WorldWideScience

Sample records for bt cotton varieties

  1. Isolation of Gossypol and Analysis of Phytochemicals in Seed Extract of Bt and Non-Bt Varieties of Cotton

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    R.Chandrashekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to isolate the gossypol (Phenolic compound and screening of phytochemical constituents from seed extract. During this study gossypol was extracted from cotton seeds and cotton seed cake using different organic solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol, pet ether, chloroform and hot water and screened for phytochemical constituents. Analysis revealed the presence of phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. Specific tests were conducted for each group of the phytochemicals. Among the extracts tested polar solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol extracts showed more phytochemicals than others followed by pet ether, hot water, chloroform. The phytochemicals like saponins, flavonoids, tri-terpenoids, and tannins were not found in seed extract, specifically showed phenols with more quantity in polar solvent extract like acetone, ethanol and methanol cardiac glycosides and steroids are observed in both polar and non-polar solvent of seed extracts. Similar kind of compounds are present in Bt and non-Bt but the appearance of test coloration of seed extracts predicted as is slightly darker for Bt variety. This could be due to more amount of the component may be present in Bt cotton seed extract than non-Bt cotton seed extract. The compound Gossypol was detected in extracts by applying Chromatographic technique as well as chemical tests with antimony chloride (SbCl3, and stannic chloride (SnCl3 and leadacetate (Pb(CH3COO2 . Spectrophotometric techniques were also employed for quantitative analysis by measuring absorbance of samples at wavelength of 290nm.

  2. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently three kinds of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton germplasm lines, Shanxi 94-24, Zhongxin 94 and R19, in China. They showed high resistance to the neonate larvae of bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties or hybrids have been bred using the three kinds of germplasm lines as parents. Our researches reveal that there exist different expressions in resistant level at different developmental stages in the three categories of germplasm lines. When neonate larvae are fed with leaves of cotton plant at the seeding stage with less than 10 leaves on the main stem, the mortality of the neonate larvae is 100%, but the resistance level will decline at later season. When Bt gene has been transferred to the cotton genome, it can be steadily transferred to the progeny, the level of resistance to bollworm keeps fundamentally uniform. Such insects as tobacco budworm (Heliothis virencens) in laboratory directive selection are very apt to produce resistance to the Bt insecticidal crystal protein. From the present crop system of cotton region in the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys, and the expression characteristic of transgenic Bt resistant cotton, we suggest that the resistance to toxin protein in bollworm is not apt to be produced if the transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties are released and grown in the regions except in the Xinjiang cotton region. The managing strategies to delay or retard the resistance are discussed.

  3. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  4. Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for Bt Cotton

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    N. Sathiah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM modules were compared with the Farmers` Package of Practices (FPP for MECH 162 Bt and MECH 162 N Bt The incidence of leaf hopper, aphids, thrips and whiteflies in different modules was in the order of FPP-MECH 162 Bt > BIPM MECH 162 Bt > BIPM MECH 162 N Bt > FPP MECH 162 N Bt. Natural enemies population were more in BIPM modules than the FPP. Coccinellids such as Menochilus sexmaculatus, Coccinella transversalis and spiders Oxyopes spp., Argiope spp., Neoscona spp., Araenus spp. and Plexippus spp. were frequently observed in the field trials. Incidence of bollworm population was more in winter field trial than that in the summer field trials. Fruiting bodies damage, open boll, locule and inter locule damage in different modules was in the order of BIPM MECH 162 Bt > FPP MECH 162 Bt > BIPM MECH 162 N Bt > FPP MECH 162 N Bt. Seed cotton yield in BIPM MECH 162 Bt, BIPM MECH 162 N Bt, FPP MECH 162 Bt and FPP MECH 162 N Bt modules at Alandurai field trial were 1920, 1640, 1800 and 1440 kg ha-1. The results indicated the better performance of Bt cotton in both the modules. BIPM approach reduces the insecticide usage. The IPM approach is essential for gaining higher advantage from Bt cotton as it takes care of varying pest situation.

  5. Soil microbial biomass and root growth in Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Broughton, K.; Knox, O. G.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has had a substantial impact on pest management in the cotton industry. While there has been substantial research done on the impact of Bt on the above-ground parts of the cotton plant, less is known about the effect of Bt genes on below ground growth of cotton and soil microbial biomass. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that Bt [Sicot 80 BRF (Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex®)] and non-Bt [Sicot 80 RRF (Roundup Ready Flex®)] transgenic cotton varieties differ in root growth and root turnover, carbon indices and microbial biomass. A field experiment was conducted in Narrabri, north-western NSW. The experimental layout was a randomised block design and used minirhizotron and core break and root washing methods to measure cotton root growth and turnover during the 2008/09 season. Root growth in the surface 0-0.1 m of the soil was measured using the core break and root washing methods, and that in the 0.1 to 1 m depth was measured with a minirhizotron and an I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to calculate root length per unit area, root carbon added to the soil through intra-seasonal root death, carbon in roots remaining at the end of the season and root carbon potentially added to the soil. Microbial biomass was also measured using the ninhydrin reactive N method. Root length densities and length per unit area of non-Bt cotton were greater than Bt cotton. There were no differences in root turnover between Bt and non-Bt cotton at 0-1 m soil depth, indicating that soil organic carbon stocks may not be affected by cotton variety. Cotton variety did not have an effect on soil microbial biomass. The results indicate that while there are differences in root morphology between Bt and non-Bt cotton, these do not change the carbon turnover dynamics in the soil.

  6. Heliothis virescens and Bt cotton in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco budworm (TBW), Heliothis virescens (F.), has been responsible for substantial economic losses, environmental pollution and a great challenge to the United States' economy, environment, researchers and cotton and tobacco producers during most of the past two hundred years. If a historical description of this pest problem should be written, it would necessarily be divided into two main events; the pre- and post-Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing (Bt)-cotton era. Before the advent of Bt-cotton, TBW had evolved resistance to most commercial insecticides, making cotton cultivation unfeasible at some point. Subsequently, a variety of clever control measures were developed in an effort to develop more sustainable integrated pest management programs. Without a doubt, Bt-cotton, transformed to produce insecticidal proteins from the soil borne bacterium, B. thuringiensis, is now one of the most important elements of TBW management in US cotton. This discussion could be quite short stating that Bt-cotton has produced an unprecedented level of control for TBW, but beyond this, it is important to note the additional impacts around the argument that Bt-cotton has likely reduced TBW populations over large areas-due to its high efficacy-to the low densities observed today. Cotton area suitable for TBW development has been reduced to ~40% of its pre Bt-cotton years and certainly may be another primary force behind this decline. However, the way we have detected this decline relies mostly on observations made in cotton fields, as well as males trapped in pheromone traps near cotton; these monitoring tools may not fully reflect TBW population levels at the landscape level. My argument supports what has been postulated before that TBW may be in the process of differentiating into "host races" and the cotton host race, once the most abundant in the environment, may be the one greatly affected by this habitat modification now dominated by Bt-cotton, while the other host races

  7. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  8. A case to study population dynamics of bemisia tabaci and thrips tabaci on bt and non-bt cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to investigate the performance of eight bt and five non-bt cotton genotypes against whitefly and thrips and impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation of these sucking pests, at cotton research station, multan, during 2010 and 2011. The results exhibited that bt genotypes found more susceptible host for the whitefly and thirps than non-bt genotypes, during the course of years of study. Among bt genotypes, maximum and minimum temperature showed significant and positive effect on whitefly population whereas relative humidity exerted negative effect during 2010. During 2011, the effect of all the factors was non significant. On cumulative basis, there was positive correlation between population of whitefly and minimum temperature. But in case of non-bt, it has negative with maximum temperature whereas relative humidity had a positive effect on whitefly population. similar trend was observed for thrips population on bt varieties during both years but on non-bt varieties only minimum temperature exerted strong positive impact on thrips population. Hierarchical regression models for whitefly and thrips revealed that minimum temperature was the most important factor (Bt and non-Bt varieties). Maximum temperature was the major contributing factor for whitefly fluctuation on bt varieties during 2010. (author)

  9. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES

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    Sujata Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138 and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138 were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI. Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

  10. Can other host species of cotton bollworm be non-Bt refuges to prolong the effectiveness of Bt-cotton?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential ecological risks of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) insecticides and Bt-crops have caused increasing concern since their commercial release in the field,among which pests' resistance to Bt-crops is the major ecological risk. Refuge tactic, which can produce sensitive populations, has proved to be a key and sound resistance management strategy in USA and Australia; however, no tactics have been performed in China where Bt-cotton is mostly planted with other host crops of cotton bollworm.Genetic variation and gene flow among different host populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera were analyzed using PCR fingerprinting method. The results show that maize and castor-oil plant, as well as cotton can take effect as refuges to prevent resistance of cotton bollworm to Bt-cotton, while peanut and sesame are not as suitable for planting with Bt-cotton as refuges in the field as low gene flow was detected among populations on peanut, sesame and Bt cotton.

  11. Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for Bt Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sathiah; Balagurunathan, R.; P.S. Shanmugam

    2006-01-01

    Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) modules were compared with the Farmers` Package of Practices (FPP) for MECH 162 Bt and MECH 162 N Bt The incidence of leaf hopper, aphids, thrips and whiteflies in different modules was in the order of FPP-MECH 162 Bt > BIPM MECH 162 Bt > BIPM MECH 162 N Bt > FPP MECH 162 N Bt. Natural enemies population were more in BIPM modules than the FPP. Coccinellids such as Menochilus sexmaculatus, Coccinella transversalis and spiders Oxyopes spp., Argiope...

  12. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

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    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  13. Integration and inheritance stability of foreign Bt toxin gene in the bivalent insectresistant transgenic cotton plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and expressional stability of Bt toxin gene is crucial for the breeding of insect-resistant transgenic cotton varieties and their commercialization. Genomic Southern blot analysis of R3, R4 and R5 generations of bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants was done in order to determine the integration, the copy number and the inheritance stability of Bt toxin gene in the transgenic cotton plants. The results indicated that there was a 4.7 kb positive band in the Southern blot when the genomic DNA of the bivalent transgenic insect-resistant cotton plants and the positive control (the plasmid) were digested with HindⅢ respectively. This result proved that the Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton in full length.There is only one Xho I restriction site in the Bt toxin gene.Southern blot analysis indicated that many copies of Bt toxin gene had been integrated into the genome of the cotton when the genomic DNA of transgenic plants was digested with Xho I. Among them, there were four copies (about 17.7, 8,5.5 and 4.7 kb in size) existing in all the tested plants of R3,R4 and R5 generations. The preliminary conclusion was that there were more than four copies of Bt toxin gene integrated into the genome of the cotton, among them, more than one copy can express and inherit steadily. This result provides a scientific basis for the breeding of the bivalent insect-resistant transgenic cotton plants and its commercialization.``

  14. Influences of elevated CO2 and pest damage on the allocation of plant defense compounds in Bt-transgenic cotton and enzymatic activity of cotton aphid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Fa-Jun Chen; Neng-Wen Xiao; Feng Ge

    2011-01-01

    Plant allocation to defensive compounds by elevated CO2-grown nontransgenic and transgenic Bt cotton in response to infestation by cotton aphid,Aphis gossypii (Glover) in open-top chambers under elevated CO2 were studied.The results showed that significantly lower foliar nitrogen concentration and Bt toxin protein occurred in transgenic Bt cotton with and without cotton aphid infestation under elevated CO2.However,significantly higher carbon/nitrogen ratio,condensed tannin and gossypol were observed in transgenic Bt cotton "GK-12" and non-transgenic Bt cotton ‘Simian-3' under elevated CO2.The CO2 level and cotton variety significantly influenced the foliar nitrogen,condensed tannin and gossypol concentrations in the plant leaves after feeding by A.gossypii.The interaction between CO2 level × infestation time (24 h,48 h and 72 h)showed a significant increase in cotton condensed tannin concentrations,while the interaction between CO2 level × cotton variety significantly decreased the true choline esterase (TChE) concentration in the body ofA.gossypi.This study exemplified the complexities of predicting how transgenic and non-transgenic plants will allocate defensive compounds in response to herbivorous insects under differing climatic conditions.Plant defensive compound allocation patterns and aphid enzyme changes observed in this study appear to be broadly applicable across a range of plant and herbivorous insect interactions as CO2 atmosphere rises.

  15. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

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    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  16. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTASE PRODUCING BACILLUS SUBTILS BtRS2 FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF Bt COTTON FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    K. Usha Sri

    2013-01-01

    Soil samples of Bt Rhizosphere were collected from Bt cotton growing area of Andhra Pradesh, India and was used as a source material for isolation and screening of phytase producing bacteria. 19Bacteria were isolated from Bt Rhizosphere. Phytase enzyme activity of the cultures was screened on modified phytase solubulizing medium (MPSM). The result inferred that six isolates BtRS1 to BtRS6 were strongly positive in enzyme activity than six of other microorganisms while seven isolates were foun...

  17. Interaction Between Bt-Transgenic Cotton and the Whitefly’s Parasitoid, Encarsia Formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae

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    Azimi Solmaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt cotton developed against lepidopteran pests may not be compatible with parasitoid of secondary pests such as Bemisia tabaci which attack many plants such as cotton. In this study, the effects of Bt cotton on the demographic parameters of Encarsia formosa, parasitoid of B. tabaci were assessed. The data were analysed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. The results indicated that pre-adult developmental time, the total preoviposition period (TPOP and the adult preoviposition period (APOP in the Bt cotton were significantly longer than in the non-Bt cotton. Also, fecundity and body size in both lines were significantly different. The fecundity was 23.64±0.73 and 43.75±0.89 eggs/females in the Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. All the population parameters were affected by the Bt cotton. The intrinsic rate of increase (r was 0.15 day-1 in the non-Bt cotton but it was 0.10 day-1 in the Bt cotton. The finite rate of increase (λ was 1.11 day-1 in the non-Bt cotton whilst it was 1.08 in the Bt cotton. The net reproductive rate (R0 in the non-Bt cotton was 36.75 but in the Bt cotton these parameters showed 19.62 offspring/individual. Also, the mean generation time (T in the non-Bt and Bt cotton was 22.69 and 27.79 days, respectively. The results illustrated, that although transgenic crops are effective tools for management of the target pests, they can adversely affect, either directly or indirectly, the natural enemies dependent on these plants.

  18. Suppressing Resistance to Bt Cotton with Sterile Insect Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a largescale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest. (author)

  19. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ezezika Obidimma C; Mabeya Justin; Daar Abdallah S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton public-private partnership (PPP) project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in t...

  20. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIDYASAGAR; Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The cry1Ac gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene

  1. Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship

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    Yanfang Pei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1 and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1 plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.

  2. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  3. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Bt Cotton, is genetically engineered with Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), a bio-toxin which comes from soil bacterium. Bt which was isolated from soil in 1911, has been available to farmers as an organic pesticide since 1930..The engineered Bt gene produces a protein that cuts into the guts of specific insects, rendering the cotton resistant to these insects. Biotechnology for control of bollworms is made available in the seed itself. Farmers have to just sow the Bt cotton seeds as they do with...

  4. The effects of high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration of Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Yuan; YAO Meng-hao; LI Yuan; WEN Yu-jin; ZHANG Xiang; CHEN De-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higher bol worm survival rates were detected after high temperature presented during square period in Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high temperature level on the Bt efifcacy of two different types of Bt cotton cultivars at squaring stage. During the 2011 to 2013 cotton growth seasons, high temperature treatments ranged from 34 to 44°C in climate chambers, and ifeld experiments under high temperature weather with various temperature levels were conducted to investigate the effects of the high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration and nitrogen metabolism. The climate chamber experiments showed that the square insecticidal protein contents reduced after 24 h elevated temperature treatments for both cultivars, whereas signiifcant declines of the square insecticidal protein contents were detected at temperature >38°C, and only slightly numerical reductions were observed when temperature below 38°C. Similar high temperature responses were also observed at the two ifeld experimental sites in 2013. Correspondingly, high temperature below 38°C seems have little effect on the square amino acid concentrations, soluble protein contents, glutam-ic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities as wel as protease and peptidase activities; however, when the temperature was above 38°C, reduced soluble protein contents, enhanced amino acid con-centrations, decreased GPT and GOT activities, bolstered protease and peptidase activities in square were detected. In general, the higher the temperature is (>38°C), the larger the changes for the above compound contents and key enzymes activities of the square protein cycle. The ifndings indicated that the unstable insect resistance of the square was related to high temperature level during square stage.

  5. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

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    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  6. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  7. Impacto do algodoeiro Bt na dinâmica populacional do pulgão-do-algodoeiro em casa de vegetação Impact of Bt cotton on the population dynamics of the cotton aphid in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Ryoiti Sujii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental para avaliar o impacto do algodoeiro Bt na bionomia e na escolha de plantas para colonização pelo pulgão-do-algodoeiro (Aphis gossypii. A bionomia do pulgão foi avaliada em casa de vegetação com insetos criados em gaiolas individuais com plantas de algodão Bt, da variedade DP 404 BG (Bollgard, ou sua isolinha não transformada DP 4049. Gaiolas contendo vasos com plantas de algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt foram usadas como arena de escolha, para a avaliação de preferência de adultos alados. O período pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo, a longevidade, a curva de sobrevivência, a produção de prole total e diária por fêmea e a curva acumulada de produção de prole da população não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não foi observada diferença na escolha de plantas para colonização por indivíduos alados, o que indica taxas equivalentes de colonização nas populações iniciais. O algodoeiro Bt não afeta a dinâmica populacional de A. gossypii e não aumenta seu potencial de risco como praga.The objective of this work was to develop an experimental protocol to assess the impact of Bt cotton on bionomics and on plant choice for Aphis gossypii colonization. The bionomics of the cotton aphid was assessed in greenhouse with insects reared in individual cages containing Bt cotton plants of the variety DP 404 BG (Bollgard or its nontransformed isoline DP 4049. Cages with Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton were used as choosing arena for evaluation of winged adults preference. There was no significant difference for pre-reproduction period (immature phase, reproduction period, longevity, survivorship curve total and daily production of offspring by female, and curve of accumulated production of offspring by the population. There was no preference of colonization for any plant by winged adults, which indicates equivalent rates of colonization of the initial populations. Bt

  8. A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2010-08-01

    Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities. PMID:20098990

  9. FROM Qutn TO Bt COTTON: DEVELOPMENT, ADOPTION AND PROSPECTS. A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies. PMID:26841496

  10. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  11. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  12. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIDYASAGAR Parchuri

    2008-01-01

    @@ Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The crylAc gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene technology to Indian farming systems should be superimposed on hybrid technology,fiber quality,and superior agronomic adaptation.Protection offered by this alien Bt-gene against major serious pest Helicoverpa armigera,by preventing annual losses ranging from 15~35 percent,automaticaly contributed to higher yield.

  13. Incipient resistance of Helicoverpa punctigera to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Downes

    Full Text Available Combinations of dissimilar insecticidal proteins ("pyramids" within transgenic plants are predicted to delay the evolution of pest resistance for significantly longer than crops expressing a single transgene. Field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt transgenic crops has been reported for first generation, single-toxin varieties and the Cry1 class of proteins. Our five year data set shows a significant exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in Australian field populations of Helicoverpa punctigera since the adoption of a second generation, two-toxin Bt cotton expressing this insecticidal protein. Furthermore, the frequency of cry2Ab resistance alleles in populations from cropping areas is 8-fold higher than that found for populations from non-cropping regions. This report of field evolved resistance to a protein in a dual-toxin Bt-crop has precisely fulfilled the intended function of monitoring for resistance; namely, to provide an early warning of increases in frequencies that may lead to potential failures of the transgenic technology. Furthermore, it demonstrates that pyramids are not 'bullet proof' and that rapid evolution to Bt toxins in the Cry2 class is possible.

  14. Is Monsanto Leaving Money on the Table? Monopoly Pricing and Bt Cotton Value with Heterogeneous Adopters

    OpenAIRE

    Oehmke, James F.; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the allocation of technology rents between a price-setting, innovating monopolist and heterogeneous technology adopters. A model of monopoly pricing in the presence of heterogeneous adopters is used to examine conditions under which greater producer (farmer) heterogeneity leads to greater producer benefit from innovation in non-competitive markets. An application to Bt cotton determines the profit-maximizing price of Bt cotton seed and reveals that Monsanto and Delta and Pine Land ...

  15. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  16. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  17. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly. PMID:27509747

  18. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  19. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  20. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  1. Development of Isogenic Restorer Line in Extra Long Staple Cotton Variety Suvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manickam, K. N. Gururajan and N. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important commercial crop of India and heterosis in cotton is well documented with 7 to 50per cent heterosis in interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense hybrids, 10 to 138 per cent in intra-hirsutum hybrids andupto 220 per cent in desi (G. herbaceum x G. arboreum hybrids. Currently hybrid cotton, especially Bt cotton hybrids,occupies more than 80 per cent of cultivated area under cotton in India. Male sterility system offers tremendousadvantage to produce quality hybrid seeds at affordable price so that even marginal farmers can take up hybridcultivation. In cotton both GMS and CGMS systems are available. In cotton, two types of male sterility viz., Genic(GMS and Cytoplasmic-Genic (CGMS systems have been identified. Both the systems have been utilized for thecommercial hybrid seed production in India and other countries. In CGMS system, the male parent of the hybrid needsto be converted into Restorer line. In cotton, Suvin is the only extra long staple G. barbadense variety available which iscapable of spinning to 120s count yarn. This variety has been successfully converted into Restorer line through backcross breeding utilizing Pima Restorer as the donor parent. Suvin Restorer is found to stably restore fertility in differentCMS lines of G. hirsutum. The interspecific hybrids developed using Suvin Restorer was found to combine both highyield and superior fibre quality capable of spinning upto 80s count and are comparable with conventional check hybrids.

  2. Natural refuge crops, buildup of resistance, and zero-refuge strategy for Bt cotton in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROZELLE; Scott; WILEN; James

    2010-01-01

    In the context of genetically modified crops expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, a ‘refuge’ refers to a crop of the same or a related species that is planted nearby to enable growth and reproduction of the target pest without the selection pres- sure imposed by the Bt toxin. The goal of this study is to discuss the role of natural refuge crops in slowing down the buildup of resistance of cotton bollworm (CBW), and to evaluate China’s no-refuge policy for Bt cotton. We describe in detail the dif- ferent factors that China should consider in relation to the refuge policy. Drawing on a review of scientific data, economic analyses of other cases, and a simulation exercise using a bio-economic model, we show that in the case of Bt cotton in China, the no-refuge policy is defensible.

  3. Agrobacterium-meditated Genetic Transformation of an Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 310) Using a Novel Bt Gene Cry 2Ac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THIRUVENGADAM V; RASHMI J A; UDYASURIAN V; BALASUBRAMANIAN P; RAVEENDRAN T S

    2008-01-01

    @@ The development of transgenic cotton varieties resistant to bollworms has been a major success of applying plant genetic engineering technology to agriculture,evidenced by phenomenal increase in the cultivable area under (B.thuringiensis) Bt cotton in recent years worldwide.Of late,there are reports of insects developing resistance against the most commonly used Bt toxin CrylAc.Hence,there is an urgent need to broaden the source of resistance by employing new genes in order to reduce the chances of insects developing Bt resistance.Keeping this objective in view,cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn cv Coker 310) plants expressing a novel insecticidal crystal protein Cry2Ac were developed in the present study.

  4. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in confe

  5. Bt Cotton in China: Are Secondary Insect Infestations Offsetting the Benefits in Farmer Fields?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-jun; LIN Hai; HUANG Ji-kun; HU Rui-fa; Scott Rozelle; Carl Pray

    2009-01-01

    The area sown to Bt cotton has expanded rapidly in China since 1997. It has effectively controlled the bollworm. However, in recent years, concern has surfaced about the emergence of secondary insect pests, particular mirids, in Bt cotton fields. This study measures the patterns of insecticide use based on farm-level from 1999 to 2006, the analysis demonstrates a rise in insecticide use to control mirids between 2001 and 2004, secondary insect infestations is largely related to the rise of mirids, but this rising did not continue in more than half of sample villages studied in 2004-2006. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of secondary insects is far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. Further econometric analyses show that rise and fall of mirids is largely related to local temperature and rainfall.

  6. A decade of Bt cotton in Chinese fields: Assessing the direct effects and indirect externalities of Bt cotton adoption in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott; ROZELLE; Carl; PRAY

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine whether or not the gains from reduced spraying for bollworms are being sustained more than one decade after the initial adoption in 2007. Based on farm-level data collected by the authors in 1999–2007 in 16 villages from 4 provinces, this study shows that insecticides applied for controlling bollworms have declined. This analysis supports Chinese policy makers’ decision to not require refuges of non-Bt cotton fields. It also suggests that past studies may have underestimated the benefits from adopting Bt technology.

  7. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  8. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Felix L Wäckers; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolit...

  9. Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

    2012-07-17

    Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

  10. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  11. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Qiang Tan; Tian-Cheng Ai; Xiao-Zhen Lu; Qing-Nian Cai; Cong Liu

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K) fertilizers on the distribu...

  12. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions. PMID:26930855

  13. Adoption of Bt Cotton: Threats and Challenges Adopción de Algodón Bt: Desafíos y Amenazas

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Faisal Bilal; Muhammad Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid; Amir Shakeel; Mudassar Maqbool

    2012-01-01

    Adopting new technology always involves advantages and risks; Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a new technology well known in developed countries for its many advantages, such as reduced pesticide application, better insect pest control, and higher lint yield. However, its success in developing countries is still a question mark. Global adoption of Bt cotton has risen dramatically from 0.76 million ha when introduced in 1996 to 7.85 million ha in the 2005 cotton-growing season where 54% o...

  14. The recovery of Bt toxin content after temperature stress termination in transgenic cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.

    2013-06-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of Bt cotton under different environments has generated controversy in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate possible reasons of the conflicting results caused by temperature stress. Two different types of Bt transgenic cotton cultivars (a Bt cultivar, Sikang1, and an hybrid Bt cultivar, Sikang3) were selected. The plants of the two Bt cultivars were exposed to high temperature (37 degree centigrade), low temperature (18 degree centigrade), and the control (27 degree centigrade) for short (24 h) and long (48 h) periods of stress at peak boll stage, and then moved to the glasshouse where the control plants were maintained. The results showed that the leaf insecticidal toxin content fully recovered within 24 h to the level of control after the end of short duration high-temperature treatment, and recovered mostly within 48 h of the termination of 24 h low-temperature stress. Under long duration high temperature treatment the Bt toxin content required longer recovery periods (48 and 72 h for Sikang3 and Sikang1, respectively) to reach the control level. The Bt protein content only recovered partially at 96 h after the end of the long-duration low-temperature stress, and the concentrations of the Cry1Ac protein were 74% and 77% of the corresponding control for Sikang1 and Sikang3, respectively. The different recovery and increase slowly of the leaf nitrogen metabolic rates after ceasing the heat and cold stress may be possible reason for the above difference. In summary, the duration and type of temperature (cold or heat) stress may cause different Bt insecticidal protein recovery rate due to different recovery rate of enzymes. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Productivity and Profitability Impact of Genetically Modified Crops – An Economic Analysis of Bt Cotton Cultivation in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    R. Loganathan; Balasubramanian, R; Mani, K.; Gurunathan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton production in India is at cross roads for the past few years. Till recently it was the hybrid that was at the focus but the era of genetically modified cotton has arrived. There has been lot of hue and cry regarding the commercialization of Bt cotton in India since Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) has approved the use of Bt cotton seeds. This study has analysed the economic impact of biotechnologically engineered cotton cultivation in Tamil Nadu and the factors affecting t...

  16. Variation induced by DNA rearrangement in a transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the development of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton cultivars, one male and female sterile mutant has been found in a homozygous T4 strain in our laboratory. The mutant plant, as well as its leaves, buds and flowers, is only 1/2-1/3 as large as that of the wild transgenic Bt + CpTI bivalant cotton plants. Cytological observation found that the chromosome number of the mutant is 2n = 52; however, there are 4 - 8 univalents observed in meiosis Ⅰ of pollen mother cells. Laboratory bioassay indicated that the mutant was highly resistant to bollworm as the wild plants. PCR amplification revealed that Bt and CpTI genes in the mutant were still intactly inserted. However, small deletion of flanked area had been observed in the mutant by Southern blotting analysis. So it is proposed that the mutant phenotype might result from either the DNA deletion or T-DNA trans-ferring in plant genome. No such report has been presented that the rearrangement of chromosome structure in a homo-zygous transgenic line occurred. Further analysis is ongoing.

  17. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  18. BT799玉米对亚洲玉米螟抗性研究%Resistance of transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月琴; 何康来; 江帆; 王依冬; 张天涛; 王振营; 白树雄

    2014-01-01

    Objectives] To review the resistance of transgenic Bt corn to target pests which is one of the primarily steps for research and development of insect-resistant, transgenic corn. This review mainly evaluates the resistance of transgenic Cry1Ac gene corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and measured the quantity of Cry1Ac protein expressed in corn plant tissues. [Methods] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, laboratory bioassay and field studies with artificial infestation were employed in this study. [Results] The expression levels of Cry1Ac protein were 768.0 ng/g (protein/fresh leaves), 1452.8-2978.5 ng/g (protein/dry mass of silk, husk and young kernels). Leaf-feeding rates in field trials indicated that BT799 and CC-2XBT799 were highly resistant to ACB. The survival of ACB larvae feeding on Zhengdan 958K, a single cross hybrid containing BT799, was significantly lower (0-37.5%) than that of larvae that fed on non-Bt Zhengdan 958 (89.9%-100.0%). In addition, larval survival of Cry1Ac-, Cry1Ie-, and Cry1F-selected ACB strains (ACB-AcR, ACB-IeR and ACB-FR) were significantly different when fed on Zhengdan 958K. ACB-IeR had the lowest survival followed by ACB-FR, both of them had significantly lower survival than those that fed on the control Zhengdan 958. However, the survival of ACB-AcR was not significantly different from larvae feeding on the control Zhengdan 958. [Conclusion] These results suggests that the transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 is highly toxic to the ACB and can provide effective control for ACB in the field.%【目的】抗螟性鉴定是转基因抗虫玉米研发的重要一环。本文主要就转基因玉米BT799对亚洲玉米螟的抗性展开评价,同时测定了BT799植株组织中Cry1Ac蛋白的表达量。【方法】采用了酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)、室内生测和田间人工接虫鉴定3种方法。【结果】转基因抗虫玉米BT799组织中Cry1Ac蛋白含量分别为768

  19. Induced mutation of Egypt cotton variety and selection of long fiber cotton mutant by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain long fiber cotton variety which would be adaptable to the ecological conditions of Yellow River Region, the mutation induction of Egypt cotton variety, Ashmouni, was carried out by γ-ray of 279 Gy in 1985. In M1 generation, serious radiation damage was shown in seed-lings, the death percentage of seedling was 63.3%. Two plants with early maturity were selected and their seeds were planted individually in 1986. The complex segregation appeared in M2 generation. The selection and domestication were carried out for several years and four stable mutant lines which included early maturity, dwarf plant, compact pattern, stranger bollbearing ability as well as upland cotton characters were obtained in 1991. The fiber length of these lines reached 33 ∼ 35 mm, and the mutants were adaptable to ecological condition in Shandong Province. The mutant line, 90197-1, whose growing period and plant height shorter than those of upland cotton cultivar, Zhong-mian No.12, has compact plant pattern, high bollbearing ability and ginning out turn of about 40%. Further yield test is required for these lines. The hereditary variability of the progeny in mutated Egypt cotton variety, preliminary cytological observation and the analysis of isoenzyme in mutants are also discussed

  20. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton public-private partnership (PPP project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in the Bt cotton partnership in East Africa. Methods Data were collected by reviewing relevant project documents and peer-reviewed articles on Bt cotton in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda; conducting face-to-face interviews with key informants of the project; and conducting direct observations of the project. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We identified three factors that posed challenges to building trust in the Bt cotton project in East Africa: different regulatory regimes among the three countries; structural and management differences among the three partner institutions; and poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector. The structural and management differences were said to be addressed through joint planning, harmonization of research protocols, and management practices, while poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector were said to be addressed through open communication, sharing of resources, direct stakeholder engagement and awareness creation. The regulatory differences remained outside the scope of the project. Conclusions To improve the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs, there is first a need for a regulatory regime that is acceptable to both the public and private sector partners. Second, early and continuous joint planning; sharing of

  1. Adoption of Bt Cotton: Threats and Challenges Adopción de Algodón Bt: Desafíos y Amenazas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Bilal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adopting new technology always involves advantages and risks; Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a new technology well known in developed countries for its many advantages, such as reduced pesticide application, better insect pest control, and higher lint yield. However, its success in developing countries is still a question mark. Global adoption of Bt cotton has risen dramatically from 0.76 million ha when introduced in 1996 to 7.85 million ha in the 2005 cotton-growing season where 54% of the cotton crops in the USA, 76% in China, and 80% in Australia were grown with single or multiple Bt genes. Bollworms are serious cotton pests causing 30-40% yield reduction in Pakistan and 20-66% potential crop losses in India. The major advances shown in this review include: (1 Evolution of Bt cotton may prove to be a green revolution to enhance cotton yield; (2 adoption of Bt cotton by farmers is increasing due to its beneficial environmental effects by reducing pesticide application: however, a high seed price has compelled farmers to use illegal non-approved Bt causing huge damage to crops because of low tolerance to insect pests; and (3 some factors responsible for changes in the efficiency of the Bt gene and Bt cotton yield include internal phenology (genetics, atmospheric changes (CO2 concentration, nutrition, insect pests, boll distribution pattern, disease and nematodes, removal of fruiting branch and/or floral bud, introduction of Bt gene, and terpenoids and tannin production in the plant body.La adopción de nueva tecnología siempre involucra ventajas y riesgos; algodón Bt (Gossypium hirsutum L. es una nueva tecnología bien conocida en países desarrollados por muchas ventajas como reducida aplicación de pesticidas, mejor control de insectos plaga, y mayor producción de fibra, pero su éxito en países en desarrollo aún conlleva dudas. La adopción global de algodón Bt ha aumentado dramáticamente de 0,76 millones de hectáreas en su

  2. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  3. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  4. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  5. Contribution of different global varieties of cotton towards water hardness in textile wet processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specimens of nineteen different global varieties of cotton were studied to determine their contribution to water hardness through calcium and magnesium impurities, resulting in various problems during textile pretreatment, colouration and finishing. Pakistani cotton was found to be the second most contaminated cotton in terms of calcium and magnesium impurities, whereas Elisa variety from Uzbekistan was the cleanest. (author)

  6. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, J.; Catchot, A.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Caprio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae. PMID:26809264

  7. Detection and characterization of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton: multiple polymerase chain reaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Kachru, Devendra N

    2007-01-01

    To comply with international labeling regulations for genetically modified (GM) crops and food, and to enable proper identification of GM organisms (GMOs), effective methodologies and reliable approaches are needed. The spurious and unapproved GM planting has contributed to crop failures and commercial losses. To ensure effective and genuine GM cultivation, a methodology is needed to detect and identify the trait of interest and concurrently evaluate the structural and functional stability of the transgene insert. A multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was developed for detection, identification, and gene stability confirmation of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton. As many as 9 samples of Bt cotton hybrid seeds comprising 3 approved Bt hybrids, MECH-12Bt, MECH-162Bt, MECH-184Bt, and a batch of 6 nonapproved Bt hybrids were tested. Initially, single standard PCR assays were run to amplify predominant GM DNA sequences (CaMV 35S promoter, nos terminator, and npt-II marker gene); a housekeeping gene, Gossypium hirsutum fiber-specific acyl carrier protein gene (acp1); a trait-specific transgene (cry1Ac); and a sequence of 7S 3' transcription terminator which specifically borders with 3' region of cry1Ac transgene cassette. The concurrent amplification of all sequences of the entire cassette was performed by 3 assays, duplex, triplex, and quadruplex multiplex PCR assays, under common assay conditions. The identity of amplicons was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion profile. The 2 distinct transgene cassettes, cry1Ac and npt-II, of the Bt cotton were amplified using the respective forward primer of promoter and reverse primer of terminator. The resultant amplicons were excised, eluted, and purified. The purified amplicons served as template for nested PCR assays. The nested PCR runs confirmed the transgene construct orientation and identity. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (cry1Ac) was 0.1%. This approach

  8. Potential factors impacting season-long expression of Cry1Ac in 13 commercial varieties of Bollgard® cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Adamczyk, Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen commercial varieties of transgenic Cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt cotton were examined across two sites in 2000 for potential factors that impact endotoxin expression. In all cases, two varieties (NuCOTN 33B and DP 458B/RR, Delta and Pineland Co., Scott, MS expressed more Cry1Ac than the other 11 varieties in various plant structures. These two varieties share the same parental background (DP 5415. Furthermore, when the next generation of plants were tested in the greenhouse, the same varietal patterns were exhibited. These data strongly suggest that factors such as parental background had a stronger impact on the expression of Cry1Ac than the environment.

  9. Study on Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Bt Toxic Protein Expression in Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton and Its Degradation in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen ZHANG; Lianrong WANG; Liancheng ZHANG; Jun ZHANG; Xinbo JI; Jinmao WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ob.jcctive] This study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of Bt toxic protein expression in insect-resistant transgenic cotton and its degradation in soil. [Meth~d] BtcrylAc toxic protein expression in roots, stems and leaves of trans- genic cotton Guoshen GK45 at different developmental stages and the annual aver- age content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in the topsoil, rhizosphere soil and following cotton-growing area were explored and analyzed by using enzyme linked immuno sorbed assay (ELISA). [Result] The content of exogenous BtCrylAc toxin protein de- creased during the growth process of insect-resistant transgenic cotton; to be specif- ic, the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in cotton stems and leaves decreased more slowly and always maintained a high level, while that in roots decreased rapidly and reached a minimum level to the following plant growth and development stage. BtCrylAc toxin protein was detected in topsoil of both non-transgenic and transgenic cotton-growing areas, and the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein increased in topsoil of following cotton-growing area, which was very low in rhizosphere soil. [Conclusion] Determination of BtcrylAc toxic protein provides scientific basis for the risk assess- ment of the cultivation of genetically modified crops and the safety evaluation of soil ecosystem.

  10. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY CLASSIC/SUPPLEMENTARY MEASUREMENT RELATIONSHIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  11. Commercial cotton variety spinning study classic/supplementary measurement relationahips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton in this study demonstrated fiber quality traits that allow them to operate at high speeds on the latest generation of spinning eq...

  12. Influence of one or two Bt genes transgenic cotton free living nitrogen fixers and p-solubilising microorganisms in vertisols and alfisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, T.; Babu, R.; Biradar, D. P.; Patil, V. C.; Shirnalli, G.

    2012-04-01

    India, the largest cotton grower in the world benefited from the cultivation of genetically modified Bt transgenic cotton. Bt cotton with the single gene (cry 1Ac) contributed to increased productivity over the last eight years. But in the recent years, there has been an increasing trend to adopt two genes (cry 1Ac and cry 2Ab) transgenic cotton in India. The two gene Bt cotton hybrids were planted over a large area (57%) during 2009 than the single gene Bt cotton hybrids. In this context, the field experiments were conducted in farmers field in both Vertisols and Alfisols during monsoon season of 2009 to study the effect of a single gene Bt hybrid (RCH-2Bt, JK-99Bt, Mallika Bt, MRC-6918 Bt, Brahma Bt, RCH-708 Bt, Bunny Bt) as well as two gene Bt hybrids (RCH-2 BGII Bt, Bunny BGII Bt) compared with the non genetically modified (non-Bt) hybrid (DHH-11) on the population of free living nitrogen fixing microorganisms (Azospirillum and methylotrophs) and P-solubilizers in two different soil types under rainfed situation. Observations on microbial population were recorded at flowering and at harvest in both the soil types. Results indicated a higher population of Azospirillum, methylotrophs and P-solubilisers in the rhizosphere grown with single or two gene Bt hybrid and non-Bt hybrid at flowering stage in both the soil types. In Vertisol, significantly higher population of methylotrophs in MRC-6918 Bt (30 x 102/g of soil), P-solubilizers in RCH-2 Bt (31x103/g of soil) and Azospirillum in RCH-708 Bt (0.79 x 106 /g of soil) was recorded as compared to non-Bt hybrid DHH-11 (2 x 102/g of soil, 12 x 103/g of soil, 0.54 x 106/g of soil), respectively. Whereas, in Alfisol, significantly higher population of methylotrophs in RCH-2 Bt (13x 102/g of soil), P-solubilisers in JK-99 Bt (38 x 103/g of soil) and Azospirillum in RCH-2Bt (0.57 x 106/g of soil) was recorded over non Bt hybrid DHH-11 (2x 102/g of soil, 13x 103/g of soil and 0.17 x106/g of soil) respectively. Our results

  13. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology. PMID:26728504

  14. Non-recessive Bt toxin resistance conferred by an intracellular cadherin mutation in field-selected populations of cotton bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins.

  15. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) gravid females discriminate between Bt or multivitamin corn varieties? Role of olfactory and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. PMID:25843586

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on the interspecific competition between two sympatric species of Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci fed on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yi Li; Tong-Jin Liu; Neng-Wen Xiao; Jun-Sheng Li; Fa-Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient vs.ambient) and Bt CrylAc transgene (Bt cotton cv.33B vs.its nontransgenic parental line cv.DP5415) on the interspecific competition between two ecologically similar species of cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and whitefly biotype-Q Bemisia tabaci were studied in open-top chambers.The results indicated that elevated CO2 and Bt cotton both affected the population abundances of A.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci when introduced solely (i.e.,without interspecific competition) or two species coexisted (i.e.,with interspecific competition).Compared with ambient CO2,elevated CO2 increased the population abundances ofA.gossypii and biotype-Q B.tabaci as fed on Bt and nontransgenic cotton on 45 (i.e.,seedling stage) and 60 (i.e.,flowering stage) days after planting (DAP),but only significantly enhanced aphid abundance without interspecific competition on the 45-DAP nontransgenic cotton and 60-DAP Bt cotton,and significantly increased whitefly abundance with interspecific competition on the 45-DAP Bt cotton and 60-DAP nontransgenic cotton.In addition,compared with nontransgenic cotton at elevated CO2,Bt cotton significantly reduced biotype-Q B.tabaci abundances without and with interspecific competition during seedling and flowering stage,while only significantly decreasing A.gossypii abundances without interspecific competition during the seedling stage.When the two insect species coexisted,the proportions ofbiotype-Q B.tabaci were significantly higher than those ofA.gossypii on Bt and nontransgenic cotton at the same CO2 levels,and elevated CO2 only significantly increased the percentages of biotype-Q B.tabaci and significantly reduced the proportions ofA.gossypii on seedling and flowering nontransgenic cotton.Therefore,the effects of elevated CO2 were favorable for biotype-Q B.tabaci to out-compete A.gossypii under the predicted global climate change.

  17. Effects of External Chemical Regulation on Bt Transgenic Cotton Plants under Combined Stress of High Temperature and Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gui-sheng; ZHANG Wang-ding; TONG Chen; LIN Yan; AN Lin-lin; LIU Gui-juan

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to find a possible way to combat or alleviate the negative effects caused by high temperature and water deficit at the growth stage of peak boll-setting.[Method] With Bt transgenic cotton GK22 as the test cultivar,a potted experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of the regulation of external substances(the water solutions of pix,urea and their mixture) on the physiological parameters,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield component of cotton plants in artificial climate chambers treated with high temperature and water deficit.[Result] The application of external pix,urea or their mixture was effective in stabilizing the physiological parameters of cotton plants,insecticidal protein content,yield and yield components.Compared with the exclusive application of pix and urea,the mixture of pix and urea played the most effective role in stabilizing the content of chlorophyll,soluble sugar and insecticidal protein,alleviating the increase of the content of free amino acids and proline,and increasing boll number per plant,boll weight and seed cotton yield.[Conclusion] The water solutions of pix,urea or their mixtures can be used to combat or alleviate the stress of high temperature and water deficit if they are sprayed onto cotton plants prior to stress occurrence.

  18. Screen of Different Cotton Varieties under Dry Land Conditions in Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALWEENDO T E; SHIPEPE B T

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton has been identified as a crop with promising potential in Namibia.As such,cotton variety evaluation trials have been conducted for yield,fiber qualities,resistance to diseases and pests,as well as adaptability to the climatic conditions.

  19. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of Bt cotton on Coleomegilla maculata demonstrates no detrimental effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Li

    Full Text Available The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer, is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non

  20. Impact of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on a non-target pest Tetranychus spp. in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-MU MA; XIAO-XIA LIU; QING-WEN ZHANG; JI-JUN LI; AI-MIN REN

    2006-01-01

    Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of two transgenic cotton varieties (SGK321 carrying Cry1A + CpTI and DP99B carrying Cry1Ac) and the conventional variety (shiyuan321-parental line of SGK321) on spider mites, Tetranychus spp. from 2002 to 2004. In 2002, this experiment included three treatments: Bt cotton field (SGK321)treated with acaricides against spider mites, untreated non-Bt cotton field (Shiyuan321), and untreated Bt cotton field (SGK321). In 2003-2004, there are four types of treatments after a new transgenic Bt cotton variety, DP99B (non-chemical control), was added into the experiments. The results showed that there were no significant difference in densities of spider mites among Bt without acaricides and non-Bt without acaricides cotton fields, nor was there a significant difference in damage of spider mites to cotton among these treatments (P > 0.1). However, there are significant differences (P < 0.05) in densities of spider mites and damage caused by spider mites between cotton fields with and without acaricides.Acaricide significantly reduced the densities of spider mites in Bt cotton (P < 0.05). These results suggest that Bt cotton has no effect on spider mites populations. However, spider mites have the potential for severe damage in Bt cotton fields. Acaricides are essential tools in controlling cotton spider mites in northern China.

  1. DEGRADATION OF Bt PROTEIN IN GROUND LEAVES AND BUDS FROM TRANSGENIC Bt COTTON%转Bt基因棉粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美俊; 杨武德

    2011-01-01

    以转Bt基因棉Bt冀668为材料,室内采用ELISA法,测定粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白在土壤、水中不同时间的残留量以及不同环境处理下的残留量,以研究转Bt基因棉粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白在不同基质中的降解动态以及与环境影响因子的关系.结果显示,粉碎叶、蕾样Bt蛋白分别在熟土、生土和水中前40d、48d取样天数间的残留量差异显著,中后期相邻两取样间无显著差异.取样结束时,熟土、生土和水中粉碎叶Bt蛋白残留量分别为初始量的7.4%、2.24%和15.48%,蕾样为初始量的6.22%、4.72%和15.71%,表明Bt蛋白在熟土、生土和水中前期快速降解,中后期进入缓慢稳定降解阶段,水中降解速率最慢,熟土中前期降解快于生土,后期降解反而慢于生土,使得其取样结束时残留量高于生土.75%含水量土壤中,粉碎叶Bt蛋白的降解显著快于25%和50%处理;35℃和25℃下降解显著快于15℃,5℃降解最慢;在有茵土中Bt蛋白的降解显著快于无菌土.上述结果显示一定范围内,高温、高湿可加快Bt蛋白的降解,且土壤微生物是促进Bt蛋白降解的重要因子之一.%The degradation dynamics of Bt protein in ground leaves and buds from transgenic Bt cotton in different substrates and their relation with environmental factors were investigated. Ground powers of BtJi 668 leaves and buds were mixed with soil or water, and residue Bt protein contents during sampling days (0 ~ 88days) and under different environment were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA) in laboratory. Residue Bt protein contents in ground leaves and buds had significant difference among sampling days at early stages, however, no difference between adjoining sampling days at middle and later stages in three substrates ripened soil, unripened soil and water. At the end of treated time, residue Bt protein contents in ground leaves decreased to 7.4% ,2. 24% and 15.48%, and in buds to

  2. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use. PMID:24224259

  3. Effects of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Insecticide Use and Predatory Insect Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable effort has been expended to determine if crops genetically engineered to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins harm non-target arthropods. However, if Bt crops kill target pests and thereby reduce insecticide use, this could benefit some non-target arthropods. We analyzed data fr...

  4. Impact of Water Content and Temperature on the Degradation of Cry1Ac Protein in Leaves and Buds of Bt Cotton in the Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mei-Jun; Feng, Mei-chen; Xiao, Lu-jie; Song, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Wu-de; Ding, Guang-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Determining the influence of soil environmental factors on degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues is vital for assessing the ecological risks of this commercialized transgenic crop. In this study, the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and in buds of Bt cotton in soil was evaluated under different soil water content and temperature settings in the laboratory. An exponential model and a shift-log model were used to fit the degradation dynamics of Cry1Ac protein and estimate...

  5. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties. PMID:27017312

  6. Evaluation of Impact of Pollen Grains from Bt, Bt/CpTI Transgenic Cotton and Bt Corn Plants on the Growth and Development of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-dong; YE Gong-yin; WU Kong-ming; WANG Xiao-qi; GUO Yu-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The δ-endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes aretwo kinds of genes popularly used for developing transgenic plants resistant to insect pests. To clarify whetherthere is any risk concerning the effects of pollens from these transgenic crops on non-target insects with eco-nomic importance, such as the effects on the growth and development as well as cocoon quality of the silk-worm, Bombyx mori Linnaeus, a series of feeding experiments were conducted, using pollens from transgeniccotton or corn containing crylAc, cry1A+-CpTI or crylAb genes, compared with pollens from non-transgenicnormal cotton and corn as well as the non-pollen treatment. In contrast to the latter ones, pollens from trans-genic plants showed no significant adverse effects on larval mortality, cocoon weight, pupa weight, cocoonshell weight, pupation rate, emergence rate and fecundity of the silkworm after neonates were fed with thepollens for 72 h. In addition, no dosage effects of pollens were found. Though the duration of 1st instar larvaewas prolonged in the case of feeding with transgenic pollens as compared with those of the non-pollen treat-ment, but they were not significantly different from those fed with pollens from non-transgenic cotton or corn.Meanwhile, the body weight of the 3rd instar molters fed with transgenic pollens was obviously different fromthose for non-pollen treatment, and was all significantly heavier than that of the controls. Consequently, it isconsidered that the adverse effect of pollens from transgenic insect-resistant cotton and corn on the growth anddevelopment of the silkworm is negligible.

  7. Chinese-version Bt Cotton: How to Get the Benefits from IPR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.J. Fang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese scientists started to fully synthesize the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A gene in 1991. By the end of 1992, Biotechnology Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (BRI-CAAS) successfully synthesized the full size of GFM Cry1A gene, which was a fusion gene of Cry1A(b) and Cry1A(c).

  8. The value of trust in biotech crop development: a case study of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as having great potential in improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is much public skepticism about the use of GM (genetically modified crops and suspicion about private sector involvement in agbiotech projects. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton in Burkina Faso project by exploring practices and challenges associated with trust-building, and determining what makes these practices effective from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Relevant documents and articles were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust was operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data was analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We derived four key lessons from our findings. First, strong collaboration between research, industry and farmers greatly contributes to both the success of, and fostering of trust in, the partnership. Second, this case study also revealed the important, though often unrecognized, role of researchers as players in the communication strategy of the project. Third, effective and comprehensive communication takes into account issues such as illiteracy and diversity. Fourth, follow-up at the field level and the need for a multifaceted communications strategy is important for helping push the project forward. Conclusions Burkina Faso’s well-established and effective cotton selling system laid the foundation for the implementation of the Bt cotton project – particularly, the strong dialogue and the receptivity to collaboration

  9. New varieties selecting and mutagenesis mechanism of upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton space breeding was a newly breeding method. At the first, the seeds were taken into the space by the recoverable satellite, altitude air balloon, and airship, where synthetically physical factors (cosmic rays, microgravity, high vacuum, ebb magnetic field and so on.) of the space were applied to create great genetic variation. The seeds were sent by Shenzhou 4 in 2002, and by the Eighteen science and technology satellite in 2003. There were the long season cotton varieties (Lu9154, Zhong9708, S2498) and the short season cotton varieties (Zhong205806, Zhong206573, SGK Zhong-394, and Zhong108619). Every sample had corresponding ground check.Three generations(SP1,SP2 and SP3) were investigated. The cotton buds were damaged in SP1, and the induced effect was bigger in the short season cottons. The height had big changed, the leaves and bolls had increased, the function areas, small bolls and opened bolls had positive and negative changes in SP1,SP2 and SP3. The seed cotton yields, the lint yields, the boll weight and the lint percentage had positive and negative changes in SP1 and SP2. The induced action to specific strength, elongation and MIC was bigger than to fibre length, uniformity. Molecular polymorphism was existed by SSR in DNA level. There are thirty-five SSR primers pairs amplified marker loci. The polymorphism percentage was 19.4%, There are thirty-seven RAPD primer pairs amplified marker loci. The polymorphism percentage was 25.8%. It was primary approved that the mutations changed from DNA level. Zhongmiansuo50 and Zhongmiansuo24 was released from space mutation offspring. (author)

  10. Effects of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystems: a review of a ten-year research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenke LIU

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic cotton is the unique Bt transgenic crop planted on a large scale in China, and its commercialized varieties and hectareage had increased rapidly in China during the past decade (1997-2006) with broad geographic distribution for the economic, environmental, and health benefits. In 2004, the planting area of Bt transgenic cotton in China ranked first worldwide with up to 370 × 106hm2. In addition, Bt transgenic rice varieties in field tests have been close to approval for commercialization. However, ecological risks, a complex issue of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystem is urgently faced in China due to more than 60 varieties transferred single or bivalent Bt genes grown under diverse geographic regions. Two main pathways, biomass incorporation and root exudates, are involved in the effects of Bt transgenic crops on soil ecosystems. In this paper, the research results in recent years in China involved in the effects of Bt transgenic crops (Bt transgenic cottons and rice) on soil ecosystems were summarized with special attentions paid to the release and persistence of Bt toxins, and the toxicology to microorganisms, as well as the change of soil biochemical properties in soils where Bt transgenic crops were planted or incubated with their biomass. In addition, the complexity and current research defaults of ecological risk evaluation of Bt transgenic crops in China were highlighted.

  11. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  12. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  13. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previously identified mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins include reduced binding of activated Bt toxins to m...

  14. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  15. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton

  16. Assessment of Tolerance Level of some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine KARADEMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the tolerance level of some cotton varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. disease. Verticillium wilt is one of the major constraint diseases of cotton production worldwide and also in Turkey. The study was carried out at the Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute’s naturally infected experimental area during 2004-2006. In this study, 10 different commercial cotton varieties were used as plant material. The experimental design was a randomized complete-block with four replications. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI, vascular disease index (VDI and vascular disease rate (VDR were observed in addition to seed cotton yield and some fiber quality characteristics. According to the results, it was determined that with regards to FDI, VDI and VDR, the most tolerant varieties were ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’, while the most sensitive varieties were ‘Maraş 92’, ‘Sayar 314’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. The other varieties had moderate tolerance levels. The highest seed cotton yield and lint yield were obtained from ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. These results showed that some sensitive varieties had high yield; the reason for this situation may be related with early or late occurrence of the disease. The result of this study indicated that ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’ varieties must be preferred for infected areas; on the other hand, ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’ can be recommended and grown in uninfected areas. Additionally, ‘Carmen’, ‘GW-Teks’ and ‘GW-Golda’ varieties can be used as material for improving disease resistance in cotton breeding programs.

  17. Capturing the interaction types of two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab on suppressing the cotton bollworm by using multi-exponential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pei-Jian; Wei, Ji-Zhen; Sandhu, Hardev S; Liang, Ge-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic crops are increasingly promoted for their practical effects on suppressing certain insect pests, but all transgenic crops are not equally successful. The insect pests can easily develop resistance against single Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin transgenic crops. Therefore, transgenic crops including two or more mixed Bt-toxins can solve this problem by delaying the resistance development and killing the majority of targeted pests before the evolution of resistance. It is important to test the controlling effects of transgenic crops including multiple mixed toxins on a particular insect pest. Previous research has checked the cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against one susceptible and four resistant strains of cotton bollworm. The results showed that independence was the main interaction type between two toxins for the susceptible strain, whereas synergism was the main interaction type for any one resistant strain. However, the optimal combinations of two toxins were not obtained. In the present study, we developed two multi-exponential equations (namely bi- and tri-exponential equations) to describe the combination effects of two Bt toxins. Importantly, the equations can provide predictions of combination effects of different continuous concentrations of two toxins. We compared these two multi-exponential equations with the generalized linear model (GLM) in describing the combination effects, and found that the bi- and tri-exponential equations are better than GLM. Moreover, the bi-exponential equation can also provide the optimal dose combinations for two toxins. PMID:26314801

  18. Multiple parameters for ascertaining yield stability of upland cotton varieties tested over number of environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen upland cotton varieties were evaluated in 12 different environments of the Sindh province, Pakistan so as to arbitrate their stability in yield performance. The regression coefficient (b) parameter was used as a measure of varietal adaptability, whereas the sum of squared deviations from regression (s/sup 2/d) and coefficient of determination (r/sup 2) were implied as the measure of stability. The regression coefficients (b) of all the varieties, though did not deviate significantly from a unit slope (b = 1.0), yet varieties FH-1000, VH-142, BH-147 and FH-945 exhibited (b) values very close to a unit slope suggesting their better adaptation to the test environments. Varieties CRIS-467, DNH-57 and FH-945 displayed lower (s/sup 2/d) and higher (r/sup 2/) values implying that these varieties were relatively more stable in yield performance than others in the test environments. Generally, not all the stability and adaptability parameters simultaneously favoured the same variety except FH-945, which was thus considered more stable, based on majority of the parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that latent vectors of first two components, i.e., PCA-1 and PCA-2 accounted for about 91.24% of the total variation. The Eigen vectors of first PCA-1 were smaller and all were positive, which further suggested that the test varieties were quite adaptive to all the test sites. However, in PCA-2, some varieties gave positive and some negative Eigen values, yet varieties FH-1000, CIM-499, CRIS-467 and FH-945 expressed smaller and positive and some negative eigen values, yet varieties FH-100, CIM-499, CRIS-467 and FH-945 expressed smaller and positive PCA-2 score suggesting less genotype-environment interactions for these particular varieties. (author)

  19. Measuring yield performance of upland cotton varieties using adaptability, stability and principal component analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine upland cotton varieties/strains were tested over 36 environments in Pakistan so as to determine their stability in yield performance. The regression coefficient (b) was used as a measure of adaptability, whereas parameters such as coefficient of determination (r2) and sum of squared deviations from regression (s/sup 2/d) were used as measure of stability. Although the regression coefficients (b) of all varieties did not deviate significantly from the unit slope, the varieties CRIS-5A. BII-89, DNH-40 and Rehmani gave b value closer to unity implying their better adaptation. Lower s/sub 2/d and higher r/sub 2/ of CRIS- 121 and DNH-40 suggest that both of these are fairly stable. The results indicate that, generally, adaptability and stability parameters are independent of each in as much as not all of the parameters simultaneously favoured one variety over the other excepting the variety DNH-40, which was stable based on majority of the parameters. Principal component analysis revealed that the first two components (latent roots) account for about 91.4% of the total variation. The latent vectors of first principal component (PCA1) were smaller and positive which also suggest that most of the varieties were quite adaptive to all of the test environments. (author)

  20. Variations in physicochemical attributes of seed oil among different varieties of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation in the physicochemical attributes of the seeds and the extracted seed oils from six varieties (CIM-496, N-121, Z-33, AA-802, Desi, and CIM-534) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were appraised. The amount of oil and protein in the tested seeds varied from 15.06 to 18.35% and 20.42 and 27.03%, respectively revealing a significant (p<0.05) differences among varieties analyzed while the contents of fiber (20.65-21.31%), ash (3.46-4.64%) and moisture (6.36-8.44%) did not vary considerably.The physicochemical properties including density (24 degree C) 0.9154-0.9207 mg/mL, refractive index (40 degree C) 1.4607-1.4632, iodine value 100.54-108.73 I/100g of oil, saponification value 180.39-190.28 (mg of KOH/g of oil), unsaponifiable matter 0.49-0.58%, free fatty acids content 0.71-1.24%, and color 12.01-13.04 R +63.61-68.11Y of the extracted cottonseed oils (CSOs) indicated a slight variation among varieties selected. The oxidation parameters of CSOs, as assessed by estimation of conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, peroxide value, para-anisidine and induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/ h, 120 degree C), were noted to be 2.32-2.61, 0.91-0.99, 1.81-1.98 (meq/ kg of oil), 2.00-2.3 and 3.19-3.61 h, respectively. The tested CSOs mainly contained linoleic acid (48.96-50.46%), followed by palmitic acid (24.42-25.80%), oleic acid (17.81-23.15%) and stearic acid (2.49-2.81%). The contents of alpha (125.47-296.20), gama (269.23-326.21) and zeta (2.23-5.47 mg/kg) tocopherols among CSOs varied significantly. In conclusion, some of the physicochemical parameters of the oils varied significantly (p<0.05) among varieties selected that might be attributed to the different genetic makeup of the cotton plants. The results of this study can be useful for the selection of an appropriate cotton variety in the specified area. (author)

  1. Response of cotton varieties to different environments: flowering behavior and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowering behavior and fiber quality traits were analyzed of six Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties and one G. barbadense variety that were cultivated in two environmentally different locations. Records of days after planting (DAP) at first floral bud emergence, DAP at first floral opening, plant height at first flower and nodes above white flower (NAWF) were analyzed statistically to study flowering behavior in both locations. Fiber traits were tested and records of micronaire, fiber length, strength, cohesion, elongation, ginning percentage, and weight of seed cotton were statistically analyzed to look for significant differences and correlations. Earliness and a decline in fiber strength, and fiber cohesion were obtained in varieties cultivated in Soujeh accompanied with an increase in ginning percentages. Uniquely, fiber elongation showed no significant differences in varieties between the two environments in both seasons. Our results indicated that stability in some fiber traits such as, micronaire, fiber length, strength and cohesion was a variety specific. Evidently, fiber elongation in our work was not affected by cultivation managements and environmental conditions which suggest the solid genetic bases that control this trait. (author)

  2. Differential potassium influx influences growth of two cotton varieties in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium uptake rate of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties viz., NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 was investigated in nutrient solution culture having deficient K at the rate 0.3 mM and deficient K+ Na at the rate 0.3 +2.7 mM. Depletion of K from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time intervals after 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h to estimate K uptake kinetics of the roots i.e. maximum influx, I/sub max/ and the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km. NIBGE-2 had about 2-fold higher (2.0 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) I/sub max/ value for K uptake rate at deficient K+Na than that (1.207 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) for MNH-786. Higher, Michaelis-Menten constant, Km (12.82 ppm) for K uptake rate was observed in both cultivars NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 at deficient K+Na than that at deficient K. Main effects of treatments and varieties had significant (p< 0.05) effect on shoot dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter and leaf area per plant. Maximum K influx in NIBGE-2 at deficient K and deficient K +Na was attributed to enhanced growth response as compared to that in MNH-786. (author)

  3. 源库调节对Bt棉棉铃外源杀虫蛋白表达量影响的研究%Effect of Source-sink Regulation on the Content of Bt Endotoxin in Bt Cotton Boll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉荣龙; 崔必波; 黄志勇; 费月跃; 顾克余; 孙扣忠; 陈德华

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the change of insecticidal protein content under source-sink regulation in Bt cotton boll. The experiments were conducted at Yangzhou University farm during cotton growth season from 2005 to 2006, three cultivars with different boll sizes of Bt cotton, Sikang 1 (small boll), Sikang 3(middle boll), Kemian 6(big boll), were select-ed to study Bt endotoxin characteristics under source-sink regulation. The three cultivars were designed to be cut half leaves of the whole plant in 2005, and to be thinned half buds of the whole plant in 2006. The results showed that, with being cut half leaves of the whole plant, the boll volume, boll weight and seed weight decreased, and its effects on the boll volume and weight were greater in the big boll cultivar, reducing by 15.4% and 20.5% at 28 days after anthesis, respectively; in contrast, its effect on the seed weight was the biggest in the small boll cultivar, decreasing by 20.6% at 28 days after flowering. The Bt protein con-tents increased in the boll wall and seed, which increased by 23.5%~32.3%, 3.3%~18.8% at 21 days after anthesis, respectively. With half buds of the whole plant thinned, the boll volume, boll weight and seed weight were boosted, and the effects were the greatest in the big boll cultivar, increasing by 25.8%, 10.4%, 12.7% at 28 days after anthesis, respectively; in contrast, the Bt protein contents in the boll wall and seed decreased, the effects was greatest in the big boll cultivar too, reducing by 40.6%, 33.7% at 21 days after anthesis, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between the boll volume, boll weight and Bt endotoxin contents in the boll wall and seed under source-sink regulation, respectively, so was between seed weight and Bt endotoxin contents in the seed. The results suggest that the breeding and culture practice should aim at coordinating the rela-tion between the boll development and 3t endotoxin expression.%以转Bt基

  4. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  5. Studies on the relationship between cotton aphids feedding, excretion, absorption and ability of cotton varieties resisting aphids using radioactive tracer 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experments were conducted in 1980-1982. The aphids were placed on the plants after the cotton plants were exposed to 14CO2 under the sunlight for 1 hr. and then coverd with paper covering in the special photosynthesis chambers. The honey dew excreted by aphids was collected on the paper covering. Then the aphids and the paper coverings both put into scintillation liquid, and the radioactivity was determined. The results indicated that the aphids being different instars had different approximate rate of 14C absorption. 71.2% of total absorption was excreted in the form of honey dew; 28.8% of total absorption was taken by the aphid bodies (included milts) in the nymph stage, while 23.5% of total absorption was uptaken in the adult stage. The aphids feeding on the aphid-resistant cotton varieties (such as 'Junhai 1', 'Shanghai 605') had 23.5-26.7% approximate absorbing rate, whereas those on the aphid-sensitive cotton varieties (for example 'Uganda 2') had over 28.1% approximate absorbing rate. These results showed no difference from the results of field experiments

  6. Dispersal and parasitizing potential of trichogramma chilonis ishii in early and late sown cotton variety NIAB-Karishma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egg parasitoids, Trichogramma chilonis have enormous potential to control lepidopterous pests of many crops especially the bollworms of cotton. In the present studies dispersal ability of laboratory reared T. chilonis to varying distance ranging from one to five meters and its percent parasitization to its fictitious host (S. cerealella) eggs placed in early and late sown (fifteen days interval) cotton variety NIAB-Karishma was evaluated at the NIAB, field Faisalabad during 2000-2001 crop season. Results showed that percent parasitization to host eggs decreased with the increase in distance. More parasitization was recorded after 24 than that of 48 hrs at all distances from the site of parasitoid released. Efficiency of parasitoids in terms of percent parasitization increased during the months of July and September. (author)

  7. A point mutation (L1015F) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) population from the transgenic Bt cotton field of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-02-01

    In China, the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), has caused severe economic damage to many kinds of crops, especially the cotton and jujubes. Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely used for controlling this pest in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Five populations of A. lucorum collected from cotton crops at different locations in China were evaluated for lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. The results showed that only the population collected from Shandong Province exhibited 30-fold of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Neither PBO nor DEF had obvious synergism when compared the synergistic ratio between SS and RR strain which was originated from the Shandong population. Besides, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, or 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities between the Shandong population and the laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The full-length sodium channel gene named AlVSSC encoding 2028 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One single point mutation L1015F in the AlVSSC was detected only in the Shandong population. Our results revealed that the L1015F mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance was identified in A. lucorum populations in China. These results will be useful for the rational chemical control of A. lucorum in the transgenic Bt cotton field. PMID:26821662

  8. Proteomic responses of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive cotton varieties to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Ni, Zhiyong; Chen, Quanjia; Guo, Zhongjun; Gao, Wenwei; Su, Xiujuan; Qu, Yanying

    2016-06-01

    Drought, one of the most widespread factors reducing agricultural crop productivity, affects biological processes such as development, architecture, flowering and senescence. Although protein analysis techniques and genome sequencing have made facilitated the proteomic study of cotton, information on genetic differences associated with proteomic changes in response to drought between different cotton genotypes is lacking. To determine the effects of drought stress on cotton seedlings, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to comparatively analyze proteome of drought-responsive proteins during the seedling stage in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, drought-tolerant KK1543 and drought-sensitive Xinluzao26. A total of 110 protein spots were detected on 2-DE maps, of which 56 were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The identified proteins were mainly associated with metabolism (46.4 %), antioxidants (14.2 %), and transport and cellular structure (23.2 %). Some key proteins had significantly different expression patterns between the two genotypes. In particular, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine methyltransferase, UDP-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase and ascorbate peroxidase were up-regulated in KK1543 compared with Xinluzao26. Under drought stress conditions, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit, a 14-3-3g protein, translation initiation factor 5A and pathogenesis-related protein 10 were up-regulated in KK1543, whereas ribosomal protein S12, actin, cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, protein disulfide isomerase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase and cysteine synthase were down-regulated in Xinluzao26. This work represents the first characterization of proteomic changes that occur in response to drought in roots of cotton plants. These differentially expressed proteins may be related to

  9. Performance of some transgenic cotton cultivars against insect pest complex, virus incidence and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cultivars of cotton i.e., IR4-NIBGE, IR5-NIBGE Bt-121, Sitara-10M and Sitara-11M were screened for resistance against insect pest complex and Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) incidence in the research area of Cotton Research Station, Multan. The result depicted that the most resistant variety against jassids was IR4-NIBGE and Sitara-11M whereas IR4-NIBGE showed the maximum resistance against whitefly infestation. The least susceptible variety to the infestation of thrips was Sitara-10M. The most susceptible variety to the prevalence of Red Cotton Bug (RCB) was IR4-NIBGE. The genotype Bt-121 showed the attack of spotted bollworm. The high population of Dusky Cotton Bug (DCB) was observed on Bt-121 throughout the season. The incidence of virus percentage increased with the passage of time; however, the variety IR5-NIBGE exhibited maximum level of tolerance. Variety Bt-121 gave the maximum yield i.e., 1852 kg per acre followed by IR5-NIBGE, Sitara-11M, Sitara-10M 1584, 1503, 1466 kg per acre respectively. Our results suggest that IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M are comparatively tolerant to jassids and whitefly which are the yield losing pest. So IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M varieties can be included in IPM programme for the management of these voracious pests. (author)

  10. Screening Cotton Varieties of Jujube - cotton Intercropping Planting Mode in Xinjiang%适宜新疆枣棉间作种植模式棉花品种筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仁松; 徐海江; 刘正兴; 崔建平; 林涛; 田立文

    2013-01-01

    the paper chose multiple cotton varieties through comparative analysis of different index under jujube - cotton intercropping planting mode in Xinjiang ,in order to select cotton varieties suitable for jujube - cotton intercropping planting mode in Xinjiang. Results showed that ,the jujube - cotton interplanting of cotton had no obvious effect on flowering period , but lengthened birth process from flowering to boll opening period ,influenced cotton agronomic traits at the same time ,re-duced the proportion fell pre mid - summer ,increased mid - summer bolls and autumn bolls proportion ,in the lower part of the bell accounted for more than 75% ,the inner of the bell accounted for more than 80% . It had significant effects on cotton , mainly affects boll number per plant ,followed by boll weight and ginning outturn. Comprehensive analysis that Xinluzhong36 , Zhongmian43 ,Xinluzao50 and 6011 of cotton yeild performance is good ,suitable for jujube - cotton intercropping planting.%  在新疆枣棉间作种植模式下,选用多个棉花品种通过比较分析不同指标,以筛选出适宜新疆枣棉间作种植模式的棉花品种。结果表明:枣棉间作对各品种开花期生育进程无显著影响,但开花期至吐絮期生育进程延长;同时影响棉花农艺性状,伏前桃比例降低,伏桃及秋桃比例升高,中下部结铃占75%以上,内围铃占80%以上;对产量影响显著,主要影响单株结铃数,其次是铃重和衣分。综合分析认为,新陆中36号、中棉所43、品系6011、新陆早50号产量表现较好,适宜枣棉间作种植。

  11. 适宜新疆枣棉间作种植模式棉花品种筛选研究%Screening Cotton Varieties of Jujube - cotton Intercropping Planting Mode in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭仁松; 徐海江; 刘正兴; 崔建平; 林涛; 田立文

    2013-01-01

      在新疆枣棉间作种植模式下,选用多个棉花品种通过比较分析不同指标,以筛选出适宜新疆枣棉间作种植模式的棉花品种。结果表明:枣棉间作对各品种开花期生育进程无显著影响,但开花期至吐絮期生育进程延长;同时影响棉花农艺性状,伏前桃比例降低,伏桃及秋桃比例升高,中下部结铃占75%以上,内围铃占80%以上;对产量影响显著,主要影响单株结铃数,其次是铃重和衣分。综合分析认为,新陆中36号、中棉所43、品系6011、新陆早50号产量表现较好,适宜枣棉间作种植。%the paper chose multiple cotton varieties through comparative analysis of different index under jujube - cotton intercropping planting mode in Xinjiang ,in order to select cotton varieties suitable for jujube - cotton intercropping planting mode in Xinjiang. Results showed that ,the jujube - cotton interplanting of cotton had no obvious effect on flowering period , but lengthened birth process from flowering to boll opening period ,influenced cotton agronomic traits at the same time ,re-duced the proportion fell pre mid - summer ,increased mid - summer bolls and autumn bolls proportion ,in the lower part of the bell accounted for more than 75% ,the inner of the bell accounted for more than 80% . It had significant effects on cotton , mainly affects boll number per plant ,followed by boll weight and ginning outturn. Comprehensive analysis that Xinluzhong36 , Zhongmian43 ,Xinluzao50 and 6011 of cotton yeild performance is good ,suitable for jujube - cotton intercropping planting.

  12. Dynamic Distribution of Two Spotted Spider Mite in Transgenic Bt Insect-resistant Cotton Field%棉叶螨在转Bt基因抗虫棉的棉田动态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文华; 陈建平; 刘标; 孟军; 方志翔

    2011-01-01

    Through recent two years' systematical investigations on two spotted spider mite, it was clear that the plants with mite,plants with red leaf, the number of red leaf, leaves with mite and the number of adult and nymphal mite in the transgenic Bt cotton fields were always higher than those in the conventional cotton fields, but there were no significant differences.In the whole growth and developmental period of cotton, two spotted spider mite occurred mainly in the first twenty days of June and from the end of July to beginning of August, and this mite had the similar population dynamics in two types of cotton fields.In addition, when the previous crop of cotton was different, the occurrence and damage of two spotted spider mite in cotton field were also different, the population density of the mite and the number of damaged plants in the cotton field without previous crop were always obviously lower than those in the cotton field with previous crop horsebean.%通过近2年的系统调查,明确了Bt棉处理棉叶螨的有螨株、红叶株、红叶数、有螨叶和成若螨数量始终高于常规棉对照,但差异均不显著;棉叶螨在在棉花全生育期的发生为害主要有2个时段,1个是在6月上中旬前茬夏熟作物成熟离田期,另1个是在7月底8月初秋熟玉米成熟离田期,两类棉田处理所表现的消长动态也基本相似.另外,棉花前茬茬口不同,棉叶螨的发生为害也有差异,空白茬口棉田的螨量与被害株始终低于蚕豆茬,趋势十分明显.

  13. Evaluation of early maturing and high yielding mutants/ varieties and improved germplasm of cotton through the use of induced mutations and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the yield performance of different cotton varieties in cotton growing area of the Pakistan. It is noted that 69.2% of small farmers cultivated NIAB-78 contribute a major portion in the national production. A number of hybrid mutants from different genetic sources had been tested and eight advanced mutants having morphological characteristics i.e. plant height, leaf foliage and boll number/size were selected to test the yield potential and suitability for present/future demand. It was noted that all the mutants gave higher yield as compared to NIAB-78. (A.B)

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  15. Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot%基于GGE双标图的棉花品种生态区划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃银; 张国伟; 李健; 周治国

    2013-01-01

    采用遗传力校正的GGE双标图分析方法,对以安庆、南阳、黄冈、荆州、武汉、襄阳、常德、岳阳、南京、南通、盐城、九江、简阳、射洪和慈溪等15个试验点为代表的长江流域棉区,基于皮棉产量进行品种生态区划分,并对划分结果进行信息比(IR)校正,为长江流域棉区棉花品种的选择提供科学依据.结果表明:长江流域棉区可以划分为3个棉花品种生态区,即以简阳和射洪为代表的“四川盆地棉花品种生态区”、以南阳和襄阳为代表的“南襄盆地棉花品种生态区”和涵盖其余试验点的“长江流域主体棉花品种生态区”.%By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nan-tong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin.The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  16. Survey of organophosphate resistance and an Ala216Ser substitution of acetylcholinesterase-1 gene associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) collected from the transgenic Bt cotton fields in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Congai; Miao, Ling; Liang, Pei; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-09-01

    The mirid bug is frequently controlled by the application of organophosphorus insecticides in the transgenic Bt cotton field of China. A topical bioassay method was performed to evaluate the toxicities of chlorpyrifos and malathion towards field-collected Chinese populations of Apolygus lucorum from transgenic Bt cotton fields. For chlorpyrifos, the resistance ratios ranged from 0.8 to 9.4-fold compared to a susceptible strain. For malathion, the resistance levels relative to the susceptible strain ranged from 1.2 to 14.4-fold. Compared to a susceptible strain, the Cangzhou population from Hebei province showed the highest resistance ratios towards these insecticides. A comparison of the detoxifying and target enzyme activities between the Cangzhou population and a susceptible strain revealed that altered acetylcholinesterase possibly account for the chlorpyrifos and malathion resistance in the Cangzhou population. Two acetylcholinesterase (AChE-encoding) genes (designated Alace1 and Alace2) from the green mirid bug (A. lucorum) were identified. The Alace1 and Alace2 genes encoded 597 and 645 amino acids, respectively. Both AChE proteins had conserved motifs including a catalytic triad, a choline-binding site, and an acyl pocket. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Alace1 had a much higher transcriptional level than Alace2, for the expression profiles of both spatial and time distributions. One amino acid substitution, Ala216Ser in Alace1, was found in the Cangzhou population. These results suggest that the mutation Ala216Ser should be most likely involved in organophosphorus resistance in A. lucorum. PMID:27521910

  17. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination. PMID:26527792

  18. Orientation behavior, development and survival of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and conventional cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Bt cotton (Bollgard II) or a mixture of Bt+non-Bt cotton leaves on larval orientation behavior, survival and development of Trichoplusia ni in the laboratory. Results indicate that in a no-choice test, more first and fifth instars remained on Bt...

  19. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t

  20. A transgenic approach for controlling Lygus in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Anilkumar; Rydel, Timothy J; Wollacott, Andrew M; Brown, Robert S; Akbar, Waseem; Clark, Thomas L; Flasinski, Stanislaw; Nageotte, Jeffrey R; Read, Andrew C; Shi, Xiaohong; Werner, Brent J; Pleau, Michael J; Baum, James A

    2016-01-01

    Lygus species of plant-feeding insects have emerged as economically important pests of cotton in the United States. These species are not controlled by commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties resulting in economic losses and increased application of insecticide. Previously, a Bt crystal protein (Cry51Aa2) was reported with insecticidal activity against Lygus spp. However, transgenic cotton plants expressing this protein did not exhibit effective protection from Lygus feeding damage. Here we employ various optimization strategies, informed in part by protein crystallography and modelling, to identify limited amino-acid substitutions in Cry51Aa2 that increase insecticidal activity towards Lygus spp. by >200-fold. Transgenic cotton expressing the variant protein, Cry51Aa2.834_16, reduce populations of Lygus spp. up to 30-fold in whole-plant caged field trials. One transgenic event, designated MON88702, has been selected for further development of cotton varieties that could potentially reduce or eliminate insecticide application for control of Lygus and the associated environmental impacts. PMID:27426014

  1. 转Bt基因抗虫棉(Gossyposium)伤流中Bt毒蛋白的运输%Long-distance Transportation of Bt-toxin Through Xylem Sap in Bt-cotton (Gossyposium)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮玉奎; 朱本忠; 罗云波

    2005-01-01

    本文以常规棉品种‘石远321'和抗虫棉品种‘SGK321'与‘99B'为材料,通过考马斯亮蓝和ELISA方法分析了伤流中可溶性蛋白和Bt(苏云金芽孢杆菌)毒蛋白含量.结果发现,转基因抗虫棉伤流中可溶性蛋白含量显著高于常规棉,并在抗虫棉伤流中检测到了Bt毒蛋白,而常规棉伤流中没有Bt毒蛋白的存在.通过嫁接实验研究发现,将常规棉嫁接到转Bt基因抗虫棉砧木上,叶片中也有Bt毒蛋白的积累.这些结果说明,Bt毒蛋白可以通过木质部伤流液向地上部运输,并在叶片中积累,Bt毒蛋白由根系向地上部的运输对棉花的抗虫性是有益的.

  2. 越南对抗角斑病棉花品种的选育(英)%Screening of Promising Cotton Varieties for Bacterial Blight Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bui Thi Ngan

    2002-01-01

    @@ I Introduction Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas malvacearum ,BB) was probably originated in India, although the disease was first reported in the USA by Atkinson (1891), who gave the names angular leaf spot, blackarm and bacterial boll rot to the various stages in the syndrome of the disease. The first programme to breed for cultivar resistance to the disease was initiated in Sudan by research officers with the Cotton Research Corporation. Methods adopted there were soon implemented in Uganda and most of the early resistant varieties grown in many African countries were derived from the Uganda programme.

  3. 转Bt基因棉对土壤无脊椎动物群落结构的影响%Effect of transgenic Bt cotton on soil invertebrate community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建英; 万方浩; 吴岷

    2009-01-01

    Soil invertebrates were collected by Tullgren and Baermann funnels and analyzed using community ecology method. Then soil invertebrate community structures in the 0~15 cm soil layer in transgenic Bt cotton (cvs. "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B") fields were compared with those in non-Bt cotton (cv. "SM3") fields. Nematodes and acarids are dominant soil invertebrate groups with frequencies above 54% and over 18% respectively in each cotton cultivar field. Compared with parental non-Bt cv. "SM3"field, "GK12" field has more enchytraelidae and less homopetera, psocoptera and diptera. Cumulative numbers of most soil invertebrate groups do not significantly differ in "GK12" and "NuCOTN33B" fields, except that there are less homoptera and more araneae in "GK12" field. Soil invertebrate group richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness are significantly lower in "GK12" field than in "SM3" field. Those in "NuCOTN 33B" field are also higher than in "GK12" field. Scalable one-parametric Renyi-diversity profiles also indicate significantly lower diversity in "GK12" than in "SM3" field, and generally lower diversity in "GK12" than in "NuCOTN 33B" field, except for dominant and common invertebrate groups in the 10~15 cm soil layer. The dynamics of soil invertebrate abundance, diversity and evenness have a similar fluctuation trend for the three cotton cultivar fields. Abundance of soil invertebrate reaches its peak in October during the period from July to November. At the peak, soil invertebrates are concentrated in the 0~5 cm and 10~15 cm soil layers in "SM3" field, but in the 10~15 cm soil layer in "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B" fields. While invertebrate diversity and evenness decrease in November in "SM3" field, they increase in "GK12" field. The above findings imply that planting "GK12" changes the abundance, and decreases the richness, diversity and evenness of soil invertebrate groups. Soil invertebrate community structures also differ between the two Bt cotton cultivars

  4. Detrimental effect of expression ofBt endotoxin Cry1Ac on in vitro regeneration, in vivo growth and development of tobacco and cotton transgenics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preeti Rawat; Amarjeet Kumar Singh; Krishna Ray; Bhupendra Chaudhary; Sanjeev Kumar; Taru Gautam; Shaveta Kanoria; Gurpreet Kaur; Paritosh Kumar; Deepak Pental; Pradeep Kumar Burma

    2011-06-01

    High levels of expression of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis cannot be routinely achieved in transgenic plants despite modifications made in the gene to improve its expression. This has been attributed to the instability of the transcript in a few reports. In the present study, based on the genetic transformation of cotton and tobacco, we show that the expression of the Cry1Ac endotoxin has detrimental effects on both the in vitro and in vivo growth and development of transgenic plants. A number of experiments on developing transgenics in cotton with different versions of cry1Ac gene showed that the majority of the plants did not express any Cry1Ac protein. Based on Southern blot analysis, it was also observed that a substantial number of lines did not contain the cry1Ac gene cassette although they contained the marker gene nptII. More significantly, all the lines that showed appreciable levels of expression were found to be phenotypically abnormal. Experiments on transformation of tobacco with different constructs expressing the cry1Ac gene showed that in vitro regeneration was inhibited by the encoded protein. Further, out of a total of 145 independent events generated with the different cry1Ac gene constructs in tobacco, only 21 showed expression of the Cry1Ac protein, confirming observations made in cotton that regenerants that express high levels of the Cry1Ac protein are selected against during regeneration of transformed events. This problem was circumvented by targeting the Cry1Ac protein to the chloroplast, which also significantly improved the expression of the protein.

  5. Comparative Studies on Physiological Characteristics of Main Stem Functional Leaves of Colored Cotton Varieties%彩色棉主茎功能叶片生理特性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏; 周琴; 周桃华

    2012-01-01

    以棕色棉皖棉38号、绿色棉皖棉39号和白色棉皖棉25号为材料,研究了2个彩色棉品种主茎功能叶片主要生理特性的差异.结果表明,彩色棉主茎功能叶片的叶绿素、可溶性蛋白质及可溶性糖含量全生育期变化趋势与白色棉一致,均在盛花期达到极大值,但全生育期3个指标净值均低于白色棉,且在盛花期以后迅速降低;彩色棉品种超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性在整个生育期变化较为相似,SOD、POD活性在盛花期达到高峰后下降.与棕色棉相比,绿色棉的SOD、POD、CAT的活性除初花期较高外,其余3个时期均低于棕色棉;初花期棕色棉的MDA含量较高,吐絮期绿色棉较高.由此可知,绿色棉在受到逆境伤害的时候,功能叶片会提高保护酶的活性,降低逆境对棉株的损伤.吐絮期绿色棉保护酶活性下降较快,出现早衰现象.%Use varieties of Wanmian 38(brown-fiber cotton), Wanmian 39(green-fiber cotton), and the parental material Wanmian 25 (white-cotton) to analyze the difference between the brown-fiber cotton and the green-fiber cotton in physiological characteristics of main stem functional leaves within two cotton varieties. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll, soluble protein and soluble sugar in white cotton were the same as colored ones. The dynamics tend to peak at the full flowering stage. The three indices of colored cotton varieties were lower than the white cotton's at the whole stage, and rapidly decreased after the full flowering stage. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT within the two colored cotton varieties were quite similar at the whole development stage, with the activities of SOD, POD peaking at the full flowering stage and decreasing after the opening of bolls. Compared with brown-fiber cotton, the activities of SOD, POD, CAT of green-fiber cotton were much higher at the primary flowing stage, but much lower at the

  6. Ontogenesis and Adaptability of Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Different Varieties of Cotton%不同类型棉花品种对扶桑绵粉蚧个体发育特征及其适应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新宁; 崔旭红; 陈玲; 黄伟峰; 郑丹; 商晗武

    2012-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis feeding on six varieties of transgenic or non-trans-genic Bt cotton was investigated. Correlations between the development and reproduction of Ph. solenopsis and the amounts of soluble sugar, soluble protein and gossypol in cotton were also analyzed. The results showed that the cotton mealybug could complete its life cycle on both transgenic and non-transgenic cotton plants, but there were significant differences among the six cotton varieties in the development time, fecundity, and mortality of Ph. solenopsis. Variety CCRI 41 was the best for cotton mealybug, which had the best fecundity, longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (X.) and the lowest doubling time (DT) on this strain. In contrast, CCRI 59 was the most unsuitable variety for cotton mealybug, which had the lowest fecundity, longevity, Ro, rm, and X and the highest mortality and DT on this cultivar. There was a positive correlation between gossypol content offender leaves and the duration of 2nd instar nymphs and negative correlations between gossypol content of both tender and mature leaves and adult longevity and fecundity, which implied that gossypol slowed the growth and development of Ph. solenopsis and inhibited both reproduction and survival of the mealybug.%研究了转基因、非转基因等6个不同棉花品种以及棉叶中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、棉酚含量对扶桑绵粉蚧生长发育、繁殖特性的影响,结果表明:扶桑绵粉蚧在各品种棉花上都能危害,且在发育历期、产卵量和存活率等方面均存在明显差异.中棉所41上扶桑绵粉蚧产卵量、寿命、净增殖率R0、内禀增长率rm与周期增长率λ数值最大,种群加倍时间DT值最小,为该虫最适宜棉花品种;而中棉所59上产卵量、寿命、R0、rm、λ值最小,死亡率与DT值最大,为该虫最不适宜品种.嫩叶棉酚含量与2龄若

  7. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  8. 新疆北部棉铃虫寄主来源与转基因棉区庇护所评估%Analysis of Larval host types of Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) Populations for Evaluation of Bt Refuges in Northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 张娟; 刘永健; 张豹; 熊建喜; 王佩玲; 吕昭智

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic cotton, expressing an insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton), has been widely cultivated for a long period in some areas of China. Therefore, there is the potential for the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to develop resistance to Bt cotton toxins. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ( US EPA) is rethinking the requirement for some regions to delay developing natural refuge crops where Bt cotton growth has been highly successful. The policy of establishing refuges was intended to delay pest population development of Bt-toxin resistance. Bt cotton is widely grown in Xinjiang Province, which is the largest cotton-producing area in China, but no studies have been conducted on potential refuges in this region of China. In recent years, stable carbon isotope techniques (δ13 C) have been In this study, intelligent forecast light traps were established to collect adult cotton bollworms from May to September 2013, from the 147th and 121st regiments of the Shihezi reclamation area located in northern Xinjiang. The captured moths were placed into bottles and preserved in 95% alcohol until analysis. At each of the sites, 50 males and 30 females moths were selected on the day of capture, their wings combined into two bulked samples respectively to analyze their host type ( C3 or C4 ) using δ13 C analysis. At the same time, 30 female′s wings and corresponding spermatophore were separated to one single sample to analyze the mating type and percentage of mating frequency between C3 and C4 host. A total of 23 bulked samples from the 147th regiment and 25 bulked samples from the 121st regiment were tested. The proportions of C3 and C4 hosts were calculated according to a standard curve constructed in 2012. Approximately 50% of cotton bollworms were derived from C4 hosts, and approximately 50% from C3 hosts in late May and from early August to September. From June to July, 100% of cotton bollworms were derived from C4 hosts. To

  9. Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, Manda G.; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-Ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Higher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontran...

  10. 高产 稳产 高效 广适快育66的选育%Breeding of High Yield, Stable Yield, Efficient and Wide Adaptability Cotton Variety Kuaiyu 66

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐显; 杨帆; 谷良志

    2012-01-01

    The new cotton variety Kuaiyu 66 was developed by crossing between Bt transgenic variety GK12 (female parent) which was bred using G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. thurberi, and wild Thurber's material, with resistance to bollworm, and high-yield potential, adaptable line 01-698 (male parent) selected from Jimian No. 8, Kuaiyu 66 was crossed, selected and increased generation in greenhouse, combining with field selection, 3 generations per year cotton breeding technique and excellent plant type selection method for breach. Through adding generations in greenhouse, selling homozygous and field identification and selection, the new transgenic variety concentrated the good traits of high and stable yield, high efficiency and wide suitable, the lint yield, prefrost lint yield of the variety were respectively 1 518 kg/hm2 and 1 405.5 kg/hm2, and the pre-frost lint increased up to an extremely significant level in transgenic conventional cotton variety regional trials of South-central of Hebei Province in 2007 - 2009; In transgenic conventional cotton variety production test of south-central of Hebei Province in 2010, yields of 8 time points were all increased, lint yield, pre-frost lint yield were 1 401 kg/hm2 and 1 314 kg/hm2, increased by 7.7% and 10. 5% respectively comparing to control Jimian 958, which were all the highest one among the tested lines. This breed was disease resistant ( high resistance to Fusarium wilt, resistance to Verticillium dahli strength was 28.3 ae ), fiber quality comprehensive ( body length was 29 mm, uniformity was 84.9%, specific cN/tex, micronaire value was 5.3), management cheaper, comprehensive performance prominent.%快育66是以含有海岛棉、陆地棉、野生瑟伯氏血缘以及转胁抗棉铃虫基因的高抗棉铃虫品种GK12为母本,以丰产潜力大、适应性强的冀棉8号01.698为父本,二者在温室内杂交,利用温室加代与大田选择相结合的1a3代棉花快速育种技术、以选

  11. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  12. Le marché des variétés de coton-Bt : analyse de la situation en Chine dans une perspective internationale

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, Michel; Xu, Naiyin

    2010-01-01

    texte publié disponible à : http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/fr/revues/agro_biotech/agr/e-docs/00/04/52/90/resume.phtml International audience About ten countries have adopted Bt-cotton since its commercial release in the USA in 1996. This release immediately has led to raise the concern of Monsanto's monopoly and loss of varietal diversity in adopting countries. There are very few studies addressing the actual state of the cotton variety markets in the adopting countries. This articl...

  13. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  14. A New Strategy of Insect Pest Control:Down-regulating Cotton Boliworm Gene Expression by Engineering Plant Double Stranded RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ying-bo; XUE Xue-yi; WANG Ling-jiang; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) is an important agricultural pest that causes severeyield loss to crops,particularly to cotton.Transgenic Bt crops have been successful in protectingplants,however,Bt proteins are toxic to all lepidopteran insects but have little effects to sucking pests,such as aphids.Furthermore,the continuous use of Bt crops increases insect resistance.

  15. Detection and monitoring of insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins have become one of the most important tools for managing corn and cotton insect pests in the US and other countries. The widespread adoption of transgenic Bt crops could place a high degree of selection pressure on the target insect populations and accelerate development of resistance, raising concerns about the long-term durability of Bt plants as an effective pest management tool. Conservation of Bt susceptibility in insects has become one of the most active research areas in modern agriculture. One of the key factors for a successful Bt resistance management plan is to have a cost-effective monitoring system that can provide information on: (i) the initial Bt resistance allele frequencies at low levels in field insect populations; and (ii) early shifts in Bt resistance allele frequencies so that proactive measures for managing resistance can be deployed well before field control failures. Developing such a monitoring program has been difficult because: (i) resistance traits that occur at very low frequencies are hard to detect; (ii) many factors affect the sensitivity and accuracy of a Bt resistance monitoring program; and (iii) monitoring resistance is costly. Several novel methods for detecting Bt resistance alleles developed during the last decade have made a cost-effective monitoring system possible. Future studies should focus on how to improve and standardize the methodologies for insect sampling and Bt resistance detection.

  16. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Robert; AMANTURDIEV Alisher; MEJLUMYAN Larisa; BABAYEV Yashen; KIM Michael

    2008-01-01

    @@ Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality.Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  17. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; Robert; AMANTURDIEV; Alisher; MEJLUMYAN; Larisa; BABAYEV; Yashen; KIM; Michael

    2008-01-01

    Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality. Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  18. Studies on fibre quality of a long staple cotton variety using high volume instrument and advanced fibre information system for fibre quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Manickam and S Venkatakrishnan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibre quality parameters of 20 plants of a long staple cotton variety Suraj were analyzed using High Volume Instrument (HVI and Advanced Fibre Information System (AFIS and were compared. From AFIS data, narrow range of coefficient of variability (of less than 10 % was noticed in characters like length (by weight, upper quartile length (by weight, length (by number, 5 % length (by number, fineness (mtex, maturity ratio and fibre neps. Comparatively larger extent of variability was noticed (of more than 10 % for short fibre content (both by weight and by number, immature fibre content, fibre neps – count/g, seed coat neps – count/g and for seed coat neps – mean size. However, the coefficient of variability for 2.5 % span length (mm, uniformity ratio (%, micronaire (μg/inch and tenacity at 3.2 mm gauge (g/tex was low when the fibre quality data was generated in HVI. This shows that variability estimates were narrow in the selected plants when fibre quality was analysed in HVI and exposes inherent weakness in analysing the fibre quality with HVI in breeders’ perspective. Correlation coefficients between immature fibre content and short fibre content, both by number (r = 0.89 and by weight (r = 0.84 were very high indicating that by reducing short fibre content the immature fibre content can be reduced drastically. Further, the correlation between immature fibre content and tenacity at 3.2 mm gauge was negative and was high (-0.91. Plants with ideal combination of yield and fibre quality parameters were identified for further exploitation.

  19. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast performed significantly better in all of the measured endpoints than those reared on maize. P. armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties. Although there were no negative effects of Bt maize in this experiment, we recommend future studies on Bt crops to focus on species interactions in long-term, multi-species experiments. - Protaphorura armata performed equally well when reared on two Bt and three non-Bt maize varieties

  20. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will

  1. 不同棉花杂交种在天山北坡地区的表现及比较研究%Study on Performance and Comparison of Different Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) Hybrid Varieties in Northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许幸芝; 李志刚; 马刚

    2013-01-01

    [目的]比较分析不同棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)杂交种在天山北坡地区的表现.[方法]针对新疆10个主要外引棉花杂交品种的生育期、产量、衣分、纤维强度、马克隆值、纤维整齐度、比强度等主要经济性状与当地品种新陆早13号进行分析和比较.[结果]10个品种的生育期均比对照长,但均属早熟.鲁棉研24(F1)、标记抗虫杂交棉超级1号和标杂A1产量较高,品质也较好,但比强度低于对照;中科898、鲁RH-1(F1)、W8225(F1)、冀丰197、新乡中科59、新乡中科58和新乡中科60在产量上明显低于对照,品质上新乡中科59和新乡中科60优于对照,其他几个品种在品质上与对照相比也无明显优势.[结论]该研究可为今后一段时间内天山北坡地区棉花的科学引种以及育种提供理论依据.%[Objective]The aim was to compare and analyze the performance of different cotton hybrid varieties in Northern Xinjiang. [ Method] Ten outside cotton hybrid varieties were compared with local land cotton variety Xinluzao No. 13 in their sowing time, production yield, length, fiber strength, micron, ginned cotton, gin rate and other major economic traits. [Result] The results showed that the sowing time of the ten varieties were much longer than that of the Xinluzao No. 13. Compared with the Xinluzao No. 13, Lumianyan 24( F1) , mark of pest-resistant hybrid cotton super 1 and mark of pest-resistant hybrid cotton Al had higher yield, better quality, but their fiber strength were lower. The yield of Zhongke 898, Lu RH-1 (F1) , Jifeng 197, Xinxiang zhongke 59, Xinxiangzhongke 58 and Xinxiangzhongke 60 were lower than that of the Xinluzao No. 13, among the six varieties, only Xinxiangzhongke 59 and Xinxiangzhongke had better quality, while the others had no significant superiority. [Conclusion] The study provides a theoretic basis for cotton's scientifical introduction and breeding work in Northern Xinjiang during a period in future.

  2. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, III, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  3. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  4. Biodiversity of Indian Germplasm of Cotton and Its Use for Genetic Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYEE C D; KRANTHI K R

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton production in India was stagnant at 12.3 to 17.7 million bales over the decade 1992-2003.The introduction of new technologies during the early part of the decade,notably Bt-cotton technology,hybrids,and insecticides with novel modes of action resulted in doubling of production and productivity from 2001-2007.It is generally believed that amongst the new technologies,Bt-cotton has contributed the greatest in enhancing productivity levels in all the major cotton producing countries of the world.However,Bt-cotton incorporated CrylAc,which is the most toxic Bt-protein to bollworms,known to be the best amongst all known Bt-toxins characterized until date.

  5. Evolution of insect pest and disease resistant, high-yielding and improved quality varieties of cotton by use of ionizing radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of induced mutations for disease resistance in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease resistant, high yielding and higher quality cotton varieties were developed. 42 interspecific hybrid progenies of earlier crosses between Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium tomentosum or Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum were included. Out of these, 22 progenies in F3 generation were irradiated by gamma radiation doses of 20 and 25 kR. A list is given of interspecific hybrid progenies, as are the lists of boll rot susceptible and resistant plants in the irradiated and non-irradiated populations and/or successful crosses made between 1977 and 1978

  6. Seeing the Breeding Progress from Mid-Early Maturing Group of Regional Test of Xinjiang Cotton Variety%从新疆棉花品种早中熟组区域试验看育种进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝晖

    2014-01-01

    通过对2004~2013年新疆棉花品种早中熟组区域试验参试品种的基本情况、产量、品质性状的统计分析,结果表明:参试品种多以新疆本地育种单位培育为主;产量得到了很大的提高,籽棉产量平均每年增加72 kg/hm2,皮棉产量平均每年增加36 kg/hm2;单铃重下降、衣分提高;纤维长度呈降低趋势、比强度呈提高趋势,但马克隆值没有明显变化。%Based on the analysis of basic conditions,yield,quality of the mid-early maturing cotton in regiooal test of Xin-jiang from 2004 to 201 3 . This paper concluded that:the experimental varieties in Xinjiang are mainly bred by the local breed-ing unit;the yield has greatly increased,the unginned cotton increased at the rate of 72 kg/hm2 ,ginned cotton at the rate of 36 kg/hm2 ,;the boll weight decreased while the lint increased, the length tended to reduce while the cotton fiber strength tended to raise,the mioronaire index had no obvious changes.

  7. Risk Preferences and Pesticide Use by Cotton Farmers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Liu; JiKun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Despite insect-resistant Bt cotton has been lauded for its ability to reduce the use of pesticides, studies have shown that Chinese Bt cotton farmers continue to use excessive amounts of pesticides. Using results from a survey and an artefactual field experiment, we find that farmers who are more risk averse use greater quantities of pesticides. We also find that farmers who are more loss averse use lesser quantities of pesticides. This result is consistent with our conceptual framework and s...

  8. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. → The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. → Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. → The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. → Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  9. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yiyang, E-mail: yuanyy@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ke Xin, E-mail: xinke@sibs.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen Fajun, E-mail: fajunchen@njau.edu.cn [College of Plant Protection, Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Krogh, Paul Henning, E-mail: phk@dmu.dk [Department of Bioscience, University of Aarhus, P.O. Box 314, Vejlsoevej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Ge Feng, E-mail: gef@ioz.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: > We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. > The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. > Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. > The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. > Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  10. Consequences for Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and non-Bt maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorura...

  11. Breeding of Trans-Bt Gene Rice Varieties with Pest Resistance by Means of Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS)%利用分子标记辅助选择培育转 Bt基因抗虫水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 魏志刚; 裴婷婷; 胡颂平; 余霞; 张静; 罗利军; 叶水峰; 刘国兰

    2014-01-01

    In order to breed trans-Bt gene rice materials with pest resistance,three Bt genes,cry1Ac/Ab, cry1C* and cry2A*,from the donor parents developed by Huazhong Agricultural University were introgressed into Xiushui123,Xiangqing,Hanhui No.3 and Huhan1B,namely Minghui63( Cry1C*) ,Minghui63( Cry2A*) and Minghui63 ( Cry1Ab/Ac) respectively using the method of traditional hybrid;then the new type lines of trans-Bt gene rice were by obtained means of maker-assisted selection ( MAS) ,screening of basta test in the field and test paper strip detection.In addition trans-gene rice lines of good pest resistance and fine agricultural traits were scteened by using the assays of insect-resistance in the field under normal field management but without spraying pesticide in the whole bearing stage of these trans-gene lines providing the materials for fur-ther anti-pest breeding.The homozygous lines with cry1C* and cry2A were obtained in the different back-grounds ( Xiushui123,Xiangqing and Huhan1B) respectively by the detection of PCR and test paper strip.At the same time,Bt lines showed excellent resistance to rice leaf roller in the field under the condition of its natu-ral occurrence.%为培育转Bt基因抗虫水稻品种材料,以传统杂交的方法将3个Bt明恢63中的Bt基因cry1C*、cry2A*和cry1Ac/Ab,转育到水稻品种秀水123、湘晴、旱恢3号和沪旱1B中;以回交二代自交三代(BC2F3)水稻叶片为材料,利用分子标记辅助选择、田间除草剂筛选和试纸条检测方法,以获得新型转Bt基因株系。并在全生育期实行除不喷施农药外的正常田间管理的转基因植株的田间抗虫鉴定方法筛选出抗虫性良好、农艺性状优良的株系,为后续抗虫育种提供材料。 BC2 F3代PCR检测及试纸条检测的结果显示分别获得cry1C*和cry2A*基因的沪旱1B、秀水123和湘晴的纯合株系。同时,在田间自然诱发虫害条件下,转基因株系对稻纵卷叶螟虫表现出强抗性。

  12. Transgenic Cotton-Fed Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects the Parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R; Rossi, G D; Busoli, A C

    2016-02-01

    Cotton cultivars expressing Cry proteins are widely used to control lepidopteran pests. The effects of transgenic plants containing insecticidal Cry proteins on non-target species must be comprehended for a better and rational use of this technology for pest management. We investigated the influence of the Bt cotton cultivars NuOPAL and FM 975 on biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a non-target pest of Bt cotton cultivars and on its parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The experiments were conducted in a climatized room, and the non-transgenic near isolines were used for rearing whiteflies as control hosts. The effects of the Bt cotton cultivars on the period of embryonic and larval development and the percentage of adult emergence of B. tabaci were assessed. The period required for embryonic, larval, and pupal development and the percentage of emergence and longevity of E. desantisi females were determined using Bt cotton-fed and non-Bt cotton-fed B. tabaci as hosts. Both Bt cotton cultivars resulted in a decrease of approximately 20% of adult emergence of B. tabaci. Differently, an increase of approximately 10% of adult emergence of E. desantisi was observed for parasitoids that used hosts fed with both Bt cotton cultivars. However, female parasitoid longevity decreased when their hosts were fed on Bt cotton cultivars. Our data suggest that the use of Bt cotton cultivars in association with the biological control agent E. desantisi could be functional for the management of B. tabaci in Bt cotton crops. PMID:26431703

  13. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  14. Metal analysis of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  15. Study on the Physiological Characters and Yield of Two Colored Cotton Varieties%两个彩色棉品种生理特性及产量性状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海鹏; 周琴; 王荣富; 周桃华

    2011-01-01

    以淮棕杂1号、淮绿杂1号和白色棉亲本材料zms-41为材料,研究了棕色棉、绿色棉及其亲本生理特性及产量性状的差异.结果表明,亲本叶绿素(a+b)含量最高,棕色棉次之,绿色棉最低,盛花期后绿色棉叶绿素a、b的含量与亲本差异明显.绿色棉和棕色棉叶面积系数的增长主要在棉花生育中前期,盛花期以后,叶面积系数下降较快;叶比重在整个生育期相对较低.绿色棉和棕色棉的光合速率在盛花前期略高于亲本,蒸腾速率在蕾期略高于亲本,盛花期明显低干亲本.棕色棉较绿色棉增产16.7%.与亲本相比,绿色棉和棕色棉的产量低、单株成铃数少、衣分低、铃重轻.%In this paper, the colored cotton varieties Huaizongza 1 (brown fiber), Huailuza 1 (green fiber), and their parental material zms-41 (the contrast) were used as experimental materials to analyze the physiological characteristics and yield variation.The results showed the chlorophyll content (a + b) was the highest in the parental plant while lowest in green-fiber one. The chlorophyll content (a + b) were great differences between green-fiber cotton cultivar and the parental plant after full-blooming stage. Compared with the contrast, the leaf area indices of brown-fiber cultivar and green-fiber one went up mainly in the early growth stage but fell faster after full-blooming stage, and the specific leaf weight of colored cotton was relatively lower in the whole growth period. Not only the photosynthetic rate in the former full-blooming stage but also the transpiration rate in the bud stage of green-fiber cultinar and brown-fiber one were little higher than that of the contrast, but their transpiration rates were obviously lower than that of the contrast in the full-blooming stage. For yields, there were 16.7 % increase in green-fiber cultivar than in green-fiber one. Compared with the contrast, the two colored cotton varieties presented low yield, boll weight

  16. Melhoramento das variedades paulistas de algodão. Criação da IAC 13-1 Improvement of the São Paulo cotton varieties origin and breeding of IAC 13-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popílio A. Cavaleri

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available A variedade de algodoeiro IAC 13-1 foi desenvolvida a partir da linhagem norte-americana Acala 5675, conhecida como uma "Acala Oriental", a qual foi selecionada de material primitivo colhido no México. Dadas as boas qualidades da sua fibra, essa linhagem foi objeto de estudos, na Seção de Algodão do Instituto Agronômico, desde a sua introdução. Após nove anos de aclimatação e seleção individual, foi isolada a linhagem IAG 61/60 como material promissor. Desenvolveu-se a IAC 13-1 a partir dessa linhagem por seleção genealógica, no período de 1961 a 1970. A sua semente foi entregue em 1968, pela primeira vez, para multiplicação em campo básico. A IAC 13-1 substitui a IAC 12-2, na lavoura, a partir de 1970, tendo maior produtividade, melhor capulho, maior semente, melhor fibra e maior produção em terrenos infestados porFusarium oxysporumf.vasiniectum(Atk Snyder e Hansen.The origin and breending of the São Paulo cotton variety IAC 13-1, as well as the involved proceedings and numerical results are reported. The "eastern Acala" Acala 5675, selected at Knoxville, Tenn., from a Mexican cotton was introduced to São Paulo in 1950. It showed very good fiber qualities in the new environment. After nine years of acclimation and individual selection it yielded a promising line named IAG 61/60. IAC 13-1 was developped from this line by the general pedegree selection process adopted in breeding for final genetic balance by the Cotton Section of the Instituto Agronômico. The first stock of genetic seed was released for further increase in 1968. IAC 13-1 substituted the commercial variety IAC 12-2. This substitution signified an improvement in yield, type and size of bolls, size of seeds, fiber qualities and behaviour in areas contaminated by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder et Hansen.

  17. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on Nontarget Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shao-Peng; Yang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Qing; Pu, De-Qiang; Shi, Min; Ye, Gong-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-08-01

    The effects of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1, KMD2, and G8-7, on biological parameters and population dynamics of nontarget insect, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were investigated in the laboratory and field. No significant differences were found between Bt and non-Bt rice lines for aphid survival. The developmental time of R. maidis that fed on KMD1 and KMD2 did not differ significantly from those of the individuals feeding on the parental variety Xiushui11, but significantly prolonged developmental time was observed on G8-7 as compared with its parental variety Xiushui110. Aphid fecundity was significantly higher on Bt than on parental rice. A 2-yr field survey indicated that Bt rice did not significantly affect the population dynamics of R. maidis in comparison with non-Bt rice. Additionally, guttation droplets of Bt rice and aphids feeding on Bt rice were analyzed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. No Cry1Ab protein was found in aphid adults feeding on Bt rice lines both in the laboratory and field. By using the guttation droplets from the top of rice seedlings, we designed a novel method to collect phloem sap, and found that relatively low concentrations were detected in the guttation droplets from Bt rice lines. In conclusion, although the Bt rice lines tested in this study stimulate the fecundity of R. maidis, the aphid population density did not increase in Bt rice fields. PMID:27389683

  18. Evaluating potassium-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium (K) deficiency in Pakistani soils has been recently reported as the major limiting factor affecting sustainable cotton production. The present study was conducted to envisage how K nutrition affect the growth, biomass production, yield and K-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes, NIBGE-3701, NIBGE-1524 (Bt-transgenic), Sadori, Sindh-1 and SAU-2 (non-Bt conventional), commonly grown in Pakistan. All five genotypes were raised at deficient and adequate K levels, i.e. 0 and 60 kg K/sub 2/O ha-1, respectively. The experiment was performed in plastic pots following a completely randomized factorial design with three repeats. Adequate K nutrition significantly increased various plant growth traits and yield of all cotton genotypes under study, viz. number of sympodia (21%), number of leaves (34%), leaf dry biomass (30%), shoot dry biomass (31%), number of bolls (50%) and yield of seed cotton (92%). Substantial variations were observed among cotton genotypes for their K-use-efficiency and K-response-efficiency. Sadori and SAU-2 were screened as most K-use-efficient cotton genotypes, while Sindh-1 and SAU-2 were ranked as the most K-responsive cotton genotypes. Interestingly, Sadori did not respond to K nutrition. Moreover, Bt cotton genotypes accumulated more K as compared to non-Bt genotypes. The cotton genotype SAU-2 was identified as efficient-response genotype for better adaptation for both low- and high-K-input sustainable cotton agriculture systems. (author)

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activities and SNP/InDel analysis of cotton varieties differring in salt tolerance%耐盐差异性不同棉花品种的抗氧化酶活性及SNP/InDel分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林池; 王康; 魏小云; 荣平; 王亚峰

    2014-01-01

    为探讨亲缘关系较近的耐盐棉花品种中棉所35与盐敏感棉花品种中棉所12耐盐差异性,用100 mmol/L、200 mmol/L、300 mmol/L及400 mmol/L NaCl处理棉花幼苗,调查这2个棉花品种在盐胁迫下过氧化氢酶( CAT)、过氧化物酶( POD)、超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)等抗氧化酶活性的变化以及对中棉所35和中棉所12的SNP/In-Del(单核苷酸多态性/碱基缺失或插入)进行了初步鉴定。结果显示,相比于盐敏感品种中棉所12,耐盐品种中棉所35的SOD活性随盐浓度上升变化较小,表现出较高的稳定性。盐敏感材料中棉所12的CAT及POD活性的变化趋势与中棉所35基本保持一致,在一定盐浓度内,随着盐浓度的上升而上升,超过一定的盐浓度后活性下降;盐敏感品种中棉所12的CAT及POD活性整体上低于耐盐品种中棉所35。此外,发现亲缘关系很近而耐盐水平差异显著的中棉所35和中棉所12存在点突变和插入/缺失,说明这些SNP/InDel可能对耐盐性状有重要的调控功能。%In order to explore the mechanism underlying the salt tolerance of two cotton varieties with close genetic rela-tionship, CCRI 35(salt-tolerant) and CCRI 12(salt-sensitive) were treated with 100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, and 400 mmol/L NaCl respectively, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The results showed that the SOD activity of CCRI 35 was independent of salt con-centration, suggestive of high level of stability. The two cotton varieties had similar variation tendency of CAT and POD activities increased with the increase of salt level and decreased after wards. The activities of CAT and POD were lower in salt-sensitive va-riety CCRI 12 than those in salt-resistant variety CCRI 35. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) and insertion/ deletion (InDel) between CCRI 35 and CCRI 12 were detected, indicating that

  20. 耐盐差异性不同棉花品种的抗氧化酶活性及SNP/InDel分析%Antioxidant enzyme activities and SNP/InDel analysis of cotton varieties differring in salt tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林池; 王康; 魏小云; 荣平; 王亚峰

    2014-01-01

    为探讨亲缘关系较近的耐盐棉花品种中棉所35与盐敏感棉花品种中棉所12耐盐差异性,用100 mmol/L、200 mmol/L、300 mmol/L及400 mmol/L NaCl处理棉花幼苗,调查这2个棉花品种在盐胁迫下过氧化氢酶( CAT)、过氧化物酶( POD)、超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)等抗氧化酶活性的变化以及对中棉所35和中棉所12的SNP/In-Del(单核苷酸多态性/碱基缺失或插入)进行了初步鉴定。结果显示,相比于盐敏感品种中棉所12,耐盐品种中棉所35的SOD活性随盐浓度上升变化较小,表现出较高的稳定性。盐敏感材料中棉所12的CAT及POD活性的变化趋势与中棉所35基本保持一致,在一定盐浓度内,随着盐浓度的上升而上升,超过一定的盐浓度后活性下降;盐敏感品种中棉所12的CAT及POD活性整体上低于耐盐品种中棉所35。此外,发现亲缘关系很近而耐盐水平差异显著的中棉所35和中棉所12存在点突变和插入/缺失,说明这些SNP/InDel可能对耐盐性状有重要的调控功能。%In order to explore the mechanism underlying the salt tolerance of two cotton varieties with close genetic rela-tionship, CCRI 35(salt-tolerant) and CCRI 12(salt-sensitive) were treated with 100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, and 400 mmol/L NaCl respectively, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The results showed that the SOD activity of CCRI 35 was independent of salt con-centration, suggestive of high level of stability. The two cotton varieties had similar variation tendency of CAT and POD activities increased with the increase of salt level and decreased after wards. The activities of CAT and POD were lower in salt-sensitive va-riety CCRI 12 than those in salt-resistant variety CCRI 35. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) and insertion/ deletion (InDel) between CCRI 35 and CCRI 12 were detected, indicating that

  1. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun;

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...... was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed...... the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding...

  2. The feeding preferences of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on cotton plant varieties=Preferência alimentar de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em variedades de plantas algodoeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenildo Ribeiro Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the attractiveness and the non-preference for feeding of newly hatched fall armyworm larvae on the cotton plant parts and different varieties used in the study. The trials were performed at 27 ± 1ºC, a 70% ± 10% relative humidity and a 14h photoperiod. Leaves, bracts, squares and carpel walls of the BRS Itamarati-90 variety and leaves of Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120, BRS-Araçá, IAC-24 and BRS Itamarati-90 varieties were used in attractiveness, multiple-choice and confinement (no-choice non-preference feeding trials. Twenty larvae were released per petri dish test (arena system with 10 repetitions. Attractiveness trials were evaluated by counting feeding caterpillars over 60 min. and by measuring non-preference at 24h. Leaves were the most attractive item and were preferred for feeding. In the multiple-choice arena trials, Coodetec-410 was the most attractive variety, and BRS Acala-90, Fibermax-966 and DeltaPenta were the least attractive to fall armyworm larvae. In the non-preference trial, BRS-Araça was the variety favored for feeding. BRS-Cedro, BRS Itamarati-90, DeltaPenta, Coodetec-408 and BRS-Aroeira were the least-favored varieties. In the 60 min. attractiveness trials, 46 min. proved to be the most suitable time for evaluating the attractiveness of cotton plants to newly hatched fall armyworm larvae.Avaliou-se atratividade e não-preferência alimentar de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda por partes de plantas e plantas de variedades de algodoeiro. Testes foram realizados a 27 ± 1ºC, UR de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Folhas, brácteas, botões florais e cascas de maçãs da variedade BRS Itamarati-90 e folhas de Fibermax-966, Fibermax-977, DeltaOpal, DeltaPenta, BRS Acala-90, Coodetec-408, Coodetec-409, Coodetec-410, BRS-Cedro, BRS-Ipê, BRS-Aroeira, IPR-96, IPR-120

  3. Pattern Analysis of the Interaction between Verticillium dahliae Strains and Cotton Varieties%棉花黄萎病菌与品种互作的格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元奇; 房卫平; 胡秉民

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the interaction pattern of strains and cotton varieties, the disease indices of twenty-three different resistant or susceptible varieties inoculating 18 isolates of Verticillium dahliae were analyzed by biplot method based on cluster analysis. The results showed that 23 cotton cultivars were grouped into six clusters, and 18 Verticillium dahliae strains were clustered into five groups. With the highest resistance to all strain groups, variety cluster G1 which was consisted of two lines (5031 and 50312) could be used as good resistant resource in breeding of Verticillium wilt resistance. There is a high host-pathogen interaction between strain group S4 and variety group G5. As dominant strains and with the highest pathogenicity, S4 consisting of 4 Verticillium dahliae strains among which VD25 came from Chengan of Hebei Province and the rest, named as XS4, XS6, and XS7 all from Changshu of Jiangsu Province, should be very important in identifying and breeding for Verticillium wilt resistance. Strain groups S2 and S3, which highly interacted with 3 variety groups (accounting for 56% of the tested material), might be the potential dominant strains. With average resistance to all strains, variety group G2 was the excellent host for Verticillium dahliae.%以23个棉花品种(系)接种18个黄萎病菌株的抗感表现(病情指数)为分析对象,在聚类分析的基础上用双标图方法研究了寄主-病原的互作格局.结果表明:23个棉花品种分为6个抗病性不同的品种组,18个菌株聚为5个致病力不同的菌株群.5031和50312组成的品种组G1对所有菌株群具有最高抗性,可作为抗黄育种的高抗质源.来自河北成安的VD25与来自江苏常熟的XS4、XS6和XS7组成的菌株群S4与G5品种组存在互作,其致病力最强,是棉花黄萎病的优势菌株群,在抗黄育种和抗黄鉴定中应予以高度重视.S2和S3菌株群与56%的参试品种构成的3个品种组间存在互作,是潜在的

  4. Grey Correlation Analysis of Main Quantitative Traits and lint Yield of Cotton Variety%棉花品种主要数量性状与皮棉产量的灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权月伟; 米换房; 翟雷霞; 李继军; 李文蕾; 唐光雷

    2013-01-01

      通过运用灰色关联分析方法对国家棉花品种区域试验中的参试品种(系)邯郸点试验数据进行了主要数量性状与皮棉产量分析。结果表明:对棉花品种皮棉产量影响较大的因素是单株结铃数和衣分,各个因素对皮棉产量的影响程度依次为:单株结铃数>衣分>霜前花率>始果枝节位>单铃重>果枝数>株高>籽指。%Main quantitative traits and lint yield were analyzed by grey correlation analysis in new cotton variety . The re-sults showed that :the numbers of bolls per plant and ginning outturn were the bigger influence factors to lint yield . The influ-ence degree to lint yields of every factor was as follows :the number of bolls per plant > ginning outturn > pre - frost yield > the first node of fruit branch > single boll weight > fruit branch number > stem height > seed index.

  5. Regional management strategy of cotton bollworm in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important insect pests in cotton, corn and vegetable production of China. Its regional population dynamics and management strategy derived from Bt-transgenic cotton were investigated in recent years. The researches indicated that the populations of H. armigera in the whole country can be divided into four regional groups, namely, the tropical, subtropical, temperate and Xinjiang geotypes. Their adaptive zones are respectively in southern China, middle and lower Changjiang River Region, including Sichun Province, Hunan Province, Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province etc., Yellow River Region, including Henan Province, Hebei Province, and Shandong Province etc., and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Gansu Province. Based on the analysis of H. armigera population dynamics and climate environment, it is suggested that the Beijing area is probably the northern boundary for the temperate zone geotype of the cotton bollworm. Damage to cotton by larvae of the temperate zone geotype can extend into areas of northeastern China such as Liaoning and Jilin provinces by long distance, facultative migration during the summer East Asia monsoon. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating the pest since 1997. Its use expanded rapidly to 1.1 million ha in 2000 and 2.8 million ha in 2003, equivalent to 58% of the total cotton area of 4.8 million ha in 2003. The pest management tactics associated with Bt-cotton have resulted in a drastic reduction in insecticide use, which usually caused a significantly increase in populations of beneficial insects and thus contributed to improved natural control of some pests. The risk assessment shows that the natural refuges derived from the mixed planting system of cotton, corn, soybean and peanut on small-scale single-family holdings, play an important function in delaying the development of cotton bollworm

  6. Biodiversity of Indian Germplasm of Cotton and Its Use for Genetic Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYEE; C; D; KRANTHI; K; R

    2008-01-01

    Cotton production in India was stagnant at 12.3 to 17.7 million bales over the decade 1992-2003.The introduction of new technologies during the early part of the decade,notably Bt-cotton technology,hybrids,

  7. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton. PMID:26841044

  8. Resistance Evaluation of Btcry1Ah-transgenic Maize to Asian Corn Borer,Cotton Bollworm and Oriental Armyworm%转Bt cry1Ah基因抗虫玉米对亚洲玉米螟、棉铃虫和黏虫的抗性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋苗; 汪海; 张杰; 何康来; 梁革梅; 朱莉; 黄大昉; 郎志宏

    2016-01-01

    Bt cry1Ah gene was transferred into inbred line maize Zong31 via Agrobacterium-mediated method,and transgenic maize HGK60 with significant resistance to corn borer was acquired. In order to investigate its insecticidal activity to Lepidoptera pests,we evaluated the insecticidal effects of HGK60 to Asian corn boner(Ostrinia furnacalis),cotton bollworm(Mythimna separate(Walker))and oriental armyworm(Helicoverpa armigeraHubne)through laboratory and field bioassay. The results of laboratory bioassay indicated that no Asian corn boner feeding on HGK60 leaves survived. HGK60 presented the toxic effect on neonate of cotton bollworm,and different tissues of it had different insecticidal effects. Compared to the non-transgenic maize,the body-weight of armyworm neonate was significantly inhibited after a week of feeding HGK 60 leaves. The results of field bioassay showed that HGK60 had solid insecticidal effects to O. furnacalis and H. armigera in high resistance level,while the efficacy to M. separate was in resistance level.%利用农杆菌介导法将Btcry1Ah基因转入玉米自交系综31,获得对玉米螟有显著抗性的转基因玉米HGK60,为了研究其对鳞翅目害虫的杀虫活性,在室内和田间分别用亚洲玉米螟、棉铃虫和黏虫幼虫对HGK60玉米的杀虫效果进行检测。室内生物活性检测结果表明,取食HGK60玉米心叶的亚洲玉米螟幼虫在3d后死亡率达100%;HGK60玉米对棉铃虫幼虫有毒杀作用,玉米不同部位对棉铃虫幼虫的杀虫效果存在差异;与非转基因玉米对照相比,取食HGK60玉米叶片一周后的黏虫幼虫体重增长明显受到抑制。田间生物活性检测结果表明,HGK60玉米对于亚洲玉米螟和棉铃虫有很强的杀虫活性,达到高抗级别,对于黏虫有一定的杀虫活性,为抗性级别。

  9. LOBI test BT-15/BT-16 pre-test calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOBI is a higher pressure, electrically heated integral system facility simulating a KWU 1300 MW PWR scaled 1:712 by volume, although full scale has been maintained in the vertical direction. In order to complete the test programme before the facility is closed in 1991 a number of tests have been performed in tandem, where the test procedures were compatible. BT-15/BT-16 is one such composite test. In their original form both tests BT-15 and BT-16 simulated a loss of main feedwater transient with delayed auxiliary feedwater injection, with the pumps running in BT-15 and tripped in BT-16. The aim of each test was to investigate the loss of primary/secondary heat transfer as the steam generator secondary sides boiled down, and the subsequent recovery of heat transfer as the auxiliary feedwater was tripped on. Due to a re-scheduling of the test programme there was insufficient time to perform sensitivity studies and so only one, base case, calculation is presented. (author)

  10. 基于GGE双标图的长江流域国审棉花品种分类特征评价%Evaluation on the Classification Characteristics of National Registered Cotton Varieties in the Yangtze River Valley Based on GGE Biplot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃银; 李健

    2014-01-01

    Objective]By using the GGE biplot method, the classification and characteristics analysis of national registered varieties over 30 years recommended from the candidate cotton lines in cotton regional trials in the Yangtze River Valley (YaRV) facilitated us a historical perspective of cotton variety improvement progress to explore the evolution trend of cotton varieties’ type and the corresponding characteristics, and thus to provide theoretical guidelines for current decision making of cotton breeding target characters and cotton evaluation and recommendation for the official registration before commercial release.[Method]In accordance with the cultivar scoring criteria of national cotton registration standard, the corresponding weights were allocated to certain characters of yield and fiber quality, disease resistance, earliness, etc., to build a universal cotton variety evaluation index based on multiple traits. The “genotype vs. trait” view of GGE biplot was adopted to analyze the interaction pattern of 53 national registered cotton varieties in cotton regional trials in YaRV during 1981-2012 and 15 major characters including seed cotton yield, lint cotton yield, boll weight, boll numbers, lint percentage, seed index, fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire value,Fusarirum wilt index, Verticillium wilt index, pro-frost yielding rate, plant height, fruit branch number and evaluation index, and also to implement the classification and feature comparison of registered cotton cultivars. And then the cultivar types and features were evaluated. According to the shift of check cultivars in cotton regional trials in the past, the cotton regional trial datasets since 1981 were divided into five periods. The dynamics of cultivar type’s proportion and the evaluation index scores were evaluated across the five periods.[Result]The “genotype vs. trait” view of GGE biplot analysis showed that there existed complicated relationships among cotton breeding target

  11. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on insecticidal activity and phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Nhan Le; Ma, Chuanxin; Shang, Jianying; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Shutong; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles and transgenic plants are recent scientific developments that require systematic study to understand their potential risks to human health. The effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on Bt-transgenic cotton and conventional cotton are reported here. CuO NPs inhibited the growth, development, nutrient content, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations of transgenic and conventional cotton. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed CuO NPs aggregated on the epidermis of conventional cotton leaves, whereas it had reached into the cells of transgenic cotton leaves by endocytosis. Most CuO NPs aggregates were found on the root outer epidermis and the rest were located in intercellular spaces of both conventional and Bt-transgenic cottons. CuO NPs enhanced the expression of the exogenous gene encoding of Bt toxin protein in leaves and roots, especially at low CuO NP concentrations, providing an important benefit for Bt cotton insect resistance. PMID:26408972

  12. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn on soil Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida (Collembola), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acarina) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, X.; Krogh, P. H.

    The effects of the Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (corn variety Cascade Bt MON810 and DeKalb variety 618 Bt) were studied on survival and reproduction of the soil collembolan Folsomia fimetaria, Folsomia candida, the collembolan predator mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and enchytraeids...

  13. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  14. Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Fabrick

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]. The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3 in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1 linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1 progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4 predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona.

  15. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  16. Chloroplast-targeted expression of recombinant crystal-protein gene in cotton: an unconventional combat with resistant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sarfraz; Mohamed, Bahaeldeen Babiker; Shehzad, Kamran; Jamal, Adil; Shahid, Muhammad Naveed; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2013-07-10

    Plants transformed with single Bt gene are liable to develop insect resistance and this has already been reported in a number of studies carried out around the world where Bt cotton was cultivated on commercial scale. Later, it was envisaged to transform plants with more than one Bt genes in order to combat with resistant larvae. This approach seems valid as various Bt genes possess different binding domains which could delay the likely hazards of insect resistance against a particular Bt toxin. But it is difficult under field conditions to develop homozygous plants expressing all Bt genes equally after many generations without undergoing recombination effects. A number of researches claiming to transform plants from three to seven transgenes in a single plant were reported during the last decade but none has yet applied for patent of homozygous transgenic lines. A better strategy might be to use hybrid-Bt gene(s) modified for improved lectin-binding domains to boost Bt receptor sites in insect midgut. These recombinant-Bt gene(s) would express different lectin domains in a single polypeptide and it is relatively easy to develop homozygous transgenic lines under field conditions. Enhanced chloroplast-localized expression of hybrid-Bt gene would leave no room for insects to develop resistance. We devised and successfully applied this strategy in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and data up to T3 generation showed that our transgenic cotton plants were displaying enhanced chloroplast-targeted Cry1Ac-RB expression. Laboratory and field bioassays gave promising results against American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), pink bollworm (Pictinophora scutigera) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) that otherwise, were reported to have evolved resistance against Cry1Ac toxin. Elevated levels of hybrid-Bt toxin were confirmed by ELISA of chloroplast-enriched protein samples extracted from leaves of transgenic cotton lines. While, localization of recombinant Cry1Ac-RB protein in

  17. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody Against Bt Cry1Ac by Using Synthetic Peptide as Hapten%用人工合成多肽作为半抗原制备Bt Cry1Ac的单克隆抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小元; 张岐蜀; 段伟; 姜国华; 李玲

    2012-01-01

    为了制备Bt Cry1Ac特异性单克隆抗体(MAB),本试验从NCBI获得了Bt Cry1Ac蛋白的氨基酸序列,根据抗原性、亲水性和表位性分析选定Bt Cry1Ac特异性肽段进行人工合成,并将其偶联于匙孔血蓝蛋白(KLH)免疫动物,应用细胞融合技术制备了抗该肽段的杂交瘤细胞34株.通过ELISA和免疫印迹试验从中筛选出与Bt Cry1Ac天然蛋白产生特异性反应的单克隆抗体杂交瘤细胞株一株(6G9).ELISA和免疫印迹试验结果显示,该克隆株所分泌的MAB能对合成肽和Bt Cry1Ac产生特异性反应,而与同源的Bt Cry1Aa、Bt Cry1Ab天然蛋白均无交叉反应.通过对转基因棉花的ELISA检测结果表明,本试验所制备的Bt Cry1Ac单克隆抗体能够有效的区分常规棉和抗虫棉,并且能对其中的Bt Cry1Ac蛋白进行特异性的识别.%order to prepare monoclonal antibody Bt CrylAc, we got the amino acid sequence of Bt CrylAc protein from NCBI, and synthesized specific Bt CrylAc peptide, according to its antigenicity, hydro-philicity and accessibility on the basis of its structural features by computer assisted analysis. The peptide was linked with carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin( KHL), and then used for immunized mouse as antigen. 34 strains of hybridoma, which can produce monoclonal antibodies to the peptide, have been obtained by cell fusion technique. One hybridoma strain (6G9), which was specific to natural Bt Cryl Ac was selected by indirect ELISA and Western blot. The result showed that the monoclonal antibody of hybridoma strain (6G9) can react specifically with the synthetic peptide and Bt CrylAc protein, but can not react with Bt CrylAa and Bt Cryl Ab proteins by ELISA and Western blot. This result of experiment showed that the monoclonal antibody of hybridoma strain(6C9)can distinguish transgenic Bt CrylAc cotton and general cotton by ELISA, and it can recognize specifically Bt CrylAc protein in cotton.

  18. Cotton biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of the laboratory to the CRP related to the development of a new crop (Gossypium arboreum) for the USA, and to biotechnological applications for cotton (G. hirsutum) improvement. Within the framework of the CRP, a genotype of G. arboreum suitable for USA production and production strategies shown to be compatible with the existing cotton production and processing infrastructures were developed. In the area of biotechnology, molecular markers closely associated with genes which restore fertility to cytoplasmically male sterile lines of cotton were identified. Gene transcripts possibly associated with restoration were isolated and identified. Gene transcripts putatively associated with semigamy expression were also identified. A gene coding for a membrane-active peptide was constructed and tobacco, as a model system, has been genetically engineered with this gene. New methods for transformation of cotton are under investigation, and a number of new projects are being initiated. For the benefit of readers interested in biotechnology resources, a short list of website addresses are annotated in this report. (author)

  19. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  20. Atomless varieties

    OpenAIRE

    VENEMA, Yde

    2003-01-01

    We define a nontrivial variety of boolean algebras with operators such that every member of the variety is atomless. This shows that not every variety of boolean algebras with operators is generated by its atomic members, and thus establishes a strong incompleteness result in (multi-)modal logic.

  1. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  2. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  3. Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as

  4. Characterization of NCAM expression and function in BT4C and BT4Cn glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Moran, N; Gaardsvoll, H; Linnemann, D; Bjerkvig, R; Laerum, O D; Bock, Elisabeth Marianne

    1991-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion. Therefore, we have studied NCAM expression in the glioma cell lines BT4C and BT4Cn. We demonstrate that the 2 cell lines differ in their metastatic ability; while BT4C cells have a very low capacity for......-substratum binding assay in which the binding of BT4C and BT4Cn cells to NCAM immobilized to glass was assessed. We found thatBT4C cells adhere specifically to NCAM, and that adhesion is inhibited by anti-NCAM Fab'-fragments, while no specific binding of BT4Cn cells to NCAM was observed. The BT4C and BT4Cn cell...... lines thus constitute an important new model system for the study of tumor invasion and metastasis and of the role of cell adhesion molecules in these processes....

  5. Thwarting one of cotton's nemeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There's not much good to be said for the pink bollworm, cotton's most destructive pest, except that it is being controlled to cut crop damage. Scientists have developed strategies, such as increasing native populations of predatory insects and pest-resistant cotton varieties. Thanks to research, growers today can also use cultural practices such as early plowdown of harvested cotton to break up stalks and bury overwintering pink bollworms. And they can disrupt normal mating by releasing sterile insects and using copies of natural compounds, called pheromones, that the pink bollworm uses to attract mates. Such strategies, together with judicious use of insecticides, put together in various combinations, form what is called an integrated pest management system

  6. Limites du riz Bt dans le contexte entomologique de la riziculture en Afrique sub-saharienne et à Madagascar (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Bt rice in the entomological rice cropping context in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. A review. In sub-Saharan African countries and Madagascar, rice crops host many insect species, which have been inventoried and studied for almost 40 years. Management of these rice pests using synthetic chemical pesticides is not common practice. In Asia, genetically modified rice varieties (Bt rice resistant to some insects were engineered in the 1990s. In 2009, two Bt rice varieties were authorized to be marketed in China. Bt rice is not grown in African countries. We therefore decided to analyze the published literature on Bt rice and to compare the findings with the current insect pest situation in African rice fields. The activity spectrum and the efficacy of Bt toxins represent the first limitation encountered in the use of currently available Bt rice varieties. For instance, the effect of Bt toxins against Diptera (Diopsidae species is unknown, since these species only occur in Africa. On the African continent and in Madagascar, it would be essential to enhance or promote taxonomic, biological and ecological knowledge concerning rice pests and to more accurately measure the impact of various insect species on crop yields. The broad range of rice insect pests, including insect vectors of disease, the risk of target insects developing resistance to Bt toxins and the lack of economic assessments suggest that, with the current state of knowledge in Africa, it would be inappropriate to introduce currently available Bt rice varieties there.

  7. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin. PMID:26839284

  8. 用合成多肽为半抗原制备Bt Cry1Ab的单克隆抗体%Preparation of the Monoclonal Antibody Against Bt Cry1Ab by Using Synthetic Peptide as Hapten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小元; 张岐蜀; 段伟; 姜国华; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KHL), and then used for immunized mouse as antigen. Twenty-two strains of hybridoma, which produced monoclonal antibodies to the peptide, had been obtained by cell fusion technique. One hybridoma strain(3A10), which was specific to natural Bt Cry1Ab selected by indirect ELISA. The result of isotype analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody of 3A10 hybridoma strain belong to IgG1 subclass and the light chain was κ chain. The hybridoma chromosome number was 89~108. The monoclonal antibody of hybridoma ascites titers to synthetic peptide was 1:1×107 and to natural Bt Cry1Ab protein was 1:1×104. The purified MAB titers to synthetic peptide was 1:1×108 and to natural Bt CrylAb protein was 1:2×104. The relative affinity of the monoclonal antibody was 0.5 μg/mL. The monoclonal antibody of hybridoma strain could react specifically with the Bt CrylAb protein without reacting with Bt Cry 1 Ac and Bt Cry1Aa proteins by ELISA. The lowest detectable value of the monoclonal antibody to Bt CrylAb was 10 ng/mL by indirect ELISA detection. The monoclonal antibody of hybridoma strain can distinguish transgenic Bt Cry1Ab cotton and general cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) by ELISA, and it can recognize specifically Bt Cry1Ab protein in cotton.

  9. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Memari Trava; Mauro Sartori Bueno; Geraldo Balieiro

    2012-01-01

    Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis) that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day) and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA) of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Scienc...

  10. Genotypic Resistance of F1 Cotton Hybrids by Inoculation with Different Virulent Isolates of the Fungus Verticillium Dahliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMANTURDIEV Alisher; KIM Robert

    2008-01-01

    @@ The plant pathogen Verticilliurn dahliae causes severe cotton losses in Uzbekistan.To create cotton varieties that are resistant to the more virulent races of V.dahliae we wanted to determine genotypic resistance of varieties and lines of cotton to more virulent isolates of different geographic populations of the fungus V.dahliae isolated from different cotton varieties in Uzbekistan and determine the inheritance of wilt resistance with hybrids of the first generation to various isolates of V.dahliae.

  11. Efeito da seleção em terreno naturalmente infestado pela fusariose no melhoramento de variedades de algodoeiro resistentes ao patógeno The improvement of cotton varieties resistant to fusarium wilt by means of plant selection in naturally infested soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popilio A. Cavaleri

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available A seleção individual de plantas em terrenos naturalmente infestados pela "murcha", moléstia provocada por Fusarium oxysporumf. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen, e subseqüente teste de progênies em semelhantes condições, mostrou ser método viável no melhoramento de variedades resistentes a essa moléstia. A variedade IAC RM4, cuja obtenção através dêsse método é descrita, suplantou a variedade original Auburn 56, em 17 ensaios regionais, não só em resistência à moléstia como em tôdas as características de valor cultural e tecnológicas. É discutida a conveniência de o trabalho de seleção ser feito em terrenos naturalmente infestados, localizados nas zonas produtoras de algodão, tendo em vista a necessidade de efetuar grande número de seleções individuais, para que um melhoramento efetivo, considerado em todos os aspectos, além da resistência à moléstia, possa ser obtido.Individual plant selection, followed by progeny tests, in naturally infested soil located in cotton growing areas of the State of São Paulo, revealed to be a viable method to improve cotton varieties, resistant to Fusarium wilt. IAC RM4 variety, obtained by this method, was superior to the paternal variety, Auburn 56, in fiber and agronomic characteristics, besides resistance to Fusarium wilt. The effectivenness of this method is discussed on the basis of the great number of plants that is possible to be selected, a factor which is limitant in the case of artificial inoculation.

  12. Induced mutations for improvement of desi cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desi cotton varieties of Gossypium arboreum have wide adaptability and are relatively tolerant to biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (moisture and salt) stresses. Desi varieties have got potential to yield even under adverse and low input situations. Most of them are synchronous in maturity and possess consistent fibre properties. Despite such merits, very little attention has been paid for improvement of desi cotton. The present area under arboreum varieties is 17.0% (15.30 lakh ha.) against 65% (35.75 lakh ha) during 1947-48. Deliberate attempts are required to improve G. arboreum for its economic and quality characters to compete with upland varieties in rainfed cotton ecology

  13. Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAVEENDRAN T S; PREETHA S; RAJESWARI S

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the worlds leading natural fiber crop,and it is the cornerstone of textile industries worldwide.The cotton industry is confronted with problems in cost of production and requirements for high quality in the product.It is an industry in which marketing is based on measurable quality factors and where technological changes are being implemented rapidly and constantly.So the breeders have to constantly breed cotton varieties to suit the requirements of the textile industry.

  14. Performance of novel vs traditional insecticides for the control of amrascs biguttula biguttula (homoptera, cicadellidae) on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrasca biguttula biguttula (ishida) can reduce the yield of cotton approximately 25%. no potential predators have been recorded in the field for its control. to overcome this pest insecticides play significant role in the improvement of crop yields all over the world during the last four to five decades. to save the crop from this notorious pest, ten formulations of insecticides viz., acephate 75sp (acephate) at the rate 625g, imidacloprid 25wp (imidacloprid) at the rate188g, thiamethaxim 25wg (actara) at the rate 60g, imidacloprid 70wg (confidor) at the rate 43g, dimethoat e 40ec (sanitox) at the rate 1000 ml, nytonpyron 10sl (pyramid) at the rate 500ml, lambdacyhlothrin 2.5e (kango) at the rate 825 ml, thiachloprid 480sc (talent) at the rate 63 ml, imidacloprid 25sl (confidor) at the rate 500ml, and diafenthiuron 500sc (polo), at the rate 500ml, per hectare were sprayed in the field having maximum population of nymphs and adults of jassid at cotton research station, multan on cotton variety bt-886 in the month of july, 2011 and 2012. the maximum mortality of Jassid was observed in those treatments, where acephate was applied with 79, 72, 65 mortality, nytonpyron with 69, 63, 55 and imidacloprid 68, 63, 57 percent mortality after 24, 72 and 168 h of spray. minimum mortality of jassid was observed in the treatments where talent was applied having 25, 17 and 16 percent mortality 24, 72 and 168 h after spray. By the application of acephate, pyramid and confidor 25sl on cotton crop the yield can be increased. (author)

  15. Partnership and Workplace Learning at BT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores BT's partnership with the Communication Workers' Union and London University's Queen Mary and Westfield College and examines its significance for the development of a degree level programme of workplace learning. Describes the programme's philosophy, aims, funding and effectiveness. Incorporates interviews with BT managers, trade union…

  16. Organic Cotton Crop Guide - A manual for practitioners in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank; Ratter, Saro G.; Ramakrishnan, Mahesh

    2005-01-01

    Designed primarily as a reference manual for extension workers and farmers, the Organic Cotton Crop Guide provides comprehensive practical know-how on organic cotton production in the tropics. The guide covers all relevant aspects from soil preparation and variety selection over crop nutrition and pest management to the economic performance of organic cotton farming.

  17. Water use and yield of cotton grown in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of earlier maturing and cool temperature tolerant varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has allowed cotton production to expand northward in the US Great Plains to regions with shorter, cooler growing seasons. The expansion of the drought tolerant cotton into these regions as ...

  18. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  19. Genotypic Resistance of F_1 Cotton Hybrids by Inoculation with Different Virulent Isolates of the Fungus Verticillium Dahliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMANTURDIEV; Alisher; KIM; Robert

    2008-01-01

    The plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae causes severe cotton losses in Uzbekistan. To create cotton varieties that are resistant to the more virulent races of V.dahliae we wanted to determine genotypic

  20. The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant GM Crops in Cotton IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic cottons producing Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide for control of lepidopteran pests and were first commercially grown in Australia, Mexico and the USA in 1996. As of 2006, a total of six additional countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and South Africa...

  1. Integrated systems for control of pink bollworm in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    stage. Most diapause larvae develop in late season bolls that do not contribute to yield but are a source of PBW that infest cotton the following year. We hypothesised that shortening the growing season to reduce the number of late-season bolls would reduce the number of overwintered larvae. The earliest cotton planting date was established as 1 March. Defoliation or plant growth regulator application to terminate plant growth and reduce numbers of late season immature bolls was mandated for 1 September. Cotton stalk destruction and plant residue plowdown was accomplished on 1 November to destroy PBW diapause larvae. Gossyplure-baited PBW trap catches were reduced in the following growing seasons of each year for 4 years following initiation of the programme. Fewer larvae per boll occurred during each season, and the production of diapause larvae was reduced over 90%. Cotton yields and quality increased, and the need for insecticidal control of PBW decreased. The development of Bt-cottons as another IPM component facilitated PBW area-wide management. Field evaluations during 1996 to 2004 have shown PBW infestations reduced 95% compared to non-Bt-cotton. Increased yields, reduced insecticide use, environmental compatibility and increased profits have been documented. The success of PBW-IPM sterile release, behavioural control, cultural control and host plant resistance components stimulated western cotton growers and the National Cotton Council to consider PBW eradication. A strategy has been developed to eradicate the PBW in programme increments in West Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, California and northern Mexico, respectively. Short-season cotton culture and Bt-cotton effectively reduce overall PBW populations to facilitate the effectiveness of low-density effective pheromone mating disruption and sterile moth releases. The eradication programme was initiated in 2001-2002 in 22,300 ha of cotton in the El Paso- Trans Pecos area of Texas, 10,500 ha in south

  2. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  3. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  4. Efficacy of insecticides of different chemistries against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis and conventional cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, D S; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J

    2001-02-01

    Six insecticides of different chemistries were evaluated against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), in non-B.t. (Deltapine 'DP 5415', Deltapine 'DP 5415RR') and transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (B.t.) (Deltapine 'NuCOTN 33B', Deltapine 'DP 458 B/RR') cotton. In 1998, treatments consisted of three rates each of a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin), spinosyn (spinosad), carbamate (thiodicarb), pyrrole (chlorfenapyr), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and avermectin (emamectin benzoate) in a nonirrigated field. In 1999, treatments consisted of three rates each of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, thiodicarb, and indoxacarb in an irrigated and a nonirrigated (dryland) field. The highest rate of each insecticide corresponded to normal grower-use rates. Spinosad and thiodicarb controlled H. zea in non-B.t. cotton, whereas other materials were less effective. Even though H. zea is becoming increasingly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin was highly effective in dryland B. thuringiensis cotton. Spinosad and thiodicarb were equally effective. Data indicated that reduced rates of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, and thiodicarb could be used for control of H. zea in dryland B.t. cotton systems. However, reduced rates of these insecticides in a heavily irrigated B.t. cotton system did not provide adequate control. PMID:11233138

  5. Study on Source-Sink Characteris-tics of High-Yielding Cotton Varieties%棉花高产品种的源库流特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪从亮; 俞敬忠; 刘友良; 吴云康

    2000-01-01

    The recently released high-yieldingcotton variety Simian3 was used as a typical rep-resentative and to be compared with the varietyof Sumian 5. The source-sink and their relationswere studied so as to offer some internal and ex-ternal reference indications for breeding new va-rieties. The main results acquired were as fol-lows: prolific varieties are possessed usually ofearlier capability of sink formation and strong reproductive growth vigor, which means moredry matter may be absorbed into the reproduc-tive organs, additionally, juvenile buds (10 dayold buds) may be with relatively strong ability ofabsorbing photosynthetic products, and theproducts thus formed may be exported as quicklyas possible. On the biochemical respect, leafsource should be with relatively strong photo-system PSI and rather high RuBPcase activity.%以泗棉3号作为近期育成的棉花高产品种的典型代表,与苏棉5号进行比较,研究高产品种的源库流特点及其相互关系。其主要结果为:高产品种具有较早的库形成能力,生殖生长势强,即在中期有较多的干物质进入生殖器官,同时幼铃(10日龄)应有较强的获得光合产物的能力。高温富照期有较高的成铃强度和库活性,叶源既要有较强的物质生产能力,还应将形成的产物尽快地输出。在生化方面,叶源具有较强的光系统PSI和较高的RuBPcase活性。

  6. BT-blenderen - en undersøgelse af BT's videnskabsjournalistik mellem ideal og praksis

    OpenAIRE

    Høyberg Pedersen, Nanna; Sandfeld Hansen, Frederik; Holm Hansen, Puk; Anthon Sørensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the Danish daily newspaper BT and investigates its take on science-journalism. Our main objective is to see how journalistic ideals are interpreted in the daily work of the science-journalists at the paper. The empirical data consists of interviews with two journalists and an editor from BT, an in-depth text-analysis of three articles from BT with popular scientific topics and four popular science articles written for BT by the students, as a means of reflecting on the pra...

  7. Stimulo-deterrent Diversionary Strategy with Conjunctive Use of Trap Crops, Neem and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner for the Management of Insecticide Resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to assess the effects of stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy with trap crops, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner at Agricultural Research Station, Vaigaidam and Agricultural Research Station, Bhavanisagar, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu during 2003-2004. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU7 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops where by the control of these pest was assessed with the application of Bt (Delfin�. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy with conjunctive use of trap crops (okra and pigeonpea, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of Bt on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of Bt infected larvae varied from 43.3-48.8, 40.0-48.3 and 32.7-38.6% on okra, pigeonpea and cotton, respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 88.0-92.7 to 81.1-89.7%.

  8. Isotopic tracer aided studies on the fate of leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products under Pakistan conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer experiments were conducted under field conditions on cotton variety AC-134, using 14C-phenyl leptophos. Leptophos residues were determined in the cotton seed products during 1975, 1976 and 1977. The mean values for leptophos residues in the cotton seed, oil and cake were found to be 0.26, 1.10 and 0.07 ppm respectively. (author)

  9. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  10. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  11. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis in wild relatives of cotton (Gossypium Spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wild cotton species can contribute a valuable gene pool for agronomically desirable cultivated tetraploid cultivars. In order to exploit diploid cotton a regeneration system is required to achieve transformation based goals. The present studies aimed at optimizing the conditions for regeneration of local varieties as well as wild species of cotton. Different callus induction media were tested with varying concentrations of hormones in which sucrose was used as nutritional source. Different explants (hypocotyls, cotyledon, root) were used to check the regeneration of both local cotton plants and wild relatives using T & G medium,BAP medium, CIM medium, EMMS medium, and cell suspension medium. Different stages of embryogenicity such as early torpedo stage, late torpedo stage, heart stage, globular stage and cotyledonary stage were observed in wild relatives of cotton. The results of this study pave the way for establishing future transformation methods.

  13. Effect of irradiation on physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of two varieties of Bt rice were treated by 60Co γ-rays at the doses of 50, 100, 150, 250 and 350 Gy, respectively, their original parent was used as control material. The seedlings cultured from above seeds were used to detect the root activity, seedling growth, chlorophyll content,activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and amylase to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the physiological and biochemical properties of Bt rice. The results showed that root activity, chlorophyll content, activities of PAL, PPO, CAT, SOD of Bt rice seedlings and amylase of germinating seeds were lower than those of the control group after irradiation treatment of < 250 Gy, but the differences were not significant, which was similar to those of original parent. Meanwhile, it was found that with dose increasing, the seedling height was increased, suggesting that irradiation treatment could stimulate the seedling growth. Therefore, Bt transgene can not change the irradiation sensitivity of rice and the conventional method of rice can be used in Bt rice irradiation mutation breeding. (authors)

  14. Modified accumulation of selected heavy metals in Bt transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiyan; HUANG Jianzhong; YE Qingfu; WU Dianxing; CHEN Ziyuan

    2009-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified crops generally does not take into account the potential hazard of altered patterns of heavy metal accumulation in plants.A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of heavy metal amendments on the accumulation of Cd,Cu,Pb and Zn in a Bt transgenic rice Ke-Ming-Dao (KMD) and its wild-type Xiushui 11 (Xs11).In control soils,significant difference was only found in contents of Cu (p < 0.01) and Pb (p < 0.05) in straw between KMD and Xs11.At three levels of Cd amendments (5,10,and 20 mg/kg),the Cd contents in grain and straw of KMD were significantly higher than those of Xs11,and all grain Cd contents were significantly higher than the international criteria (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) as specified by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).These results implied that it may be unsafe for growing Bt transgenic rice in heavily Cd-polluted areas.No significant difference in Zn was found between the two varieties with the exception of roots at Zn amendment level of 600 mg/kg,while Pb contents in KMD were much higher in the straw at the lead amendment level of 1000 mg/kg and in the root at 250 mg Pb/kg.Data on the heavy metal accumulation patterns for the genetically modified rice may be used for the selection of growing areas as well as for plant residue management for Bt rice.

  15. Field Performance of Bt Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) in the Philippines: Cry1Ac Expression and Control of the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautea, Desiree M.; Taylo, Lourdes D.; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L.; Sison, Maria Luz J.; Narciso, Josefina O.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010–2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75–24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6–100%) and fruit damage (98.1–99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8–99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides. PMID:27322533

  16. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Ocelotl

    Full Text Available Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm, a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  17. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  18. MORAL HAZARD AND BT CORN REFUGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Paul D.; Zhu, En (John)

    2003-01-01

    Using a principal-agent model, we find the optimal subsidy contract that induces grower compliance with Bt corn refuge requirements for managing insect resistance when asymmetric information exists concerning grower behavior. The optimal contract balances the cost of monitoring and the benefit of reducing the likelihood of insect resistance.

  19. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  20. Arthropod communities in the Bt and non Bt potato and maize fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Sehnal, František

    Ivanka pri Dunaji : Ústav experimentálnej fytopatológie a entomológie SAV, 2002. s. 135-136. ISBN 80-224-0745-3. [Ochrana rastlín v III. miléniu. 01.10.2002-02.10.2002, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Keywords : Bt and non Bt plants * arthropods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  2. Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Practice Tests for the TOEFL iBT contains four TOEFL tests, with answer keys. Perfect for self-study and classrooms. Each TOEFL iBT Practice Test...* reflects the design of the official TOEFL internet-based test* tests academic English-language proficiency expected of university students in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Scotland and England* provides extra practice before you take the official TOEFL iBT* will help you identify those areas of academic English you need to improve for a higher TOEFL iBT score* will give you an unofficial, TOEFL iBT range score within

  3. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  4. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  5. Identification of relevant non-target organisms exposed to weevil-resistant Bt sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rukarwa, R. J.; Mukasa, S. B.; Odongo, B.; Ssemakula, G.; Ghislain, M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of transgenic crops on non-target organisms (NTO) is a prerequisite to their release into the target environment for commercial use. Transgenic sweetpotato varieties expressing Cry proteins (Bt sweetpotato) are under development to provide effective protection against sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera) which cause severe economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Like any other pest control technologies, genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal proteins need to ...

  6. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  7. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  8. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  9. Solving the Problem of Sustainable Use of Bt Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, Zhe; Mitchell, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since their commercial introduction in 1996. The widespread adoption of such plants has reduced use of conventional insecticides while attaining yield gains, thus providing economic, environmental and human health benefits. However, the benefits from Bt crops will be reduced or even eliminated if pests develop resistance to these toxins so that Bt crops are less or no longer effe...

  10. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  11. 1978-2007年河南省棉花品种遗传改良成效研究Ⅲ.抗枯、黄萎病及农艺性状的改良%The Research of Genetic Improvement Effectiveness on Cotton Varieties of Henan Province from 1978 to 2007 Ⅲ. Improvement of Disease Resistance and Agronomic Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐中杰; 李武; 谢德意

    2011-01-01

    By comprehensive analysis of the data of region trials on 87 cotton varities authorized by Henan province from 1978 to 2007(the latest three decades) , the paper researches on effectiveness about helminthosporium turcicum,verticillium wilt and agronomic traits for cotton. It shows that,slow progress toward improvement of cultivars resistant to verticillium wilt, but effectiveness on helminthosporium turcicum is good in latest three decades. Verticillium wilt and Helminthosporium turcicum still harm production of cotton,they increased as 0. 967 9 and 0. 248 0 as per year respectively. The effectiveness of agronomic traits is significant, increasing potential of cotton single plant production is improved greatly, the increasment of cotton bolls per plant (0. 383 1), boll weight (0. 045 5 g) and fruit branch quantity (0. 071 9) etc. Traits, which closely related to productivity reached highly significant level. The influence of traits on lint cotton yield as below: cotton bolls per plant > fruit branch quantity > proportion of mature bolls before frost > ginning outturn > plant height > boll weight.%以1978-2007年河南省审定的87个棉花品种的区域试验资料为材料,研究了河南省棉花品种在抗枯萎病、黄萎病和农艺性状方面遗传改良的成效.结果表明,棉花抗枯萎病改良成效相对较好,抗黄萎病改良进展缓慢,枯萎病、黄萎病病指分别以每年0.2480和0.9679的速度增加,分别达显著、极显著水平,这2种病害对棉花生产危害依然严重;农艺性状遗传改良成效显著,棉花个体增产潜力明显提高,株铃数、铃质量和果枝数等与丰产性密切相关的指标分别为0.3831个、0.0455 g、0.0719台.年均增加量达极显著水平,各性状对皮棉产量的影响力顺序为:株铃数>果枝数>霜前花率>衣分>株高>铃质量.

  12. ECONOMICS OF COTTON CULTIVATION IN GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaysinh Dhandhukiya

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is a part of our daily lives from the time, we dry our faces on a soft cotton towel in the morning till we slide between fresh cotton sheets at night. It has hundreds of uses. Cotton is vital textile raw material, has an important role in the industry and trade of both, own country and the world with various areas for usage. This paper focuses on the growth economics of cotton cultivation in Gujarat. Key words: economics, cotton, cotton cultivation

  13. The development and status of Bt rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Hallerman, Eric M; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of transgenic rice expressing insecticidal genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China, posing the prospect of increases in production with decreased application of pesticides. We explore the issues facing adoption of Bt rice for commercial production in China. A body of safety assessment work on Bt rice has shown that Bt rice poses a negligible risk to the environment and that Bt rice products are as safe as non-Bt control rice products as food. China has a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of genetically modified (GM) plants; however, decision-making regarding approval of commercial production has become politicized, and two Bt rice lines that otherwise were ready have not been allowed to enter the Chinese agricultural system. We predict that Chinese farmers would value the prospect of increased yield with decreased use of pesticide and would readily adopt production of Bt rice. That Bt rice lines may not be commercialized in the near future we attribute to social pressures, largely due to the low level of understanding and acceptance of GM crops by Chinese consumers. Hence, enhancing communication of GM crop science-related issues to the public is an important, unmet need. While the dynamics of each issue are particular to China, they typify those in many countries where adoption of GM crops has been not been rapid; hence, the assessment of these dynamics might inform resolution of these issues in other countries. PMID:26369652

  14. TMD factorization and evolution at large $b_T$

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2015-01-01

    In using transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton densities and fragmentation functions, important non-perturbative information is at large transverse position $b_T$. This concerns both the TMD functions and their evolution. Fits to high energy data tend to predict too rapid evolution when extrapolated to low energies where larger values of $b_T$ dominate. I summarize a new analysis of the issues. It results in a proposal for much weaker $b_T$ dependence at large $b_T$ for the evolution kernel, while preserving the accuracy of the existing fits. The results are particularly important for using transverse-spin-dependent functions like the Sivers function.

  15. TMD factorization and evolution at large $b_T$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    In using transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton densities and fragmentation functions, important non-perturbative information is at large transverse position $b_T$. This concerns both the TMD functions and their evolution. Fits to high energy data tend to predict too rapid evolution when extrapolated to low energies where larger values of $b_T$ dominate. I summarize a new analysis of the issues. It results in a proposal for much weaker $b_T$ dependence at large $b_T$ for the evolution kernel, while preserving the accuracy of the existing fits. The results are particularly important for using transverse-spin-dependent functions like the Sivers function.

  16. Susceptibility of field populations of sugarcane borer from non-Bt and Bt maize plants to five individual Cry toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangneng Huang; Mukti N.Ghimire; B.Rogers Leonard; Yu-Cheng Zhu; Graham P.Head

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane borer,Diatraea saccharalis (F.),is a major target of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the US midsouth region.Resistance development in targct pest populations is a major threat to the sustainable use of Bt crops.In our field trials in 2009,a significant number of live borers and plant injury from D.saccharalis were observed in an experimental SmartStaxTM maize line.The objective of this study was to assess the relative susceptibility of two field populations ofD.saccharalis collected from non-Bt and Bt maize plants containing SmartStaxTM traits to five individual Cry proteins.The five Bt proteins included two proteins (Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2) that were expressed in SmartStaxTM maize plants and three other common Bt proteins (Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac) that were not produced in SmartStaxTM.Larval mortality and growth inhibition on Bt diet of the fourth gcneration after field collections were evaluated 7 days after release of neonates on the diet surface.The laboratory bioassays showed that 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values for Cry1 A.105 and Cry2Ab2 for the population originated from Bt plants were 3.55-and 1.34-fold greater,respectively,than those of the population collected from non-Bt plants.In contrast,relative to the population from non-Bt plants,the LC50 of the population sampled from Bt plants were 3.85-,2.5-and 1.64-fold more sensitive to Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac,respectively.The resuits did not provide clear evidence to conclude that the observed field survival of D.saccharalis on Bt plants was associated with increased levels of resistance.

  17. Screening Pakistani cotton for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drought is one of the biggest abiotic stresses for crop production in arid and semi-arid agriculture. Thus it is a challenge for plant scientists to screen and develop the drought tolerant cotton lines. In this study, 31 cotton genotypes/cultivars were evaluated under two irrigation regimes i. e., seven irrigations (Control) and two irrigations (Stress), using split plot design with four replications. The crop growth, yield and some physiological parameters were studied. There were high inter-varietal differences for all the parameters under control as well as drought stress. Although all the varieties for all parameters were significantly affected by drought but however, CRIS-9, MARVI, CRIS-134, CRIS-126, CRIS-337, CRIS-355 and CRIS-377 maintained highest performance for all the parameters studied under high drought conditions. (author)

  18. Analysis of the Fiber Quality of Upland Cotton in China from 2005 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-hua; TANG Shu-rong; XU Hong-xia; WANG Yan-qin; ZHOU Da-yun; KUANG Meng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upper-half-mean length (Len),uniformity index (UI),breaking tenacity (Str),and mieronaire value (Mic) are the key quality parameters of cotton fiber.In this study,182 upland cotton varieties examined and approved by The National or Provincial Committees for the Examination and Approval of Crop from 2005 to 2007 were selected as materials.These varieties were the most popular varieties planted in China.The result indicated that the distribution of fiber length was very limited.The fiber length of 145 varieties was concentrated from 28 mm to 30 mm,which was nearly 80% of the varieties.

  19. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  20. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  1. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  2. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  3. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

  4. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN: REPLACING HOOPLA WITH SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the...

  5. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  6. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  7. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  8. Application of Gibberellic Acid on Diploid and Tetraploid Cotton Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJAFARI-MOFIDABADI; A; RANJBERAN; F; SOLTANLOO; H

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellic acid growth regulator was used to develop interspecific hybrids between tetraploid and diploid species to increase the genetic variability in cotton.In order to retain bolls and seed set in triploid hybrids,emasculated flowers of two Gossypium hirsutum commercial varieties(Sahel and Sephid)

  9. Access and control of agro-biotechnology : Bt cotton, ecological change and risk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Peter; Zhao, Jennifer H.; Xue, Dayuan

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that if the introduction of genetically modified crops (GM crops) in developing countries is to be successful, we can and should not evade questions of access and control of technology. It implies probing into the experiences, perceptions and understanding of GM crops by the prim

  10. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study tests a competitive release hypothesis that Helicoverpa zea larval herbivory will 1) deter oviposition and increase leaving rates of the stink bugs, Euchistus servus and Nezara viridula and that 2) that these effects will be stronger for E. servus than for N. viridula. By spatially separa...

  11. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  12. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used 20 sheep and the experimental design was randomized blocks in scheme factorial type 2x2 (two varieties of plant corn to silage, with the presence or absence of Bt gene, with five animals per treatment. These animals were housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator feces and urine for 21 days, comprising 8 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for determination of intake, followed by 6 days of collection of feces, to measure DMI (g/day, CDA DM, CP and NDF. Samples of feed offered, leftovers and feces were identified and placed in a circulating air oven maintained at 55°C to constant weight. The analyses were performed in Bromatological Analysis Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science. To CTMS (g/day was interaction effect (p<0.05 than in the variety AG (779.36 was greater than DKB (637.52, because the DM content of the sheet AG (31.09 was superior to DKB (29.17. The AG (779.36 was higher than your counterpart isogenic without the gene (575.15 p<0.05. The DKB without the gene (637.52 did not differ (p>0.05 from your counterpart DKBBt with the gene (590.78. The lowest total DM intake in g/day was observed for varieties with Bt gene insertion (genetically modified organism - GMO and a possible explanation is the higher value of NDF in the silages of variety with the Bt gene in relation to their isogenic counterparts without the gene. The CDA, DM and NDF no had interaction effect between varieties factors and GMO (p>0

  13. The Expression of Bt Toxin Protein in Transgenic Plants%Bt毒蛋白在转基因植物中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊杰

    2012-01-01

    With the promotion of insect-resistant genetically modified crops and large-scale commercial cultivation,Bt toxin in transgenic plants expression is increasingly attracted attention.In this paper,corn,cotton,rice and other insect-resistant transgenic crops expressing the Bt toxin were discussed.%随着抗虫转基因植物的推广和大面积商业化种植,Bt毒蛋白在转基因植物中的表达引起了人们的重视。综述了玉米、棉花、水稻等抗虫转基因植物的Bt毒蛋白表达及其时空变化规律。

  14. Call for Papers--Bt Research (ISSN 1925-1939)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Bt Research (ISSN 1925-1939) is a new launched, open access and peer-reviewed journal that disseminates significant creative reviews and opinions or innovative research work in the area of Bacillus thuringiensis, including the isolation and identification of novel Bt strains, identification of novel Bt toxic genes and their functions, the insecticidal mechanism Bt toxics, Bt genetic engineering, transgenic Bt plants, the resistance mechanism of target-insect to Bt toxins, and the development of novel experimental methods and techniques for Bt Research.

  15. Organic Cotton: An Opportunity for Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, P.

    2007-01-01

    Report analysing the global market for organic cotton fibre, textiles and clothing - gives a definition of organic cotton and ‘fair trade’ cotton; provides detailed figures for organic cotton production, trade, and consumption; presents the geographical markets for organic cotton fibre, textiles; describes the involvement of many large brands and retailers, and reviews organic cotton markets in the United States, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom and France; provides a SWOT (Strengths, Wea...

  16. Energy from cotton gin waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodin, P.L.

    1977-04-01

    The US Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory installed a small, multi-chamber incinerator to study its ability to convert cotton gin waste into useable on-site energy. The incinerator operates on a controlled or starved air principle with a maximum capacity of 350-400 lbs of trash/hr. Tests indicate that 31.4% of the heat from combustion of the gin trash can be recovered and efficiently delivered to the seed-cotton drying system.

  17. Studies on Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Bt Toxin by Using Envirologix Kits in Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-bo; SHU Qing-yao

    2002-01-01

    Investigations were done on the usefulness of Envirologix Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac Plate kits for quantitative analysis of Bt toxin content in transgenic rice grains. Two transgenic rice lines: Kemingdao 1 (KMD1) and Kemingdao 2 (KMD2), transformed with a cry1Ab gene, and their parental variety, cv.Xiushui 11, were used as positive and negative samples. Results showed that the correlation coefficients as high as 0. 985 - 0. 998, significant at probability level of 0.05 or 0.01, were obtained for linear regression equations by using the appended calibrators of the kits. No significant differences were detected for values of same rice sample obtained from different trials or by using different lots of the product (kit). The detectable Bt toxin content by this method could be as low as 0.5 ng/g. The Envirologix Kit could be useful for rapid quantitative detection of Bt toxin in rice grains because of its preciseness, simplicity and time saving.

  18. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  19. ACQUIREMENT OF TRANSGENIC COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. RESISTANT TO HERBICIDE AND INSECT USING GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT aroAM12 GENE AS A SELECTABLE MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Longxu

    2005-08-01

    , was used as a dominant selectable marker for cotton plant transformation. The genes were introduced into commercial cultivar Zhongmian12 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformants were directly selected on medium supplemented with 80μmol/L glyphosate. In this research, 40 regenerative cotton plantlets were obtained through screening. Integration of aroAM12 and Bts1m genes was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot, the results indicated that all the 40 plants possessed the aroAM12 gene, 28 of which possessed both the aroAM12 and BtS1m genes. Expression of both the genes was established by Western blots. Insect bioassay and glyphosate resistance assay indicated that the transgenic cotton plants obtained were highly resistant to glyphosate and insect. The results of glyphosate resistance and insect bioassay of T1 generation showed that the numbers of resistance and sensitive phenotypes showed Mendelian segregation ratio.

  20. Bt-CoV HKU3 PCR/Sequencing Primers

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Rachel Graham ### Abstract This protocol details the primers and conditions used for forward and reverse PCR amplification and sequencing of Bt-CoV HKU3 genomes. ### Introduction This protocol details the steps, reagents, and conditions required to sequence Bt-CoV HKU3 genomes in the forward and reverse directions. The protocol begins with the RT-PCR step, assuming that BtCoV HKU3 RNA purified using a standard procedure (i.e., TRIzol extraction) has already been perfo...

  1. Bt-CoV HKU5 PCR/Sequencing Primers

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Rachel Graham ### Abstract This protocol details the primers and conditions used for forward and reverse PCR amplification and sequencing of Bt-CoV HKU5 genomes. ### Introduction This protocol details the steps, reagents, and conditions required to sequence Bt-CoV HKU5 genomes in the forward and reverse directions. The protocol begins with the RT-PCR step, assuming that BtCoV HKU5 RNA purified using a standard procedure (i.e., TRIzol extraction) has already been perfo...

  2. Study on radioimmunoassay of Bt Cry1Ac protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bt Cry1Ac protein was extracted from incubation of Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73, and cutting into more specific protein segment with high insect-resistance. High-affinity multi-colonial antibodies of Bt Cry1 Ac protein were obtained after injected it into New Zealand rabbits. By 125I labeling of Bt Cry1 Ac protein, a RIA kit was established. In this method, centrifuge for separation was not necessary due to the use of magnetic micro-particle and the specifications of the kit were found equal to those of imported ELISA. (authors)

  3. Gossypol: phytoalexin of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiu; Ruan, Juxin; Huang, Jinquan; Fang, Xin; Mao, Yingbo; Wang, Lingjian; Chen, Xiaoya; Yang, Changqing

    2016-02-01

    Sesquiterpenoids are a class of 15-carbon secondary metabolites that play diverse roles in plant adaptation to environment. Cotton plants accumulate a large amount of sesquiterpene aldehydes (including gossypol) as phytoalexins against pathogens and herbivores. They are stored in pigment glands of aerial organs and in epidermal layers of roots. Several enzymes of gossypol biosynthesis pathway have been characterized, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) that catalyze the formation of the precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), (+)-δ-cadinene synthase (CDN) which is the first enzyme committed to gossypol biosynthesis, and the downstream enzymes of CYP706B1 and methyltransferase. Expressions of these genes are tightly regulated during cotton plants development and induced by jasmonate and fungi elicitors. The transcription factor GaWRKY1 has been shown to be involved in gossypol pathway regulation. Recent development of new genomic platforms and methods and releases of diploid and tetraploid cotton genome sequences will greatly facilitate the elucidation of gossypol biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. PMID:26803304

  4. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  5. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  6. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  7. Zhengzhou Cotton Trading Market opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On November 8th, Zhengzhou cotton trading market Co., Ltd. in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province held a grand opening ceremony. It marked the formal operations of the spot cotton Electronic Trading Center. The trading center basing on the central plain area and radiating its profound influence across the whole country.

  8. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  9. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  10. Varieties of Musical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  11. The Adoption of Bt-Maize - An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we theoretically and empirically investigate the determinants of Bt maize adoption in German regions. Specifically, we ask how the regulatory framework, the farm structures as well as the socio-political environment of GM expansion in Germany have influenced regional adoption rates. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses concerning regional variation in Bt-maize adoption and test them econometrically wi...

  12. Can Conventional Crop Producers Also Benefit From Bt Technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Dun, Zhe; Mitchell, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since their commercial introduction in 1996. In 2009, 25 countries planted 134 million ha of transgenic crops. The widespread adoption of such plants has reduced use of conventional insecticides while attaining yield gains, thus providing economic, environmental and human health benefits. Because of Bt crops’ high pest control efficacy, there is concern that pests will develop re...

  13. Effects of gamma rays and selection for oil and protein on some characters of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some common features in problems concerning cotton and cotton seed products between Egypt and Syria. The present investigation is an effort aiming to study some of the problems facing production of cotton seed, oil and protein in Egyptian cotton which could be of value to Syria. Seed lots ot three varieties of Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) (2n= 4x= 52) were irradiated with various doses of 60 Co gamma rays (0-150 Gy) and planted in field experiments. Normal looking and good seed cotton yield plants were selected and raised for M2 generation in which selection for high oil and protein contents of the seed was practiced. The higher 5% of the plants in oil and protein contents of the seed were planted on individual plant basis. This was repeated till M4 and M5 generations. Seven lines of each of the three varieties were obtained from the offspring of the irradiated material and compared to the unirradiated controls. It was concluded that improving the productivity and some other characters of cotton plant could be tried on the basis of selection for oil and for protein content(s) of the seed. However, additional information on may other characters still be needed in this connection. (author). 13 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  17. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  18. Bt brinjal in India: a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Misra, Amita; Verma, Alok Kumar; Roy, Ruchi; Tripathi, Anurag; Ansari, Kausar M; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-01-01

    Brinjal occupies the major proportion amongst all vegetable crops in India and is vulnerable to many diseases caused by insect-pests, fungus, bacteria and virus. Brinjal production is extensively affected by the insect brinjal fruit and shoot borer. Use of conventional chemical pesticides not only damage environment including the biotic and abiotic components but, also affect human health. Bt Brinjal was developed to combat brinjal fruit and shoot borer that has an advantage minimizing use of chemical pesticides. Extensive biosafety investigations, nutritional studies, substantial equivalence studies, relative toxicity and allergenicity assessment using animal models like Sprague Dawley rats, Brown Norway rats, rabbit, fish, chicken, goats, etc. revealed no significant differences between genetically modified brinjal and its native counterpart. Bt brinjal could effectively control the target pest and was found to be safe for environment and human health. In spite of all the scientific studies, release of Bt Brinjal has been put under moratorium. Indian government has constituted an expert committee to address this issue. In this review we have tried to explore the facts related to Bt Brinjal including its production, use of Bt toxin, use of chemical pesticides in controlling the FSB in native brinjal, along with perspective of public opinion and government initiatives. Key words: Bt Brinjal, agriculture, insecticides, GM foods, agrobacterium, transgenic crops. PMID:21865863

  19. Overcoming barriers to trust in agricultural biotechnology projects: a case study of Bt cowpea in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, Africa’s most populous country, has been the world’s largest cowpea importer since 2004. The country is currently in the early phases of confined field trials for two genetically modified crops: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cowpea and nutritionally enhanced cassava (“BioCassava Plus”. Using the bio-safety guidelines process as a backdrop, we evaluate the role of trust in the operation of the Cowpea Productivity Improvement Project, which is an international agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP aimed at providing pest-resistant cowpea varieties to Nigerian farmers. Methods We reviewed the published literature and collected data through direct observations and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed based on emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results Our findings highlight the importance of respecting mandates and eliminating conflicts of interest; holding community engagement initiatives early on; having on-going internal discussion and planning; and serving a locally-defined need. These four lessons could prove helpful to other agricultural biotechnology initiatives in which partners may face similar trust-related challenges. Conclusions Overcoming challenges to building trust requires concerted effort throughout all stages of project implementation. Currently, plans are being made to backcross the cowpea strain into a local variety in Nigeria. The development and adoption of the Bt cowpea seed hinges on the adoption of a National Biosafety Law in Nigeria. For countries that have decided to adopt biotech crops, the Nigerian cowpea experiment can be used as a model for other West African nations, and is actually applied as such in Ghana and Burkina Faso, interested in developing a Bt cowpea.

  20. Do Major Field of Study and Cultural Familiarity Affect TOEFL[R] iBT Reading Performance? A Confirmatory Approach to Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The TOEFL[R] iBT has increased the length of each reading passage to better approximate academic reading at North American universities, resulting in a reduction in the number of passages on the reading section of the test. One of the concerns brought about by this change is whether the decrease in topic variety increases the likelihood that an…

  1. Analysis of Genetic Polymorphic SSR Markers in Germplasm Resources of the Natural Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju-qin; LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; BAO Li-sheng; LU Yan-ting

    2008-01-01

    @@ Short sequence repeats (microsatellite,SSR) and expressed sequence tags-SSR (EST-SSR) markers were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of natural colored cotton varieties.About 490 pairs of SSR markers spanning the 26 chromosomes were selected from the cotton microsatellite database,they were composed of the NAU,BNL,MUSS,and CIR markers,and there was one marker every 5 cM on average.

  2. Geometry of graph varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeremy L.

    2003-01-01

    A picture P of a graph G = (V,E) consists of a point P(v) for each vertex v in V and a line P(e) for each edge e in E, all lying in the projective plane over a field k and subject to containment conditions corresponding to incidence in G. A graph variety is an algebraic set whose points parametrize pictures of G. We consider three kinds of graph varieties: the picture space X(G) of all pictures, the picture variety V(G), an irreducible component of X(G) of dimension 2|V|, defined as the closu...

  3. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF A COTTON FIBRE SORTING COTTON SEGMENTS IN THE ELECTRIC DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yusubaliev, Ashirbay; Yusupalieva, Umida

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the increase of cotton fiber quality by sorting cotton segments source of raw cotton in the electric device. The data of the study results in the techno-logical properties of the fibers division of fractions.

  5. US Economy and Cotton Industry Developmenf Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    2012 China Cotton Development Summit Forum, oriented with the theme of "sustainable cotton industrial development under globalization", was held in the city of Chengdu, China, from May 17th to May 18, 2012. During the forum, Kevin Latner, Director of Overseas Operations, National Cotton Council of America as well as the Executive Director, Cotton Council International, presented a speech featuring the economic and cotton industrial development trend in US.

  6. Estimating combining ability of yield and its components in upland cotton through line tester analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining ability estimates are very important genetic attributes to cotton breeders in predicting improvement that could be envisaged from hybridisation and selection programmes. The crosses were attempted in a line tester mating design, which involved five female and three testers, hence 15 F1 hybrids were developed. The experiment was carried out in a randomised complete block design with four replications. The mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) of lines and testers and specific combining ability (SCA) of lines testers interactions were significant, for all the characters studied. The significance of GCA and SCA variances suggests that both additive and non-additive genes were controlling the characters, yet additive genes of female lines were predominant because their variances were generally, higher than GCA of testers and SCA of lines * testers. Among the lines, parents CIM-506, CRIS-134 and Sadori and from testers, Bt-cotton and Sindh-1 exhibited higher GCA effects hence proved to be the best general combiners for most of the traits studied. Results further suggested that these potential parents can reliably be used in hybridisation and selection programmes for extracting desirable plants from segregating populations. The F1 hybrids like Sadori Sindh-1, Chandi Bt-cotton and Sadori BH-160 were best specific combiners for earliness (bolls formation and opening at 90 and 120 days after planting), bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield per plant, lint % and staple length. The performance of F1 hybrids per se was very well reflected in SCA effects, conferring the potentiality of F1 hybrids. (author)

  7. Functional analysis of a reproductive organ predominant expressing promoter in cotton plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Maozhi; CHEN Quanjia; LI Li; ZHANG Rui; GUO Sandui

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton plants have high insect resistance in the early stage of development, but relatively low resistance in the late stage. Substituting a reproductive organ-specific promoter for the CaMV35S promoter presently being used could be an ideal solution. For the first time, the promoter sequence of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1) gene was isolated from Gossypium hirsutumY18 by means of inverse PCR. The sequencing result discovered the unique structure of the arf1 promoter, including four promoter-specific elements, the initiator, TATA box, CAAT box and GC box, and also an intron in 5′-untranslation region. Four plant expression vectors were constructed for functional analysis of the promoter. Based on the pBI121 plant expression vector, four truncated arf1 promoters took the place of the CaMV35S promoter. These vectors were different only in their promoter regions. They were introduced into cotton plants via pollen tube pathway. Histochemical GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses were performed to examine the expression patterns of the GUS gene driven by the 4 arf1 truncated promoters in transgenic cotton plants respectively. The results showed that the arf1 promoter was a typical reproductive organ-specific promoter. Hopefully, the arf1 promoter can be a regulatory element for designing cotton reproductive organs with desired characteristics.

  8. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  9. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN SPINNING COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Barbu; Alexandru Popa; Adina Bucevschi

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation forspinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased qualityof products and increasing labor productivity. This paper is a continuation of other works in which we presentedthe preparation of spinning machines. We present only this time spinning machines, namely the modernization ofroving frame and ring spinning machine.

  10. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  11. Induced high yielding mutants in cotton (Gossypium hirsuthum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations are known to enhance the genetic variability of crop plants as the variability at species level has reached the ceiling due to high breeding intensity and rapid erosion of genetic resources. Since spontaneous mutations occur at very low frequency, induced mutations facilitate the development of improved varieties at a swifter rate. Besides the vital role in plant breeding programs, a new role of induced mutations in releasing of gene silencing in transgenic plants has been reported]. Cotton is an economically important crop plant and cultivated in many parts of the world and it is a leading fiber crop, the second best potential source of plant proteins and fifth best oil-producing crop. Cotton (white gold) enjoys a predominant position amongst all cash crops in India. Cotton is an important raw material for the Indian textile industry, constituting about 65% of its requirements. In addition to being the world's most important textile fiber crop, cotton is also an important source of edible oil and protein. By-products such as cotton seed cakes, hulls and cotton stalks are useful in generating several industrial goods. Among the different breeding methods used, mutation induction has been used as an important tool to supplement existing variability and to create additional variability for qualitatively as well as quantitatively inherited traits in cotton, especially various degrees of resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, number of bolls, seed yield and oil content. Well-developed, fresh, uniform and delinted seeds of two tetraploid varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Var. MCU 5 and MCU 11, were obtained from the Cotton Breeding Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. After standardization for moisture content at 16% (with glycerol), seeds were irradiated with gamma rays (GR) from a 60Co at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute (ICAR), Coimbatore at doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy. Another set of seeds were

  12. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  13. The Varieties of Ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nottelmann, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses varieties of ignorance divided according to kind (what the subject is ignorant of), degree, and order (e.g. ignorance of ignorance equals second-order ignorance). It provides analyses of notions such as factual ignorance, erotetic ignorance (ignorance of answers to question...

  14. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  15. Questions on Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionna, E

    2011-01-01

    P. Dolbeault: Residus et courants.- D. Mumford: Varieties defined by quadratic equations.- A. Neron: Hauteurs et theorie des intersections.- A. Seidenberg: Report on analytic product.- C.S. Seshadri: Moduli of p-vector bundles over an algebraic curve.- O. Zariski: Contributions to the problem of equi-singularity.

  16. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  18. Quantification of Cry1Ac protein at different stages of plant growth in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrees Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan during cotton growing season 2009-10. Nine cotton cultivars with Cry 1 Ac gene (Mon 531 event selected for current experiment to characterize the toxin level of Cry1Ac protein in different Bt cotton cultivars and to record the variation in Cry1Ac protein at various plant growth stages. It was found that age of plant was having an influence on the expression of gene. Maximum level of endotoxin (0.373g/g was observed in genotype CIM-595 at 100 days of planting. While minimum value (0.166g/g was observed in genotype V-1 at 160 days of planting. Similarly different cotton genotypes showed different boll worm damage % at different growth stages. CEMB-2 was found to be most susceptible genotype showing 93.33 % boll worm damage at 160 days after planting. While V-5 proved to be most resistant showing no boll worm damage at 70 and 100 days after planting.

  19. Mining and Analysis of SNP in Response to Salinity Stress in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoge; Lu, Xuke; Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Delong; Yin, Zujun; Fan, Weili; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress is a major abiotic factor that affects crop output, and as a pioneer crop in saline and alkaline land, salt tolerance study of cotton is particularly important. In our experiment, four salt-tolerance varieties with different salt tolerance indexes including CRI35 (65.04%), Kanghuanwei164 (56.19%), Zhong9807 (55.20%) and CRI44 (50.50%), as well as four salt-sensitive cotton varieties including Hengmian3 (48.21%), GK50 (40.20%), Xinyan96-48 (34.90%), ZhongS9612 (24.80%) were used as the materials. These materials were divided into salt-tolerant group (ST) and salt-sensitive group (SS). Illumina Cotton SNP 70K Chip was used to detect SNP in different cotton varieties. SNPv (SNP variation of the same seedling pre- and after- salt stress) in different varieties were screened; polymorphic SNP and SNPr (SNP related to salt tolerance) were obtained. Annotation and analysis of these SNPs showed that (1) the induction efficiency of salinity stress on SNPv of cotton materials with different salt tolerance index was different, in which the induction efficiency on salt-sensitive materials was significantly higher than that on salt-tolerant materials. The induction of salt stress on SNPv was obviously biased. (2) SNPv induced by salt stress may be related to the methylation changes under salt stress. (3) SNPr may influence salt tolerance of plants by affecting the expression of salt-tolerance related genes. PMID:27355327

  20. Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT A Complete Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    TOEFL students all ask: How can I get a high TOEFL iBT score? Answer: Learn argument scoring strategies. Why? Because the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes from start to finish. In other words, the TOEFL iBT is all arguments. That's right, all arguments. If you want a high score, you need essential argument scoring strategies. That is what Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT gives you, and more!. TEST-PROVEN STRATEGIES. Learn essential TOEFL iBT scoring strategies developed in American university classrooms and proven successful on the TOEFL iBT. R

  1. Making cotton incombustible by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of the dead by fires from 1982 to 1986 was 4866, and those by burning clothes reached about 11 % of them. The number shows the tendency of decrease year by year, but it is desirable to make the beddings and night clothes used in social welfare facilities incombustible. The experiment of obtaining the effect of incombustibility by impregnating the aqueous solution of vinyl phosphonate oligomer (VPO) or N-methylol acrylamide into cotton cloths and irradiating with low energy electron beam in nitrogen atmosphere has been carried out so far. As the result, it was found that by using VPO alone as the agent for incombustibility, the incombustible cotton cloths having excellent washing endurance can be obtained without generating harmful formaldehyde and without impairing the character of cotton. For the purpose of the incombustible processing of beddings and night clothes, the test on the incombustible cotton cloths processed with VPO and irradiated with electron beam and Co-60 gamma ray and the tests required for the approval as disaster-preventing products were carried out this time, and the results are reported. The experimental method and the results of VPO concentration and incombustibility, the charge of the strength of cotton cloths, the stiffness of the processed cotton cloths and the scale-up test of incombustible processing are described. (K.I.)

  2. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  3. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  4. Varieties of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jipsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.

  5. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    different ways and for different purposes. The three varieties are (1) editorially-based gatekeeping processes (typically defining what information is displayed as news on news media websites), (2) link-based gatekeeping processes (the core of how search engines like Google select what information is...... survey of online news users conducted in 2013, I proceed from these three varieties of online gatekeeping to present a cross-national comparative analysis of their relative importance in seven developed democracies with different media systems (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and the US......). I show that news media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online, but also demonstrate how they are supplemented by other “second-order gatekeepers” (Singer, 2013) like search engines and social networking sites. While these rarely produce original content defined as “news...

  6. Varieties of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Watts

    2009-01-01

    The temporary staffing industry has experienced significant growth across the globe in recent years, making it one of the largest private employers in the world in 2007 (CIETT, 2009). Given this industry is experiencing such widespread growth and becoming increasingly global, questions remain about how best to understand national markets, and how this affects the operation of the industry within them. One area of literature which addresses the concept of different national systems is Varietie...

  7. FUM Gene Expression Profile and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides Inoculated in Bt and Non-Bt Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Barroso, Vinícius M.; Andrade, Ludmila J.; Pereira, Gustavo H. A.; Ferreira-Castro, Fabiane L.; Duarte, Aildson P.; Michelotto, Marcos D.; Correa, Benedito

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710) were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with F. verticill...

  8. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  9. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton Cotton, referred as 'The white gold' is an important commercial crop in India and stands third in the world by means of area of cultivation. Cotton plant regeneration from callus by somatic embryogenesis and its efficiency has been improved significantly in recent times. Our primary investigation was on regenerative studies and multiple shoot induction system focusing mainly on meristematic tissues like seedling cotyledonary nodal explants in RAH-9750 cotton cultivar. An attempt has been made to improve the rate of surveillance and growth of regenerated cotton seedlings by bio-inoculant (mainly AMF) treatment under greenhouse conditions. Out of a total seven pure cultures of AMF fungi, R1-R2 have shown maximum mycorrhizal colonization with RAH-9750 (R) and was identified as Glomus mosseae. This variety was also tested with three different bioinoculants i.e., Rhizobium sp. RHPU-7, Azospirillum sp. PPK-27, Bacillus sp. PU-1, apart from AMF R1-R2 in different combinations. The cotton seedlings have shown the best results in single, dual, triple and multiple combinations i.e R+R1-R2, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum and R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum+Bacillus respectively. The growth of cotton plants (RAH-9750) generated from meristematic tissue culture was found to be increasing significantly when compared with the normal seeds. Similar results were noticed when the same experiment was subjected to the different soil types of Mahabubnagar district. The investigation clearly infers that better yield of cotton RAH-9750 (R) could be achieved by treating the regenerated cotton seedlings with bioinoculants in different combination in various soil types of Mahabubnagar district. (author)

  10. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  11. Soaring Cotton Prices to Make Manufacturing Difficult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With manufacturing slowly recovering amid improving economic condi-tions, cotton demand has increased prompting more orders among mills. However, with a deficient supply of cotton in the market, prices extend gains

  12. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN COTTON PREPARATION SPINNING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Barbu; Adina Bucevschi; Alexandru Popa

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation for spinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased quality of products and increasing labor productivity.

  13. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  14. Using and development of multi adversity resistance system in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Durmuş ÇETİN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic approach in plant breeding, make it possible to show the full genetic potential of plant. This methods also protect the health of plant growth over the period, by increasing resistance to diseases and pests is expected to provide. For this purpose, by Bird in 1963, with the name of multi adversity resistance has been initiated in cotton breeding and for many years as a result of the work carried out important varieties and germplasm have been developed. Nowadays, those using for varieties resistant to stress factors such as heat and drought are evaluated. And successful results are obtained.

  15. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Chapagain; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.; R. Gautam

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts. The study distinguishes between three types of impact: evaporation of infiltrated rainwater for cotton growth (green water use), withdrawal of ground- or surface water for irrigation or processi...

  16. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  17. Insect communities on maize expressing a Bt-toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Sehnal, František; Hussein, Hany

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 9-11. ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GMO * arthropod communities * Bt maize Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Impact of Bt potatoes on non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Spitzer, Lukáš; Kalushkov, P.

    České Budějovice: Biology Centre of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2009 - (Sehnal, F.; Drobník, J.), s. 67-67 ISBN 978-80-86668-05-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt potatoes Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  19. A biannual study on the environmental impact of Bt maize

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana; Spitzer, L.; Hussein, Hany; Růžička, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2004), s. 147-160. [Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms. Praha, 26.11.2003-29.11.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Bt maize * GM crops * European corn borer Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  20. Susceptibility of Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Corn Under Long-Term Laboratory Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation and Bt corn was evaluated using insect bioassays for 6 years. Four strains of O. furnacalis were developed by laboratory selection from the laboratory strain reared on a non-agar semi-artificial diet. The RR-1 strain was exposed to a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) incorporated into the artificial diet, the RR-2 strain was exposed to Bt corn (MON810)tissue incorporated into the diet, and the SS-1 and SS-2 strains were reared on the standard diet with or without non-Bt corn tissues material. Decreasing susceptibility of O. furnacalis to Bt and to Bt corn were found in each selected strain although the ED50 and larval weight fluctuated from generation to generation. The resistance of Bt-exposed strain (RR-1)to Btk increased 48-fold by generation 39; the Bt corn-exposed strain (RR-2) increased its resistance 37-fold to Btk by generation 24. No larvae of SS-1 survived when they were exposed to the leaves of Bt corn, Bt1 1 and MON810. However,2-54% of the RR-1 (generation 46) and RR-2 (generation 20) larvae survived a 3 day-exposure to the leaves of Bt1 1 and MON810. The survival of both selected strains on Bt corn silk increased by 10-69%, and the larval weights after many generations selection were increased by 15-22% compared with the unselected susceptible strain. The young larvae were much more susceptible to Bt than older larvae. The highest mortality occurred when the larvae were exposed to Bt at the neonate stage. All of the results suggested that ACB could not only develop resistance to Bt preparation but also to Bt corn. Bt had significant effects on the growth and development of Asian corn borer than on the larval mortality. In order to maintain the long-term effectiveness of Bt pesticide and Bt corn, the resistance management should pay much attention to the larvae that may have opportunities to grow and developed on non-Bt

  1. The Application of GGE Biplot Analysis for Evaluatng Test Locations and Mega-Environment Investigation of Cotton Regional Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Nai-yin; Fok Michel; ZHANG Guo-wei; LI Jian; ZHOU Zhi-guo

    2014-01-01

    In the process to the marketing of cultivars, identiifcation of superior test locations within multi-environment variety trial schemes is of critical relevance. It is relevant to breeding organizations as well as to governmental organizations in charge of cultivar registration. Where competition among breeding companies exists, effective and fair multi-environment variety trials are of utmost importance to motivate investment in breeding. The objective of this study was to use genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis to evaluate test locations in terms of discrimination ability, representativeness and desirability, and to investigate the presence of multiple mega-environments in cotton production in the Yangtze River Valley (YaRV), China. Four traits (cotton lint yield, ifber length, lint breaking tenacity, micronaire) and two composite selection indices were considered. It was found that the assumption of a single mega-environment in theYaRV for cotton production does not hold. The YaRV consists of three cotton mega-environments: a main one represented by 11 locations and two minor ones represented by two test locations each. This demands that the strategy of cotton variety registration or recommendation must be adjusted. GGE biplot analysis has also led to the identiifcation of test location superior for cotton variety evaluation. Although test location desirable for selecting different traits varied greatly, Jinzhou, Hubei Province, China, was found to be desirable for selecting for all traits considered while Jianyang, SichuanProvince, China, was found to be desirable for none.

  2. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  3. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  4. Cotton bacterial endotoxin assessed by electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Helander, I; Lounatmaa, K.

    1981-01-01

    A piece of bale cotton was incubated in nutrient broth. Electron microscopic inspection of the cotton and the broth showed Gram-negative bacteria with long flagella, loosely attached to the cotton fibres. Large amounts of endotoxin liberating from these bacteria were visible in the growth medium.

  5. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  6. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  7. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  8. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impact

  9. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  10. Organic cotton systems improved soil properties vis-a-vis the modern systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, D.; Venugopalan, M. V.; Singh, J. V.; Narkhedkar, N. G.; Velmourougane, K.

    2012-04-01

    India is the largest cotton growing country in the world. Traditionally, cotton in India was grown with minimal inputs and resources available on farm were put to efficient use. Advent of hybrids and Bt cotton revolutionized cotton production in the country and lead to heavy reliance on external inputs. However, there is a growing awareness of the detrimental effects of excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers. This is leading to growing interest in organic cultivation of crops. An organic system (OS) was compared with the modern systems (MS) for changes in the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in field experiments conducted both on station and farmers fields in Maharashtra, India on rain dependent cotton grown on Vertisols. Soil samples of the organic plots had significantly greater C content than the MS plots relying on mineral fertilizers and pesticides. Similarly, other nutrients were also greater in the OS than the MS across locations. Most of the increases were noticed in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Interestingly, enrichment of the soil at lower depths was noticed in the OS which could be due to the surface creep of soils through the cracks in the Vertisols. With regard to the physical properties, water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter in the MS were significantly lesser than the OS. Differences were restricted to the top 20 cm. Soil biological properties of the two systems were compared through the enzyme assays such as the dehydrogenase, glucosidase, phosphatase, sulfatase periodically during the crop growing season. All the enzyme assays indicated greater activities in the OS than the MS. Further, microfauna (nematodes) monitored indicated less of plant parasitic nematodes in the OS than the MS. Excessive tillage followed in the MS did bring about a reduction in the nematode numbers. But the systems had more parasitic nematodes.

  11. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  12. Molecular composition of leaves and stems of genetically modified Bt and near-isogenic non-Bt maize--characterization of lignin patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerschmann, Juergen; Gathmann, Achim; Augustin, Juergen; Langer, Uwe; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of crops, including maize (Zea mays L.), with the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat lepidopteran pests results in pleiotropic effects regarding lignin biosynthesis. Lignin patterns in stems and leaves of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Novelis T and Valmont T) were studied along with their non-Bt near-isolines (Nobilis and Prelude, respectively). Molecular-level based thermochemolysis using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantitate the total lignin contents and to identify monomeric lignin subunits including p-hydroxyphenyl (P), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) moieties. The results were supplemented and confirmed by cupric oxide oxidation. The stems of the transgenic lines had higher concentrations of total lignin than the respective isogenic lines: Valmont T/Prelude by 18% and Novelis T/Nobilis by 28%. In contrast, differences in the total lignin concentration of leaves between the transgenic and the respective near-isogenic lines were marginal. There were significant modifications in the ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl/guaiacyl/syringyl molecular marker units of stem lignin between transgenic and isogenic lines. The guaiacyl units (in particular the G18 marker) accounted chiefly for the higher total lignin contents in the transgenic lines. The leaf lignin patterns did not show significant differences in molecular markers between isogenic and transgenic lines. TMAH-induced thermochemolysis--conducted in both the on-line and off-line modes--provided detailed information on the molecular composition of lignin, thus proving superior to the established "wet chemistry" methods of lignin determination. PMID:16091603

  13. Analysis and Evaluation Indicator Selection of Chilling Tolerance of Different Cotton Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objectivc] This study aimed to investigate the chilling tolerance of seedlings of different cotton genotypes and screen appropriate indicators for assess- ing chilling tolerance, to establish reliable mathematical evaluation model for chilling tolerance of cotton, thus providing theoretical basis for breeding and promoting new chilling-tolerant cotton germplasms and large-scale evaluation of chilling tolerance of cotton varieties. [Method] Fifteen cotton varieties (lines) were used as experimental materials. The photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence ki- netic parameters, chlorophyll content, relative soluble sugar content, malonaldehyde content, relative proiine content, relative conductivity and other 12 physiological indi- cators of seedling leaves under low temperature treatment (5 ℃, 12 h) and recovery treatment (25 ℃. 24 h) were determined; based on the chilling tolerance coefficient (CTC) of various individual indicators, the comprehensive evaluation of chilling toler- ance was conducled by using principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster anal- ysis and stepwise regression analysis. [Result] The results showed that the 12 indi- vidual physiological indicators could be classified into 7 independent comprehensive components by principal component analysis; 15 cotton varieties (lines) were clus- tered into three categories by using membership function method and hierarchical cluster analysis; the mathematical model for evaluating chilling tolerance of cotton seedlings was established: D =0.275 -0.244Fo1 +0.206Fv/Fm1+0.326g,%-0.056SS + 0.225MDA+O.O38REC (FF=0.995), and the evaluation accuracy of the equation was higher than 94.25%,0. Six identification indicators closely related to chilling tolerance were screened, including Fo,, Fv/Fm1, Seedling leaves of cotton varieties (lines) gs2, SS, MDA, and REC. [Conclusion] with high chilling tolerance are less dam- aged under low temperature stress, and are able to maintain

  14. ADVERSE SELECTION, MORAL HAZARD, AND GROWER COMPLIANCE WITH BT CORN REFUGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Paul D.; Zhu, En (John); Terrance M. Hurley

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a principal-agent model of farmer compliance with Bt corn refuge requirements intended to manage the evolution of resistance to the Bt toxin by insect pests. The model endogenizes the price of the technology, the audit rate, and the fine imposed on non-complying farmers when farmer willingness to pay for Bt corn and compliance effort is private information.

  15. SNS ønsker kommentarer om oplysninger fra Syngenta Seeds vedr forurening med Bt10 i Bt11-majsen ændrer konklusionerne i risikovurderingen. Zea mays (Bt11) . Supplerende informationer om Bt11 - evt. konsekvenser for tidligere vurderinger. Modtaget 04-05-2005, deadline 06-06-2005, svar 24-05-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2012-01-01

    "Vedr. oplysningerne om iblanding af Bt-10 majsen i Bt-11 viser det tilsendte materiale, at Syngenta har undersøgt og fået bekræftet at undersøgelserne til grundlag for risikovurderingen blev foretaget på Bt-11 majs. DMU ser derfor ingen grund til at ændre konklusionerne i den tidligere risikovur...

  16. Genetic diversity of the progeny of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) irradiated by γ ray with SSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to understand the effect of γ-ray irradiation on cotton. The genetic diversity of 74 mutagenic progenies M5 in 3 cotton varieties, Arcot-1, Su9108 and J11, irradiated by γ-ray were analyzed with 39 polymorphism SSR primer pairs. The variance range of mutagenic progeny’s (M5) pair similarity coefficient of 3 cotton varieties were 0.61290.9848, 0.62121.000, 0.48570.9905 respectively. The pair similarity coefficient that was higher or equal to 8.000 was more than 60.0% for the mutagenic progenies M5 of two varieties (Arcot-1 and Su9108). The pair similarity coefficient less than 7.000 was 62.5% for the mutagenic progenies M5 of J11. The variance ranges of genetic similarity coefficient of mutagenic progeny M5 SSR markers of 3 cotton varieties and their original CK were 0.65150.9697, 0.69701.000, 0.552408095 respectively. The analysis of molecular markers indicated that abundant genetic variations can result and genetic bases in original varieties can be broadened from the γ-ray radiation. The study also clarified that the radiation of different cotton varieties resulted in the different variation

  17. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  18. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  19. Algebraic Legendrian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroslaw, Buczynski

    2008-01-01

    Real Legendrian subvarieties are classical objects of differential geometry and classical mechanics and they have been studied since antiquity. However, complex Legendrian subvarieties are much more rigid and have more exceptional properties. The most remarkable case is the Legendrian subvarieties of projective space and prior to the author's research only few smooth examples of these were known. The first series of results of this thesis is related to the automorphism group of any Legendrian subvariety in any projective contact manifold. The connected component of this group (under suitable minor assumptions) is completely determined by the sections of the distinguished line bundle on the contact manifold vanishing on the Legendrian variety. Moreover its action preserves the contact structure. The second series of results is devoted to finding new examples of smooth Legendrian subvarieties of projective space. The contribution of this thesis is in three steps: First we find an example of a smooth toric surfa...

  20. FUM Gene Expression Profile and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides Inoculated in Bt and Non-Bt Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Liliana O; Barroso, Vinícius M; Andrade, Ludmila J; Pereira, Gustavo H A; Ferreira-Castro, Fabiane L; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710) were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with F. verticillioides and analyzed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15, and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05). The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid. PMID:26779158

  1. FUM gene expression profile and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides inoculated in Bt and non-Bt maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710 were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides and analysed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB¬1 and FB2 production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15 and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB¬1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05. The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid.

  2. FUM Gene Expression Profile and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides Inoculated in Bt and Non-Bt Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Barroso, Vinícius M.; Andrade, Ludmila J.; Pereira, Gustavo H. A.; Ferreira-Castro, Fabiane L.; Duarte, Aildson P.; Michelotto, Marcos D.; Correa, Benedito

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710) were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with F. verticillioides and analyzed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15, and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05). The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid. PMID:26779158

  3. Calculation and Analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation Rate of Minor Actinides and Plutonium Performed by Fast B/T Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsodi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation and analysis of B/T (Burning and/or Transmutation rate of MA (minor actinides and Pu (Plutonium has been performed in fast B/T reactor. The study was based on the assumption that the spectrum shift of neutron flux to higher side of neutron energy had a potential significance for designing the fast B/T reactor and a remarkable effect for increasing the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu. The spectrum shifts of neutron have been performed by change MOX to metallic fuel. Blending fraction of MA and or Pu in B/T fuel and the volume ratio of fuel to coolant in the reactor core were also considered. Here, the performance of fast B/T reactor was evaluated theoretically based on the calculation results of the neutronics and burn-up analysis. In this study, the B/T rate of MA and/or Pu increased by increasing the blending fraction of MA and or Pu and by changing the F/C ratio. According to the results, the total B/T rate, i.e. [B/T rate]MA + [B/T rate]Pu, could be kept nearly constant under the critical condition, if the sum of the MA and Pu inventory in the core is nearly constant. The effect of loading structure was examined for inner or outer loading of concentric geometry and for homogeneous loading. Homogeneous loading of B/T fuel was the good structure for obtaining the higher B/T rate, rather than inner or outer loading

  4. Save Cotton?Save Textile? Only Emphasizing Cotton Price Differences Obscures Many Contradictions%Save Cotton?Save Textile? Only Emphasizing Cotton Price Differences Obscures Many Contradictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zihan

    2012-01-01

    The Iong-term serious cotton price inversion endangered the cotton growers' in terests, and inflicted heavy lesses on cotton textile exports, which not only weakened the competitiveness of Chinese textile industry, but also affected the domestic employment.

  5. The somatic culture and plantlets regeneration from long-fibre cotton mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypocotyls from three stable long-fibre cotton mutant strains (226, 188 and 197) selected from Egypt long fibre cotton variety 'Ashmouni', which was irradiated with 60Co γ-rays and Egypt cotton variety 'Gi za 69' are used as explant and cultured in an improved MS medium (MS inorganic elements + B5 organic elements). It is found that 226 and 197 are eligible culture genotypes with the embryoid emergence rate of 90% and 70%, embryiod emergence index of 3.0 and 2.0, respectively. The best culture procedure and condition have been set up. Either IAA or NAA is essential for the emergence of embryoid and suspension culture is critical for emergence of embryoid in large quantities. The PAGE pattern of esterase and peroxidase isoenzymes of calli are found significantly different in enzyme activity at various status

  6. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  7. Changes in bacillus thuringiensis tolerance levels due to hybridization of Bt-tolerant and susceptible silkworm populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Males and females of a Bt-tolerant mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) population were crossed with females and males of a Bt-susceptible population, to produce Bt-tolerant silkworm hybrids, and to determine the expression of the Bt-tolerance pattern in the F 1 hybrids. It was observed that when a Bt-tolerant (42% larval mortality) female (BtT ) silkworm was crossed with a Bt-susceptible (85% larval mortality) male (BtS ), the resultant F 1 offspring showed lower levels of Bt-tolerance (87% larval mortality). On the other hand, when a Bt-tolerant male (BtT ) was crossed with a Bt-susceptible female (BtS ), the F 1 hybrid showed higher levels of Bt-tolerance (35% larval mortality) characteristic. The probit statistics showed that both hybrids expressed Bt-tolerance or susceptible levels similar to their male parents. These different patterns of Bt-tolerance in F 1 hybrids might be due to the transferring of a Bt-tolerant gene, from the parents to offspring, through the homozygotic male (ZZ) silkworm. (author)

  8. Dominant inheritance of field-evolved resistance to Bt corn in Busseolafusca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Campagne

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.

  9. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  10. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  12. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  13. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    X Wang; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X; Z. Li

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  14. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region. Cotton-producing region means each of the following groups of cotton-producing States: (a) Southeast Region:...

  16. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mizanur Rahman; Md. Rezaur Rahman; Sinin Hamdan; Md. Faruk Hossen; Josephine Chang Hui Lai; Fui Kiew Liew

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decompositi...

  17. Cotton Price Policy and New Cereal Technology in the Malian Cotton Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Coulibaly, Jeanne Y.; Sanders, John H.; Preckel, Paul V.; Timothy G. Baker

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, cotton production and area have been declining as a result of depleting soil nutrients and low cotton prices in the cotton zone of Mali. This paper shows that the Malian government’s 2011 policy to increase the farm gate cotton price as a response to world cotton price increase enhances farm income but has less impact on cotton than on maize production. A complementary policy of introducing new sorghum technologies would have an equal impact on farmers’ incomes in the ...

  18. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  19. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Michael S.; Jason M Ward; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains...

  20. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Stephen Koch; Jason M Ward; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domai...

  1. The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stephen Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s. Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  2. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  3. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  4. Cotton, Chic Your Life Naturally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Summit of Climate Change took place in New York this September,along with the 2009 International Year of Natural Fiber,eco-chic once again has became a fashion trend during the year,especially consuming green cotton garment.

  5. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  6. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  7. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  8. On Some Quiver Determinantal Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Jiarui

    2014-01-01

    We introduce certain quiver analogue of the determinantal variety. We study the Kempf-Lascoux-Weyman's complex associated to a line bundle on the variety. In the case of generalized Kronecker quivers, we give a sufficient condition on when the complex resolves a maximal Cohen-Macaulay module supported on the quiver determinantal variety. This allows us to find the set-theoretical defining equations of these varieties. When the variety has codimension one, the only irreducible polynomial funct...

  9. Abelian Varieties with Quaternion Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Donagi, Ron; Livné, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In this article we use a Prym construction to study low dimensional abelian varieties with an action of the quaternion group. In special cases we describe the Shimura variety parameterizing such abelian varieties, as well as a map to this Shimura variety from a natural parameter space of quaternionic abelian varieties. Our description is based on the moduli of cubic threefolds with nine nodes, which we study in some detail.

  10. Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic Bt soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-01

    Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term. PMID:24915416

  11. The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J; Park, Julian

    2015-06-01

    The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, negative effects on nontarget species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant damage to the crop. Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if nonsusceptible secondary pest populations exceed economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers' disposal, and the sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible long-term ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology. PMID:25832330

  12. Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia%Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China textile enterprises turn their sight to the largest and the best cotton farm in Australia for the use of local resource advantages, including perfect dams, low cost planting conditions, and high quality cotton.

  13. Higher dimensional Enriques varieties and automorphisms of generalized Kummer varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Boissiere, Samuel; Sarti, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    We define Enriques varieties as a higher dimensional generalization of Enriques surfaces and construct some examples by using fixed point free automorphisms on generalized Kummer varieties. We also classify all automorphisms of generalized Kummer varieties that come from an automorphism of the underlying abelian surface.

  14. Production of Mannitol by Fungi from Cotton Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Domelsmith, Linda N.; Klich, Maren A.; Goynes, Wilton R.

    1988-01-01

    Cotton dust associated with high pulmonary function decrements contains relatively high levels of mannitol. In this study, cotton leaf and bract tissue and dust isolated from cotton leaf tissue were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and capillary gas chromatography. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Fusarium pallidoroseum were isolated from cotton leaf dust. The fungal samples, cotton dust, and cotton leaf contained mannitol. ...

  15. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  16. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  17. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official...

  18. Influence of mutagens on enzymes of germinating seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the enzymes amylases, protease and phosphatases were studied in cotton during germination. The seeds were treated with 100-500 Gy of gamma rays, 10-50 mM of EMS, CA and SA in two cultivated varieties viz.. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Activity pattern of amylases, protease and phosphatases in treated seeds were significantly altered from controls. The alteration were positively correlated with increasing dose/concentration of mutagens up to 300 Gy of gamma rays and 30 mM of EMS, CA and SA. The present study pave the ways to discuss the importance of the enzymes and mutagens in germination of cotton seeds. (author)

  19. Kazhdan's Theorem on Arithmetic Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, J S

    2001-01-01

    Define an arithmetic variety to be the quotient of a bounded symmetric domain by an arithmetic group. An arithmetic variety is algebraic, and the theorem in question states that when one applies an automorphism of the field of complex numbers to the coefficients of an arithmetic variety the resulting variety is again arithmetic. This article simplifies Kazhdan's proof. In particular, it avoids recourse to the classification theorems. It was originally completed on March 28, 1984, and distribu...

  20. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  1. Accuracy of Cotton Market Price Information

    OpenAIRE

    Aelvoet, Rene; Ethridge, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    Cotton quality is a fundamental element in price determination because quality heterogeneity is so prevalent in cotton and combinations of quality attributes have a known effect on its value in manufacturing textile products (Ethridge, Hudson, and Misra, 2005). The fiber is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today (Merriam and Webster, 2006). Cotton fiber is made up of different attributes whos...

  2. Variety Seeking Through Brand Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Givon

    1984-01-01

    A concept of variety seeking behavior is modeled as a stochastic brand choice model. The model yields a measure of variety seeking for each individual consumer. Panel data for 28 products are analyzed for each household and the possibility of market segmentation by variety seeking behavior is explored.

  3. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context. PMID:17390797

  4. Evaluation on Diseases Resistance of Cotton Material and Its Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hua-lan; HE Lian; YE Peng-sheng; ZHANG Yu; WEI Shu-gu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt are important worldwide fungal diseases on cotton that cause damage to yield and quality.The pathogens survive in soil as microsclerotia for many years,and can be transmitted through seeds,soil,stream,and plant residues.And currently,no effective chemical control is available for those diseases.Production practices have established that planting wilt diseaseresistance varieties was one of the most effective and safe measures to control those diseases with low cost.However,screening for wilt-resistance germplasm resources is the basis for resistance breeding.

  5. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. FINANCIAL RISK IN COTTON PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Paul N.; Gundersen, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    Risk analysis continues to emphasize price and yield variability as the principal components of the decision-maker's risk environment. This research demonstrates the relative importance of financial risk for a representative cotton farm in Arizona. For highly leveraged operations, financial risk may account for 70 percent of the total risk faced by the producer. Implications for future risk analysis are discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Monthtg Cotton Economic L, ette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After declining in early December, cotton prices rebounded late in the month and into early January. Contracts for March New York futures fell from prices between 90 and 94 cents/Ib to levels below 87 cents/Ib in the first half of December. Following this decline, prices for March New York futures climbed higher to establish a new trading range between 93 and 97 cents/lb. Over the same time period, A Index values dipped below 93 cents/

  8. Estimating the Benefits of Bt Corn and Cost of Insect Resistance Management Ex Ante

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Langrock, Ines; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates farmer benefits for corn rootworm (CRW) active Bt corn and costs of complying with Environmental Protection Agency insect resistance management requirements. The estimates are obtained from farmer survey data that were collected in Minnesota in 2002, just prior to the commercial releases of CRW Bt corn. Benefit estimates range from $14 to $33.4 million, while compliance cost estimated range from $3.5 to $8.7 million depending on whether or not CRW Bt corn also controlled ...

  9. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with trasgenic Bt-cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empirical studies on the ecological causes of agricultural pest outbreaks have focused primarily on two biotic factors—release from natural enemies and changes in host plant quality. Release from competition, on the other hand, has been theorized as a potential cause but never tested. With the exp...

  10. Uptake, transport, distribution and Bio-effects of SiO2 nanoparticles in Bt-transgenic cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Van Nhan; Rui, Yukui; Gui, Xin; Li, Xuguang; Liu, Shutong; Han, Yaning

    2014-01-01

    Background SiO2 nanoparticle is one of the most popular nanomaterial which has been used in various fields, such as wastewater treatment, environmental remediation, food processing, industrial and household applications, biomedicine, disease labeling, and biosensor, etc. In agriculture, the use of SiO2 nanoparticles as insecticide, carriers in drug delivery, or in uptake and translocation of nutrient elements, etc., has been given attention. However, the effects of nanoparticles on plants hav...

  11. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913. PMID:17402745

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  13. THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL INOCULATION WITH SELECTED FUSARIUM STRAINS ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AN ENSILING PROCESS OF BT MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila KŘÍŽOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the nutritive value and mycotoxin content of maize forage and silage of near isogenic control MONUMENTAL (C and Bt maize (MONSANTO, MON 810 that was either untreated (Bt or artificially inoculated with Fusarium strains (I-Bt. The inoculation was made in the growing crop in milk stage of maturity. Plants were harvested at the soft dough stage of maturity and ensiled in microsilage tubes. The content of forage dry matter (DM was 307.6 g/kg in C, 306.9 g/kg in Bt and 298.0 g/kg in I-Bt. All forages were positive for deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin, fumonisins and zearalenone (P>0.05. Content of DM was the lowest in I-Bt silage (285.5 g/kg and differed significantly from C (296.7 g/kg or Bt (303.7 g/kg, P<0.05. Content of crude protein (CP was the lowest in I-Bt silage (79.0 g/kg and differed significantly from C or Bt (85.7 or 81.9 g/kg, respectively, P<0.05. Silages Bt and I-Bt had lower pH (3.93 and 3.96, respectively than silage C (4.02, P<0.05. Silage I-Bt tended to have a higher degree of proteolysis 9.18 % measured as N-NH3 (% of total N than silages C or Bt (8.64 or 8.9 %, respectively, P>0.05. Lactic acid was predominant product of fermentation in all silages, however silage I-Bt tended to have lower content of lactic acid (20.96 g/kg than C or Bt (24.76 or 23.82 g/kg, P>0.05. I-Bt silage contained lower levels of eoxynivalenol (602 ppb than C or Bt silage (748 and 690 ppb, respectively, P<0.05. Content of fumonisins and zearalenone in C did not differ from I-Bt (P<0.05 but both were lower than in Bt (P<0.05. In conclusion, nutritional value a fermentation parameters of Bt silage were similar to C except of CP content and pH that was lower in Bt (P<0.05. I-Bt silage had lower content of DM, CP and fat than Bt silage (P<0.05. Controversially, concentrations of mycotoxins in I-Bt silage were lower than in Bt.

  14. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  15. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  16. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  17. Insect Resistant Cotton COT67B

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Syngenta Seeds Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Insect Resistant Cotton COT67B. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this cotton event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  18. Effect of laundering hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study has been conducted to investigate, for the first time ever, the effect of household washing and drying of hydroentangled cotton nonwoven fabrics (~70 gm/m2) made with several pre-cleaned greige (raw) cottons of considerably different fiber quality characteristics, such as the micronaire, len...

  19. Cotton fiber as a semiconductor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It was shown earlier using electron-microscopic measurements, that cotton fiber are nanostrctured material [1]. Further studies on this topic may allow to reveal new properties of such structure and construct novel, highly efficient electronic devices using this material. In this work we present recent results on the experimental study of some physical properties of cotton fiber. In our experiments we used mature cotton fibers. The patterns were prepared in the form of (5000-8000) parallel fiber bundles with total mass 3 -5 mg. The length of the pattern was 4 -8 mm. The result of experiment showed that cotton fiber is semiconductor and its electric conductivity grows exponentially as the temperature increases. In iodide doped cotton fiber the electric conductivity increases 10- 10000 times. It is found also that the valence zone band width of cotton fiber reaches Eg=3,2 eV. In addition, photoconductivity and infrared suppression of the cotton fiber is found at the room temperature. It is also revealed that iodide doping leads to appearing of deep levels in the valence band. Furthermore, it is found that the physical properties of the cotton fiber is highly sensitive to such external perturbations as light, temperature, pressure and doping of chemical elements. Using the result of studies we succeeded to construct photovoltaic elements, thermo- and photoresistors and heterophotodiods. (authors) References: [1]. Kh.U. Usmanov, G.V.Nikonovich. Electron microscopy of cellulose. Tashkent, Fan publishers, 1962.

  20. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  1. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  2. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  3. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  4. The Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    García, A; Heinicke, C; Macías, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the study of three-dimensional spaces is becoming of great interest. In these dimensions the Cotton tensor is prominent as the substitute for the Weyl tensor. It is conformally invariant and its vanishing is equivalent to conformal flatness. However, the Cotton tensor arises in the context of the Bianchi identities and is present in any dimension. We present a systematic derivation of the Cotton tensor. We perform its irreducible decomposition and determine its number of independent components for the first time. Subsequently, we exhibit its characteristic properties and perform a classification of the Cotton tensor in three dimensions. We investigate some solutions of Einstein's field equations in three dimensions and of the topologically massive gravity model of Deser, Jackiw, and Templeton. For each class examples are given. Finally we investigate the relation between the Cotton tensor and the energy-momentum in Einstein's theory and derive a conformally flat perfect fluid solution of Einstein's ...

  5. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  6. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  7. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  8. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  9. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  11. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  12. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  14. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  15. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  16. Use of cotton gin trash and compatibilizers in polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ginning of cotton produces 15-42% of foreign materials, called “cotton gin trash”, including cotton burr, stems, leaf fragment, and dirt. In this work we examined the mechanical properties of composites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cotton burr. The burr was ground into powder, and se...

  17. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  18. Introducing Variety in Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lillo; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Marc Potters

    2001-01-01

    We review the recently introduced concept of variety of a financial portfolio and we sketch its importance for risk control purposes. The empirical behaviour of variety, correlation, exceedance correlation and asymmetry of the probability density function of daily returns is discussed. The results obtained are compared with the ones of a one-factor model showing strengths and limitations of this model.

  19. Social Differences and English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2001-01-01

    Social varieties has long been taken into consideration, as people in different social group have different social manner and speech behavior. This paper focuses on several aspects, such as sex, age, social class, etc. Which account for language varieties in English. The purpose is to have a good understanding of learning English as second language.

  20. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  1. Constructing projective varieties in weighted flag varieties II

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    We give the construction of weighted Lagranngiann Grassmannians$wLGr(3,6)$ and weighted partial $A_3$ flag variety $wFl_{1,3}$ coming from the symplectic Lie group $Sp(6,\\mathbb C)$ and the general linear group $GL(4,\\mathbb C)$ respectively. We give general formulas for their Hilbert series in terms of Lie theoretic data. We use them as key varieties (Format) to construct some families of polarized 3-folds in codimension 7 and 9. At the end, we list all the distinct weighted flag varieties i...

  2. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabran, Khawar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium spp. is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent. However, mechanical control and chemical control are the backbone of weed management plans in cotton crop. Use of allelopathy has also been found effective for suppressing weeds in cotton. Allelopathy used in several forms (such as intercropping, mulches, and crop rotation contributes to weed control in cotton crop. All of these weed management practices may be integrated to achieve economical and sustainable weed control in cotton with an ultimate result of improved weed control, productivity, quality of produce in cotton crop.

  3. An optimized gossypol high-performance liquid chromatography assay and its application in evaluation of different gland genotypes of cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yingfan Cai; Hong Zhang; Yu Zeng; Jianchuan Mo; Jinku Bao; Chen Miao; Jie Bai; Fang Yan; Fang Chen

    2004-03-01

    A comparative study on gossypol content of various genetic types of pigment glands of cotton varieties was conducted through an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 m particle) with methanol–0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution, 90 : 10 (v/v), as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 254 nm. The method was shown to be highly reproducible, with precision [as relative standard deviation (RSD)] and accuracy [as relative mean error (RME)] < 10%, both intra-day and inter-day. Absolute recoveries were > 94%. The results revealed major differences among the different gland varieties or species of cotton, including the special and ordinary glandless and glanded Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, and displayed the precious resources of different glands of extraordinary cotton.

  4. The Promoter Structure Differentiation of a MYB Transcription Factor RLC1 Causes Red Leaf Coloration in Empire Red Leaf Cotton under Light

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhenrui; Liu, Chuanliang; Zhang, Yanzhao; Li, Ying; Yi, Keke; Zhao, Xinhua; Cui, Min-Long

    2013-01-01

    The red leaf coloration of Empire Red Leaf Cotton (ERLC) (Gossypium hirsutum L.), resulted from anthocyanin accumulation in light, is a well known dominant agricultural trait. However, the underpin molecular mechanism remains elusive. To explore this, we compared the molecular biological basis of anthocyanin accumulation in both ERLC and the green leaf cotton variety CCRI 24 (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Introduction of R2R3-MYB transcription factor Rosea1, the master regulator anthocyanin biosynt...

  5. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  6. FARMER DEMAND FOR CORN ROOTWORM BT CORN: DO INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES MATTER?

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Ines; Terrance M. Hurley; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Farmer adoption of Bt corn and compliance with insect resistance management (IRM) regulations will influence the success of these regulations. The purpose of this paper is to use farmer survey data to estimate the demand for new corn rootworm Bt corn and the cost of complying with proposed IRM regulations.

  7. Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT[R]: Advanced Skill Practice. Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT: Advanced Skill Practice is a revised and updated edition of Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test. Since the introduction of the TOEFL iBT in 2005, there have been significant changes to some of the test questions, particularly the integrated writing and integrated speaking tasks. The new 2011 edition of…

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin susceptibility and isolation of resistance mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, L D; Elyassnia, D; Griffitts, J S; Feitelson, J S; Aroian, R V

    2000-01-01

    The protein toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used natural insecticides in agriculture. Despite successful and extensive use of these toxins in transgenic crops, little is known about toxicity and resistance pathways in target insects since these organisms are not ideal for molecular genetic studies. To address this limitation and to investigate the potential use of these toxins to control parasitic nematodes, we are studying Bt toxin action and resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate for the first time that a single Bt toxin can target a nematode. When fed Bt toxin, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo extensive damage to the gut, a decrease in fertility, and death, consistent with toxin effects in insects. We have screened for and isolated 10 recessive mutants that resist the toxin's effects on the intestine, on fertility, and on viability. These mutants define five genes, indicating that more components are required for Bt toxicity than previously known. We find that a second, unrelated nematicidal Bt toxin may utilize a different toxicity pathway. Our data indicate that C. elegans can be used to undertake detailed molecular genetic analysis of Bt toxin pathways and that Bt toxins hold promise as nematicides. PMID:10924467

  9. 转基因抗真菌病害棉花及T-DNA插入突变体的培育%Development of Transgenic Cotton Resistant to Fungal Diseases and of Mutants by T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xing WANG; Hong-mei CHENG; Shi-rong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium (V. dahliae Kleb. ) and Fusarium (F. Oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) wilt are two major fungal diseases in cotton production which cause great crop damage and yield loss world wide. Breeding and application of resistant varieties have effectively controlled Fusarium wilt. However, the Verticillium wiltresistant varieties have not been developed to date since there is no resistant resources in upland cotton that can be used in conventional breeding.

  10. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  11. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    OpenAIRE

    JABRAN, Khawar

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves) have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent....

  12. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  13. Resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: insights from the laboratory and the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    Western corn rootworm is a serious pest of maize. Beginning in 2003, management of western corn rootworm included transgenic maize that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The first Bt maize hybrids produced Cry3Bb1, but additional Bt toxins have since been introduced, including eCry3.1Ab, mCry3A and Cry34/35Ab1. Laboratory selection experiments found that western corn rootworm could develop resistance to all types of Bt maize following three to seven generations of selection. By 2009 cases of field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize had been identified, with populations also showing cross-resistance to mCry3A maize. Factors likely contributing to resistance were the lack of a high dose of Bt toxin for maize targeting rootworm and minimal fitness costs of resistance. PMID:27436740

  14. Stylistic Analysis on English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建丽

    2009-01-01

    There are primarily three factors influencing the stylistic varieties: field of discourse, mode of discourse, tenor of discourse. The varieties of social relations may directly work on the speaker' s phonetic, vocabulary, sentence pattern and etc. These varieties consist of formality, politeness, impersonality and accessibility. When a speaker convenes with different subjects in different occasions, the language he has chosen will vary greatly. Regarding this point, the author does not intend to provide the readers with accurate data. But a general analysis of legal documents and advertisements respectively on the following major levels.

  15. Classification theory of polarized varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takao

    1990-01-01

    A polarised variety is a modern generalization of the notion of a variety in classical algebraic geometry. It consists of a pair: the algebraic variety itself, together with an ample line bundle on it. Using techniques from abstract algebraic geometry that have been developed over recent decades, Professor Fujita develops classification theories of such pairs using invariants that are polarised higher-dimensional versions of the genus of algebraic curves. The heart of the book is the theory of D-genus and sectional genus developed by the author, but numerous related topics are discussed or sur

  16. Pulmoner Hemosiderozisde Toraks BT Bulguları: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Üner, Abdurrahman; Etlik, Ömer; Uzun, Kürşat; Temizöz, Osman; Gencer, Mehmet; UYGAN, İsmail

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 2000 Mart; 7(1) Pulmoner Hemosiderozisde Toraks BT Bulguları: Olgu Sunumu Abdurrahman Üner, Ömer Etlik, Kürşat Uzun, Osman Temizöz, Mehmet Gencer, İsmail Uygan Özet: İdiopatik pulmoner hemosiderozis (IPH), akciğerde rekurren alveoler hemoraji, hemoptizi atakları ve demir eksikliği anemisi ile karekterize olan bir hastalıktır. Genellikle çocuklarda ve genç adultlarda görülür. İlk kez 4 ay önce öksürükle...

  17. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  18. Geminivirus-mediated delivery of florigen promotes determinate growth in aerial organs and uncouples flowering from photoperiod in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roisin C McGarry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant architecture and the timing and distribution of reproductive structures are fundamental agronomic traits shaped by patterns of determinate and indeterminate growth. Florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT in Arabidopsis and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT in tomato, acts as a general growth hormone, advancing determinate growth. Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a highly inbred, compact day-neutral plant that is managed as an annual row-crop. This dramatic change in plant architecture provides a unique opportunity to analyze the transition from perennial to annual growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore these architectural changes, we addressed the role of day-length upon flowering in an ancestral, perennial accession and in a domesticated variety of cotton. Using a disarmed Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV as a transient expression system, we delivered FT to both cotton accessions. Ectopic expression of FT in ancestral cotton mimicked the effects of day-length, promoting photoperiod-independent flowering, precocious determinate architecture, and lanceolate leaf shape. Domesticated cotton infected with FT demonstrated more synchronized fruiting and enhanced "annualization". Transient expression of FT also facilitated simple crosses between wild photoperiodic and domesticated day-neutral accessions, effectively demonstrating a mechanism to increase genetic diversity among cultivated lines of cotton. Virus was not detected in the F(1 progeny, indicating that crosses made by this approach do not harbor recombinant DNA molecules. CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend our understanding of FT as a general growth hormone that regulates shoot architecture by advancing organ-specific and age-related determinate growth. Judicious manipulation of FT could benefit cotton architecture to improve crop management.

  19. Infinite transitivity on affine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhantsev, Ivan; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2012-01-01

    In this note we survey recent results on automorphisms of affine algebraic varieties, infinitely transitive group actions and flexibility. We present related constructions and examples, and discuss geometric applications and open problems.

  20. Manin's conjecture for toric varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Batyrev, V V; Batyrev, Victor V; Tschinkel, Yuri

    1995-01-01

    We prove an asymptotic formula conjectured by Manin for the number of K-rational points of bounded height with respect to the anticanonical line bundle for arbitrary smooth projective toric varieties over a number field K.

  1. Cotton-based diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  2. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  3. Jet schemes of determinantal varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the scheme structure of the jet schemes of determinantal varieties. We show that in general, these jet schemes are not irreducible. In the case of the determinantal variety $X$ of $r \\times s$ matrices of rank at most one, we give a formula for the dimension of each of the components of its jet schemes. As an application, we compute the log canonical threshold of the pair $(\\mathbb{A}^{rs},X)$.

  4. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  5. Cotton transgenics with Antisense AC1 gene for resistance against cotton leaf curl virus

    OpenAIRE

    J.Amudha, G.Balasubramani, V.G.Malathi, D.Monga, K.C.Bansal and K.R.Kranthi

    2010-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus is a devastating pest in the North India and in small pockets of Southern states. Cotton leaf curldisease (CLCuD) is caused by a Geminivirus, transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci vector. This is a serious problem inthe northern region and leads to yield losses up to 58% and 69% (ICAC recorder, 1999). Genetic engineering for cottontransgenics resistant to leaf curl disease (CLCuD) through antisense RNA approach is potential to tackle the disease incotton. Cotton transg...

  6. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskara, U.R.; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, P.B.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for same application concentrations was noted. These two types of fabrics were then tested for antibacterial performance. The antibacterial activity was tested according to the JIS L 1902 standard usi...

  7. [Monitoring and simulation of soil electrical conductivity based on the hyperspectral parameters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) functional leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Tang, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-03-01

    Taking the salt-tolerant cotton variety CCRI-44 and salt-sensitive cotton variety Sumian 12 as test materials, a two-year pot experiment was conducted at the Pailou experimental station of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2008 and 2009 to study the relationships of soil electrical conductivity (EC) with the spectral reflectance and hyperspectral indices of cotton functional leaves at different growth stages under five simulated salinity levels (0, 0.35%, 0.60%, 0.85%, and 1.00%) of coastal saline soils, and the quantitative monitoring models on the cotton soil EC were established. With increasing salinity level, the cotton functional leaves had an increased spectral reflectance in near-infrared and middle-infrared regions, and the spectral parameter normalized difference spectrum index (NDSI) based on 1350 nm and 2307 nm, i. e., NDSI (R1350, R2307), correlated well to the soil EC. With the NDSI (R1350, R2307) as independent variable, the soil EC monitoring model was constructed as EC = -42.899 NDSI (R1350, R2307) +27.338. Among the derivative spectral parameters, TM5-SWIR was most correlated to soil EC, and thus, the soil EC monitoring model was constructed as EC = 0.0574TM5-SWIR2-2.5928TM5 -SWIR+30.021. The two models with NDSI (R1350, R2307) and TM5-SWIR as the independent variables respectively all had higher prediction precision, with the determination coefficient being 0. 887 and 0. 814 and the root mean square error being 1.09 and 1.29 dS x m(-1), respectively, suggesting that using the hyperspectral parameters NDSI (R1350, R2307) and TM5-SWIR of cotton functional leaves could effectively monitor the soil EC of saline cotton fields. PMID:22720615

  8. Biological traits and Life table parameters A and B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. on cotton and rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Samih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to construct life table of Bemisia tabaci (Gen. A and B (silverleaf whitefly B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring biotype (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on two host plants; cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. and rapeseed, (Brassica napus L.. Experiments were conducted in a growth chamber under 24 ± 2ºC, 55±3% RH and 16:8 (L:D h photoperiod on caged plants of cotton G. hirsutum L. (Varamin 76 variety and rapeseed B. napus L. (global variety. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T for B. tabaci A biotype was 0.1010 females per female per day, 18.4075 females per female and 30.079 day (d on cotton; 0.1286, 30.6760 and 26.77 d on rapeseed; and for B biotype (B. argentifolii those above respective parameters averaged 0.1033, 27.8426 and 32.74 d on cotton and 0.1750, 40.75 and 21.27 d on rapeseed. The total survival of A and B biotype from the egg to adult on cotton was 22.08 and 22.25, respectively. The results showed significant differences between the two biotype reared on either host plant for gross reproductive rate (GRR, net reproductive rate (R0 or NRR, intrinsic rates of increase (r m, finite rate of increase (λ, doubling time (DT and mean generation times (Tc. To obtain a better understanding of the biology of these biotypes, Stable age distribution (Cx and some other aspects of life history related to their hosts were also studied. Based upon the results, both biotypes showed a greater reproduction capacity on rapeseed than on cotton. Thus, rapeseed was more suitable host than cotton for two biotypes and this was an important factor in host plant selection for optimizing the control strategies of these major pests.

  9. A Statistical Analysis of Cotton Fiber Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anindya; Das, Subhasis; Majumder, Asha

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a statistical analysis of different cotton fiber properties, such as strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, micronaire, reflectance and yellowness measured from 1200 cotton bales. The uni-variate, bi-variate and multi-variate statistical analysis have been invoked to elicit interrelationship between above-mentioned properties taking them up singularly, pairwise and multiple way, respectively. In multi-variate analysis all cotton fiber properties are simultaneously considered for multi-dimensional techniques of principal factor analysis.

  10. Crazy Cotton Collapse the Textile Industry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Crazily has the price for the cotton rocketed! The transaction price, for only month, has seen a 40% rise, from RMB 18,000 per ton at the beginning of September to RMB 25,000 per ton now. At present, the new cotton has just come into the market. "Taking 'Cotton of Grade 329' for example, the knock-down price has already mounted to nearly RNIB 25,000 per ton. Price going up in this way, our company would con-front losses and had to suspend production, waiting for the fallingback of the price." Head of one textile company in Chongqing told the reporter.

  11. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2013-10-01

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature.

  12. Sterilization of Cotton Fabrics Using Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial contamination induces surface deformations and strength degradation of cotton fabrics by invading deeply into the fibers. In this study, the sterilization effects of low pressure plasmas on bacteria-inoculated cotton fabrics were investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment completely sterilized the cotton fabrics inoculated with various concentrations of staphylococcus aureus. Also, the influence of plasma treatment on physical properties of fabrics was examined. It was found that the plasma treatment did not affect ultimate tensile strength and surface morphology of the fabrics because it took advantage of relatively low plasma temperature

  13. Effects of Transgenic Bt Maize on Soil Nutrient Content%转 Bt 基因玉米对土壤养分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景小鹏; 李建东; 周旭梅; 景希强

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic Bt maize Dan BT01 was used as the subjects to study on the effects of transgenic Bt maize on farmland nutrition in different growth periods of seedling stage,jointing stage,huge bellbottom stage, tasseling stage,silking stage and mature stage under field condition.The results showed that oil organic matter content at the tasseling stage and mature stage,total phosphorus content at the silking stage,slowly available potassium concentrations at the huge bellbottom stage and mature stage of transgenic Bt maize were significant-ly higher than the non-transgenic maize,and there was no significant difference of the oil organic matter con-tent,total nitrogen,total phosphorus content and slowly available potassium concentrations at the other growth stages.transgenic Bt maize’s the nitrogen content of the soil hydrolase at the huge bellbottom stage was signif-icantly higher than the non-transgenic maize,at tasseling and silking stage was significantly lower than the non-transgenic maize.Soil nitrate content of transgenic Bt maize at jointing and tasseling is significantly lower than non-transgenic maize,at maturity has significantly increased.Transgenic Bt maize’s soil ammonium ni-trogen in the the huge bellbottom and tasseling stage is significantly lower than non-transgenic maize.From the jointing stage,in addition to the available phosphorus content of the grain-filling stage,non-genetically modi-fied corn available P and K content was significantly higher than transgenic Bt maize.%试验以转 Bt 基因玉米丹 BT01为研究对象,研究了在大田种植条件下转 Bt 基因玉米对苗期、拔节期、大喇叭口期、抽雄期、灌浆期和成熟期土壤养分含量的影响。结果表明,转 Bt 基因玉米抽雄期和成熟期土壤有机质含量,灌浆期全磷含量,大喇叭口期和成熟期缓效钾含量显著高于非转基因玉米,其余生育时期与非转基因玉米的土壤有机质、全氮、

  14. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. PMID:26499065

  15. Emergence and Abundance of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Bt Cornfields With Structured and Seed Blend Refuges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, Sarah A; Spencer, Joseph L

    2015-02-01

    To slow evolution of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) corn hybrids, non-Bt "refuges" must be planted within or adjacent to Bt cornfields, allowing susceptible insects to develop without exposure to Bt toxins. Bt-susceptible adults from refuges are expected to find and mate with resistant adults that have emerged from Bt corn, reducing the likelihood that Bt-resistant offspring are produced. The spatial and temporal distribution of adults in four refuge treatments (20, 5, and 0% structured refuges and 5% seed blend) and adjacent soybean fields was compared from 2010 to 2012. Adult emergence (adults/trap/day) from refuge corn in structured refuge treatments was greater than that from Bt corn, except during the post-pollination period of corn phenology when emergence from refuge and Bt plants was often the same. Abundance of free-moving adults was greatest in and near refuge rows in structured refuge treatments during vegetative and pollination periods. By post-pollination, adult abundance became evenly distributed. In contrast, adult abundance in 5% seed blends and 0% refuges was evenly distributed, or nearly so, across plots throughout the season. The persistent concentration of adults in refuge rows suggests that structured refuge configurations may not facilitate the expected mixing of adults from refuge and Bt corn. Seed blends produce uniform distributions of adults across the field that may facilitate mating between Bt and refuge adults and ultimately delay the evolution of Bt resistance. PMID:26470111

  16. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  17. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  18. Introgression of cotton leaf curl virus-resistant genes from Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum) into upland cotton (G. hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Mahmood, K; Hanif, M; Nazeer, W; Malik, W; Qayyum, A; Hanif, K; Mahmood, A; Islam, N

    2011-01-01

    Cotton is under the constant threat of leaf curl virus, which is a major constraint for successful production of cotton in the Pakistan. A total of 3338 cotton genotypes belonging to different research stations were screened, but none were found to be resistant against the Burewala strain of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV). We explored the possibility of transferring virus-resistant genes from Gossypium arboreum (2n = 26) into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) through conventional breeding techniques. Hybridization was done manually between an artificial autotetraploid of G. arboreum and an allotetraploid G. hirsutum, under field conditions. Boll shedding was controlled by application of exogenous hormones, 50 mg/L gibberellic acid and 100 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Percentage pollen viability in F(1) hybrids was 1.90% in 2(G. arboreum) x G. hirsutum and 2.38% in G. hirsutum x G. arboreum. Cytological studies of young buds taken from the F(1) hybrids confirmed that they all were sterile. Resistance against CLCuV in the F(1) hybrids was assessed through grafting, using the hybrid plant as the scion; the stock was a virus susceptible cotton plant, tested under field and greenhouse conditions. All F(1) cotton hybrids showed resistance against CLCuV, indicating that it is possible to transfer resistant genes from the autotetraploid of the diploid donor specie G. arboreum into allotetraploid G. hirsutum through conventional breeding, and durable resistance against CLCuV can then be deployed in the field. PMID:22002133

  19. New Coll-HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen-hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll-HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll-HA and Coll-HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll-HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. PMID:26952486

  20. Mutant Varieties of Crop Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1969, the Joint PAO/IAEA Division undertakes to collect and publish information on varieties of crop plants that were developed directly from induced mutants or by using mutants in cross breeding (Micke 1972 and Sigurbjörnsson and Micke (1969, 1974). The purpose of this undertaking is to assess realistically the potential of induced mutation techniques to contribute towards progress in plant breeding. Varieties which have successfully passed official trials and were approved or recommended by national governmental authorities for cultivation, appear to be good indicators of practical success. By 1 October 1978, we know about 195 of such varieties in agricultural crop plants). They belong to 37 different plant species and come from 30 different countries. In addition, there are more than 120 mutant cultivars of ornamental plants known, which represent a considerable economic value for countries with developed horticulture (Broertjes and van Harten 1978)

  1. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts

  2. The lesser cotton leafworm, Anomis impasta (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta L. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomis impasta (Guenée is a species that shows remarkable morphological and behavioral similarities with the cotton leafworm Alabama argillacea (Hübner. During two growing cotton seasons, A. impasta was observed feeding on leaves and flower bracts of cotton and monitored. Furthermore, a study was conducted under laboratory conditions to generate biological information about this species with larvae feeding cotton squares and leaves. Larvae fed on cotton squares exhibited delayed development (18.5 ± 0.18 days and lower pupal weight (140.8 ± 2.26 mg compared to larvae fed on cotton leaves (14.0 ± 0.07 days and 169.3 ± 2.06 mg. Thus, one generation cycle of A. impasta was obtained by feeding the larvae with cotton leaves. The mean (minimum-maximum values for the duration of eggs, larvae and pupae were: 3.0 (3-4, 14.8 (14-18, and 9.7 (7-14 days, respectively. The viability of the eggs, larvae, and pupae were 43.7, 98.3, and 94.7%, respectively. Females lived on average 25.2 days (ranging from 15 to 37 days and produced 869 eggs (from 4 to 1,866 eggs. The successful development and reproduction of A. impasta on cotton, especially, on the cotton leaves, suggest the potential of this species to reach a pest status in cotton. The similarities with A. argillacea, as discussed in this study, can be one of the reasons for low reference to A. impasta in the field. Therefore, the information provided here will allow researchers and growers to distinguish these two cotton defoliators.

  3. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic, their...... number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study the...

  4. The Varieties of Good Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Arvola, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumen......This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness...

  5. Immunologic responses to inhaled cotton dust.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvaggio, J E; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T

    1986-01-01

    Byssinosis, a respiratory disease of workers on cotton, flax, and soft hemp, is classically characterized as shortness of breath, cough, and chest tightness on Mondays or the first day of return to work after a time off. Exposure to these vegetable dusts can also result in other respiratory diseases, and the term cotton dust-induced respiratory disease (CDIRD) is introduced. Although clinically characterized for more than a century, the underlying pathogenesis of CDIRD remains obscure. An all...

  6. Potential Benefits of Bt Brinjal in India — An Economic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sant; Lakshmi Prasanna, P.A.; Wankhade, Shwetal

    2011-01-01

    The potential economic benefits of Bt brinjal hybrids in terms of yield gain, reduction in insecticide-use, and increase in net returns per hectare have been reported in this study. Results have shown that adoption of Bt brinjal hybrids would provide yield gain of 37 per cent and reduction in total insecticide-use of about 42 per cent over non-Bt hybrids. Other benefits like increase in additional brinjal production (30 thousand tonnes), savings from insecticides (` 47 crore) against Fruit an...

  7. Induction and early evaluation of a high yielding elite cotton mutant line, PIM-76-8 through the use pollen irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M2 population was raised from M1 seed developed from the intraspecific crosses (NIAB-78 x REBA-288) with male parent pollen irradiated at 10Gy of gamma rays. Different mutants having higher yield, early maturity, short internode, resistant to CLCuV disease etc. were selected. These mutants were evaluated for yield potential and other economic traits in different segregating generations in comparison to then standard cotton varieties. Out of these, the mutant PIM-76-8 consistently out-yielded all the prevalent standard cotton varieties/parents i.e. CIM240, CIM-448, CIM-443, NIAB-78 and Reba-288. On the average it gave 28.2% higher yield than the standard cotton variety CIM-443 in the micro-yield trials conducted at NIAB during 1998-99. Further evaluation of mutant, PIM-76-8 is in progress and the results are encouraging

  8. Classification of Irregular Varieties : Minimal Models and Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Ciro

    1992-01-01

    M. Andreatta,E.Ballico,J.Wisniewski: Projective manifolds containing large linear subspaces; - F.Bardelli: Algebraic cohomology classes on some specialthreefolds; - Ch.Birkenhake,H.Lange: Norm-endomorphisms of abelian subvarieties; - C.Ciliberto,G.van der Geer: On the jacobian of ahyperplane section of a surface; - C.Ciliberto,H.Harris,M.Teixidor i Bigas: On the endomorphisms of Jac (W1d(C)) when p=1 and C has general moduli; - B. van Geemen: Projective models of Picard modular varieties; - J.Kollar,Y.Miyaoka,S.Mori: Rational curves on Fano varieties; - R. Salvati Manni: Modular forms of the fourth degree; A. Vistoli: Equivariant Grothendieck groups and equivariant Chow groups; - Trento examples; Open problems

  9. The Impacts of the Elimination of Cotton Storage Credits on the U.S. Cotton Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous; Pan, Suwen

    2009-01-01

    The impacts of the removal of the cotton storage credit were modeled using the Global Fibers Model at the Cotton Economics Research Institute at Texas Tech University. A 5-year baseline was estimated under existing policy. The impacts of removing the storage credit was simulated and compared with the baseline.

  10. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... January 9, 2012 (76 FR 80278). AMS received four comments: One from a national trade organization that... Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  11. Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Hydrolysed Cotton Stalk: One Approach Towards Sustainable Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Zaheer Baig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ligno cellulosic nature of cotton stalk favours to use as renewable material for variety of commercial applications. Present study was evaluating the potential of cotton stalk for bioethanol production. In this regards cotton stalk were subjected to series of treatment including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. The resultant data shows that physically pre-treated cotton stalk when subjected to 2% alkaline solution at 121oC for 60 minute followed by enzyme hydrolysis with 100 CMC units of enzyme releases sugar of 0.49 g/g and 24.5 g/L of biomass.Furthermore when it goes to fermentation using co culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pachysolen tannophilus,givesan ethanol concentration of 9.56 g/L which corresponds to a yield of 0.191 g/g of biomass, 0.298 g/g of holocelluloses and 0.392 g/g of fermentable sugars while fermentation and sugar consumption efficiencies were recorded as 76.85% and 97.81% respectively.

  12. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  13. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. PMID:26318006

  14. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Monnerat

    Full Text Available Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab. Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  15. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda. PMID:25830928

  16. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: A meta-analysis (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of...

  17. Impact of Bt crops on non-target organisms – 3 systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops producing Cry toxins, originating from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has raised environmental concerns over their sustainable use and consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural land. During the last two decades...

  18. (Mass-) Production of improved varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, G.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises the results obtained in the fourth and last year of the European project " larch wood chain " (task 4.1.). Four organisations were involved in this task devoted to the production of improved varieties. The activities were connected to flower stimulation, pollen and pollination, seed technology. - Flower stimulation - First, girdling enhanced flowering in European and Japanese larch grafts in an Irish orchard and the combination of girdling and gibberellin 4/7 injections...

  19. Evaluation on the High Yielding, Stability and Comprehensive Performances of Check Cultivars in National Cotton Regional Trials in the Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiqiao JIN; Naiyin XU

    2014-01-01

    Objective] This study was to analyze the high yielding, stability, adaptabil-ity and main characteristics of check cultivars in national cotton regional trials in the Yangtze River Val ey in 2000-2013, with the aim to provide theoretical basis for the reasonable selection of check cultivars for cotton regional trials. [Method] GGE biplot analysis method was used to carry out the intensive analysis and comprehensive comparisons on the performances and differences of the 9 major characters of check cultivars, namely, lint cotton yield , stability, and other main traits including bol weight, bol number, lint percentage, fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire val-ue, plant height and seed index. [Result] Ezamian 10 was suitable in the majority of cotton planting regions in the Yangtze River Val ey, with the best high yielding abili-ty and perfect yield stability. The yielding ability of Xiangzamian 8 ranked the sec-ond, but its stability was the poorest. Xiangzamian 8 was of the specific adaptive cultivar with relatively good performance in high yielding but the poorest stability. The suitable planting areas of Xiangzamian 8 were limited to the cotton planting re-gion around Dongting Lake in Hunan province, Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, the Coastal region in Jiangsu Province and Wuhan district in Hubei Province. Xi-angzamian 2 performanced poorer in both yielding and stability, while Simian 3 ranked first in stability but the last in yielding ability. The dominant character of Xi-angzamian 8 and Xiangzamian 2 were high cotton plants and big bol s. Simian 3 performanced super in lint percentage and fiber length. Ezamian 10 was strong in cotton bol formation ability, lint cotton yielding, fiber strength and seed size, as wel as high micronaire value. [Conclusion] The outstanding performance of Ezamian 10 in high and stable yield in the Yangtze River Val ey in recent years has effectively promoted the high yielding ability of candidate varieties in cotton regional

  20. The adoption of Bt-maize in Germany: An econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we theoretically and empirically investigate the determinants of Bt-maize adoption in German regions. Specifically, we ask how the regulatory framework, the farm structures as well as the socio-political environment of GM expansion in Germany have influenced regional adoption rates. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses concerning regional variation in Bt-maize adoption and test them econometrically wi...

  1. The emergence of insect resistance in Bt-corn: implication of resistance management information under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Linacre, Nicholas A.; Thompson, Colin J.

    2005-01-01

    "The successful management of transgenic technology is likely to depend on the economic behavioral response of farmers to the regulated use of transgenic crops. A well-studied example is the widespread use of Bt-corn, in the United States, and elsewhere, to control the European Corn Borer, a major corn pest. The extensive use of Bt-corn has led to concerns about the emergence of insect resistance. The United States Environment Protection Agency addressed this potential problem by developing a...

  2. Early Detection and Mitigation of Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, David A; Pueppke, Steven G; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Gassmann, Aaron J; Sappington, Thomas W; Meinke, Lance J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Hellmich, Richard L; Porter, R Pat

    2016-02-01

    Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution. PMID:26362989

  3. Operator algebras for analytic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Kenneth R; Shalit, Orr Moshe

    2012-01-01

    We study the isomorphism problem for the multiplier algebras of irreducible complete Pick kernels. These are precisely the restrictions $\\cM_V$ of the multiplier algebra $\\cM$ of Drury-Arveson space to a holomorphic subvariety $V$ of the unit ball. The related algebras of continuous multipliers are also considered. We find that $\\cM_V$ is completely isometrically isomorphic to $\\cM_W$ if and only if $W$ is the image of $V$ under a biholomorphic automorphism of the ball. A similar condition characterizes when there exists a unital completely contractive homomorphism from $\\cM_V$ to $\\cM_W$. If one of the varieties is a homogeneous algebraic variety, then isometric isomorphism is shown to imply completely isometric isomorphism of the algebras. The problem of characterizing when two such algebras are (algebraically) isomorphic is also studied. It is shown that if there is an isomorphism between $\\cM_V$ and $\\cM_W$, then there is a biholomorphism (with multiplier coordinates) between the varieties. We present a n...

  4. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. PMID:27219503

  5. Preparative Purification and Bioassay of Bt Toxin from Cry1Ab Transgenic Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-min; YE Qin-fu

    2004-01-01

    A method of extracting and purifying Cry1Ab protein(Bt toxin) from Cry1Ab transgenic rice was established. Most of the Bt toxin present in the tissue of Cry1Ab transgenic rice was extracted effectively with a solution of 50 mmol/LNa2CO3 and NaHCO3. The crude protein containing Bt toxin was obtained after the pretreatment of Cry1Ab transgenic rice with ultra-filtration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and centrifugation. The dialysed crude protein was futher separated on DEAE Sephadex A-50 columns and Sephadex G-150 columns. The protein bound on DEAE Sephadex A-50 gel was eluted with buffer solution B(10 mmol/L trisHCl buffer+1. 0 mmol/L EDTA, pH=8.0) mixed with 0. 1, 0. 3, 0. 5 and 0. 8 mol/L NaCl in a discontinuous gradient elution mode. The peak of the Bt toxin eluted from the columns was identified by ELISA and bioassayed with larvae of tobacco hornworms and silkworms. The purity and the bioactivity of the Bt toxin were determined by means of SDS-PAGE and larvicidal assay, respectively. The purity of the Bt toxin obtained by this method is high, and its insecticidal activity is retained after the toxin is purified.

  6. High susceptibility of Bt maize to aphids enhances the performance of parasitoids of lepidopteran pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Faria

    Full Text Available Concerns about possible undesired environmental effects of transgenic crops have prompted numerous evaluations of such crops. So-called Bt crops receive particular attention because they carry bacteria-derived genes coding for insecticidal proteins that might negatively affect non-target arthropods. Here we show a remarkable positive effect of Bt maize on the performance of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis, which in turn enhanced the performance of parasitic wasps that feed on aphid honeydew. Within five out of six pairs that were evaluated, transgenic maize lines were significantly more susceptible to aphids than their near-isogenic equivalents, with the remaining pair being equally susceptible. The aphids feed from the phloem sieve element content and analyses of this sap in selected maize lines revealed marginally, but significantly higher amino acid levels in Bt maize, which might partially explain the observed increased aphid performance. Larger colony densities of aphids on Bt plants resulted in an increased production of honeydew that can be used as food by beneficial insects. Indeed, Cotesia marginiventris, a parasitoid of lepidopteran pests, lived longer and parasitized more pest caterpillars in the presence of aphid-infested Bt maize than in the presence of aphid-infested isogenic maize. Hence, depending on aphid pest thresholds, the observed increased susceptibility of Bt maize to aphids may be either a welcome or an undesirable side effect.

  7. Effects of Bt plants on the development and survival of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in susceptible and Bt-resistant larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Tanja H; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2004-05-01

    A range of crops have been transformed with delta-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to produce transgenic plants with high levels of resistance to lepidopteran pests. Parasitoids are important natural enemies of lepidopteran larvae and the effects of Bt plants on these non-target insects have to be investigated to avoid unnecessary disruption of biological control. This study investigated the effects of Cry1Ac-expressing transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) on the solitary braconid endoparasitoid Cotesia plutellae in small-scale laboratory experiments. C. plutellae is an important natural enemy of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the most important pest of brassica crops world-wide. Bt oilseed rape caused 100% mortality of a Bt-susceptible P. xylostella strain but no mortality of the Bt-resistant P. xylostella strain NO-QA. C. plutellae eggs laid in Bt-susceptible hosts feeding on Bt leaves hatched but premature host mortality did not allow C. plutellae larvae to complete their development. In contrast, C. plutellae developed to maturity in Bt-resistant hosts fed on Bt oilseed rape leaves and there was no effect of Bt plants on percentage parasitism, time to emergence from hosts, time to adult emergence and percentage adult emergence from cocoons. Weights of female progeny after development in Bt-resistant hosts did not differ between plant types but male progeny was significantly heavier on wildtype plants in one of two experiments. The proportion of female progeny was significantly higher on Bt plants in the first experiment with Bt-resistant hosts but this effect was not observed again when the experiment was repeated. PMID:15121457

  8. Development of Insect-Resistant Hybrid Rice by Introgressing the Bt Gene from Bt Rice Huahui 1 into II-32A/B, a Widely Used Cytogenic Male Sterile System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yun-song; HUANG Hai-qing; XU Meng-yun; WANG Liang-chao; ZHANG Xiao-bo; ZHANG Ji-wen; TU Ju-min

    2014-01-01

    Huahui 1 is an elite transgenic male sterile restorer line of wild rice abortive-type that expresses a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)δ-endotoxin and provides effective and economic control of lepidopteran insects. To exploit Huahui 1 to develop a new Bt rice, the insertion site of the Bt gene was determined by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Bt was located in the promoter region of LOC.Os10g10360, approximately 5.35 Mb from the telomere of the short arm of chromosome 10. For the ifrst time, a Bt cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) system was developed by introgressing Bt from Huahui 1. The recipient CMS system used consisted of Indonesia paddy rice-type II-32B (maintainer line) and II-32A (male sterile line). Marker-assisted selection was used to increase selection efifciency in the backcrossing program. In BC5F1, the Bt plant 85015-8 was selected for further analyses, as it had the highest SSR marker homozygosity. In addition, the linkage drag of the foreign Bt gene in 85015-8 was minimized to 8.01-11.46 Mb. The foreign Bt gene was then delivered from 85015-8 into II-32A. The resultant Bt II-32A and Bt II-32B lines were both resistant to lepidopteran in ifeld trials, and agronomic traits were not disturbed. The maintainability of II-32B, and the male sterility and general combining ability of II-32A, were not affected by the Bt introgression. This study demonstrates a simple and fast approach to develop Bt hybrid rice.

  9. Field dispersal ability of irradiated cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field dispersal ability of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) irradiated with 300 Gy of γ-rays was studied. The results showed that about 97% of cotton bollworm was dispersed in 720 m. The 615 m was the farthest of average dispersal distance. The dispersal density of cotton bollworm was correlated with the reciprocal of dispersal distance, as the model: N = -0.83 + 1647.34/x. the dispersal of cotton bollworm had taxis to the green and fresh host

  10. Rhizobacteria activates (+)-δ-cadinene synthase genes and induces systemic resistance in cotton against beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebelo, Simon; Song, Yuanyuan; Kloepper, Joseph W; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Gossypol is an important allelochemical produced by the subepidermal glands of some cotton varieties and important for their ability to respond to changing biotic stress by exhibiting antibiosis against some cotton pests. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are root-colonizing bacteria that increase plant growth and often elicit defence against plant pathogens and insect pests. Little is known about the effect of PGPR on cotton plant-insect interactions and the potential biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which PGPR enhance cotton plant defence. Here, we report that PGPR (Bacillus spp.) treated cotton plants showed significantly higher levels of gossypol compared with untreated plants. Similarly, the transcript levels of the genes (i.e. (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene family) involved in the biosynthesis of gossypol were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Furthermore, the levels of jasmonic acid, an octadecanoid-derived defence-related phytohormone and the transcript level of jasmonic acid responsive genes were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Most intriguingly, Spodoptera exigua showed reduced larval feeding and development on PGPR-treated plants. These findings demonstrate that treatment of plants with rhizobacteria may induce significant biochemical and molecular changes with potential ramifications for plant-insect interactions. PMID:26715260

  11. Effect of sowing dates and picking intervals at boll opening percent, yield and fiber quality of cotton cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising temperature and changing raining patterns, climate change brings forward new threats for cotton cultivation in Sindh. During 2010-11, unexpected rains caused damage to the ripe cotton crop and caused heavy losses in seed cotton, cottonseed germination and lint quality. An experiment was conducted on different sowing dates viz. 15th April, 01st May, 15th May and 01st June and four picking at various boll opening percent. The sowing on May 1st produced the highest boll weight (2.83g) seed index (8.74g), seed cotton yield (3032 kg ha-l), micronaire (4.19) and seed germination percentage (64.86%). In varieties, Sadori produced more boll weight (2.57 g) with seed index (7.46 g), ginning out turn (38.01%), micronaire (4.19) and seed germination (66.35%); whereas picking at various boll opening percent showed higher boll wt. (3.63 g), seed index (8.72), seed cotton yield (3302 kg ha-l), ginning out turn percent (35.79%) in 50% boll opening. The higher seed germination percent was recorded in 70% boll opening. (author)

  12. Removal of plastic sheet material with normal cotton ginning equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    US cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the US. To better understand how ginning equipment handles pieces of sheet plastic 5 types of plastic commonly found in US seed cotton fields or used in handling ...

  13. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; ZHANG Chao-jun; ZHANG Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than 1000 transgenie lines are selected from the transgenic plants with molecular assistant breeding and conventional breeding methods.

  14. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than

  15. Sequencing of the Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium hirsutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOHEL; Russell; J; PERCY; Richard; G; YU; John; Z

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in the world,and it plays an irreplaceable role in China's national economy.Cultivated upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) represents 95% of the world's cotton production,but it has a complex allotetraploid genome that contains at least 30000 genes in 2500 Mb

  16. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  17. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC

  18. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  19. 7 CFR 407.12 - Group risk plan for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for cotton. 407.12 Section 407.12..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.12 Group risk plan for cotton. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Cotton for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. Alleviating cotton stickiness-experience and future research topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though cotton stickiness is manifested only in a small percentage of the world cotton crop, its presence can adversely affect every aspect of the cotton textile industry from production to yarn manufacturing. Reductions in production efficiency due to the presence of stickiness at the mill may be v...