycin (50 mg/L) was made and compared with the controls. Inheritance and expression of the nptII transgene in the progeny of all four transgenic clones were shown, although the character of segregation appeared to differ in the various clones

  3. An Arabidopsis mitochondrial uncoupling protein confers tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants are challenged by a large number of environmental stresses that reduce productivity and even cause death. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species under normal conditions; however, stress causes an imbalance in these species that leads to deviations from normal cellular conditions and a variety of toxic effects. Mitochondria have uncoupling proteins (UCPs that uncouple electron transport from ATP synthesis. There is evidence that UCPs play a role in alleviating stress caused by reactive oxygen species overproduction. However, direct evidence that UCPs protect plants from abiotic stress is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tolerances to salt and water deficit were analyzed in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress a UCP (AtUCP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Seeds of AtUCP1 transgenic lines germinated faster, and adult plants showed better responses to drought and salt stress than wild-type (WT plants. These phenotypes correlated with increased water retention and higher gas exchange parameters in transgenic plants that overexpress AtUCP1. WT plants exhibited increased respiration under stress, while transgenic plants were only slightly affected. Furthermore, the transgenic plants showed reduced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in stressed leaves compared with WT plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher levels of AtUCP1 improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and this protection was correlated with lower oxidative stress. Our data support previous assumptions that UCPs reduce the imbalance of reactive oxygen species. Our data also suggest that UCPs may play a role in stomatal closure, which agrees with other evidence of a direct relationship between these proteins and photosynthesis. Manipulation of the UCP protein expression in mitochondria is a new avenue for crop improvement and may lead to crops with greater tolerance for challenging environmental conditions.

  4. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  5. Transformation of japonica rice with RHL gene and salt tolerance of the transgenic rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Overexpression of the yeast HAL2 gene increases salt tolerance of yeast and plant. Rice HAL2-like (RHL) gene was introduced into a japonica rice cultivar HJ19 with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants in R0 generation were selected on the principle of GUS-positive, RHL gene PCR-positive and normal growth. Hygromycin-resistant plants of some transgenic lines in R1 generation increased salt tolerance during the seedling and booting stage, being less damaged in the cytomembrane and stronger in leaf tissue viability under salt stress during booting period. Southern analysis of transgenic lines tolerant to salt in R1 generation showed that the RHL gene expression cassette had been successfully integrated into rice genome. Moreover, gene engineering breeding methodology and really salt-tolerant rice cultivar were discussed.

  6. Phytoremediation of the organic Xenobiotic simazine by p450-1a2 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Ehab; Hegazy, Ahmad K; El-Sharnouby, Mohamed E; Abd Elsalam, Hassan E

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of human P450-transgenic plants for phytoremediation of pesticide contaminated soils was tested in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The transgenic P450 CYP1A2 gene Arabidopsis thaliana plants metabolize number of herbicides, insecticides and industrial chemicals. The P450 isozymes CYP1A2 expressed in A. thaliana were examined regarding the herbicide simazine (SIM). Transgenic A. thaliana plants expressing CYP1A2 gene showed significant resistance to SIM supplemented either in plant growth medium or sprayed on foliar parts. The results showed that SIM produces harmful effect on both rosette diameter and primary root length of the wild type (WT) plants. In transgenic A. thaliana lines, the rosette diameter and primary root length were not affected by SIM concentrations used in this experiment. The results indicate that CYP1A2 can be used as a selectable marker for plant transformation, allowing efficient selection of transgenic lines in growth medium and/or in soil-grown plants. The transgenic A. thaliana plants exhibited a healthy growth using doses of up to 250 μmol SIM treatments, while the non-transgenic A. thaliana plants were severely damaged with doses above 50 μmol SIM treatments. The transgenic A. thaliana plants can be used as phytoremediator of environmental SIM contaminants. PMID:26771455

  7. THE TRANSGENIC PLANTS – ADVANTAGES REGARDING THEIR CULTIVATION AND POTENTIALLY RISKS CONCERNING THE FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana PUSTA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the genetic modifi ed organisms (GMO have started to “conquer”, little by little our lives. The most widely used are the trangenic plants, because they have bigger productions and they are resistant to different pests. In the beginning, the spread of the transgenic plants was controlled, but today many countries cultivate genetic modifi ed plants without any control. Among these countries Romania is ahead, starting the cultivation of the transgenic plants in 1999, very soon after their obtaining. This paper outline the effect of the food consumption obtained from this plants which may determine different effects on human body. Also, because the genetic modifi ed plants have bigger productions than the normal ones and they are more resistant, the farmers are not encouraged to declare that they are using genetic modifi ed seeds. So, in that way, the consumer does not know what kind of food he consumes.

  8. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated. In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  9. Risk Assessment and Ecological Effects of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Crops on Non-Target Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Lin Yu; Yun-He Li; Kong-Ming Wu

    2011-01-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated.In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  10. Risk Assessment of Synergism and Recombination on the Transgenic Plants Containing Viral Movement Protein and Replicase Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yan-bing; LI Gui-xin; WEN Rui; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plants transformed with movement protein gene of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) or Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and partial replicase gene of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) P1 isolate (CMV-P1), were inoculated with Potato virus X, Potato virus Y, TMV and CMV isolate RB (CMVRB), respectively. Symptom observation showed there were no symptom differences in transgenic tobacco plants as compared with those in non-transgenic tobacco plants. ELISA also illustrated that the virus concentrations in the transgenic plants were similar to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that no synergism is found in these plants. The transgenic tobacco plants expressing movement protein gene of ToMV or partial replicase gene of CMV-P1 were inoculated with TMV and CMV-RB, respectively. The local or systemic infected leaves were then used for elucidation of the possible virus recombination in transgenic plants with biological infectivity test, ELISA and immuno-capture RT-PCR. Within 16 months, no recombination was found between transformed genes and inoculated virus genomes. The research provides fundamental data for understanding of the possible risk of the transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  11. Expression activity of the CpTI gene in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Plant harboured protease inhibitor is a part of the natural plant defense system against insect predation. Plants transformed with foreign plant protease inhibitor genes can enhance resistance to insect pests. So far, at least 20 kinds of plants, including tobacco, rice, tomato, cotton et al., have been transformed with various plant protease inhibitor genes. We have transformed rice with CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene. To assess the range and stability of expression of the CpTI gene, CpTI protein activities were determined in various tissues and at different development stages of transgenic inbred lines.

  12. Mice orally immunized with a transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmanian, A H; Chinikar, S;

    2011-01-01

    glycoprotein when expressed in the root and leaf of transgenic plants via hairy roots and stable transformation of tobacco plants, respectively. After confirmatory analyses of transgenic plant lines and quantification of the expressed glycoprotein, mice were either fed with the transgenic leaves or roots, fed...... the transgenic plant material and injected subcutaneously with the plant-made CCHFV glycoprotein (fed/boosted), vaccinated with an attenuated CCHF vaccine (positive control), or received no treatment (negative control). All immunized groups had a consistent rise in anti-glycoprotein IgG and IgA antibodies...... in their serum and feces, respectively. The mice in the fed/boosted group showed a significant rise in specific IgG antibodies after a single boost. Our results imply that oral immunization of animals with edible materials from transgenic plants is feasible, and further assessments are under way. In addition...

  13. Expression of a begomoviral DNAβ gene in transgenic Nicotiana plants induced abnormal cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; LI Yun-qin; HU Dong-wei; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of monopartite begomoviruses are being identified that a satellite molecule (DNAβ) is required to induce typical symptoms in host plants. DNAβ encodes a single gene (termed βC1) encoded in the complementary-sense. We have produced transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants expressing theβC1 gene of a DNAβ associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic plants expressing βC1 showed severe developmental abnormalities in both species. Microscopic analysis of sections of both transgenic and non-transgenic N. tabacum leaves showed abnormal outgrowths of transgenic N. tabacum to be due to disorganized cell division (hyperplasia) of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Immuno-gold labeling of sections with a polyclonal antibody against the βC1 protein showed that the βC1 protein accumulated in the nuclei of cells. The possible biological function of the βC1 protein was discussed.

  14. Benefits of Transgenic Insect Resistance in Brassica Hybrids under Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Sagers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials of transgenic crops may result in unintentional transgene flow to compatible crop, native, and weedy species. Hybridization outside crop fields may create novel forms with potential negative outcomes for wild and weedy plant populations. We report here the outcome of large outdoor mesocosm studies with canola (Brassica napus, transgenic canola, a sexually compatible weed B. rapa, and their hybrids. Brassica rapa was hybridized with canola and canola carrying a transgene for herbivore resistance (Bt Cry1Ac and grown in outdoor mesocosms under varying conditions of competition and insect herbivory. Treatment effects differed significantly among genotypes. Hybrids were larger than all other genotypes, and produced more seeds than the B. rapa parent. Under conditions of heavy herbivory, plants carrying the transgenic resistance were larger and produced more seeds than non-transgenic plants. Pollen derived gene flow from transgenic canola to B. rapa varied between years (5%–22% and was not significantly impacted by herbivory. These results confirm that canola-weed hybrids benefit from transgenic resistance and are aggressive competitors with congeneric crops and ruderals. Because some crop and crop-weed hybrids may be competitively superior, escapees may alter the composition and ecological functions of plant communities near transgenic crop fields.

  15. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  16. Gene targeting and transgene stacking using intra genomic homologous recombination in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Barone, Pierluigi; Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Modern agriculture has created a demand for plant biotechnology products that provide durable resistance to insect pests, tolerance of herbicide applications for weed control, and agronomic traits tailored for specific geographies. These transgenic trait products require a modular and sequential multigene stacking platform that is supported by precise genome engineering technology. Designed nucleases have emerged as potent tools for creating targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Exogenously supplied donor DNA can repair the targeted DSB by a process known as gene targeting (GT), resulting in a desired modification of the target genome. The potential of GT technology has not been fully realized for trait deployment in agriculture, mainly because of inefficient transformation and plant regeneration systems in a majority of crop plants and genotypes. This challenge of transgene stacking in plants could be overcome by Intra-Genomic Homologous Recombination (IGHR) that converts independently segregating unlinked donor and target transgenic loci into a genetically linked molecular stack. The method requires stable integration of the donor DNA into the plant genome followed by intra-genomic mobilization. IGHR complements conventional breeding with genetic transformation and designed nucleases to provide a flexible transgene stacking and trait deployment platform.

  17. Phenotypic Characterization of Transgenic Miscanthus sinensis Plants Overexpressing Arabidopsis Phytochrome B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Jin Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochromes are dimeric pigment proteins with reversible photochromism between red and far-red light-absorbing forms. They are photoreceptors that regulate various aspects of plant growth and development and have been used for biotechnological applications to improve agricultural performance of crops. Miscanthus species have been suggested as one of the most promising energy crops. In this paper, Arabidopsis phytochrome B (PHYB gene was introduced into Miscanthus sinensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method that we developed recently, with the herbicide resistance gene (BAR as a selection marker. After putative transgenic plants were selected using the herbicide resistance assay, genomic integration of the transgene was confirmed by genomic PCR and Southern blot analysis, and transgene expression was validated by Northern blot analysis. Compared to nontransformed control plants, transgenic plants overexpressing PHYB showed phenotypes with increased phytochrome B function, which includes increased chlorophyll content, decreased plant height, and delayed flowering. Therefore, these results suggest that Arabidopsis phytochrome B is functional in M. sinensis and provide a method to develop Miscanthus varieties with enhanced agricultural performance using phytochromes.

  18. A comparison of spider communities in Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Yeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Jung, Jong Kook; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2014-06-01

    To assess the potential adverse effects of a Bt rice line (Japonica rice cultivar, Nakdong) expressing a synthetic cry1Ac1 gene, C7-1-9-1-B, which was highly active against all larval stages of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), we investigated the community structure of spiders in Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the rice-growing season in 2007 and 2008 in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Spiders were surveyed with a sweep net and suction device. Suction sampling captured more spiders, measured in terms of species level and abundance, than sweeping. Araneidae and Thomisidae were captured more by sweeping, and certain species were captured only by sweeping. These findings show that both suction and sweep sampling methods should be used because these methods are most likely complementary. In total, 29 species in 23 genera and nine families were identified from the 4,937 spiders collected, and both Bt and non-Bt rice fields showed a typical Korean spider assemblage. The temporal patterns of spider species richness and spider abundance were very similar between Bt and non-Bt rice, although significant differences in species richness were observed on a few occasions. Overall, spider community structure, including diversity, the dominant species, and abundance did not differ between Bt and non-Bt rice. The results of the study indicated that the transgenic Cry1Ac rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the spider community structure of the rice fields.

  19. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  20. Global trends in plant transgenic science and technology (1973-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Transgenic science and technology are fundamental to state-of-the-art plant molecular genetics and GM crop improvement. Monitoring the scale and growth of this area of science is important to scientists, national and international research organizations, funding bodies, policy makers and, because of the GM debate, to society as a whole. Literature statistics covering the past 30 years reveal a dramatic increase in plant transgenic science in Asia during the past decade, a sustained expansion in North America and, recently, a slow down in the rest of the world. With the exception of the output of China and India, publications focusing on the development of transgenic technology have been slowing down, worldwide, since the early mid-1990s, a trend that contrasts with the increase in GM crop-related studies.

  1. Transgenic maize plants expressing the Totivirus antifungal protein, KP4, are highly resistant to corn smut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aron; Islamovic, Emir; Kaur, Jagdeep; Gold, Scott; Shah, Dilip; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-10-01

    The corn smut fungus, Ustilago maydis, is a global pathogen responsible for extensive agricultural losses. Control of corn smut using traditional breeding has met with limited success because natural resistance to U. maydis is organ specific and involves numerous maize genes. Here, we present a transgenic approach by constitutively expressing the Totivirus antifungal protein KP4, in maize. Transgenic maize plants expressed high levels of KP4 with no apparent negative impact on plant development and displayed robust resistance to U. maydis challenges to both the stem and ear tissues in the greenhouse. More broadly, these results demonstrate that a high level of organ independent fungal resistance can be afforded by transgenic expression of this family of antifungal proteins.

  2. The role of transgenic corn hybrids in reducing contamination by mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids have been available for more than 10 years and are known to control specific insects. More recently, so-called “stacked-gene” hybrids, have been released with multiple insect resistance genes and genes for herbicide resistance, resulting in up to 6 traits per plant. Beca...

  3. Transgenic rice plants expressing the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) exhibit high-level resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagadhara, D; Ramesh, S; Pasalu, I C; Rao, Y Kondala; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants, expressing snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)], obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, were evaluated for resistance against the insect, the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). The transgene gna was driven by the phloem-specific, rice-sucrose synthase promoter RSs1, and the bar was driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In our previous study, the transgenic status of these lines was confirmed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. Both the transgenes, gna and bar, were stably inherited and co-segregated into progenies in T1 to T5 generations. Insect bioassays on transgenic plants revealed the potent entomotoxic effects of GNA on the WBPH. Also, significant decreases were observed in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects fed on transgenic plants. Furthermore, intact GNA was detected in the total proteins of WBPHs fed on these plants. Western blot analysis revealed stable and consistent expression of GNA throughout the growth and development of transgenic plants. Transgenic lines expressing GNA exhibited high-level resistance against the WBPH. As reported earlier, these transgenics also showed substantial resistance against the brown planthopper and green leafhopper.

  4. Transgenic Trees: Implementation and Outcomes of the Plant Protection Act

    OpenAIRE

    Sedjo, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The responsibility for protecting U.S. agriculture from pests and diseases is assigned by the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture. The Plant Protection Act (Title 7 U.S.C. Sections 7701 et seq.) gives Aphis statutory authority over genetically modified organisms (GMO), in effect assigning to APHIS a related responsibility of determining whether a genetically altered plant, crop, or tree is likely to pose unac...

  5. Terpenoid Metabolism in Wild-Type and Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Giri, A.P.; Deuerlein, S.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile components, such as terpenoids, are emitted from aerial parts of plants and play a major role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Analysis of the composition and emission pattern of volatiles in the model plant Arabidopsis showed that a range of volatile components are

  6. Suppression of an atypically spliced rice CACTA transposon transcript in transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Pereira, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    OsES1, a rice homolog of the maize En/Spm transposon, is transcribed to produce TnpA-like and TnpD-like transcripts. However, an alternatively spliced form of the TnpA-like transcript., which was found to be suppressed in transgenic plants, was revealed to be clue to atypical splicing of a Hipa-like

  7. Introduction of AtNHX1 into beet improved salt-tolerance of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Aifang; Zhao Shilan; Yin Xiaoyan; Gao Feng; Zhang Juren

    2006-01-01

    AtNHX1 gene encoding the Na+/H+ antiport on the vacuole membrane of Arabidopsis was transferred into small bud tips of 1-3mm in length derived from immature inflorescence cultures of six genotypes of beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ) by the infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and transgenic plants with improved salt-tolerance were obtained. When transgenic plants at 5-leaf stage were potted in sand and irrigated with solutions containing a range of concentrations of NaCl (171-513mM), they showed minor symptoms of damage from salinity and better tolerance than the controls. There were considerable discrepancies of salt-tolerance between transgenic plants originated from the same genotype and also between different genotypes. After vernalization, bolting transgenic plants were enveloped with two layers of gauzes for self-pollination. T1 seedlings tolerant to 342-427mM NaCl were obtained respectively. These results revealed that it was feasible to improve salt-tolerance of beets by the introduction of AtNHX1 gene into cultured bud cells.

  8. Impact of six transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on four nontarget thrips species attacking rice panicles in the paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Z R; Tian, J C; Chen, Y; Fang, Q; Hu, C; Peng, Y F; Ye, G Y

    2013-02-01

    As a key component of ecological risk assessments, nontarget effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice have been tested under laboratory and field conditions for various organisms. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to observe the nontarget effects of six transgenic rice lines (expressing the Cry1Ab or fused protein of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac) on four nontarget thrips species including Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), F. tenuicornis (Uzel), Haplothrips aculeatus (F.), and H. tritici (Kurd), as compared with their rice parental control lines. Two sampling methods including the beat plate and plastic bag method were used to monitor the population densities of the four thrips species for 2 yr. The results showed that the seasonal average densities of four tested thrips species in Bt rice plots were significantly lower than or very similar to those in the non-Bt rice plots depending on rice genotypes, sampling methods, and years. Among all six tested Bt rice lines, transgenic B1 and KMD2 lines suppressed the population of these tested thrips species the most. Our results indicate that the tested Bt rice lines are unlikely to result in high population pressure of thrips species in comparison with non-Bt rice. In some cases, Bt rice lines could significantly suppress thrips populations in the rice ecosystem. In addition, compatibility of Bt rice, with rice host plant resistance to nontarget sucking pests is also discussed within an overall integrated pest management program for rice. PMID:23339799

  9. Expression of modified gene encoding functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Singh, Rahul; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2008-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer promising alternative for large scale, sustainable production of safe, functional, recombinant proteins of therapeutic and industrial importance. Here, we report the expression of biologically active human alpha-1-antitrypsin in transgenic tomato plants. The 1,182 bp cDNA sequence of human AAT was strategically designed, modified and synthesized to adopt codon usage pattern of dicot plants, elimination of mRNA destabilizing sequences and modifications around 5' and 3' flanking regions of the gene to achieve high-level regulated expression in dicot plants. The native signal peptide sequence was substituted with modified signal peptide sequence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pathogenesis related protein PR1a, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) sporamineA and with dicot-preferred native signal peptide sequence of AAT gene. A dicot preferred translation initiation context sequence, 38 bp alfalfa mosaic virus untranslated region were incorporated at 5' while an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL) was incorporated at 3' end of the gene. The modified gene was synthesized by PCR based method using overlapping oligonucleotides. Tomato plants were genetically engineered by nuclear transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring three different constructs pPAK, pSAK and pNAK having modified AAT gene with different signal peptide sequences under the control of CaMV35S duplicated enhancer promoter. Promising transgenic plants expressing recombinant AAT protein upto 1.55% of total soluble leaf protein has been developed and characterized. Plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein with molecular mass of around approximately 50 kDa was biologically active, showing high specific activity and efficient inhibition of elastase activity. The enzymatic deglycosylation established proper glycosylation of the plant-expressed recombinant AAT protein in contrast to unglycosylated rAAT expressed in E. coli ( approximately 45 kDa). Our results demonstrate

  10. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed;

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  11. Production of vaccines for treatment of infectious diseases by transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina LEDL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first pathogen antigen was expressed in transgenic plants with the aim of producing edible vaccine in early 1990s, transgenic plants have become a well-established expression system for production of alternative vaccines against various human and animal infectious diseases. The main focus of plant expression systems in the last five years has been on improving expression of well-studied antigens such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV, bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV, footh and mouth disease virus (FMDV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, rabies G protein, rotavirus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV, Norwalk virus capsid protein (NVCP, avian influenza virus H5N1, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin subunit B (LT-B, cholera toxin B (CT-B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, artherosclerosis, ebola and anthrax. Significant increases in expression have been obtained using improved expression vectors, different plant species and transformation methods.

  12. [Enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria in transgenic tobacco plants with synthetic gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Gudkov, A T; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    2005-11-01

    Plasmids with a synthetic gene of the mammalian antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (cecP1) controlled by the constitutive promoter 35S RNA of cauliflower mosaic virus were constructed. Agrobacterial transformation of tobacco plants was conducted using the obtained recombinant binary vector. The presence of gene cecP1 in the plant genome was confirmed by PCR. The expression of gene cecP1 in transgenic plants was shown by Northern blot analysis. The obtained transgenic plants exhibit enhanced resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae, P. marginata, and Erwinia carotovora. The ability of transgenic plants to express cecropin P1 was transmitted to the progeny. F1 and F2 plants had the normal phenotype (except for a changed coloration of flowers) and retained the ability to produce normal viable seeds upon self-pollination. Lines of F1 plants with Mendelian segregation of transgenic traits were selected.

  13. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  14. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banguela, Alexander; Arrieta, Juan G; Rodríguez, Raisa; Trujillo, Luis E; Menéndez, Carmen; Hernández, Lázaro

    2011-06-10

    Bacterial levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) converts sucrose into non-linear levan consisting of long β(2,6)-linked fructosyl chains with β(2,1) branches. Bacterial levan has wide food and non-food applications, but its production in industrial reactors is costly and low yielding. Here, we report the constitutive expression of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase (LsdA) fused to the vacuolar targeting pre-pro-peptide of onion sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in tobacco, a crop that does not naturally produce fructans. In the transgenic plants, levan with degree of polymerization above 10(4) fructosyl units was detected in leaves, stem, root, and flowers, but not in seeds. High levan accumulation in leaves led to gradual phenotypic alterations that increased with plant age through the flowering stage. In the transgenic lines, the fructan content in mature leaves varied from 10 to 70% of total dry weight. No oligofructans were stored in the plant organs, although the in vitro reaction of transgenic LsdA with sucrose yielded β(2,1)-linked FOS and levan. Transgenic lines with levan representing up to 30mgg(-1) of fresh leaf weight produced viable seeds and the polymer accumulation remained stable in the tested T1 and T2 progenies. The lsdA-expressing tobacco represents an alternative source of highly polymerized levan. PMID:21540065

  15. Analyses of Sexual Reproductive Success in Transgenic and/or Mutant Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane P. G. Calixto; Gustavo H. Goldman; Maria Helena S. Goldman

    2009-01-01

    The pistil, the female reproductive organ of plants, is a key player in the success of sexual plant reproduction. Ultimately, the production of fruits and seeds depends on the proper pistil development and function. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pistil expressed genes is essential for a better understanding and manipulation of the plant reproduction process. For studying the function of pistil expressed genes, transgenic and/or mutant plants for the genes of interest are used. The present article provides a review of methods already exploited to analyze sexual reproductive success. We Intend to sup ply useful information and to guide future experiments in thestudy of genes affecting pistil development and function.

  16. Production Of Cellulase In Plastids Of Transgenic Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamppa, Gayle (Chicago, IL)

    2002-08-06

    A genetic construct encoding a fusion protein including endogluconase E1 and a transit peptide is used to transform plants. The plants produce cellulase by expressing the genetic construct. The cellulase is targeted to plastids and can be collected and purified.

  17. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Chen; Chenxi Liu; Yutao Xiao; Dandan Zhang; Yongdong Zhang; Xianchun Li; Bruce E Tabashnik; Kongming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase p...

  18. Function and anatomy of plant siRNA pools derived from hairpin transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kevin AW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference results in specific gene silencing by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Synthetic siRNAs provide a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression but high cost suggests that novel siRNA production methods are desirable. Strong evolutionary conservation of siRNA structure suggested that siRNAs will retain cross-species function and that transgenic plants expressing heterologous siRNAs might serve as useful siRNA bioreactors. Here we report a detailed evaluation of the above proposition and present evidence regarding structural features of siRNAs extracted from plants. Results Testing the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells proved to be very challenging and required partial siRNA purification and design of a highly sensitive assay. Using the above assay we found that plant-derived siRNAs are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Plant-derived siRNAs are almost exclusively double-stranded and most likely comprise a mixture of bona fide siRNAs and aberrant partially complementary duplexes. We also provide indirect evidence that plant-derived siRNAs may contain a hitherto undetected physiological modification, distinct from 3' terminal 2-O-methylation. Conclusion siRNAs produced from plant hairpin transgenes and extracted from plants are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Thus our findings establish that a previous claim that transgenic plants offer a cost-effective, scalable and sustainable source of siRNAs is unwarranted. Our results also indicate that the presence of aberrant siRNA duplexes and possibly a plant-specific siRNA modification, compromises the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells.

  19. Transgenic Plants as Expression Factories for Bio Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Shabir. H.; Sah, Saroj K.

    2015-01-01

    At present agriculture not only provides food, but is also used for the production of pharmaceuticals or industrial compounds such as pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines along with biodegradable plastic and industrial chemicals. Since last three decades, plant genetic engineering has played a vital role in the production of bio-pharmaceutical products from crops. Due to technological advancement of genetic engineering, biotechnologist are able to engineer plants by using living organism with the h...

  20. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H S; Lam, D M; Arntzen, C J

    1992-01-01

    Tobacco plants were genetically transformed with the gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) linked to a nominally constitutive promoter. Enzyme-linked immunoassays using a monoclonal antibody directed against human serum-derived HBsAg revealed the presence of HBsAg in extracts of transformed leaves at levels that correlated with mRNA abundance. This suggests that there were no major inherent limitations of transcription or translation of this foreign gene in plants. Recombinant HBs...

  1. Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Protein in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li LIU; Wen-Sheng LI; Ting LEI; Jing ZHENG; Zheng ZHANG; Xiao-Fei YAN; Zhe-Zhi WANG; Yi-Li WANG; Lü-Sheng SI

    2005-01-01

    To develop a plant expression system for the production of the human papillomavirus type 16(HPV16) vaccine, we investigated whether the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in tobacco plants and whether it can be used as the cheapest form of edible vaccine. The HPV16 L1 coding sequence was amplified by PCR using specific primers from the plasmid pGEM-T-HPV16 containing the template sequence, and subcloned into the intermediate vector pUCmT and binary vector pBI121 consecutively to obtain the plant expression plasmid pBI-L1. The T-DNA regions of the pBI-L1 binary vector contained the constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase npt Ⅱ gene, which allowed the selection of transformed plants using kanamycin. The tobacco plants were transformed by cocultivating them, using the leaf disc method, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, which harbored the plant expression plasmid. The regenerated transgenic tobacco plants were selected using kanamycin, and confirmed by PCR. The results of the Southern blot assay also showed that the HPV16 L1 gene was integrated stably into the genome of the transformed tobacco plants. The Western blot analysis showed that the transformed tobacco leaves could express the HPV16 L1 protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated by ELISA assay that the expressed protein accounted for 0.034%-0.076% of the total soluble leaf protein, was able to form 55 nm virus-like particles compatible with HPV virus-like particle (VLP), and induced mouse erythrocyte hemagglutination in vitro. The present results indicate that the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants and the expressed protein possesses the natural features of the HPV 16L1 protein, implying that the HPV16 L1 transgenic plants can be potentially used as an edible vaccine.

  2. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on insecticidal activity and phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Nhan Le; Ma, Chuanxin; Shang, Jianying; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Shutong; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles and transgenic plants are recent scientific developments that require systematic study to understand their potential risks to human health. The effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on Bt-transgenic cotton and conventional cotton are reported here. CuO NPs inhibited the growth, development, nutrient content, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations of transgenic and conventional cotton. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed CuO NPs aggregated on the epidermis of conventional cotton leaves, whereas it had reached into the cells of transgenic cotton leaves by endocytosis. Most CuO NPs aggregates were found on the root outer epidermis and the rest were located in intercellular spaces of both conventional and Bt-transgenic cottons. CuO NPs enhanced the expression of the exogenous gene encoding of Bt toxin protein in leaves and roots, especially at low CuO NP concentrations, providing an important benefit for Bt cotton insect resistance. PMID:26408972

  3. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  4. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct.

  5. Evaluation of Resistance of Bt-Transgenic Sugarcane toProceras venosatum Walker%转Bt基因甘蔗对甘蔗条螟的抗虫性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继虎; 管楚雄; 许汉亮; 胡玉伟; 林明江; 黄志武; 李泓智

    2015-01-01

    To test the resistance to Bt-transgenic sugarcanes lines (B2, B14 and B17), feeding behavior, lethality, spawning rate, and the hatchability of sugarcane borer were studied. These biological traits were also investigated in the field. The results showed that B17 has the highest resistance and B14 and B2 the lower resistance toProceras venosatum Walker. There were no significant differences in spawning rate and in hatchability, while in feeding area and in lethality, there were significant differences among B17, B14, B2 and CK.%通过研究转Bt基因甘蔗株系(B2、B14和B17)对甘蔗条螟的幼虫取食行为、致死率、产卵选择性和孵化率的影响,并结合室外田间抗性指标调查,评价转基因甘蔗对甘蔗条螟的抗性强弱。结果表明,对甘蔗条螟的抗虫性以B17为最强,其次是B14和B2。其中,各株系对条螟在产卵选择性和孵化率方面差异不显著,而在幼虫取食面积和幼虫致死率方面,B17、B14、B2均与对照之间差异显著。

  6. 鲁棉研系列转Bt抗虫棉产业化开发15年回顾%Review of Industrialized Exploitation of Lumianyan Series of Transgenic-Bt Insect-resistant Cotton Varieties in Past 15 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬青

    2014-01-01

    This article reviewed the industrialized exploitation course of Lumianyan series of transgenic -Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties in the past 15 years, including the industrialized exploitation modes (common licensing, monopolistic licensing, and competitive tender and auction ) , industrialized exploitation measures ( using the enterprise as a carrier to accelerate the industriali-zation of research achievements;taking the base as a guarantee to ensure the quality of fine seed production ;promoting the extension of cotton varieties through demonstration based on the research projects;strengthening the training of service to ensure that the tech-nology is in place;strengthening the work of safeguarding rights to optimize the business environment ) , and the scale and effect of the popularization and utilization of these cotton varieties .%综述了鲁棉研系列转Bt抗虫棉产业化开发15年的历程,包括产业化开发模式(普通许可、独占许可、竞标拍卖)、产业化开发的措施(以企业为载体,加快成果产业化;以基地为保障,确保良种生产质量;以项目为依托,通过示范促进推广;加强培训服务,确保技术到位;加强维权工作,优化经营环境)以及推广应用的规模及效果。

  7. Transfer of E. coli gutD gene into maize and regeneration of salt-tolerant transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 王国英; 刘俊君; 彭学贤; 谢友菊; 戴景瑞; 郭世伟; 张福锁

    1999-01-01

    GutD gene, encoding a key enzyme (glucitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) of sugar alcohol metabolic pathway in E. coli, was transferred into maize. Results of Southern and Western blotting analysis certified that this gene had integrated and been expressed in transgenic maize plants and their progeny. The synthesis and accumulation of sorbitol were detected in transgenic maize plants and a preliminary nutrient solution culture experiment showed that gutD transgenic maize plants had an increased tolerance to salt stress compared with nontransgenic ones.

  8. Degradation behaviour of phosphinothricin in nontransgenic and transgenic maize- and rape cells as well as in whole plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to now only very few publications are available about the metabolism of phosphinothricin (D/L-PPT, trade names: BASTA trademark, LIBERTY trademark) in plants. In most of these reports degradation studies with cell cultures using very low herbicide concentrations are described. There are no publications about the degradation in transgenic intact plants under outdoor conditions yet. In order to clarify the question, whether the degradation in transgenic crops may differ from that in nontransgenic plants and if there exist differences between D- and L-PPT, the degradation of 14C-D/L-, -L- and -D-PPT in transgenic and nontransgenic cell cultures as well as in intact, transgenic rape and maize plants was studied under outdoor conditions. D-PPT was not metabolised to a reasonable extent both in cell cultures and whole plants, all metabolites were formed from L-PPT. At harvest the amounts of total residues in maize plants ranged from 9 to 16% of the applied herbicide dosage and in rape plants from 35 to 47%. In nontransgenic plant cells L-PPT was exclusively metabolised to different methylphosphinico fatty acids. The main metabolite both in transgenic cells and whole plants with a content of 60 to 90% of total residues in rape and maize was N-acetyl-L-PPT, which seems to be stable in transgenic plants. In addition very low amounts of the same methylphosphinico fatty acids as in nontransgenic cells were detected in transgenic plants. More than 95% of the total residues were extractable by water, the formation of nonpolar and nonextractable residues was below 4%. At harvest the highest amounts of the residues were found in the treated leaves (4-15%), the lowest in the kernals (0,07-0,6%). According to these results total residues of PPT will not exceed the official tolerances in transgenic rape and maize if application follows good agricultural practice. (orig.)

  9. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  10. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants. PMID:24452332

  11. Introduction of rol Genes into Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Genome and Effects of Transgene Expression on the Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-yan; YANG Ye-hua; WU Zheng-bin; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jin

    2004-01-01

    The rol genes cloned from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were transferred to the cotton genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analyses and developmental identification of the putative transgenic plants were carried out by means of PCR, Southern blotting and field characterization. The results showed that the expression of rol genes greatly increased the rooting ability of the transgenic plants, and changed the plant development. Highly male-sterile plants with strong apical dominance and fertile plants with short internodes, stunted growth and improved economic characteristics were segregated from the T1 transgenic lines of wild rol B gene and the rol B gene driven by 35S promoter. The transgenic lines of rol ABC construct usually had normal boll setting and slow growth. Therefore we concluded that the rol genes, modified in suitable ways,could be used to create new cotton varieties with some highly valuable characteristics.

  12. Introduction of cecropin B gene into rice (Oryza sativa L.) by particle bombardment and analysis of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大年; 朱冰; 杨炜; 薛锐; 肖晗; 田文忠; 李良材; 戴顺洪

    1996-01-01

    An expression vector pCBl suitable for rice transformation, harboring a synthesized cecropin B gene and a selectable marker gene (bar), was constructed. It was introduced into immature embryos of two japonica varieties by particle bombardment, and several transgenic plants were obtained. The results from Basta treatment, PCR analysis, dot and Southern blot analysis of cecropin B gene in transgenic plants indicated that both bar and cecropin B gene were integrated into the genome of transformed plants. Northern blot analysis of transgenic plants showed the expression of cecropin B gene at transcriptional level. Some of transgenic plants revealed improved resistances to two types of bacterial diseases, rice bacterial blight and rice bacterial streak to different extent.

  13. Transgenic Plants as Expression Factories for Bio Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir H Wani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At present agriculture not only provides food, but is also used for the production of pharmaceuticals or industrial compounds such as pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines along with biodegradable plastic and industrial chemicals. Since last three decades, plant genetic engineering has played a vital role in the production of bio-pharmaceutical products from crops. Due to technological advancement of genetic engineering, biotechnologist are able to engineer plants by using living organism with the help of different transformation techniques like Agrobacterium mediated transformation, biolistic gene gun, and so on to produce biopharmaceuticals products for diagnostic purposes as well as nutritional supplements.

  14. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  15. Biodegradation of atrazine in transgenic plants expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase (atzA) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Samac, Deborah A; Shapir, Nir; Wackett, Lawrence P; Vance, Carroll P; Olszewski, Neil E; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the USA. Atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA), the first enzyme in a six-step pathway leading to the mineralization of atrazine in Gram-negative soil bacteria, catalyses the hydrolytic dechlorination and detoxification of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine. In this study, we investigated the potential use of transgenic plants expressing atzA to take up, dechlorinate and detoxify atrazine. Alfalfa, Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco were transformed with a modified bacterial atzA gene, p-atzA, under the control of the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. All transgenic plant species actively expressed p-atzA and grew over a wide range of atrazine concentrations. Thin layer chromatography analyses indicated that in planta expression of p-atzA resulted in the production of hydroxyatrazine. Hydroponically grown transgenic tobacco and alfalfa dechlorinated atrazine to hydroxyatrazine in leaves, stems and roots. Moreover, p-atzA was found to be useful as a conditional-positive selection system to isolate alfalfa and Arabidopsis transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our work suggests that the in planta expression of p-atzA may be useful for the development of plants for the phytoremediation of atrazine-contaminated soils and soil water, and as a marker gene to select for the integration of exogenous DNA into the plant genome. PMID:17173634

  16. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  17. [Transgenic tobacco plants with ribosome inactivating protein gene cassin from Cassia occidentalis and their resistance to tobacco mosaic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Hua-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Cassin, the new gene of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Cassia occidentalis, was inserted into expression vector pBI121 to produce plant expression vector pBI121-cassin (Figs.1, 2). pBI121-cassin was introduced into tobacco cultivar 'K326' by the Agrobacteriurm tumefaciens transformation method and more than 100 independent transformants were obtained. Southern blot hybridization analysis showed that a single gene locus was inserted into the chromosome of the transgenic tobacco lines (Fig.5) and PCR analysis of segregation population of progeny indicated that the inheritance of transgene was dominant in transgenic lines (Fig.4, Table 1). Results of RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization analysis showed that transgene could be transcribed correctly (Figs.5, 6) . Three self-pollination lines of transgenic T(1) and T(2) were challenged with TMV at different concentration titers by mechanical inoculation. The transgenic lines exhibited different levels of resistance to TMV with the nontransgenic plants. After both titers of TMV concentration were inoculated, transgenic lines were considered as the highly resistant type with a delay of 4-13 d in development of symptoms and 10%-25% of test plants were infected, while nontransgenic control plants were susceptible typical symptoms on the newly emerged leaves (Table 2). One T(2) line, T(2)-8-2-1, was regarded as an immune type because it did not show any symptoms during 70 d and all plants were shown to be virus free by ELISA tests.

  18. COMPARATIVE MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS BETWEEN UKRAINIAN AND EU REGISTERED GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT RAPESEED TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Taranenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to analyze 10 developed at the Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering lines of rapeseed to confirm the presence and functionality of the transferred transgene CP4 epsps, as well as the differences among those lines from registered transformation events GT73 and GT200 (Monsanto. During the study extraction of total rapeseed DNA, PCR analysis, electrophoretic separation and visualization of amplicons in agarose gel were conducted, as well as testing of green plants for resistance to glyphosate in greenhouse. The structural difference among 7 transgenic lines from registered transformation events GT73 and GT200 was revealed. Plants showing the presence of synthetic CP4 epsps sequence were resistant to the herbicide in a closed soil. The uniqueness of the obtained transformation events was confirmed, as well as the prospect of using them in breeding.

  19. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  20. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stephen Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s. Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  1. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi, thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of safflower and the efficient recovery of transgenic plants via grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surinder P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is a difficult crop to genetically transform being susceptible to hyperhydration and poor in vitro root formation. In addition to traditional uses safflower has recently emerged as a broadacre platform for the production of transgenic products including modified oils and pharmaceutically active proteins. Despite commercial activities based on the genetic modification of safflower, there is no method available in the public domain describing the transformation of safflower that generates transformed T1 progeny. Results An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed with a transformation efficiency of 4.8% and 3.1% for S-317 (high oleic acid content and WT (high linoleic acid content genotypes respectively. An improved safflower transformation T-DNA vector was developed, including a secreted GFP to allow non-destructive assessment of transgenic shoots. Hyperhydration and necrosis of Agrobacterium-infected cotyledons was effectively controlled by using iota-carrageenan, L-cysteine and ascorbic acid. To overcome poor in vitro root formation for the first time a grafting method was developed for safflower in which ~50% of transgenic shoots develop into mature plants bearing viable transgenic T1 seed. The integration and expression of secreted GFP and hygromycin genes were confirmed by PCR, Southern and Western blot analysis. Southern blot analysis in nine independent lines indicated that 1-7 transgenes were inserted per line and T1 progeny displayed Mendelian inheritance. Conclusions This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both the efficiency and ease of use over existing safflower transformation protocols. This is the first complete method of genetic transformation of safflower that generates stably-transformed plants and progeny, allowing this crop to benefit from modern molecular applications.

  3. Generation of double-virus-resistant marker-flee transgenic potato plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Bai; Zhihua Guo; Xiaoqi Wang; Dongmei Bai; Weifeng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Viruses are very widespread in nature,and they cause severe diseases and yield losses in potato production.The transfer of the dsRNA-producing gene could confer a high level virus resistance by specific targeting of cognate viral RNA.In this study,we constructed a marker-free expression vector of a chimeric gene derived from the coat protein sequence of Potato virus X (PVX) and the nuclear inclusion protein sequence of Potato virus Y (PVY) in the form of an intramolecular dsRNA.Then this chimeric gene was introduced into potato cv.Zihuabai,a popular variety in China,via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.Marker gene-free transgenic plants resistant to both PVX and PVY were obtained and confirmed by RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA detection.Northern blot analysis showed that transgene-derived mRNA was cleaved into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs),and that the virus resistance was mediated by RNA silencing.One important aspect of the study is that the transgenic viral sequence is not translated and the actual RNA transcript is cleaved,which possibly limit the environmental risks,such as transcapsidation and recombination of the transgene with an incoming virus.In addition,the biosafety risk resulting from marker genes can be avoided because of the absence of marker genes in transgenic plants.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  4. A Simplified Seed Transformation Method for Obtaining Transgenic Brassica napus Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; ZHAO De-gang; WU Yong-jun; TIAN Xiao-e

    2009-01-01

    We report here a seed transformation of sonication-assisted,no-tissue culture to rapidly produce transgenic Brassica napus plants.This method comprises the steps of treating seeds by ultrasonic wave,inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a recombinant ChlFN-a gene and germinating directly of treatment seed on wet filter papers.The obtained transformants were verified by GUS histochemical assay and nested PCR amplification.It suggests that seed transformation has a potential use in genetic transformation of rape.

  5. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  6. Increasing cellulose production and transgenic plant growth in forest tree species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; Aaron Nelson; Emmanuel Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Cellulose is one of many important polymers in plants. Cellulose is made of repeat units of the monomer glucose. Cellulose is a major industrial biopolymer in the forest products, textile, and chemical industries. It also forms a large portion of the biomass useful in the generation of energy. Moreover, cellulose-based biomass is a renewable energy source that can be used for the generation of ethanol as a fuel. Cellulose is synthesized by a variety of living organisms such as plants and algae. It is the major component of plant cell walls with secondary cell walls having a much higher content of cellulose. The relationship between cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is complicated, but it is confirmed that inhibition of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic trees will increase cellulose biosynthesis and plant growth. Cellulose accumulation may be increased by down-regulating 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL, EC 6.2.1.12) as shown in transgenic aspen. There is no similar reports on down-regulating 4CL in transgenic conifers. Based on our established Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system in loblolly pine, we are able to produce antisense 4-CL transgenic loblolly pine which is predicted to have increasing cellulose accumulation. The overall objective of this project is to genetically engineer forest tree species such as loblolly pine with reduced amount of lignin and increased cellulose content. The research strategy includes: (1) isolate the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene from loblolly pine seedlings by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RACE-PCR) techniques from the cDNA library; (2) construct binary expression vectors with antisense 4CL coding sequences and introduce antisense constructs of the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene cloned from loblolly pine into the loblolly pine to down regulate the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene expression; (3) study the

  7. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. PMID:25303666

  8. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  9. Function of resveratrol de- rived from transgenic plant expressing resveratrol synthase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two genes from grapevine coding for resveratrol synthase, named RS1 and RS2, were cloned by RT-PCR. An Escherichia coli expression vector was constructed by insertion of RS1 into pBV221. A specific protein with the same molecular weight (42 ku) as the resveratrol synthase was expressed and used to prepare the rabbit antiserum. A plant expression vector was constructed by inserting the RS1 gene into pBin438 downstream of the doubled CaMV 35S promoter and TMV-W fragment. PCR-positive transgenic tobacco plants were obtained after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the plant expression vector. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the foreign gene was integrated into the tobacco genome. The results of RT-PCR and Western blot indicated that the RS1 gene was transcribed and expressed. Formation of resvera-trol in transgenic tobacco was further determined by thin-layer chromatography of silica gel and HPLC. Increased accumulation of human breast adenocarcinoma cells in G0 and G1 phases of cell cycle was observed in cells treated with resveratrol purified from transgenic tobacco as compared to the untreated cells.

  10. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

  11. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138 and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138 were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI. Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

  12. Prediction of transgenic tobacco plant processing properties by ultra scale down and physical property measurement for monoclonal antibody production.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, S. Y.

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous potential advantages of producing significant quantities of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) via transgenic tobacco plants over other heterologous production systems, thus paving the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic applications within global human and animal health. However, current information on the key processing factors for large scale production of antibodies from transgenic plants is limited. This thesis presents the issues involved in the production of monoclonal...

  13. Striga parasitizes transgenic hairy roots of Zea mays and provides a tool for studying plant-plant interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runo Steven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striga species are noxious root hemi-parasitic weeds that debilitate cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Control options for Striga are limited and developing Striga resistant crop germplasm is regarded as the best and most sustainable control measure. Efforts to improve germplasm for Striga resistance by a non-Genetic Modification (GM approach, for example by exploiting natural resistance, or by a GM approach are constrained by limited information on the biological processes underpinning host-parasite associations. Additionaly, a GM approach is stymied by lack of availability of candidate resistance genes for introduction into hosts and robust transformation methods to validate gene functions. Indeed, a majority of Striga hosts, the world’s most cultivated cereals, are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In maize, the existing protocols for transformation and regeneration are tedious, lengthy, and highly genotype-specific with low efficiency of transformation. Results We used Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 carrying a reporter gene construct, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, to generate transgenic composite maize plants that were challenged with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Eighty five percent of maize plants produced transgenic hairy roots expressing GFP. Consistent with most hairy roots produced in other species, transformed maize roots exhibited a hairy root phenotype, the hallmark of A. rhizogenes mediated transformation. Transgenic hairy roots resulting from A. rhizogenes transformation were readily infected by S. hermonthica. There were no significant differences in the number and size of S. hermonthica individuals recovered from either transgenic or wild type roots. Conclusions This rapid, high throughput, transformation technique will advance our understanding of gene function in parasitic plant-host interactions.

  14. Effect of UTRs from TMV-RNA on the expression of foreign gene in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the effects of 5′ and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) on expression of foreign genes, four plant-expression vectors pBG437, pBG438, pBG440 and pBG440△NOS containing expression cassettes of GUS-NOS; Ω-GUS-NOS, Ω-GUS-3′UTR-NOS and Ω-GUS-3′UTR downstream of CaMV 35S promoter with double enhancer sequences respectively have been constructed. Results from a large number of transgenic tobacco plants show that the GUS activity of pBG440 transformed plants is the highest, being 5-fold that of pBG437 and 1.6-fold that of pBG438. Similar results have been obtained in transient expression by injection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring these constructs into N. benthamiana leaves. These results obtained at the whole plant level confirm the conclusion drawn from the transient expression studies in protoplast system that TMV-Ω fragment can be a translation enhancer and the 3′UTR has a coordinate effect with Ω fragment to enhance foreign gene expression, but unlike the situation in transient expression in protoplast system, the 3′UTR of TMV cannot act as a poly(A) tail nor as a transcription terminator in transgenic plants. The coordinate effect of 3′ UTR with Ω fragment needs the presence of a normal plant transcriptional terminator.

  15. Ammonium formation and assimilation in P(SARK)∷IPT tobacco transgenic plants under low N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Wilhelmi, María del Mar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Eva; Rosales, Miguel Angel; Blasco, Begoña; Rios, Juan Jose; Romero, Luis; Blumwald, Eduardo; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-15

    Wild Type (WT) and transgenic tobacco plants expressing isopentenyltransferase (IPT), a gene encoding the enzyme regulating the rate-limiting step in cytokinins (CKs) synthesis, were grown under limited nitrogen (N) conditions. We analyzed nitrogen forms, nitrogen metabolism related-enzymes, amino acids and photorespiration related-enzymes in WT and P(SARK)∷IPT tobacco plants. Our results indicate that the WT plants subjected to N deficiency displayed reduced nitrate (NO₃⁻) assimilation. However, an increase in the production of ammonium (NH₄⁺), by the degradation of proteins and photorespiration led to an increase in the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle in WT plants. In these plants, the amounts of amino acids decreased with N deficiency, although the relative amounts of glutamate and glutamine increased with N deficiency. Although the transgenic plants expressing P(SARK)∷IPT and growing under suboptimal N conditions displayed a significant decline in the N forms in the leaf, they maintained the GS/GOGAT cycle at control levels. Our results suggest that, under N deficiency, CKs prevented the generation and assimilation of NH₄⁺ by increasing such processes as photorespiration, protein degradation, the GS/GOGAT cycle, and the formation of glutamine.

  16. Improvement of Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by aDehydrin-Like Gene Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENYe; JIAWei-long; ZHANGYan-qin; HUYuan-lei; WUQi; LINZhongping

    2004-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of dehydrin BcDh2 from Boea crassifolia and its antisense nucleotide sequence have been transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NC89 under the control of a caulifower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Under a progressive water stress, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of the sense and antisense plants reduced, and those of the control reduced much more. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of all plants tested increased significantly 24 hours later after recoveried water supply, and those of the sense and antisense plants were higher than control. These indicated that overexpression of a dehydrin gene in tobacco may improve tolerance to water stress for plants, however, antisense BcDh2 gene in transgenic plant did not influence physiological conditions. The results of germination experiment of the transgenic seeds showed that on MS medium with different concentration PEG (8000), sense seed could more endure drought than control, while antisense seed was sensitive to drought. The results suggested that the overexpression of a dehydrin gene in tobacco might improve the tolerance to water stress for plants.

  17. Improvement of Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by a Dehydrin-Like Gene Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ye; JIA Wei-long; ZHANG Yan-qin; HU Yuan-lei; WU Qi; LIN Zhong-ping

    2004-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of dehydrin BcDh2 from Boea crassifolia and its antisense nucleotide sequence have been transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NC89 under the control of a caulifower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Under a progressive water stress, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of the sense and antisense plants reduced, and those of the control reduced much more. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of all plants tested increased significantly 24 hours later after recoveried water supply, and those of the sense and antisense plants were higher than control. These indicated that overexpression of a dehydrin gene in tobacco may improve tolerance to water stress for plants, however, antisense BcDh2 gene in transgenic plant did not influence physiological conditions. The results of germination experiment of the transgenic seeds showed that on MS medium with different concentration PEG (8000), sense seed could more endure drought than control, while antisense seed was sensitive to drought. The results suggested that the overexpression of a dehydrin gene in tobacco might improve the tolerance to water stress for plants.

  18. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.

  19. 仿生法评定抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米的酶水解物能值的研究%Evaluation of Enzymatic Hydrolysate Gross Energy of Glyphosate?Tolerant Corn and Transgenic Bt Corn Using Simulative Digestion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟儒清; 陈亮; 高理想; 黄庆华; 刘蕾; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the energy value of the glyphosate?tolerant corn and transgenic Bt corn or the glyphosate?tolerant corn diet and transgenic Bt corn diet comparing to the isogenic non?transgenic corn or diet using an in vitro digestion method with computer?controlled simulated digestion sys?tem ( SDS) . It would provide a reference to develop in vitro method for evaluating the nutritional substantial e?quivalence of genetically modified crops using the SDS. A single factorial completely randomized design with 3 corn ingredients ( isogenic non?transgenic corn, glyphosate?tolerant corn, and transgenic Bt corn) and corre?sponding 3 corn diets ( isogenic non?transgenic corn diet, glyphosate?tolerant corn diet, and transgenic Bt corn diet) was adapted. The digestion in the stomach and total tract were simulated respectively. The in vitro dry matter digestibility ( DMD) , in vitro gross energy digestibility ( GED) , and enzymatic hydrolysate gross ener?gy ( EHGE) were determined of corn ingredients and diets. The results showed that the nutrient concentration was similar between the corn ingredients and diets. As a whole, the gastric and total tract DMD, the gastric and total tract GED and the EHGH were not affected by the corn ingredient treatments (P>0.05). However, the GED of transgenic Bt corn were lower than the GED of isogenic non?transgenic corn ( P=0.03, coefficient of variation=0.50%) , when the EHGE of transgenic Bt corn diet were greater than the EHGE of isogenic non?transgenic corn diet ( P=0.02, coefficient of variation=1.12%) . But, above two coefficient of variations were all less than the coefficient of variation of feed ingredients using the SDS (coefficient of variation≤1.64%). These results suggest that in vitro gastric and total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy for glypho?sate?tolerant corn is similar to that for isogenic non?transgenic corn, with transgenic Bt corn has some statistical differences

  20. Evaluation of Enzymatic Hydrolysate Gross Energy of Glyphosate?Tolerant Corn and Transgenic Bt Corn Using Simulative Digestion System%仿生法评定抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米的酶水解物能值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟儒清; 陈亮; 高理想; 黄庆华; 刘蕾; 张宏福

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在分析抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米原料及饲粮与同源非转基因玉米原料及饲粮体外总能消化率以及酶水解物能值,为转基因玉米的营养实质等同性仿生评定方法的研究提供参考. 试验采用单因素完全随机设计,使用单胃动物仿生消化系统模拟饲料原料和饲粮在鸡胃肠道的消化过程,分析同源非转基因玉米、抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米以及对应的3种玉米-豆粕饲粮在不同体外模拟消化阶段的干物质消化率、总能消化率和酶水解物能值的差异. 结果表明:同源非转基因玉米、抗草甘膦玉米和转Bt基因玉米以及对应饲粮在常规概率成分含量上是相似的. 抗草甘膦玉米及饲粮与同源非转基因玉米及饲粮相比,在干物质和能量胃消化率、全消化道消化率及酶水解物能值上均没有显著差异( P>0.05). 转Bt基因玉米全消化道总能消化率低于同源非转基因玉米(P=0.03,变异系数=0.50%),对应玉米饲粮的酶水解物能值则高于同源非转基因玉米饲粮(P=0.02,变异系数=1.12%),但均处于仿生消化系统测试的误差范围内(变异系数≤1.64%). 由此可见,抗草甘膦玉米的酶水解物能值与同源对照玉米没有差异,而转Bt基因玉米存在统计学意义上的差异,但所有的测值均处于仿生消化系统的测试误差之内. 仿生法发现的差异是否具有生物学意义有待体内试验验证. 仿生法可为转基因饲料营养等同性研究提供一种新方法.%The objective of the present study was to evaluate the energy value of the glyphosate?tolerant corn and transgenic Bt corn or the glyphosate?tolerant corn diet and transgenic Bt corn diet comparing to the isogenic non?transgenic corn or diet using an in vitro digestion method with computer?controlled simulated digestion sys?tem ( SDS) . It would provide a reference to develop in vitro method for evaluating the nutritional substantial e

  1. The advance of transgenic plants%转基因植物的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 游松

    2001-01-01

    近20多年以来,随着分子生物学的不断发展,植物基因工程取得了很多突破,本文介绍了转基因植物在生物药品、食品、工业用酶和农业四方面的发展现状。%In the past 20 years, dramatic changes have taken place in the field of plant biotechnology with the development of molecular biotechnology. This paper reviewed the applications of transgenic plants in pharmaceutics, food, industrial enzymes and agriculture.

  2. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  3. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26803502

  4. Bt cry1F基因抗虫玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响%Effect of Transgenic Insect-resistant Corn with crylF Gene on Growth and Development of Rice Moth,Corcyra cephalonica(Stainton)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜松男; 丛斌; 马晓慧; 张柱亭; 吴尊曌

    2011-01-01

    In this article,three varieties of transgenic insect-resistant corn with cry1F gene, 32A91, 32W09 and X1132X,and non-transgenic corn were used as test materials to feed Corcyra cephalonica larvae.In contrast to non-transgenic corn,the survial rate of larvae in transgenic con showed a signficant decrease.For the emergence rate of adult Corcyra cephalonica, 32W09 group demostrated an obvious decline in comparison with non-transgenic corn XY420.However, the other two groups had no significant differences.%采用转Bt cry1F基因的32A91、32W09和X1132X 3个玉米品种及其对应的3种非转基因玉米为试材,分别饲养米蛾幼虫,比较转基因和非转基因玉米对米蛾生长发育的影响.结果表明,转cry1F基因玉米对米蛾幼虫存活率的影响均表现为显著降低;转基因玉米32W09饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率显著低于非转基因玉米XY420饲养的米蛾成虫羽化率.

  5. Agrobacterium-meditated Genetic Transformation of an Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 310) Using a Novel Bt Gene Cry 2Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THIRUVENGADAM V; RASHMI J A; UDYASURIAN V; BALASUBRAMANIAN P; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ The development of transgenic cotton varieties resistant to bollworms has been a major success of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture,evidenced by phenomenal increase in the cultivable area under (B.thuringiensis) Bt cotton in recent years worldwide.Of late,there are reports of insects developing resistance against the most commonly used Bt toxin CrylAc.Hence,there is an urgent need to broaden the source of resistance by employing new genes in order to reduce the chances of insects developing Bt resistance.Keeping this objective in view,cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn cv Coker 310) plants expressing a novel insecticidal crystal protein Cry2Ac were developed in the present study.

  6. Effects of Bt-maize material on the life cycle of the land snail Cantareus aspersus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramarz, Paulina; de Vaufleury, Annette; Gimbert, Frédéric;

    2009-01-01

    Insect resistant Bt-maize (MON 810) expresses active Cry1Ab endotoxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Snails constitute non-target soil species potentially exposed to Bt-toxin through consumption of plant material and soil in fields where transgenic plants have been grown. We studied......-toxin in food and soil (BB) had a growth coefficient (GC) 25% lower than unexposed snails (MM). After the first period of reproduction (68 weeks) a significant difference remained for body mass GC between the BB and MM treatments. Differences in body mass were not significant at the end of exposure (88 weeks......-case scenario, i.e. snails having no food choice, should now be complemented by other simple measurements, e.g. food intake, to understand the underlying mechanisms involved....

  7. Cross-resistance to short residual sulfonylurea herbicides in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, J M; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N; Miki, B L

    1989-10-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, produced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with a mutant gene (csr1-1) coding for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from a chlorsulfuron resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line GH50 (GW Haughn et al. [1988] Mol Gen Genet 211: 266-271; GW Haughn, C Somerville [1986] Mol Gen Genet 204: 430-434), were selected directly on 80 micrograms per liter (225 nanomolar) chlorsulfuron. The expression of csr-1 in two separate transgenic lines CHL-1 and CHL-2 was confirmed by biochemical and genetic analyses. The AHAS activity of GH50 and the equivalent component of AHAS activity in CHL-2 was resistant to three short residual sulfonylurea herbicides, DPX-M6316, DPX-A7881, and DPX-L5300, in addition to chlorsulfuron but not to the sulfonylurea CGA 131'036. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones AC 263, 499, AC 252, 214, and AC 243,997 was not observed. Parallel observations were made on the inhibition of seedling growth in soil or on culture medium. The relevance of these findings for the application of transgenic plants in agriculture is discussed. PMID:16667071

  8. A plant mitochondrial sequence transcribed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts is not edited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, C.A.; Hanson, M.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Zoubenko, O.V.; Maliga, P. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    RNA editing occurs in two higher-plant organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. Because chloroplasts and mitochondria exhibit some similarity in editing site selection, we investigated whether mitochondrial RNA sequences could be edited in chloroplasts. We produced transgenic tobacco plants that contained chimeric genes in which the second exon of a Petunia hybrida mitochondrial coxII gene was under the control of chloroplast gene regulatory sequences. coxII transcripts accumulated to low or high levels in transgenic chloroplasts containing chimeric genes with the plastid ribosomal protein gene rps16 or the rRNA operon promoter, respectively. Exon 2 of coxII was chosen because it carries seven editing sites and is edited in petunia mitochondria even when located in an abnormal context in an aberrant recombined gene. When editing of the coxII transcripts in transgenic chloroplasts was examined, no RNA editing at any of the usual sites was detected, nor was there any novel editing at any other sites. These results indicate that the RNA editing mechanisms of chloroplasts and mitochondria are not identical but must have at least some organelle-specific components. 33 refs., 5 figs.

  9. THE ACTIVITY OF ARABIDOSPIS DLL PROMOTER IN TRANSGENIC TOBACCO PLANTS UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we used the Cre/loxP recombination system to study the activity of the Arabidopsis DLL promoter under water stress treatment. For this, the T-DNA containing the Cre/loxP self-excision recombination cassette was introduced into tobacco genome via A. tumefaciens LBA 4404. The expression of the cre gene was regulated by the DLL promoter. On activity of the DLL the Cre recombinase was expected to remove Cre/loxP cassette. Transgenic nature of regenerated transgenic T0 tobacco plantlets was proved by GUS and PCR analyses. The selected 10 transgenic T0 plants were subjected to the water stress analyses under in vitro as well as under in vivo conditions. The osmotic stress experiments were performed with 10 % PEG and 100 mmol.l-1 mannitol (individually. The activity of the DLL was evaluated after 24 hours. For drought stress experiments, the watering was withheld for 10 days. The activity of the DLL was monitored using PCR approach. Under given abiotic stress conditions, no activity of the DLL was observed. The DLL promoter remained stable. It points out the DLL as the promoter with precise control of the gene expression with wide usability in plant biotechnology.

  10. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dongqin Tang; Hongmei Qian; Lingxia Zhao; Danfeng Huang; Kexuan Tang

    2005-12-01

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transgenic status and transgene expression of the transgenic plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, Southern hybridization and semi-quantitative one step RT-PCR analysis respectively. Subsequently, the growth status under water stress, and physiological responses to water stress of transgenic tobacco were studied. The results showed that the transgenic plants exhibited better growth status under water stress condition compared to the untransformed control plants. In physiological assessment of water tolerance, transgenic plants showed more dry matter accumulation and maintained significantly higher levels of leaf chlorophyll content along with increasing levels of water stress than the untransformed control plants. This study shows that BoRS1 is a candidate gene in the engineering of crops for enhanced water stress tolerance.

  11. Status and risk assessment of the use of transgenic arthropods in plant protection. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New developments in the modern biotechnology have opened up the possibility of introducing genes into the germline of many insect species, including those of agricultural importance. This technology offers the potential to improve current pest control strategies that incorporate the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Potential improvements include the development of strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry a marker that distinguishes them from wild insects. There are many institutions involved in the development of transgenic insect technology both for studies on basic gene regulation and for the creation of transgenic strains for use in a wide range of insect control programmes. It has been realized that the release into the environment of transgenic insects will not be an easy process considering the current public sensitivities in this area. The fact that insects are mobile and that once released cannot be recalled creates much concern. If fertile transgenic insects were to be released in any type of control programme, then the transgene would enter the wild population through mating. This strategy is fraught with, as yet, unknown risks and it is inconceivable that regulatory approval will be given for such a release in the near future. However, when transgenic strains are integrated into a sterile insect release then the concerns about transmission of the transgene to the wild population disappear as the matings between the released and the wild insects are sterile. This scenario is likely to be the first type of transgenic release. Insects that are currently released in SIT programmes experience no significant regulatory problems, but this will not be the case if the insects that are released are transgenic, even if they are sterile. The meeting Status and Risk Assessment of the Use of Transgenic Arthropods in Plant Protection held in FAO Headquarters, Rome, in April 2002 was the first effort to bring together

  12. Expression of active hBMP2 in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Guangli; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xia; He, Zhengquan; Dai, Jianwu

    2006-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is important for bone tissue repair. The goal of this research is to construct a high level human BMP2 (hBMP2) expression system using transgenic tobacco plants as a bioreactor. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) enhancer, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) enhancer, matrix attachment regions (MARs) sequence, and "Kozak" sequence were used to construct recombinant expression vectors and the high-expression vectors were screened out through GUS-fusions assay. The promoter is the most important factor; double-CaMV 35S promoter is more effective than single promoter. The AMV or TMV enhancer is able to promote the foreign protein expression. After four-step purification, the activated hBMP2 (0.02% total soluble protein) was obtained. Our results suggested that the transgenic tobacco has great potential to be used as a bioreactor to produce hBMP2. PMID:16819603

  13. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. PMID:23956091

  14. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  15. Construction of plant expression vectors carrying glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase and regeneration of transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金; 张雪琴; 颜秋生; 陈章良; 尤崇杓

    1995-01-01

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilenseSp7 with PCR technique.The amplified 1.4-kb DNA fragment flanked with a BamH Ⅰ site at each end wascloned into EcoR V site of Bluescript-SK vector.A recombinant plasmid pGSJ1 containing this 1.4-kb DNA frag-ment was selected by restriction digestion analysis.The sequencing data also confirmed that the amplified 1.4-kbDNA fragment was undoubtedly the glnA gene of A.brasilense Sp7.Then the 1.4-kb BamH Ⅰ fragment was ex-cised from pGSJ1.A glnA plant expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 (Act1) promoter was constructedby using colony in situ hybridization to screen positive clones,and 3 rounds of ligation and transformation wereperformed.Protoplasts isolated from rice (Oryza sativa,L.Japonica) cell suspension line (cv.T986) weretransformed with the glnA plant expression vector pAGNB92 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase Ⅱ (NPT Ⅱ)gene by PEG fusion or electroporation.G418~ calli were used to detect NPT Ⅱ enzyme activity.The resultsshow that G418~ calli possess high positive hybridization signal with the frequency of 37%.The regeneratedG418~NPTII~+ rice plants were used for PCR amplification of glnA gene,and a 1.4-kb DNA fragment was ampli-fied from glnA-transgenic rice plants (R0 generation).The results of Southern blot hybridization prove that the1.4-kb DNA fragment amplified from the total DNA of glnA transgenic rice plants is indeed the glnA gene of A.brasilense Sp7.Northern blot hybridization was carried out using the same glnA gene as probe.The glnAgene was expressed in the transgenic rice plants.Bioassays also confirmed that the glnA transgenic rice plantsgrew much better than that of the control plants under a condition with nitrogen poor source (0.75 mmol/L).

  16. Transgenic peanut plants obtained by particle bombardment via somatic embryogenesis regeneration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After pre-culture and treatment of osmosis,cotyledons of immature peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.)zygotic embryos were transformed via particle bombardment with a plasmid containing a chimeric hph gene conferring resistance to hygromycin and a chimeric intron-gus gene.Selection for hygromycin resistant calluses and somatic embryos was initiated at 10th d post-bombardment on medium containing 10-25 mg/L hygromycin.Under continuous selection,hygromycin resistant plantlets were regenerated from somatic embryos and were recovered from nearly 1.6% of the bombarded cotyledons.The presence and integration of foreign DNA in regenerated hygromycin resistant plants was confirmed by PCR(polymerase chain reaction)for the intron-gus gene and by Southern hybridization of the hph gene.GUS enzyme activity was detected in leaflets from transgenic plants but not from control,non-transformed plants.The production of transgenic plants are mainly based on a newly improved somatic embryogenesis regeneration system developed by us.

  17. The status of RNAi-based transgenic research in plant nematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the understanding of nematode-plant interactions at the molecular level, new avenues for engineering resistance have opened up, with RNA interference being one of them. Induction of RNAi by delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA has been very successful in the model non-parasitic nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, while in plant nematodes, dsRNA delivery has been accomplished by soaking nematodes with dsRNA solution mixed with synthetic neurostimulants. The success of in vitro RNAi of target genes has inspired the use of in planta delivery of dsRNA to feeding nematodes. The most convincing success of host-delivered RNAi has been achieved against root-knot nematodes. Plant-mediated RNAi has been shown to lead to the specific down-regulation of target genes in invading nematodes, which had a profound effect on nematode development. RNAi-based transgenics are advantageous as they do not produce any functional foreign proteins and target organisms in a sequence-specific manner. Although the development of RNAi-based transgenics against plant nematodes is still in the preliminary stage, they offer novel management strategy for the future.

  18. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Fabrick

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]. The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3 in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1 linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1 progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4 predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  19. Transgenic plants of Petunia hybrida harboring the CYP2E1 gene efficiently remove benzene and toluene pollutants and improve resistance to formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The CYP2E1 protein belongs to the P450 enzymes family and plays an important role in the metabolism of small molecular and organic pollutants. In this study we generated CYP2E1 transgenic plants of Petunia using Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599. PCR analysis confirmed that the regenerated plants contained the CYP2E1 transgene and the rolB gene of the Ri plasmid. Southern blotting revealed the presence of multiple copies of CYP2E1 in the genome of transgenic plants. Fluorescent quantitative PCR revealed exogenous CYP2E1 gene expression in CYP2E1 transgenic plants at various levels, whereas no like expression was detected in either GUS transgenic plants or wild-types. The absorption of benzene and toluene by transgenic plants was analyzed through quantitative gas chromatography. Transgenic plants with high CYP2E1 expression showed a significant increase in absorption capacity of environmental benzene and toluene, compared to control GUS transgenic and wild type plants. Furthermore, these plants also presented obvious improved resistance to formaldehyde. This study, besides being the first to reveal that the CYP2E1 gene enhances plant resistance to formaldehyde, also furnishes a new method for reducing pollutants, such as benzene, toluene and formaldehyde, by using transgenic flowering horticultural plants.

  20. A promoter from sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus drives transgene expression in banana and other monocot and dicot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P M; Sagi, L; Remans, T; Dietzgen, R G; Bernard, M J; Graham, M W; Manners, J M

    1999-04-01

    A 1369 bp DNA fragment (Sc) was isolated from a full-length clone of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) and was shown to have promoter activity in transient expression assays using monocot (banana, maize, millet and sorghum) and dicot plant species (tobacco, sunflower, canola and Nicotiana benthamiana). This promoter was also tested for stable expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. These experiments showed that this promoter could drive high-level expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in most plant cells. The expression level was comparable to the maize ubiquitin promoter in standardised transient assays in maize. In transgenic banana plants the expression levels were variable for different transgenic lines but was generally comparable with the activities of both the maize ubiquitin promoter and the enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. The Sc promoter appears to express in a near-constitutive manner in transgenic banana and tobacco plants. The promoter from sugarcane bacilliform virus represents a useful tool for the high-level expression of foreign genes in both monocot and dicot transgenic plants that could be used similarly to the CaMV 35S or maize polyubiquitin promoter. PMID:10380808

  1. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context.

  2. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context. PMID:17390797

  3. Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing Induced by Short Interfering RNAs in Cultured Transgenic Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Vanessa Samuels; Nicki Whitley; Nicole Bloom; Tinya DeLaGarza; Ronald J. Newton

    2004-01-01

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is widely used for studying post-transcriptional gene silencing and holds great promise as a tool for both identifying function of novel genes and validating drug targets. Two siRNA fragments (siRNA-a and -b),which were designed against different specific areas of coding region of the same target green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, were used to silence GFP expression in cultured gfp transgenic cells of rice (Oryza sativa L.; OS), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; GH), Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir; AF], and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.; PV). Differential gene silencing was observed in the bombarded transgenic cells between two siRNAs, and these results were consistent with the inactivation of GFP confirmed by laser scanning microscopy, Northern blot,and siRNA analysis in tested transgenic cell cultures. These data suggest that siRNA-mediated gene inactivation can be the siRNA specific in different plant species. These results indicate that siRNA is a highly specific tool for targeted gene knockdown and for establishing siRNA-mediated gene silencing, which could be a reliable approach for large-scale screening of gene function and drug target validation.

  4. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  5. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  6. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  7. PERSPECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOSAL VACCINES AGAINST DANGEROUS INFECTIONS ON THE BASE OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tretyakova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccines created on the base of transgenic plants reacting with mucosal layers of the intestines and other organs are considered to be the perspective method of the vaccination. These vaccines induce both mucosal and general humoral immunogenicity after the peroral administration. The folding of antigenic proteins synthesizing in plants occurs via eukaryotic type and has advantages before yeast and prokaryotic platforms. This feature results to more adequate synthesis of antibodies against pathogens and to the interaction with effector molecules of complement. Earlier we together with The State Scientific Center “Vector”, Institute of chemical biology and fundamental medicine SB RAS and Dr R.Hammond from Laboratory of Plant Pathology (Maryland, USA created two candidate vaccines : one of them against AIDS (HIV-1 and hepatitis B on the base of the chimeric gene TBI-HBS, encoding simultaneously 9 antigenic determinants of HIV-1 and the main surface antigen of hepatitis B (HBsAg. The second candidate vaccine was created against hepatitis B on the base of the genetic construct with the gene preS2-S encoding the synthesis of two subunits of the main surface antigen of hepatitis B and the signal peptide HDEL which directed antigens for the accumulation on ER. Both vaccines were tested on mice and confirmed their immunogenicity as the pronounced antibodies response. Twice vaccinated mice maintained the antibodies response during 11 months after there was little tendency to lowering. It was established that transgenic plants – vaccines (tomato kept the capability to the synthesis of antigenic determinants in seven seed generations during 7 years. The results of the development of the mucosal vaccine against cervical carcinoma (carcinoma of uterine cervix evoked by human papillomaviruses of high oncogenic risks were presented in this report. We created the genetic construct consisting of 35S CaMV promoter, Ώ (omega leader of TMV, the

  8. IT-BT convergence technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  9. Improvement of organic phosphate acquisition in transgenic tobacco plants by overexpression of a soybean phytase gene Sphyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li GUO; Yuxin ZHAO; Shuhua ZHANG; Haina ZHANG; Kai XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Due to the huge amount in the soil, phytate is an important potential source for providing the plants with available phosphorus (Pi) by the involved catalytic reaction of phytase. In this study, a construct fusing the open reading frame (ORF) of Sphyl into corresponding positions in the fragment of binary expression vector pBI121 was created and used to transform tobacco. Molecular identification by PCR and RT-PCR indicated the target gene Sphyl in the transgenic tobacco plants was transcribed under the regulation of an upstream promoter. Compared with the control plants, the phytase activities in all the transgenic plants were increased, with the increased range consistent with the expression levels in the transgenic plants. Under the growth conditions with phytate as the sole phosphorus source, the transgenic line 1 plants displayed a high expression level of Sphyl and shows notable improved growth performance, such as higher fresh weight and dry weight, as well as higher total P content and more accumulative P amount per plant than CK. This clearly indicated that overexpression of Sphyl could improve the phosphorus acquisition by the extruded Sphyl phytase in the rhizosphere, where this enzyme could catalyze the degradation of the phytate and release the available Pi for plants. The Sphyl gene seemed to have a potential value in the creation of new crop cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency.

  10. Bt基因和Bt蛋白检测技术研究进展%Research on Progress of the Detection of BT Protein and BT Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪倩; 向晓玲; 许耀心; 倪晓强; 姜佳燕; 龚云飞

    2012-01-01

    BT protein is a kind of specific insecticidal activity of protein crystallization produced by bacillus. Through the transgenic technology, we switch Bt gene into the crops such as rice and soybean to cultivate a good resistance to insects breed, then without using pesticides and some other harmful substances, the plant diseases and insect pests can be prevented and cured efficiently. However, animal experiment and clinical study found that Bt protein may damage mammalian immune organs and immune cells, and may also influence the genetic structure of the gene pool and genetic diversity of the popula- tion. It also has serious influence on the soil specific organisms function, soil biodiversity, and the soil enzyme activity and so on. What' s more, Bt protein in transgenic rice may enrich in human bodies along the food chain and do potential harm to humans. Therefore, the research on detecting of Bt genc or protein is necessary. So, the research status of Bt gene and pro- tein are briefly reviewed in this paper.%通过转基因技术将可表达杀虫特性蛋白的Bt基因转入大豆、水稻等农作物中,培育出优良的抗虫品种,从而在不使用农药等有害物质的前提下,对病虫害起到高效防治作用。然而动物试验及临床研究发现,Bt蛋白可能导致哺乳动物的免疫器官和免疫细胞损伤,也可能影响基因库的遗传结构及群体遗传多样性,对土壤特异生物类群功能、土壤生物多样性以及土壤酶活性等也有不同程度的影响,且Bt蛋白有可能沿着食物链在人体内富集,对人体形成潜在的危害。因此,开展对Bt基因和Bt蛋白的监控研究是必要的,该文对Bt的相关研究现状作一简要综述。

  11. The expression of tga1a gene from tobacco affects the expression of exogenous gene in transgenic plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路子显; 常团结; 李旭刚; 徐军望; 李慧芬; 陈宛新; 冯德江; 肖桂芳; 朱祯

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding protein TGA1a of tobacco can specially interact with the enhancer sequence as-1 (-83 to -63) of CaMV35S promoter and show the function of transcriptional activation. In order to study the expression of exogenous gene affected by TGA1a, a trans-actingregulation system was formed by tandem connecting tga1a under the control of the phloem-specific promoter rolC with reporter gene under the control of CaMV35S. Then, the system abovewas utilized to construct a plant expression vector. Moreover, two plant expression vectors wereconstructed with the report gene controlled by CaMV35S and rolC promoter respectively as positive controls. Tobacco leaf disc transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated method and transgenic plants were regenerated. It was proved that the reporter gene existed in the genome of transgenic plants by Southern hybridization. The results of GUS activity indicated that the expression of tga1a controlled by rolC remarkably increased the expression of the reporter gene controlled by CaMV35S. GUS activity of transgenic plants containing trans-acting regulation system was higher than that of transgenic plants containing the reporter gene under the control of CaMV35S and rolC respectively, with the highest GUS activity of about tenfolds of two positive controls. Histochemical method demonstrated that GUS staining amassed mainly in phloem tissue of transgenic plantscontaining the trans-acting regulation system. A new model for arising the expression level and tissue-specific expression of exogenous gene in transgenic plant was established in this study.

  12. Pronounced phenotypic changes in transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sucrose synthase may reveal a novel sugar signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Anh eNguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy, which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-hour day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM. As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants.

  13. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-06-21

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eugenol levels and up to 22-fold eugenol glycoside levels in leaves of transgenic aspen plants. The overexpression of PhEGS alone resulted in a subtle increase in either eugenol or eugenol glycosides, and the overexpression of both PhCFAT and PhEGS resulted in significant increases in the levels of both eugenol and eugenol glycosides which were nonetheless lower than the increases seen with overexpression of PhCFAT alone. On the other hand, overexpression of PhCFAT in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco did not cause any synthesis of eugenol. These results indicate that aspen leaves, but not Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, have a partially active pathway to eugenol that is limited by the level of CFAT activity and thus the flux of this pathway can be increased by the introduction of a single heterologous gene.

  14. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  15. Expression of a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene results in {gamma}-linolenic acid production in transgenic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.S.; Thomas, T.L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a nutritionally important fatty acid in human and animal diets, is not produced in oil seed crops. Many oil seed plants, however, produce significant quantities of linoleic acid, a fatty acid that could be converted to GLA by the enzyme {del}{sup 6}-desaturase if it were present. As a first step to producing GLA in oil seed crops, we have cloned a cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase gene. Expression of this gene in transgenic tobacco resulted in GLA accumulation. Octadecatetraenoic acid, a highly unsaturated, industrially important fatty acid, was also found in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the cyanobacterial {del}{sup 6}-desaturase. This is the first example of engineering the production of `novel` polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  17. Breeding and Characterization of a New Rice Restorer Line Containing Bt Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fang-yuan; LU Xian-jun; HE Shu-lin; CHEN Xiao-juan; LU Dai-hua; SUN Shu-xia; LI Zhi-hua; LIU Guang-chun; ZHANG Yi-zheng; REN Guang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Bt5198, a new rice restorer line containing Bt gene, was developed from the cross and backcross of the elite restorer line Chenghui 177 with Bt Minghui 63, a transgenic Bt restorer line. The inbred lines were evaluated using PCR amplification, test paper evaluation, insect resistance evaluation in both the laboratory and paddy fields, nursery evaluation of rice blast resistance and pedigree selection of agronomic traits. Larval mortalities on Bt5198 and Bt Minghui 63 were 100% when rice culms were inoculated with the eggs of the striped stem borer (SSB) in the laboratory. Bt5198 was highly resistant against SSB and the yellow stem borer (YSB) under field conditions. The F1 hybrids derived from Bt5198 and four cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were also highly resistant to SSB and YSB and had a significant heterosis. Two-year evaluation of rice blast resistance confirmed that the resistance levels of Bt5198 to leaf blast and neck blast were similar to those of Chenghui 177 and significantly better than those of Bt Minghui 63. Seed germination ability and pollen yield of Bt5198 were similar with Chenghui 177, suggesting that the introduction of the Bt gene into the new restorer line had no significant effects on seed vitality or the yield of seed production. To identify the presence of the Bt gene, it was effective to combine test paper examination with the evaluation of insect-resistance, both in the laboratory and under field conditions.

  18. A highly efficient miPCR method for isolating FSTs from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gennady V. Pogorelko; Oksana V. Fursova

    2008-08-01

    The exact localization of an insertion in the genome of transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is an integral part of most experiments aimed at studying these types of mutants. There are several methods for isolating unknown nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA which flank the borders of T-DNA integrated in the genome of plants. However, all the methods based on PCR have limitations which in some cases do not permit the desired objective to be achieved. We have developed a new technique for isolating flanking sequence tags (FSTs) via modified inverse PCR. This method is highly efficient and simple, but also retains the advantages of previously well-documented approaches.

  19. Expression of plant sweet protein brazzein in the milk of transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yan

    Full Text Available Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein-sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats.

  20. Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Long, Danfeng; Lenk, Ingo; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian

    2008-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment are the two most widely used methods for genetically modifying grasses. Here, these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The bar gene was used as a selectable marker and selection during tissue culture was performed using 2 mg/l bialaphos in both callus induction and regeneration media. Average transformation efficiency across the four callus lines used in the experiments was 10.5% for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 11.5% for particle bombardment. Similar transgene integration patterns and co-integration frequencies of bar and uidA were observed in both gene transfer systems. However, while GUS activity was detected in leaves of 53% of the Agrobacterium transformed lines, only 20% of the bombarded lines showed GUS activity. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation appears to be the preferred method for producing transgenic tall fescue plants.

  1. [Morphological features of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the Dahlia mosaic virus promoter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Cheremis, A V; Vakhitov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the 35S promoter and the promoter of dahlia mosaic virus were obtained. The transgenic plants were characterized by increase in the length of the leaves, flower sizes, stem height, and weight of seeds; at the same time, the degree of increase was greater in the case of use of the dahlia mosaic virus promoter as a regulator of transcription. Ectopic expression of the AINTEGUMENTA gene promoted prolongation of leaf growth, while sizes of epidermal cells of the leaves remained unchanged. PMID:23785848

  2. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  4. Relationship Between Leaf C/N Ratio and Insecticidal Protein Expression in Bt Cotton as Affected by High Temperature and N Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; LÜ Chun-hua; CHEN Yuan; WANG Gui-xia; CHEN Yuan; CHEN De-hua

    2014-01-01

    Expression of insecticidal protein for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is unstable and related to nitrogen metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between leaf carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N) and insecticidal efifcacy of two Bt cotton cultivars. C/N ratio and Bt protein content were both measured at peak square period and peak boll period respectively under 5-7 d high temperature and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on the Yangzhou University Farm and the Ludong Cotton Farm, China. All plants were grown in ifeld. The results showed that the C/N ratio enhanced slightly and the Bt protein content remained stable at peak square period, but significant increases for the C/N ratio and decreases markedly for the leaf Bt protein concentration were detected at the peak boll period. The similar patterns at the two growth periods were found for the leaf C/N ratio and Bt protein content by different N fertilizer treatments. When nitrogen rate was from 0 to 600 kg ha-1, the C/N ratio was reduced by 0.017 and 0.006 for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3 at peak square period, compared to the 1.350 to 1.143 reduction for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3 at peak boll period, respectively. Correspondingly, the leaf Bt protein contents were bolstered by 2.6-11.8 and 26.9-36.9% at the two different growth periods, respectively. The results suggested that enhanced C/N ratio by high temperature and nitrogen application may result in the reduction of insectiocidal efifcacy in Bt cotton, especially in peak boll period.

  5. Transmission of Cry1Ac from transgenic Bt cotton to the predatory ladybug Propylaea japonica via the whitefly Bemisia tabaci%转Bt基因棉花中Cry1Ac蛋白经烟粉虱途径向龟纹瓢虫的传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福才; 顾爱祥; 杨益众; 苏宏华; 胡其靖; 杨爱民

    2015-01-01

    白可以消减,但在10 d时间内龟纹瓢虫体内仍会有Cry1Ac残留。%Objectives] The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an economically important, non-target pest of Bt transgenic cotton. In this study, we examined the transmission of Cry1Ac from transgenic Bt cotton to the predatory ladybug, Propylaea japonica, (a natural enemy of the whitefly) in an effort to better evaluate the ecological safety of transgenic Bt cotton. [Methods] We used an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to compare Cry1Ac levels in B. tabaci fed on the leaves of the conventional cotton cultivars SM3, SM33, and SY321 to those fed on the Bt transgenic cotton lines GK12, XM33B, and SGK321. [Results] Cry1Ac was detected in the adults, nymphs and honeydew of B. tabaci fed on Bt transgenic cotton. Cry1Ac was also detected in P. japonica that fed on these B. tabaci after just one day of feeding on B. tabaci nymphs that had consumed Bt transgenic cotton. The Cry1Ac content of P. japonica increased with increased with the duration of feeding, then stabilized after 6 to 8 days. The Cry1Ac content of P. japonica differed depending on the transgenic cotton line on which B. tabaci had fed. Although the Cry1Ac content of P. japonica declined when these were no longer exposed to food containing Cry1Ac, it did not disappear completely. The results of this study suggest that Cry1Ac from Bt transgenic cotton can be transferred to P. japonica through B. tabaci, and that B. tabaci can accumulate Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac levels in P. japonica eventually plateau;the speed of Cry1Ac accumulation in P. japonica, but not its saturation capacity, is related to the Cry1Ac content of their food. [Conclusion] Cry1Ac from Bt transgenic cotton can be transferred to P. japonica through B. tabaci, and B. tabaci can accumulate Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac levels in P. japonica plateau after 6 to 8 days; the speed of Cry1Ac accumulation in P. japonica, but not its saturation capacity, is related to the Cry1Ac content of their food.

  6. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIDYASAGAR; Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The cry1Ac gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene

  7. Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin-Qi; Liu, Shumin; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

  8. Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance.

  9. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 improves yield, biomass and tolerance to flooding in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A; Chan, Raquel L

    2016-03-20

    HaHB11 is a member of the sunflower homeodomain-leucine zipper I subfamily of transcription factors. The analysis of a sunflower microarray hybridized with RNA from HaHB11-transformed leaf-disks indicated the regulation of many genes encoding enzymes from glycolisis and fermentative pathways. A 1300bp promoter sequence, fused to the GUS reporter gene, was used to transform Arabidopsis plants showing an induction of expression after flooding treatments, concurrently with HaHB11 regulation by submergence in sunflower. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter and its own promoter were obtained and these plants exhibited significant increases in rosette and stem biomass. All the lines produced more seeds than controls and particularly, those of high expression level doubled seeds yield. Transgenic plants also showed tolerance to flooding stress, both to submergence and waterlogging. Carbohydrates contents were higher in the transgenics compared to wild type and decreased less after submergence treatments. Finally, transcript levels of selected genes involved in glycolisis and fermentative pathways as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities were assessed both, in sunflower and transgenic Arabidopsis plants, before and after submergence. Altogether, the present work leads us to propose HaHB11 as a biotechnological tool to improve crops yield, biomass and flooding tolerance. PMID:26876611

  10. The emergence of insect resistance in Bt-corn: implication of resistance management information under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Linacre, Nicholas A.; Thompson, Colin J.

    2005-01-01

    "The successful management of transgenic technology is likely to depend on the economic behavioral response of farmers to the regulated use of transgenic crops. A well-studied example is the widespread use of Bt-corn, in the United States, and elsewhere, to control the European Corn Borer, a major corn pest. The extensive use of Bt-corn has led to concerns about the emergence of insect resistance. The United States Environment Protection Agency addressed this potential problem by developing a...

  11. Remote sensing of gene expression in Planta: transgenic plants as monitors of exogenous stress perception in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Michael S.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Sehnke, Paul C.; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. Plants in the presence of environmental stimuli that induced the Adh promoter responded by expressing GFP, which in turn generated a detectable fluorescent signal. The GFP signal degraded when the inducing stimulus was removed. Digital imaging of the Adh/GFP plants exposed to each of the exogenous stresses demonstrated that the stress-induced gene expression could be followed in real time. The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments.

  12. Functional Analysis of Nodulin-like Promoter in Transgenic Cotton Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Zhi REN; Quan-Jia CHEN; Li LI; Rui ZHANG; San-Dui GUO

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, a nodulin-like gene promoter was isolated from Gossypium hirsutum L. Guo Y18 by means of inverse PCR. Three plant expression vectors were constructed for functional identification of the promoter. These vectors were different only in promoter regions; three truncations of the nodulinlike promoter took the place of the CaMV35S promoter in the pBI121 plant expression vector. Then, the three vectors were introduced into cotton plants via the pollen tube pathway. The expression patterns of the gus gene driven by nodulin-like promoter truncations were investigated in the offspring of transgenic cotton plants. Histochemical GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analysis were performed to achieve this goal. The results showed that the nodulin-like promoter was a strong, highly reproductive organspecific promoter, which demonstrated a much higher driver activity than the CaMV35S promoter did in cotton reproductive organs, but relatively lower activity in vegetation. Identification of the speciality and strength-determining regions of the nodulin-like promoter was also undertaken.

  13. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  14. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-12-10

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.

  15. USING OF Agrobacterium-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION FOR THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. ІІ. SYNTHESIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review focused on the data concerning current state in the field of Compositae “hairy” roots and transgenic plants construction using A.tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation to obtain biologically active compounds, including recombinant proteins. The article presents data on the results of genetic transformation of Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera and other Compositae plants as well as studies on the artemisinin, flavonoids, polyphenols, fructans and other compounds accumulation in transgenic plants and roots. The data show that the use of biotechnological approaches for construction of "hairy" roots and transgenic plants with new features are of great interest. The possibility of increase in the accumulation of naturally synthesized bioactive compounds and recombinant proteins production via A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation have been shown. In vitro cultivation of transgenic plants characterized by high level of bioactive compounds accumulation and synthesis of recombinant proteins makes it possible to obtain guaranteed pure raw material. Using of biotechnological approaches preserved natural populations of plants is particularly important for rare and endangered plant species.

  16. A transgenic approach for controlling Lygus in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Anilkumar; Rydel, Timothy J; Wollacott, Andrew M; Brown, Robert S; Akbar, Waseem; Clark, Thomas L; Flasinski, Stanislaw; Nageotte, Jeffrey R; Read, Andrew C; Shi, Xiaohong; Werner, Brent J; Pleau, Michael J; Baum, James A

    2016-01-01

    Lygus species of plant-feeding insects have emerged as economically important pests of cotton in the United States. These species are not controlled by commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties resulting in economic losses and increased application of insecticide. Previously, a Bt crystal protein (Cry51Aa2) was reported with insecticidal activity against Lygus spp. However, transgenic cotton plants expressing this protein did not exhibit effective protection from Lygus feeding damage. Here we employ various optimization strategies, informed in part by protein crystallography and modelling, to identify limited amino-acid substitutions in Cry51Aa2 that increase insecticidal activity towards Lygus spp. by >200-fold. Transgenic cotton expressing the variant protein, Cry51Aa2.834_16, reduce populations of Lygus spp. up to 30-fold in whole-plant caged field trials. One transgenic event, designated MON88702, has been selected for further development of cotton varieties that could potentially reduce or eliminate insecticide application for control of Lygus and the associated environmental impacts. PMID:27426014

  17. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-Ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontran...

  18. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke eTodaka; Kazuo eShinozaki; Kazuko eYamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants ...

  19. Thermodynamic and structural properties of tuber starches from transgenic potato plants grown in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasserman, L.A.; Sergeev, A.I.; Vasil'Ev, V.G.; Plashchina, I.G.; Aksenova, N.P.; Konstantinova, T.N.; Golyanovskaya, S.A.; Sergeeva, Lidia; Romanov, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Potato plants harboring Phytochrome B (PHYB) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana or rol genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes were used to study the effect of transgene expression on structure and properties of starch in tubers. Thermodynamic characteristics of starch (melting temperature, enthalpy of m

  20. Crystal structures of lysine-preferred racemases, the non-antibiotic selectable markers for transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Mao Wu

    Full Text Available Lysine racemase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP-dependent amino acid racemase that catalyzes the interconversion of lysine enantiomers, is valuable to serve as a novel non-antibiotic selectable marker in the generation of transgenic plants. Here, we have determined the first crystal structure of a lysine racemase (Lyr from Proteus mirabilis BCRC10725, which shows the highest activity toward lysine and weaker activity towards arginine. In addition, we establish the first broad-specificity amino acid racemase (Bar structure from Pseudomonas putida DSM84, which presents not only the highest activity toward lysine but also remarkably broad substrate specificity. A complex structure of Bar-lysine is also established here. These structures demonstrate the similar fold of alanine racemase, which is a head-to-tail homodimer with each protomer containing an N-terminal (α/β(8 barrel and a C-terminal β-stranded domain. The active-site residues are located at the protomer interface that is a funnel-like cavity with two catalytic bases, one from each protomer, and the PLP binding site is at the bottom of this cavity. Structural comparisons, site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic, and modeling studies identify a conserved arginine and an adjacent conserved asparagine that fix the orientation of the PLP O3 atom in both structures and assist in the enzyme activity. Furthermore, side chains of two residues in α-helix 10 have been discovered to point toward the cavity and define the substrate specificity. Our results provide a structural foundation for the design of racemases with pre-determined substrate specificity and for the development of the non-antibiotic selection system in transgenic plants.

  1. Expression of an engineered synthetic cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis in marker free transgenic tobacco facilitated full-protection from cotton leaf worm (S. littoralis) at very low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Srimonta; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of resistant insects limits the sustainability of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop plants for insect management. Beside this, the presence of unwanted marker gene(s) in the transgenic crops is also a major environmental and health concern. Thus, development of marker free transgenic crop plants expressing a new class of toxin having a different mortality mechanism is necessary for resistance management. In a previous study, we generated an engineered Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin which has a different mortality mechanism as compared to first generation Bt toxin Cry1A, and this engineered toxin was found to enhance 4.1-6.6-fold toxicity against major lepidopteran insect pests of crop plants. In the present study, we have tested the potency of this engineered synthetic Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin as a candidate in the development of insect resistant transgenic tobacco plants. Simultaneously, we have eliminated the selectable marker gene from the Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) expressing tobacco plants by exploiting the Cre/lox mediated recombination methodology, and successfully developed marker free T2 transgenic tobacco plants expressing the engineered Cry2Aa toxin. Realtime and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of engineered toxin gene in transgenic plants. Insect feeding assays revealed that the marker free T2 progeny of transgenic plants expressing Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin showed 82-92 and 52-61 % mortality to cotton leaf worm (CLW) and cotton bollworm (CBW) respectively. Thus, this engineered Cry2Aa toxin could be useful for the generation of insect resistant transgenic Bt lines which will protect the crop damages caused by different insect pests such as CLW and CBW.

  2. Effects of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing ACA Gene from Amaranthus caudatus on the Population Development of Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOHong-Nian; JIAYan-Tao; ZHOUYong-Gang; ZHANGZhen-Shan; OUYANGQing; JIANGYing; TIANYing-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible function of the agglutinin from Amaranthus caudatus L. (ACA) in plant defending against insect pests, ACA cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and the 5' and 3' sequences were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The phloem-specific expression vector of ACA gene, pBCACAc, was constructed based on the plant binary vector pBC438 and transfered into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Results from PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that AOA gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed plants and the transgene integration varied from one to four estimated copies per genome. Western blotting analysis indicated that ACA gene was transcribed and translated in the transgenic plants. The bioassay of Myzus persicae Sulzer on detached leaves demonstrated that the 78% transgenic tobacco plants displayed an average aphid-resistant rate of more than 75%. Some apterous progeny of M. persicae were found dead on the resistant plants. These results indicate that ACA gene should be an effective aphid-resistant gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for aphid resistance.

  3. Cloning of Promoter of Chinese Bean GRP 1.8 Gene and Characterization of Its Function in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to learn the expression pattern of GRP1.8(glycine-rich-protein) gene promoter in transgenic plants and to explore its potential application in plant genetic engineering for vascular-specific expression of interested genes, GRP 1.8 promoter was amplified by PCR from Chinese bean genomic DNA. The intermediate vector was constructed by inserting vascular-specific expression promoter of GRP 1.8 gene in vector pBI 101. The regenerated tobacco plants obtained were analyzed by PCR to select the putative transgenic plants. The histochemical localization of GUS(β-D-glucosidase) activity indicates that as for that of GRP 1.8 promoter we can confer the vascular-specific expression of GUS gene.

  4. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  5. Effects of indirect selection pressure on plant fitness and the movement of transgenes in constructed plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escape and persistence of transgenes from agricultural crops are issues of concern to stakeholders in the environmental safety of transgenic crops. That is, whether transgenes that confer resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses may benefit weedy or native species outside of agr...

  6. Analysis of the mechanism of protection in transgenic plants expressing the potato virus X coat protein or its antisense RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, Cynthia; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Kaniewski, Wojciech K.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express either the potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP+) or the antisense coat protein transcript (CP-antisense) were protected from infection by PVX, as indicated by reduced lesion numbers on inoculated leaves, delay or absence of systemic symptom development and reduction in virus accumulation in both inoculated and systemic leaves. The extent of protection observed in CP+ plants primarily depended upon the level of expression of the coat protein. P...

  7. Cytoprotective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqahmed S Kittur

    Full Text Available Asialo-erythropoietin, a desialylated form of human erythropoietin (EPO lacking hematopoietic activity, is receiving increased attention because of its broader protective effects in preclinical models of tissue injury. However, attempts to translate its protective effects into clinical practice is hampered by unavailability of suitable expression system and its costly and limit production from expensive mammalian cell-made EPO (rhuEPO(M by enzymatic desialylation. In the current study, we took advantage of a plant-based expression system lacking sialylating capacity but possessing an ability to synthesize complex N-glycans to produce cytoprotective recombinant human asialo-rhuEPO. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing asialo-rhuEPO were generated by stably co-expressing human EPO and β1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT genes under the control of double CaMV 35S and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GapC promoters, respectively. Plant-produced asialo-rhuEPO (asialo-rhuEPO(P was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Detailed N-glycan analysis using NSI-FTMS and MS/MS revealed that asialo-rhuEPO(P bears paucimannosidic, high mannose-type and complex N-glycans. In vitro cytoprotection assays showed that the asialo-rhuEPO(P (20 U/ml provides 2-fold better cytoprotection (44% to neuronal-like mouse neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced cell death than rhuEPO(M (21%. The cytoprotective effect of the asialo-rhuEPO(P was found to be mediated by receptor-initiated phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 and suppression of caspase 3 activation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that plants are a suitable host for producing cytoprotective rhuEPO derivative. In addition, the general advantages of plant-based expression system can be exploited to address the cost and scalability issues related to its production.

  8. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  9. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  10. Transgenic plants and hairy roots: exploiting the potential of plant species to remediate contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Sabrina; Talano, Melina; Ontañon, Ornella; Suman, Jachym; Medina, María I; Macek, Tomas; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-09-25

    Phytoremediation has emerged as an attractive methodology to deal with environmental pollution, which is a serious worldwide problem. Although important advances have been made in this research field, there are still some drawbacks to become a widely used practice, such as the limited plant's metabolic rate and their difficulty to break down several organic compounds or to tolerate/accumulate heavy metals. However, biotechnology has opened new gateways in phytoremediation research by offering the opportunity for direct gene transfer to enhance plant capabilities for environmental cleanup. In this context, hairy roots (HRs) have emerged as an interesting model system to explore the potential of plants to remove inorganic and organic pollutants. Besides, their use in rhizoremediation studies has also been explored. In this minireview we will discuss the most recent advances using genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation capabilities of plants and HRs. PMID:26703807

  11. Assessment of heat shock protein 70 induction by heat in alfalfa varieties and constitutive overexpression in transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Ferradini

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock.

  12. An evaluation of new and established methods to determine T-DNA copy number and homozygosity in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Kromdijk, Johannes; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Niyogi, Krishna K; Clemente, Tom E; Long, Stephen P

    2016-04-01

    Stable transformation of plants is a powerful tool for hypothesis testing. A rapid and reliable evaluation method of the transgenic allele for copy number and homozygosity is vital in analysing these transformations. Here the suitability of Southern blot analysis, thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL-)PCR, quantitative (q)PCR and digital droplet (dd)PCR to estimate T-DNA copy number, locus complexity and homozygosity were compared in transgenic tobacco. Southern blot analysis and ddPCR on three generations of transgenic offspring with contrasting zygosity and copy number were entirely consistent, whereas TAIL-PCR often underestimated copy number. qPCR deviated considerably from the Southern blot results and had lower precision and higher variability than ddPCR. Comparison of segregation analyses and ddPCR of T1 progeny from 26 T0 plants showed that at least 19% of the lines carried multiple T-DNA insertions per locus, which can lead to unstable transgene expression. Segregation analyses failed to detect these multiple copies, presumably because of their close linkage. This shows the importance of routine T-DNA copy number estimation. Based on our results, ddPCR is the most suitable method, because it is as reliable as Southern blot analysis yet much faster. A protocol for this application of ddPCR to large plant genomes is provided. PMID:26670088

  13. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  14. An evaluation of new and established methods to determine T-DNA copy number and homozygosity in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Kromdijk, Johannes; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Niyogi, Krishna K; Clemente, Tom E; Long, Stephen P

    2016-04-01

    Stable transformation of plants is a powerful tool for hypothesis testing. A rapid and reliable evaluation method of the transgenic allele for copy number and homozygosity is vital in analysing these transformations. Here the suitability of Southern blot analysis, thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL-)PCR, quantitative (q)PCR and digital droplet (dd)PCR to estimate T-DNA copy number, locus complexity and homozygosity were compared in transgenic tobacco. Southern blot analysis and ddPCR on three generations of transgenic offspring with contrasting zygosity and copy number were entirely consistent, whereas TAIL-PCR often underestimated copy number. qPCR deviated considerably from the Southern blot results and had lower precision and higher variability than ddPCR. Comparison of segregation analyses and ddPCR of T1 progeny from 26 T0 plants showed that at least 19% of the lines carried multiple T-DNA insertions per locus, which can lead to unstable transgene expression. Segregation analyses failed to detect these multiple copies, presumably because of their close linkage. This shows the importance of routine T-DNA copy number estimation. Based on our results, ddPCR is the most suitable method, because it is as reliable as Southern blot analysis yet much faster. A protocol for this application of ddPCR to large plant genomes is provided.

  15. Hepatic gene mutations induced in Big Blue rats by both the potent rat liver azo-carcinogen 6BT and its reported noncarcinogenic analogue 5BT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, K; Soames, A R; Tinwell, H; Lefevre, P A; Ashby, J

    1999-01-01

    The potent rat liver carcinogen 6-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (6BT) and its reported noncarcinogenic analogue 5-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (5BT; evaluated for carcinogenicity under the similar limited bioassay conditions used for 6BT) have been studied in order to seek an explanation for their different carcinogenic activities. Both compounds act as DNA-damaging agents to the rat liver, and both have now been shown to induce lacI (-) gene mutations in the liver of Big Blue(trade mark) transgenic rats. Both compounds were mutagenic following ten daily gavage doses or following administration in diet for 10 days. Neither chemical induced cell proliferation in the liver following repeat gavage administrations. In contrast, dietary administration of 6BT, and to a lesser extent of 5BT, induced hepatic cell proliferation. The carcinogen 6BT, but not the noncarcinogen 5BT, caused proliferation of oval stem cells in the livers by both routes of administration. It is possible that mutations induced in oval cells by 6BT are responsible for its potent carcinogenicity, and that the comparative absence of these cells in 5BT-treated livers may account for the carcinogenic inactivity of 5BT. Equally, the proliferation of the oval cells may reflect changes in liver homeostasis associated with the liver toxicity observed at the dose level of 6BT used (which was, nonetheless, the dose level used in the positive cancer bioassays). It is concluded that the new data presented cannot explain the differing carcinogenic activities of 5BT and 6BT, and that the reported noncarcinogen 5BT may also be carcinogenic when adequately assessed for this activity.

  16. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; Leonardo L. P. de Macedo; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  17. Soybean GmPHD-type transcription regulators improve stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD played a major role in DNA binding. Using a protoplast assay system, we find that GmPHD1 to GmPHD5 had transcriptional suppression activity whereas GmPHD6 did not have. In yeast assay, the GmPHD6 can form homodimer and heterodimer with the other GmPHDs except GmPHD2. The N-terminal plus the variable regions but not the PHD-finger is required for the dimerization. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the GmPHD2 showed salt tolerance when compared with the wild type plants. This tolerance was likely achieved by diminishing the oxidative stress through regulation of downstream genes. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide important clues for soybean stress tolerance through manipulation of PHD-type transcription regulator.

  18. Transgenic Rice Plants Harboring Genomic DNA from Zizania latifolia Confer Bacterial Blight Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wei-wei; SONG Cheng-li; CHEN Jie; Fu Ya-ping; Wu Jian-li; JIANG Shao-mei

    2011-01-01

    Based on the sequence of a resistance gene analog FZ14 derived from Zizania latifolia (Griseb.),a pair of specific PCR primers FZ14P1/FZ14P2 was designed to isolate candidate disease resistance gene.The pooled-PCR approach was adopted using the primer pair to screen a genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) library derived from Z.latifolia.A positive TAC clone (ZR1) was obtained and confirmed by sequence analysis.The results indicated that ZR1 consisted of conserved motifs similar to P-loop (kinase 1a),kinase 2,kinase 3a and GLPL (Gly-Leu-Pro-Leu),suggesting that it could be a portion of NBS-LRR type of resistance gene.Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Nipponbare mature embryo,a total of 48 independent transgenic T0 plants were obtained.Among them,36 plants were highly resistant to the virulent bacterial blight strain P×O71.The results indicate that ZR1 contains at least one functional bacterial blight resistance gene.

  19. Agriculture in the xxi century: transgenic plants role in agricultural sector´s technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Artunduaga Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The new advances in biotechnology, especially in the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana, genome sequence has profound implications for human health as well as plant biology and agriculture. It will permit us to know the action of all the genes involved in the key growing and development processes of plants. Modification of the structure of genes will allow the regulation of the expression of some characteristics such as the size of the leaves or the dynamics of the roots and fruits growth. In this way, the commercialization of the products of the new biotechnologies will influence in this century´s nations, agricultural production, productivity and food supply. The challenges and opportunities for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are enormous, due to the rich base of their flora, fauna and microorganisms resources, which are essential to the pharmaceutical and feeding industries. The international Community recognizes the benefits of Biotechnology, but it also advocate more inquiry into the impacts of advanced agricultural biotechnologies on the environment, food system, structure of agriculture, rural communities, and population health.The countries of LAC should continue the development and improvement of the regulatory framework for preventing or minimizing the possible risks of the use and management of the transgenic organisms in their territory, and therefore, be able to make use of their potential benefits, ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.

  20. Generation of Resistance to the Diphenyl Ether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen, via Expression of the Bacillus subtilis Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K W; Han, O; Lee, H J; Yun, Y C; Moon, Y H; Kim, M; Kuk, Y I; Han, S U; Guh, J O

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop transgenic plants resistant to diphenyl ether herbicides, we introduced the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) gene of Bacillus subtilis into tobacco plants. The results from a Northern analysis and leaf disc assay indicate that the expression of the B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter generated resistance to the diphenyl ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, in transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:27315932

  1. E.QUALITY@BT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Roderick H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a management system developed by BT Laboratories (United Kingdom) that is based on ISO 9001 using the World Wide Web, a hypermedia system, and part of the Internet. Subject matter is presented as an alphabetical list of linked entries, numerous navigational techniques are available, and searching options function within an index file.…

  2. Consumption of Bt maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 does not harm adult green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176 pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea.

  3. Cadmium resistance in transgenic tobacco plants enhanced by expressing bean heavy metal-responsive gene PvSR2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI; Tuanyao; (柴团耀); CHEN; Qiong; (陈琼); ZHANG; Yuxiu; (张玉秀); DONG; Juan; (董娟); AN; Chengcai; (安成才)

    2003-01-01

    PvSR2 (Phaseolus vulgaris stress-related gene) has been cloned from French bean and shown to be expressed specifically upon heavy metal treatment. In order to investigate the role of PvSR2 in plant, PvSR2 gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was introduced into tobacco mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The regenerated plantlets were selected on medium with 100 mg/L kanamycin. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed PvSR2 gene was integrated in tobacco genome. Gus and Northern blot analysis indicated PvSR2 gene was expressed in transgenic seedling. The heavy metal resistance assay showed that the transgenic tobacco seedlings with the PvSR2 coding sequence exhibited higher tolerance to Cd compared with wild-type (WT) under Cd exposure. The Cd content accumulated in root between transgenic and WT seedlings had no obvious difference at lower Cd external concentration (0.05-0.075 mmol/L CdCl2), whereas transgenic plant showed a lower root Cd content than the control at higher external Cd concentration (0.1 mmol/L CdCl2). These results suggested that the expression of PvSR2 can enhance the Cd tolerance, and PvSR2 may be involved in Cd transportation and accumulation at the test concentration of 0.1 mmol/L Cd.

  4. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  5. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  6. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis, demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field.

  7. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsong; Hallerman, Eric; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-01-01

    Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis), demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field. PMID:27763554

  8. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  9. Changes in SBPase activity influence photosynthetic capacity, growth, and tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Shuoxin; Ai, Xizhen

    2016-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is an important enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. Here, we report the impact of changes in SBPase activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, and chilling tolerance in SBPase antisense and sense transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. In transgenic plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased and in parallel an increase in sucrose and starch accumulation was evident. Total biomass and leaf area were increased in SBPase sense plants, while they were reduced in SBPase antisense plants compared with equivalent wild-type tomato plants. Under chilling stress, when compared with plants with decreased SBPase activity, tomato plants with increased SBPase activity were found to be more chilling tolerant as indicated by reduced electrolyte leakage, increased photosynthetic capacity, and elevated RuBP regeneration rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Collectively, our data suggest that higher level of SBPase activity gives an advantage to photosynthesis, growth and chilling tolerance in tomato plants. This work also provides a case study that an individual enzyme in the Calvin cycle may serve as a useful target for genetic engineering to improve production and stress tolerance in crops. PMID:27586456

  10. A novel stress-induced sugarcane gene confers tolerance to drought, salt and oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity worldwide. Sugarcane can withstand periods of water scarcity during the final stage of culm maturation, during which sucrose accumulation occurs. Meanwhile, prolonged periods of drought can cause severe plant losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we evaluated the transcriptome of drought-stressed plants to better understand sugarcane responses to drought. Among the up-regulated genes was Scdr1 (sugarcane drought-responsive 1. The aim of the research reported here was to characterize this gene. Scdr1 encodes a putative protein containing 248 amino acids with a large number of proline (19% and cysteine (13% residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ScDR1is in a clade with homologs from other monocotyledonous plants, separate from those of dicotyledonous plants. The expression of Scdr1 in different varieties of sugarcane plants has not shown a clear association with drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overexpression of Scdr1 in transgenic tobacco plants increased their tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increased photosynthesis, water content, biomass, germination rate, chlorophyll content and reduced accumulation of ROS. Physiological parameters, such as transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and internal leaf CO(2 concentration, were less affected by abiotic stresses in transgenic Scdr1 plants compared with wild-type plants. Overall, our results indicated that Scdr1 conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  11. Changes in SBPase activity influence photosynthetic capacity, growth, and tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Zhang, Shuoxin; Ai, Xizhen

    2016-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is an important enzyme involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. Here, we report the impact of changes in SBPase activity on photosynthesis, growth and development, and chilling tolerance in SBPase antisense and sense transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. In transgenic plants with increased SBPase activity, photosynthetic rates were increased and in parallel an increase in sucrose and starch accumulation was evident. Total biomass and leaf area were increased in SBPase sense plants, while they were reduced in SBPase antisense plants compared with equivalent wild-type tomato plants. Under chilling stress, when compared with plants with decreased SBPase activity, tomato plants with increased SBPase activity were found to be more chilling tolerant as indicated by reduced electrolyte leakage, increased photosynthetic capacity, and elevated RuBP regeneration rate and quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Collectively, our data suggest that higher level of SBPase activity gives an advantage to photosynthesis, growth and chilling tolerance in tomato plants. This work also provides a case study that an individual enzyme in the Calvin cycle may serve as a useful target for genetic engineering to improve production and stress tolerance in crops. PMID:27586456

  12. [Antiviral activity of extracts of transgenic cichory and lettuce plants with the human interferon alpha-2b gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N A; Kudriavets, Iu I; Likhova, A A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Bezdenezhnykh, N A; Kvasko, E Iu

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of protein extracts from transgenic plants of chicory Cichorium intybus L. and lettuce Lactuca sativa L. with human interferon alpha2b gene was investigated against vesicular stomatitis virus. It was shown that the extracts from the hairy roots of chicory and lettuce transformed by A. rhizogenes possess the antiviral activity 1620...5400 IU/g weight, and the extracts from leaves of the plants transformed by A. tumefaciens--till 9375 IU/g weight. Dependence of plant extract biological activity on the transformation vector was shown. PMID:23342646

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  14. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  15. Lack of Correlation between Ammonium Accumulation and Survival of Transgenic Birch Plants with Pine Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase Gene after “Basta” Herbicide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Lebedev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of plants with genes encoding a glutamine synthetase (GS, a key nitrogen metabolism enzyme, is usually used to increase productivity. However, overexpression of these genes may increase resistance to phosphinothricin (PPT that irreversibly inhibits GS causing ammonium accumulation in plant tissues. Transgenic plants of two birch (Betula pubescens genotypes expressing a pine cytosolic GS gene were used for studying the PPT effect on trees. Two control and 8 transgenic lines were treated with herbicide “Basta” at dose equivalent to 2.5 and 5 Lha−1. Necrosis and abscission of leaves occurred irrespective of a transgenic status or the treatment dose. Ammonium content in leaf tissue in 3 days after the 5 Lha−1 treatment was substantially increased in all plants, 3.2–16.0 times depending on line. After the 2.5 Lha−1 treatment, ammonium content in three transgenic lines was not different from that in control variant sprayed with water. The herbicide treatment caused more prominent desiccation in the bp3f1 genotype nontransgenic plants as compared to transgenic plants, but not in the bp4a genotype. Lack of correlation between ammonium levels and survival of transgenic plants suggests that ammonium toxicity is not a main reason for the birch plant death after the PPT treatment.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.

  17. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance.

  18. Oil palm EgCBF3 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants through modulation of the ethylene signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mortaza; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abdul Aziz, Maheran; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2016-09-01

    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27513726

  19. Resistance to rice blast(Pyricularia oryzae) caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic rice plants transferred through agrobacterium method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The gene of trichosanthin has been transferred into rice plants through agrobacterium method.The single copy insertion and the expression of foreign gene have been proved in regenerated plants.In antifungal assay the degrees of rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) infection of the transgenic plants expressing trichosanthin and expressing GUS gene as control have been evaluated.The differences such as the time of disease symptom observed,the number of infected plants and damaged leaves,the growth of infected plants of the two transgenic plants after being inoculated by rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae) are significant.The transgenic plants with trichosanthin gene grew faster than the plants with GUS gene,even when humidity environment was removed.The results show that the transgenic plants that expressed trichosanthin are able to delay the infection of rice blast compared with the plants as control.In addition,no damage caused by the expression of trichosanthin gene in transgenic plants has been observed.

  20. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  1. Colorimetric DNA detection of transgenic plants using gold nanoparticles functionalized with L-shaped DNA probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisaeid, Elham; Mousavi, Amir; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a DNA colorimetric detection system based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with L-shaped DNA probes was prepared and evaluated. We investigated the hybridization efficiency of the L-shaped probes and studied the effect of nanoparticle size and the L-shaped DNA probe length on the performance of the as-prepared system. Probes were attached to the surface of gold nanoparticles using an adenine sequence. An optimal sequence of 35S rRNA gene promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus, which is frequently used in the development of transgenic plants, and the two complementary ends of this gene were employed as model target strands and probe molecules, respectively. The spectrophotometric properties of the as-prepared systems indicated that the large NPs show better changes in the absorption spectrum and consequently present a better performance. The results of this study revealed that the probe/Au-NPs prepared using a vertical spacer containing 5 thymine oligonucleotides exhibited a stronger spectrophotometric response in comparison to that of larger probes. These results in general indicate the suitable performance of the L-shaped DNA probe-functionalized Au-NPs, and in particular emphasize the important role of the gold nanoparticle size and length of the DNA probes in enhancing the performance of such a system.

  2. Wheat chloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter confers heat and abiotic stress inducible expression in transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Khurana

    Full Text Available The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the hloroplast targeted sHSP26 promoter in detail, deletion analysis of the promoter is carried out and analysed via transgenics in Arabidopsis. In the present study, complete assessment of the importance of CCAAT-box elements along with Heat shock elements (HSEs in the promoter of sHSP26 was performed. Moreover, the importance of 5' untranslated region (UTR has also been established in the promoter via Arabidopsis transgenics. An intense GUS expression was observed after heat stress in the transgenics harbouring a full-length promoter, confirming the heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Transgenic plants without UTR showed reduced GUS expression when compared to transgenic plants with UTR as was confirmed at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and GUS histochemical assays, thus suggesting the possible involvement of some regulatory elements present in the UTR in heat-stress inducibility of the promoter. Promoter activity was also checked under different abiotic stresses and revealed differential expression in different deletion constructs. Promoter analysis based on histochemical assay, real-time qPCR and fluorimetric analysis revealed that HSEs alone could not transcribe GUS gene significantly in sHSP26 promoter and CCAAT box elements contribute synergistically to the transcription. Our results also provide insight into the importance of 5`UTR of sHsp26 promoter thus emphasizing the probable role of imperfect CCAAT-box element or some novel cis-element with respect to heat stress.

  3. Knockdown of Midgut Genes by dsRNA-Transgenic Plant-Mediated RNA Interference in the Hemipteran Insect Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Zha; Xinxin Peng; Rongzhi Chen; Bo Du; Lili Zhu; Guangcun He

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a typical phloem sap feeder s...

  4. Using quality risk management in the plantibody HB-01 manufacturing by transgenic tobacco Plants for vaccine production

    OpenAIRE

    Mila C., Loreley; Valdes, Rodolfo; Padilla, Sigifredo; Mendoza, Otto; Gomez, Leonardo; García A., Cristina; Geada, Déborah; Ferro, Williams; Pujol, Merardo; Tamayo, Andrés de; Enriquez, Gil; Álvarez, Tatiana; Sanchez, Rafael; Brito, José de

    2010-01-01

    The production of biopharmaceuticals by transgenic plants is a promising choice to achieve the multi-kilogram amount of products needed to treat many human diseases. However, this scientific field is still lacking of approved specific guidelines regarding points to consider for manufacturing and application of these products. In such sense, the implementation of new manufacturing processes and quality systems using the quality risks management is recognized as something of prime importance in...

  5. Bt brinjal in India: a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Misra, Amita; Verma, Alok Kumar; Roy, Ruchi; Tripathi, Anurag; Ansari, Kausar M; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-01-01

    Brinjal occupies the major proportion amongst all vegetable crops in India and is vulnerable to many diseases caused by insect-pests, fungus, bacteria and virus. Brinjal production is extensively affected by the insect brinjal fruit and shoot borer. Use of conventional chemical pesticides not only damage environment including the biotic and abiotic components but, also affect human health. Bt Brinjal was developed to combat brinjal fruit and shoot borer that has an advantage minimizing use of chemical pesticides. Extensive biosafety investigations, nutritional studies, substantial equivalence studies, relative toxicity and allergenicity assessment using animal models like Sprague Dawley rats, Brown Norway rats, rabbit, fish, chicken, goats, etc. revealed no significant differences between genetically modified brinjal and its native counterpart. Bt brinjal could effectively control the target pest and was found to be safe for environment and human health. In spite of all the scientific studies, release of Bt Brinjal has been put under moratorium. Indian government has constituted an expert committee to address this issue. In this review we have tried to explore the facts related to Bt Brinjal including its production, use of Bt toxin, use of chemical pesticides in controlling the FSB in native brinjal, along with perspective of public opinion and government initiatives. Key words: Bt Brinjal, agriculture, insecticides, GM foods, agrobacterium, transgenic crops. PMID:21865863

  6. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  7. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  8. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Guo; Yanjie Feng; Yang Ge; Guillaume Tetreau; Xiaowen Chen; Xuehui Dong; Wangpeng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure o...

  9. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will

  10. Improving phosphorus acquisition of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by transgenic expression of plant-derived phytase and acid phosphatase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Wright, Elane; Ge, Yaxin; Bell, Jeremey; Xi, Yajun; Bouton, Joseph H; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2009-04-01

    Phosphate is one of the least available macronutrients restricting crop production in many ecosystems. A phytase gene (MtPHY1) and a purple acid phosphatase gene (MtPAP1), both isolated from the model legume Medicago truncatula, were introduced into white clover (Trifolium repens L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenes were driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the root-specific MtPT1 promoter. Transcripts were detected in roots of the transgenic plants. Phytase or acid phosphatase (APase) activities in root apoplasts of the transgenic plants were increased up to three-fold compared to the wild type control. After the plants were grown 80 days in sand pots supplied with organic phosphorus (Po) as the sole P source, dry weights of shoot tissues of the best performing transgenic plants almost doubled that of the control and were comparable to the counterparts supplied with inorganic phosphorus (Pi). Relative biomass production of the transgenics under Po treatment was over 90% and 80% of that from the Pi treatment when the plants were grown in hydroponics (40 days) and sand pots (80 days), respectively. In contrast, biomass of the wild type controls under Po treatment was only about 50% of the Pi treatment in either hydroponic cultures or sand pots. In addition, shoot P concentrations of the transgenic plants were significantly increased compared to the control. Transgenic plants accumulated much higher amounts of total P (up to 2.6-fold after 80 days of growth) than the control in Po supplied sand pots. The results showed that transgenic expression of MtPHY1 or MtPAP1 in white clover plants increased their abilities of utilizing organic phosphorus in response to P deficiency. PMID:26493137

  11. Expression of Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab by a polycistronic transgene with a self-cleavage peptide in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichao Zhao

    Full Text Available Insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal protein is a major threat to the long-term use of transgenic Bt crops. Gene stacking is a readily deployable strategy to delay the development of insect resistance while it may also broaden insecticidal spectrum. Here, we report the creation of transgenic rice expressing discrete Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab simultaneously from a single expression cassette using 2A self-cleaving peptides, which are autonomous elements from virus guiding the polycistronic viral gene expression in eukaryotes. The synthetic coding sequences of Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab, linked by the coding sequence of a 2A peptide from either foot and mouth disease virus or porcine teschovirus-1, regardless of order, were all expressed as discrete Cry1Ab and Cry2Ab at high levels in the transgenic rice. Insect bioassays demonstrated that the transgenic plants were highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. This study suggested that 2A peptide can be utilized to express multiple Bt genes at high levels in transgenic crops.

  12. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L

    2012-11-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting.

  14. Non-recessive Bt toxin resistance conferred by an intracellular cadherin mutation in field-selected populations of cotton bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins.

  15. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  16. Can other host species of cotton bollworm be non-Bt refuges to prolong the effectiveness of Bt-cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential ecological risks of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) insecticides and Bt-crops have caused increasing concern since their commercial release in the field,among which pests' resistance to Bt-crops is the major ecological risk. Refuge tactic, which can produce sensitive populations, has proved to be a key and sound resistance management strategy in USA and Australia; however, no tactics have been performed in China where Bt-cotton is mostly planted with other host crops of cotton bollworm.Genetic variation and gene flow among different host populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were analyzed using PCR fingerprinting method. The results show that maize and castor-oil plant, as well as cotton can take effect as refuges to prevent resistance of cotton bollworm to Bt-cotton, while peanut and sesame are not as suitable for planting with Bt-cotton as refuges in the field as low gene flow was detected among populations on peanut, sesame and Bt cotton.

  17. Induced expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 differentially promotes somatic embryogenesis in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengdan Guo

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC genes, AtLEC1 and AtLEC2, are important embryonic regulators that play key roles in morphogenesis and maturation phases during embryo development. Ectopic expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 in tobacco caused abnormality in transgenic seedling. When transgenic seeds germinated on medium containing 30 µM DEX, LEC1 transgenic seedlings were ivory and fleshy, with unexpanded cotyledons, stubby hypocotyls, short roots and no obvious callus formation at the shoot meristem position. While LEC2 transgenic seedlings formed embryonic callus on the shoot apical meristem and somatic embryo-like structures emerged from the surface of the callus. When callus were transferred to hormone free MS0 medium more shoots were regenerated from each callus. However, shoot formation was not observed in LEC1 overexpressors. To investigate the mechanisms of LEC2 in somatic embryogenesis, we studied global gene expression by digital gene expression profiling analysis. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LEC2 genes induced accumulation of embryo-specific proteins such as seed storage proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, products of steroid biosynthesis related genes and key regulatory genes of the embryo development. Genes of plant-specific transcription factors such as NAC domain protein, AP2 and GRAS family, resistance-related as well as salicylic acid signaling related genes were up-regulated in LEC2 transgenic seedlings. Ectopi c expression of LEC2 induced large number of somatic embryo formation and shoot regeneration but 20 d DEX induction of LEC1 is not sufficient to induce somatic embryogenesis and shoot formation. Our data provide new information to understand the mechanisms on LEC2 gene's induction of somatic embryogenesis.

  18. Transgenic insect-resistant corn affects the fourth trophic level: effects of Bacillus thuringiensis-corn on the facultative hyperparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prütz, Gernot; Brink, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad

    2004-09-01

    As hyperparasitoids may have a considerable influence on the control of herbivorous arthropods, analyzing the host-mediated impact of Bacillus thuringiensis-plants (“Bt-plants”) on hyperparasitoids is of interest. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in order to assess the potential effect of Bt-corn leaf material on the facultative hyperparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), mediated through the herbivore Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its primary parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In the Bt-group, significantly less C. flavipes larvae per host spun cocoons and pupated than in the control, and the mean fresh weight of a single C. flavipes cocoon was significantly reduced compared to the control. All C. flavipes cocoons of one host formed cocoon clusters. T. howardi females of the Bt-group parasitized significantly less cocoon clusters than in the control. Moreover, significantly fewer C. flavipes cocoons per cocoon cluster were successfully parasitized as compared to the control. As a consequence, T. howardi females of the control had more offspring than in the Bt-group. Adult female T. howardi offspring of the Bt-group weighed significantly less than in the control, but there was no significant weight difference between males of both groups. Our results suggest that transgenic insect-resistant plants could affect hyperparasitoids indirectly. However, it remains to be determined whether facultative hyperparasitoids prefer to develop as primary or secondary parasitoids under field conditions.

  19. Ocorrência do ácaro fitófago Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae em cultivares de milho Bt Occurrence of the phytophagous mite Catarhinus tricholaenae Keifer (Acari: Diptilomiopidae on Bt corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini

    2012-09-01

    (b and 1063 individuals on leaves of non-Bt cultivars. The highest average population abundances occurred in the months of November and December. Factors of plant phenological stage and rainfall positively affected the abundance of C. tricholaenae. The average abundance of the collection period of C. tricholaenae was reduced by cultivar corn containing Cry 1 A (b protein. This is the first report of mites on the cultivars of transgenic corn in Brazil.

  20. Inhibition of brome mosaic virus (BMV) amplification in protoplasts from transgenic tobacco plants expressing replicable BMV RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, M; Mori, M; Mise, K; Okuno, T; Furusawa, I

    1995-11-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants (V123 plants) expressing a set of full-length brome mosaic virus (BMV) genomic RNAs from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were produced. The accumulation level of BMV RNAs in V123 plant cells was approximately 1% of that in nontransgenic tobacco protoplasts inoculated with BMV RNAs. The level of BMV RNA in V123 protoplasts did not increase after inoculating the protoplasts with BMV RNAs, whereas V123 protoplasts supported the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNAs to a level similar to that in non-transgenic tobacco protoplasts after inoculation with CMV RNA. Such BMV-specific resistance was also observed in protoplasts from V12 plants expressing full-length BMV RNA1 and RNA2, both of which are required and sufficient for BMV RNA replication. On the other hand, protoplasts from M12 plants, expressing truncated BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in which the 3' 200 nucleotides required for BMV RNA replication were deleted, exhibited weaker resistance to infection with BMV RNA than V12 protoplasts, although the accumulation level of truncated BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in M12 protoplasts was higher than that of BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in V12 protoplasts. These results suggest that expression of BMV RNA replicons is involved in the induction of resistance, rather than high-level accumulation of BMV RNAs and/or their encoded proteins.

  1. [Genetic transformation of buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench ) with AtNHX1 gene and regeneration of salt-tolerant transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast Na+ /H+ antiporter gene, AtNHX1, was transferred into buckwheat by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic buckwheat plants were regenerated and selected on MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0mg/L 6-BA, 1.0mg/L KT, 0.lmg/L IAA, 50mg/L kanamycin and 500mg/L carbenicillin. 426 seedlings from 36 resistant calli originated from 864 explants (transformed about at 4.17 percentage) exhibited resistance to kanamycin. The transformants were confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and Northern blotting analysis. After stress treatment for 6 weeks with 200mmol/L NaCl, transgenic plants survived, while wild-type plants did not. After 3 days of stress treatment through different concentrations of NaCl, transgenic plants accumulated higher concentration of Na+ and proline than the control plants. However, the K+ concentration of transgenic plants declined in comparison with the control plants. Moreover, the rutin content of the roots, stems and leaves of transgenic buckwheat increased than those of the control plants. These results showed that it could be possible to improve the salt-tolerance of crops with genetic technology.

  2. Dexamethasone-Inducible Green Fluorescent Protein Gene Expression in Transgenic Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Hilary Collver; Katherine Kinken

    2004-01-01

    Genomic research has made a large number of sequences of novel genes or expressed sequence tags available. To investigate functions of these genes, a system for conditional control of gene expression would be a useful tool. Inducible transgene expression that uses green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) as a reporter gene has been investigated in transgenic cell lines of cotton (COT; Gossypium hirsutum L.), Fraser fir [FRA; Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir], Nordmann fir (NOR; Abies nordmanniana Lk.), and rice (RIC; Oryza sativa L. Cv. Radon). Transgenic cell lines were used to test the function of the chemical inducer dexamethasone. Inducible transgene expression was observed with fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and was confirmed by northern blot analyses. Dexamethasone at 5 mg/L induced gfp expression to the nearly highest level 48 h after treatment in COT, FRA, NOR, and RIC. Dexamethasone at 10 mg/L inhibited the growth of transgenic cells in FRA and NOR, but not COT and RIC. These results demonstrated that concentrations of inducer for optimum inducible gene expression system varied among transgenic cell lines. The inducible gene expression system described here was very effective and could be valuable in evaluating the function of novel gene.

  3. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus in transgenic tobacco plants with altered endogenous cytokinin content: a proteomic study

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    Valcke Roland

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokinin is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in several processes of plant growth and development. In recent years, major breakthroughs have been achieved in the elucidation of the metabolism, the signal perception and transduction, as well as the biological functions of cytokinin. An important activity of cytokinin is the involvement in chloroplast development and function. Although this biological function has already been known for 50 years, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. Results To elucidate the effects of altered endogenous cytokinin content on the structure and function of the chloroplasts, chloroplast subfractions (stroma and thylakoids from transgenic Pssu-ipt and 35S:CKX1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants with, respectively, elevated and reduced endogenous cytokinin content were analysed using two different 2-DE approaches. Firstly, thykaloids were analysed by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by SDS-PAGE (BN/SDS-PAGE. Image analysis of the gel spot pattern thus obtained from thylakoids showed no substantial differences between wild-type and transgenic tobacco plants. Secondly, a quantitative DIGE analysis of CHAPS soluble proteins derived from chloroplast subfractions indicated significant gel spot abundance differences in the stroma fraction. Upon identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, these proteins could be assigned to the Calvin-Benson cycle and photoprotective mechanisms. Conclusion Taken together, presented proteomic data reveal that the constitutively altered cytokinin status of transgenic plants does not result in any qualitative changes in either stroma proteins or protein complexes of thylakoid membranes of fully developed chloroplasts, while few but significant quantitative differences are observed in stroma proteins.

  4. A male sterility-associated mitochondrial protein in wild beets causes pollen disruption in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki P; Shinada, Hiroshi; Onodera, Yasuyuki; Komaki, Chihiro; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2008-06-01

    In higher plants, male reproductive (pollen) development is known to be disrupted in a class of mitochondrial mutants termed cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) mutants. Despite the increase in knowledge regarding CMS-encoding genes and their expression, definitive evidence that CMS-associated proteins actually cause pollen disruption is not yet available in most cases. Here we compare the translation products of mitochondria between the normal fertile cytoplasm and the male-sterile I-12CMS(3) cytoplasm derived from wild beets. The results show a unique 12 kDa polypeptide that is present in the I-12CMS(3) mitochondria but is not detectable among the translation products of normal mitochondria. We also found that a mitochondrial open reading frame (named orf129) was uniquely transcribed in I-12CMS(3) and is large enough to encode the novel 12 kDa polypeptide. Antibodies against a GST-ORF129 fusion protein were raised to establish that this 12 kDa polypeptide is the product of orf129. ORF129 was shown to accumulate in flower mitochondria as well as in root and leaf mitochondria. As for the CMS-associated protein (PCF protein) in petunia, ORF129 is primarily present in the matrix and is loosely associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. The orf129 sequence was fused to a mitochondrial targeting pre-sequence, placed under the control of the Arabidopsis apetala3 promoter, and introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome. Transgenic expression of ORF129 resulted in male sterility, which provides clear supporting evidence that ORF129 is responsible for the male-sterile phenotype in sugar beet with wild beet cytoplasm.

  5. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  6. Optimization of Acidothermus Celluloyticus Endoglucanase (E1) Production in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Transcriptional, Post-transcription and Post-Translational Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Thomas, S. R.

    2005-10-01

    Biochemical characteristics of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) and its physiological effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has been studied previously. In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5’ untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. The expression of E1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants was determined via E1 activity, protein immunobloting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of different transit peptides on E1 protein production and its stability were examined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors with the same (Mac) promoter and transcription terminator (Tmas). Transgenic tobacco plants with apoplast transit peptide (Mm-apo) had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation , while E1 protein was more stable in transgenic plants with no transit peptide (Mm) than others. The E1 expression under tomato RbcS-3C promoter was higher than that under Mac promoter based on the average E1 activity, E1 protein accumulation, and RNA gel-blotting. The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5’-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. The optimal combination of promoter, 5’-UTL, and subcellular compartmentation (transit peptide) for E1 protein production in transgenic tobacco plants are discussed.

  7. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

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    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  8. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used 20 sheep and the experimental design was randomized blocks in scheme factorial type 2x2 (two varieties of plant corn to silage, with the presence or absence of Bt gene, with five animals per treatment. These animals were housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator feces and urine for 21 days, comprising 8 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for determination of intake, followed by 6 days of collection of feces, to measure DMI (g/day, CDA DM, CP and NDF. Samples of feed offered, leftovers and feces were identified and placed in a circulating air oven maintained at 55°C to constant weight. The analyses were performed in Bromatological Analysis Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science. To CTMS (g/day was interaction effect (p<0.05 than in the variety AG (779.36 was greater than DKB (637.52, because the DM content of the sheet AG (31.09 was superior to DKB (29.17. The AG (779.36 was higher than your counterpart isogenic without the gene (575.15 p<0.05. The DKB without the gene (637.52 did not differ (p>0.05 from your counterpart DKBBt with the gene (590.78. The lowest total DM intake in g/day was observed for varieties with Bt gene insertion (genetically modified organism - GMO and a possible explanation is the higher value of NDF in the silages of variety with the Bt gene in relation to their isogenic counterparts without the gene. The CDA, DM and NDF no had interaction effect between varieties factors and GMO (p>0

  9. Knockdown of midgut genes by dsRNA-transgenic plant-mediated RNA interference in the hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

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    Wenjun Zha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a typical phloem sap feeder specific to rice (Oryza sativa L.. To analyze the potential of exploiting RNAi-mediated effects in this insect, we identified genes (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub encoding proteins that might be involved in the RNAi pathway in N. lugens. Both genes are expressed ubiquitously in nymphs and adult insects. Three genes (the hexose transporter gene NlHT1, the carboxypeptidase gene Nlcar and the trypsin-like serine protease gene Nltry that are highly expressed in the N. lugens midgut were isolated and used to develop dsRNA constructs for transforming rice. RNA blot analysis showed that the dsRNAs were transcribed and some of them were processed to siRNAs in the transgenic lines. When nymphs were fed on rice plants expressing dsRNA, levels of transcripts of the targeted genes in the midgut were reduced; however, lethal phenotypic effects after dsRNA feeding were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genes for the RNAi pathway (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub are present in N. lugens. When insects were fed on rice plant materials expressing dsRNAs, RNA interference was triggered and the target genes transcript levels were suppressed. The gene knockdown technique described here may prove to be a valuable tool for further investigations in N. lugens. The results demonstrate the potential of dsRNA-mediated RNAi for field-level control of planthoppers, but appropriate target genes must be selected when designing the dsRNA-transgenic plants.

  10. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

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    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco and soybean that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1, was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants.

  11. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. PMID:26555900

  12. Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing a three T-DNA binary vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops.To achieve this point,a binary vector with three T-DNAs was constructed using several mediate plasmids,in which one copy of BAR gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included.EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform soybean cotyledon nodes.Through 2-3 months regeneration and selection with 3-5 mg·L-1 glufosinate,transgenic soybean plants were obtained at 0.83%-3.16%,and the co-transformation efficiency of both genes in the same individual reached up to 86.4%,based on the southern blot test.Using PCR analysis,southern blot and northern blot tests,as well as leaf painting of herbicide in T1 progenies,41 plants were eliminated of BAR gene with the frequency of 7.6%.Among the T1 populations tested,the loss of the alien genes happened in 22.7% lines,the silence of the BAR gene took place in 27.3% lines,and VIP1 gene silence existed in 37.1% marker-free plants.The results also suggested that the plasmid with three T-DNAs might be an ideal vector to generate marker-free genetically modified organisms.

  13. Effects of Early Fruiting Branch Removal on Growth, Development and Senescence Processes in Transgenic Bt Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)%去早果枝对转基因抗虫棉生长发育与衰老进程的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟立超; 张永江; 刘连涛; 孙红春; 朱秀金; 李存东

    2012-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton plants with two different sowing dates were treated normally (CK), or by removing one(Rl), two (R2) or three basal fruiting branches(R3) to study the effects of early fruiting branch removal on growth, development and senescence processes in a two-year experiment. The results showed that the removal of early fruiting branches delayed the process of growth and development there was no difference between R1 and CK in the total number of fruiting branches, but R2 and R3 were significantly lower than CK), but had no obvious effects on the total fruiting nodes. Early fruiting branch removal significantly increased the LAI and dry matter accumulation in plants of the first sowing date over two years(R1, R2 and R3 increased the dry matter weight on average by 13.5%, 17.5% and 19.0%, respectively, compared with CK), but there was no significant difference in plants of the second sowing date. For plants of the first sowing date, early fruiting branch removal significantly decreased the abscission and rotten boll rates and promoted seed yield over the two year period. Rl, R2 and R3 decreased the abscission rate by 5.9%, 6.4% and 9.5%, respectively, and rotten boll rate by 3.8%, 3.1% and 4.3%, and the Rl and R2 treatments enhanced the seed cotton yield by 9.6% and 8.1%, respectively. There was no significant yield increase in plants of the second sowing date; there was even a decrease for some treatments.%以转基因抗虫棉品种为材料,设置了2个播期和4种去早果枝方式(去基部1个、2个、3个果枝及不去果枝的对照)处理,研究去除早期果枝对棉花生长发育及衰老进程的影响.2年结果表明,去早果枝推迟了棉花的生育进程;去掉1个早果枝处理总果枝数与对照无差异,但去掉2个、3个果枝后明显低于对照,总果节数差异不显著;去早果枝显著提高了第1播期棉花叶面积指数和干物质积累量,去1个、2个和3个果枝处理的干物质积累量在2

  14. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals.

  15. Susceptibility of Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Corn Under Long-Term Laboratory Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong

    2005-01-01

    corn or alternate hosts before they attack the Bt corn plants and the survival of larvae after Bt application.

  16. Identifying of Bt transgenic corn plants by PCR technology%转Bt基因玉米杂交种的快速检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏; 杜何为; 张祖新

    2004-01-01

    采用快速小量的DNA提取技术,结合PCR技术,对84株转Bt基因的玉米杂交种的F2群体进行检测,结果表明73株呈现阳性,11株呈现阴性.幼苗移栽大田套袋自交,对4个F3家系进行了追踪检测证实,Bt基因在后代的分离符合孟德尔遗传规律,说明PCR技术直接用于转基因植物的鉴定是可靠的.

  17. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-11-12

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM.

  18. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  19. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  20. Transgenic technology adoption and on-farm varietal diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Vijesh V.; Zilberman, David; Qaim, Matin

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic pest-resistant varieties are hypothesized to reduce farmers’ demand for on-farm diversity through an act of substitution, as both serve as production risk reducing instruments. This adverse agro-biodiversity impact of technology adoption might be partially counteracted by an expanding seed sector, supplying a large number of transgenic varieties. The case of Bt cotton in India is taken for empirical illustration. The production function analyses show that both Bt technology and on-...

  1. The Ca(2+) status of the endoplasmic reticulum is altered by induction of calreticulin expression in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S.; Wyatt, S. E.; Love, J.; Thompson, W. F.; Robertson, D.; Boss, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in plant cells, we generated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; NT1) suspension cells and Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of calreticulin (CRT), an ER-localized Ca(2+)-binding protein. NT1 cells and Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a maize (Zea mays) CRT gene in both sense and antisense orientations under the control of an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter. ER-enriched membrane fractions from NT1 cells were used to examine how altered expression of CRT affects Ca(2+) uptake and release. We found that a 2.5-fold increase in CRT led to a 2-fold increase in ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) accumulation in the ER-enriched fraction compared with heat-shocked wild-type controls. Furthermore, after treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, ER microsomes from NT1 cells overproducing CRT showed a 2-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) released, and a 2- to 3-fold increase in the amount of (45)Ca(2+) retained compared with wild type. These data indicate that altering the production of CRT affects the ER Ca(2+) pool. In addition, CRT transgenic Arabidopsis plants were used to determine if altered CRT levels had any physiological effects. We found that the level of CRT in heat shock-induced CRT transgenic plants correlated positively with the retention of chlorophyll when the plants were transferred from Ca(2+)-containing medium to Ca(2+)-depleted medium. Together these data are consistent with the hypothesis that increasing CRT in the ER increases the ER Ca(2+) stores and thereby enhances the survival of plants grown in low Ca(2+) medium.

  2. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eTodaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants have generally been developed using genes encoding proteins that control drought regulatory networks. These proteins include transcription factors, protein kinases, receptor-like kinases, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, and other regulatory or functional proteins. Of the drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, approximately one-third show decreased plant height under non-stressed conditions or in response to abscisic acid treatment. In cereal crops, plant height is a very important agronomic trait directly affecting yield, although the improvement of lodging resistance should also be taken into consideration. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions holds promise for developing transgenic plants that produce high yields under drought stress conditions. Plant growth rates are reduced more rapidly than photosynthetic activity under drought conditions, implying that plants actively reduce growth in response to drought stress. In this review, we summarize studies on molecular regulatory networks involved in response to drought stress. In a separate section, we highlight progress in the development of transgenic drought-tolerant rice plants, with special attention paid to field trial investigations.

  3. Different Responses of Plant Growth and Antioxidant System to the Combination of Cadmium and Heat Stress in Transgenic and Non-transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Yun Zhao; Wen Liu; Shi-Yong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of just cadmium (Cd) or heat and their combination treatments on some physiological parameters and the antioxidant systems in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua No.11) carrying glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC. 2.5.1.18) and catalase1(CAT1, EC. 1.11.1.6) and non-transgenics was conducted. The results revealed improved resistance in the transgenics to Cd and the combined Cd and heat stress than non-transgenics. Data showed that the activities of CAT, GST, superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) and all components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle measured in the stressed transgenics shoots are significantly different from those of non-transgenics. Results indicated that co-expression of GST and CAT1 had an important effect on the antioxidant system, in particular, the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle. The less oxidative damage induced by Cd and the stress combination in the transgenics resulted not only from the GST and CAT1 transgene but also from the coordination of the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

  4. Analysis of the mechanism of protection in transgenic plants expressing the potato virus X coat protein or its antisense RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, C; Fang, R X; Kaniewski, W K; Chua, N H; Tumer, N E

    1988-05-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express either the potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP+) or the antisense coat protein transcript (CP-antisense) were protected from infection by PVX, as indicated by reduced lesion numbers on inoculated leaves, delay or absence of systemic symptom development and reduction in virus accumulation in both inoculated and systemic leaves. The extent of protection observed in CP+ plants primarily depended upon the level of expression of the coat protein. Plants expressing antisense RNA were protected only at low inoculum concentrations. The extent of this protection was even lower than that observed in plants expressing low levels of CP. In contrast to previous reports for plants expressing tobacco mosaic virus or alfalfa mosaic virus CP, inoculation of plants expressing high levels of PVX CP with PVX RNA did not overcome the protection. Specifically, lesion numbers on inoculated leaves and PVX levels on inoculated and systemtic leaves of the CP+ plants were reduced to a similar extent in both virus and RNA inoculated plants. Although these results do not rule out that CP-mediated protection involves inhibition of uncoating of the challenge virus, they suggest that PVX CP (or its RNA) can moderate early events in RNA infection by a different mechanism. PMID:16453840

  5. Resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: insights from the laboratory and the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    Western corn rootworm is a serious pest of maize. Beginning in 2003, management of western corn rootworm included transgenic maize that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The first Bt maize hybrids produced Cry3Bb1, but additional Bt toxins have since been introduced, including eCry3.1Ab, mCry3A and Cry34/35Ab1. Laboratory selection experiments found that western corn rootworm could develop resistance to all types of Bt maize following three to seven generations of selection. By 2009 cases of field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize had been identified, with populations also showing cross-resistance to mCry3A maize. Factors likely contributing to resistance were the lack of a high dose of Bt toxin for maize targeting rootworm and minimal fitness costs of resistance. PMID:27436740

  6. Transformation of haploid Datura innoxia protoplasts and analysis of the plasmid integration pattern in regenerated transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rogge, T; Meixner, M; Srivastava, V; Guha-Mukherjee, S; Schieder, O

    1993-05-01

    We developed a highly efficient transformation protocol for the PEG-mediated direct transfer of plasmid DNA into protoplasts of haploid Datura innoxia. Vectors harbouring a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene or a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene under the control of different promoters were used in the transformation experiments. Various amounts of plasmid DNA were applied without any carrier DNA to show the direct influence of the plasmid DNA concentration on the transformation efficiency. Approximately 95% of the selected calli were regenerated to plants; 20% of them remained haploid. Total DNA of different transgenic